Gay / Lesbian Youth Suicide Problems in Australia / New Zealand?
To: Table of Content - The Homosexuality Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem - 1995
Suicidality Results from More than 30 Studies in Four Categories!
Notes for The Homosexuality Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem.
Site Index: Gay / Bisexual Male Suicide Problems
End of Pages.
Pierre J. Tremblay

Presented at the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention, Banff, Alberta, October 11-14, 1995, (c) Oct 1995. First made available on the Internet on January 19, 1996.


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2. Division of Injury Control, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, Centers for Disease Control. Childhood injuries in the United States. ADJC (American Journal of Diseases of Children), 1990; 144: 627-646.
3. Holinger PC. The Causes, impact, and preventability of child hood injuries in the United States, AJDC (American Journal of Diseases of Children), 1990; 144: 670-676.
4. Blumenthal, SJ. Youth suicide: the physician's role in suicide prevention. JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), 1990; 264: 3194-3196.
5. Fikar, CR. and Koslap-Petraco, M. Pediatric Forum: What about gay teenagers? AJDC, 1991; 145: 252.
6. Prenzlauer, S., Drescher, J., and Winchel, R. Letter: Suicide among homosexual youth. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1992; 149:10.
7. Snelling, LK. Letter to the Editor re #4. JAMA, 1991; 265: 2806.
8. Garland, AF., and Zigler, E. Adolescent suicide prevention. American Psychologist, 1993; 41(2): 169-182.
9. Petersen, AC., Compas, BE., Brooks-Gunn, J., Stemmler, M., Ey, S., and Grant, KE. Depression in adolescence. American Psychologist, 1993; 41(2): 155-168.
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12. Brent, DA., and Perper, JA. Research in Adolescent Suicide: implications for training, service delivery, and public policy. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviors, Summer 1995;25(2): 222-230.
13. Wagner, BM., Cole, RE., and Schwartzman, P. Psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Fall 1995; 35(3): 358-372.
14. Moscicki, EK. Epidemiology of Suicidal Behavior. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Spring 1995; 25(1): 22-35.
15. Kennedy, Hubert. Ulrich: The Life and Works of Karl Heinrich Ulrich. Alyson Publications, Inc., 1988.
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17. Ellis, Havelock. Sexual Inversion. In: Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Vol. 1, Random House, N.Y., 1948. First English copyright in 1905. First published in Germany in the late 1890s.
18. Martin, Del, and Lyon, Phyllis. Lesbian Woman. Bantam Edition, N.Y., 1972.
19. Young, Allen. Out of the Closet, Into the Street. In: Out of the Closet: Voice From Gay Liberation. Jay, Carla, and Young, Allen, eds. Jobe/HBJ Books, N,Y., 1972, 1978,
20. Hellquist, Gens. Our friends are dying. Perception, Vol. 11,Issue 2, March 10, 1993, p. 8.
21. Bell, Alan P., and Weinberg, Martin S. Homosexuality: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women. Simon and Schuster, N.Y.,1978.
22. Bell, Alan P., Weinberg, Martin S., and Hammersmith, Sue Keifer. Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Ill., 1981.
23. D'Augelli, AR., Hershberger, SL. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings: personal challenges and mental health problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1993; 21(4): 421-448.
24. Gibson, P. Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide. In: Feinlieb, MR., ed. Vol. 3: Prevention and Intervention in Youth Suicide, Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 1989.
25. Hammelman, TL. Gay and lesbian youth: Contributing factors to Serious attempts or considerations of suicide. Journal of Gay and lesbian Psychotherapy, 1993; 2(1): 77-89.
26. Herdt, Gilbert, and Boxer, Andrew. Children of Horizon: How Gay and Lesbian Teens Are Leading a New Way Out of the Closet. Beacon Press, Boston, Mass., 1993.
27. Magnuson, Curtis. Lesbian and gay youth in Ottawa: the importance of community, 1992. Available from Pink Triangle Services, Ottawa. Also available as a Master's thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa.
28. Martin, AD., and Hetrick, ES. The stigmatization of the gay and lesbian adolescent. Journal of Homosexuality, 1988; 15(1/2): 163-183.
29. Proctor, CD., and Groze, VK. Risk factors for suicide among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Social Work, 1994; 39(5):504-513.
30. Remafedi, G. Adolescent homosexuality: psychosocial and medical implications. Pediatrics, 1987; 79(3): 331-337. 31. Remafedi, G., Farrow, JA., and Deisher, RW. Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 1991;87(6): 869-875.
