Gay / Lesbian Youth Suicide Problems in Australia / New Zealand?
Home Page: Gay And Bisexual Male Suicidality Studies
Suicidality Results from More than 30 Studies in Four Categories!
Index for the Web Site
Subject index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.
Index for Section on Racism in Predominantly White Gay and Lesbian Communities
Gay Community Racism: Asian Gay & Bisexual Males
Working Page
Racism Section Introduction / Contents.

A Related Issue: Why Can’t You Just Butch Up? Gay Men, Effeminacy, and Our War with Ourselves!
Has this not also been a 'war' - more like a 'projection' war -
against Asian gay males who are often stereotyped as being 'feminine'!

Also Related: Sanchez DT, Fetterolf JC, Rudman LA (2012). Eroticizing inequality in the United States: the consequences and determinants of traditional gender role adherence in intimate relationships. Journal of Sex research, 49(2-3): 168-83.
Abstract: This article reviews the research on traditional gender-role adherence and sexuality for heterosexual men and women. Specifically, the consequences and predictors of following traditional gender roles of female submissiveness and male dominance in sexual relationships is examined. Despite evidence that men and women's sexual roles are becoming more egalitarian over time, empirical evidence suggests that the traditional sexual roles continue to dominate heterosexual relations. This article explores whether the sexual context is one in which both men and women feel particularly compelled to engage in gender stereotypic behavior, and why. In addition, this article reports on research that finds that men and women have automatic associations between sexuality and power that reinforce their gender stereotypic behavior in sexual contexts. The negative effects of traditional gender-role adherence for women's sexual problems and satisfaction is demonstrated. This article concludes that traditional sexual scripts are harmful for both women's and men's ability to engage in authentic, rewarding sexual expression, although the female submissive role may be particularly debilitating. Future directions of research are suggested, including interventions to reduce women's adherence to the sexually submissive female script.
Needed: Similar research, such as "eroticizing learned/assumed race inequalities in gay, lesbian and bisexual sexual encounters and relationships."

China Dolls (Part 1, 2, 3): Gay Asian in the West (1997). Related Information.

"Forbidden Fruit": the subculture of Asian (specifically Chinese) gay men in Australia. "Being at the bottom of the sexual hierarchy, I had to develop intellectually, and my personality too... you know those things that had to matter." - "I started going to the gym seriously 5 or 6 years ago, and I think it is all tied with low self esteem, wanting to be bigger, wanting to be the ideal body." Commentaries.

Edge Magazine, Boston (2010): The Last Bias: How & Why We Tolerate Gay Anti-Asian Prejudice & Its Pernicious Effect on Our Community. -  Gay Anti-Asian Prejudice Thrives On the Internet.
Being Gay & Asian in America: An Insider's Guide to Staying Sane
This web blog is created as the final project for 2009 Spring Study of Sexualities class: Clinical Consideration for the LGBTQ community. This web blog discusses on various issues that distress men who identify as both gay and Asian. If you want to contribute to the contents of the web blog, you are more than welcomed to...

Soles, Carter Michael (2008). Falling Out of the Closet: Kevin Smith, Queerness, and Independent Film. PhD Dissertation, Department of English, University of Oregon. Download Page. PDF Download. "White masculinity has been in crisis for some time. Of course, any identity category that assumes a position of power and privilege over all others and attempts to maintain that position by rendering its centrality invisible and "natural" accepts a very daunting task indeed. Hence cinema and other popular forms of media have documented and metaphorized