32. Roesler, T, and Deisher, RW. Youthful Male Homosexuality. JAMA, 1972; 219(8): 1018-1023.
33. Rotheram-Borus, MJ., Hunter, J., and Rosario, M. Suicidal behavior and gay-related stress among gay and bisexual male adolescents. Unpublished Manuscript, Columbia University. Data and results summarized in #35, p. 265, 267.
34. Saunders, JM., and Valente, SM., Suicide risk among gay men and lesbians: a review. Death Studies, 1987; 11: 1-23.
35. Savin-Williams, RC. Verbal and physical abuse in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youth: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1994; 62(2): 261-69.
36. Schneider, SG., Farberow, NL., and Kruks, NK. Suicidal Behavior in adolescent and young adult gay men. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1989; 19(4): 281-394.
37. Uribe, V., and Harbeck, KM. Addressing the needs of les bian, gay, and bisexual youth: The origins of PROJECT 10 and school-based intervention. In: Harbeck, Karen M., ed. Coming Out of the Classroom Closet. Haworth Press, Inc., Binghampton, N.Y., 1992, pp. 9-28. Also published in the Journal of Homosexuality, 1992.
38. Harry, Joseph. Sexual identity issues. In: Davidson, Lucy, and Linnoila, Martku, eds. Vol. 2: Risk Factors for Youth Suicide, Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 1989.
39. Bagley, C., Wood, M., and Young, L. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in survey of young adult males. Child Abuse & Neglect, 1994; 18(8): 683-697.
40. Bagley, Christopher(1994). Personal communication, October/November, 1994, and October, 1995.
41. Rotheram-Borus. MJ. Suicidal Behavior and risk factors among runaway youths. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993; 150(1): 103-107.
42. Stiffman, AR. Suicide attempts in runaway youths. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1989; 19(2): 147-159.
43. Money, JM. Juvenile suicide in secure detention facilities, correction of published rates. Death Studies, 1989; 13: 455-463.
44. Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga. Attempted Suicide Among high school students - United States, 1990. JAMA, 1991; 266(14): 1911-1912.
45. Smith, K., and Crawford, S. Suicidal behavior among "normal" high school students. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1986; 16(3): 313-320.
46. Schaffer, D., Vieland V., Garland A., Rojas, M., and Underwood, M. Adolescent suicide attempters. JAMA, 1990; 264(24): 3151-3155.
47. Bradford, Judith, and Ryan, Caitlin. The National Health Care Survey. The National Lesbian and Gay Health Foundation, Wash., D.C., 1988.
48. Tremble, B., Schneider, Margaret, and Appathurai, C. Growing up gay in a multicultural context. In: Herdt, Gilbert. Gay and Lesbian Youth. Harrington Park Press, Binghampton, N.Y., 1989.
49. Erwin, Kathleen. Interpreting the evidence: competing paradigms and the emergence of lesbian and gay suicide as a "social fact." International Journal of Health Services, 1993; 23(3): 437-453.
50. Martin, A. Damien. The stigmatization of the gay or lesbian adolescent. In: Schneider, Margaret S. Often Invisible: Counselling Gay & Lesbian Youth. Central Toronto Youth Services, Toronto, Ont., 1988, pp. 59-69.
51. Rich, CL., Fowler, RC, and Blenkush, M. San Diego suicide study: comparison of gay to straight males. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1986; 16(4): 448-457.
52. Murphy, Bianca Cody. Educating mental health professionals about gay and lesbian issues. In: Harbeck, Karen M., ed. Coming Out of the Classroom Closet. Haworth Press, Inc., Binghampton, N.Y., 1992, pp. 229-246. Also published in the Journal of Homosexuality, 1992.
53. Steel, CS., and Gyldner, CA. Identifying and meeting the needs of gay and lesbian adolescents in Family Therapy. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 1993; 2(1): 1-12.
54. O'Brien, CA., Travers, R., and Bell, L. No Safe Bed: Lesbian, gay and bisexual youth in residential services. Central Toronto Youth Services, 1993.
55. Simpson, B. Opening Doors: Making substance abuse and other services more accessible to lesbian, gay and bisexual youth. Central Toronto Youth Services, 1994.
56. Shifrin, F., and Solis, Mirtha. Chemical dependency in gay and lesbian youth. In: Weinstein Dava L. ed. Lesbian and Gay Men Chemical Dependency Issues. Harrington Park Press, N.Y., 1992.
57. Kus, RJ. Alcoholism and non-acceptance of gay self: the critical link. Journal of Homosexuality, 1988; 15(1/2): pp. 25-41.
58. Kus, RJ. Alcoholism in gay and lesbian communities. In: Kus, Robert J. Keys to Caring: Assisting Your Gay and Lesbian Client. Alyson Publications, Inc., Boston, Mass., 1990, pp. 67-91.
59. Martin, AD. Chapter 7: Learning to hide: the socialization of the gay adolescent. In: Feinstein, Sherman, et al., eds. Adolescent Psychiatry: Developmental and Clinical Issues, 1982; 10: 52-65.
60. Troiden, RR. The formation of homosexual identities. In: Herdt, Gilbert, ed. Gay and Lesbian Youth. Harrington Park Press, N.Y., 1989, pp. 43-73.
61. Minton, A., and MacDonald. Homosexual identity formation as a developmental process. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984; 9: 99-103.
62. Hetrick, ES., and Martin, AD. Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 1987; 14: 26-44.
63. Staples, David. Blown Out: Bobby Steele's Nirvana death wish. The Edmonton Journal, September 3, 1994: D-1-5. A comprehensive synthesis of Bobby Steele's life and death is given in The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem(107).
64. Pilkington, NW., and D'Augelli. Victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings. Journal of Community Psychology, 1995; 23: 34-57.
65. The Massachusetts Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth. Making Schools Safe for Gay and Lesbian Youth: Breaking the silence in schools and families. Education Report, February 25, 1993. Publication No. 17296-60-500-2/93-C.R. In: Remafedi, Gary, ed. Death by Denial: Studies of suicide in gay and lesbian teenagers. Alyson Publications, Boston, Mass., 1994, pp. 151-205.
66. Cotton, Paul. Attacks on homosexual persons may be increasing, but many 'bashings' still aren't reported to police. In: Medical News and Perspectives, JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), Vol. 267(22), 1992.
67. Herek, Gregory M., and Berill, Kevin T., eds. HATE CRIMES: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1992.
68. Peterson, Cynthia. A queer Response to Bashing: Legislating Against Hate. Queen's Law Journal, 1991; 16(2): 237-260.
69. Stermac, Lana E., and Sheridan, Peter M. Anti-Gay/Lesbian Violence: Treatment Issues. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Vol. 21(1), 1993.
70. Treadway, L., and Yoakum, J. Creating a safer school environment for lesbian and gay students. Journal of School Health, 1992;(62(7): 352-356.
71. Schneider, Margaret S. Often Invisible: Counselling Gay & Lesbian Youth. Central Toronto Youth Services, Toronto, Ont., 1988.
72. Forward, Susan. Toxic Parents; Overcoming their hurtful legacy and reclaiming your life. Bantam Books, N.Y., 1989.
73. Tanney, Bryan. Suicide prevention in Canada: A national perspective highlighting progress and problems. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1995; 25(1): 105-122.
74. Committee on Adolescence, American Academy of Pediatrics. Homosexuality and adolescence. Pediatrics, 1993, 92(4): 631-634.
75. Kourany, RF. Suicide among homosexual adolescents. Journal of homo-sexuality, 1987; 13: 111-117. 76: Hunter, J. and Schaecher, R. Stresses on lesbian and gay adolescents in schools. Social Work in Education, 1987; 9(3): 180-190.
77. Remafedi, GJ. Adolescent homosexuality issues: Issues for pediatricians. Clinical Pediatrics, 1985; 24: 481-485,
78. Coleman, E., and Remafedi G. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: A critical challenge to counselors. Journal of Counselling and Development, 1989; 68: 36-40.
78. Sobocinski, MR. Ethical principles in the counseling of gay and lesbian adolescents: Issues of autonomy, competence and confidentiality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 1990; 21(4): 240-247.
79. Eaton, Susan. Gay students find little support in most schools. The Harvard Education Letter, 1993; 76-78.
80. Sears, JT. Helping students understand and accept sexual diversity. The Education Digest, 1991; 57(4): 53-55.
81. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1993; 2(3).
82. Gershick, Zsa Zsa. Virginia for students. The Advocate, Sept. 7, 1993: 86-87.
83. Bagley, C., Bolitho, F., and Bertrand, L. Mental Health Profiles, suicidal behavior and community sexual assault in 2,112 Canadian adolescents. To be published in Crisis 1995/1996.
84. Kinsey, Alfred C. Sexual Behavior in The Human Male. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1948.
85. Donovan, JM. Homosexual, gay and lesbian: defining the words and sampling the populations. In: Minton, Henry L. ed. Gay and Lesbian Studies. Harrington Park Press, N.Y., 1992, pp. 27-47. Also published in the Journal of Homosexuality, 1992.
86. Gonsiorek, JC., Sell, RL., and Weinrich, JD. Definition and Measurement of sexual orientation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1995; Supplement 25: 40-51.
87. Herdt, Gilbert. "Coming Out" as a rite of Passage: a Chicago study. In: Herdt, Gilbert. Gay Culture in America: Essays From the Field. Beacon Press, Boston, Mass., 1992, pp. 29-67.
88. Diamond, M. Homosexuality and bisexuality in different populations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1993; 22(4): 291-310.
89. Dewitt, Philip. Now the truth about Americans and sex. Time, Oct. 17, 1994: 46-54.
90. Billy. J.O.G., Tanfer K., William, R., and Klepinger, DH. The sexual behavior of men in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 1993; 25(2): 52-60.
91. Berman, Alan L., and Jobes David A. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention. American Psychological Association, Wash., D.C., 1991.
92. Hendin, Herbert. Suicide In America. W.W. Norton & Company, N.Y., 1982.
93. Hendin, Herbert. Youth suicides: A psychological perspective. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1987; 17(2): 151-165.
94. Hendin, Herbert. Suicide In America. W.W. Norton & Company,N.Y.,1995.
95. Holinger, PC., Offer, D., Barter, JT., and Bell, CC. Suicide and Homicide Among Adolescents. The Guilford Press, N.Y., 1994.
96. Pfeffer, Cynthia R., ed. Suicide Among Youth: Perspectives on Risk and Prevention. American Psychiatric Press, Wash., D.C., 1989.
97. Rabkin, Brenda. Growing Up Dead: A Hard Look at Why Adolescents Commit Suicide. McClelland and Stuart, Toronto, 1978.
98. Sudak, HS., Ford, HS., and Rushforth, NB., eds. Suicide and the Young. John Wright PSG, Inc., Mass, 1984. The case references to suicidal homo-sexual adolescents occurred in Chapter 22, Group counseling for Suicidal Adolescents, by Charlotte P. Ross and Jerome A. Matio, pp. 367-391.
99. Suicide in Canada. Health and Welfare Canada, 1987
100. Suicide in Canada. Health and Welfare Canada, 1993. Unpublished.
101. Suicide in Canada. Health Canada, 1995.
102. Moscicki, Eve K., Muehrer, P., and Potter, LB. Introduction to supplementary issue: Research Issues in suicide and sexual orientation. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 1995; 25: 1-3.
103. Muehrer, P. Suicide and sexual orientation; A critical summary of recent research and direction for future research.Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1995; 25:72-81.
104. Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Parides, M., Gould, M. Sexual orientation in adolescents who commit suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1995; Supplement 25: 64-71.
105. Remafedi, G., Resnick, M., Blum, R., and Harris, L. Demographic of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics, 1992; 89(4): 712-721.
106. Working Groups, workshop on suicide and sexual orientation. Recommendations for a research Agenda in Suicide and sexual orientation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 1995; 25: 82-88.
107. Tremblay, Pierre J. The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem. Personally published, November, 1994, with some additions made in April, 1995. Presented to the Honourable Halvar Jonson, Minister of Education, Province of Alberta. Tabled in the Alberta Legislature on April 27, 1995.
108. King, Allan, Beazley, RP., Warren, WK., Hankins, CA., Robertson, AS., and Radford, JL. Canada Youth & AIDS Study. Health and Welfare Canada, 1988.
109. Money, John. Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The sociology of erotic orientation. Oxford University Press, N.Y., 1988.
110. Pilkington, NW., and D'Augelli, AR. Victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community setting. Journal of Community Psychology, 1995; 23: 34-56.
111. Johnson. Pat. Connecting HIV and abuse. EXTRA West! No. 53, August 24, 1995: 9.
112. O'Grady. Love and fatalism help HIV transmission. Sidney Star Observer, July 13, 1995: 11.
113. Bell, Ap., Weinberg, MS., and Hammersmith, SK. Sexual Preference: Statistical Appendix. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Ill., 1981.
114. Rotheram-Borus, MJ., Rosario, M., Reid, H., Koopman, C. Predicting patterns of sexual acts among homo- and bisexual youths. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1995; 152(4): 588-596.
115. Green, Richard. The "Sissy Boy Syndrome" and the development of homosexuality. Yale University Press, N.Y., 1987.


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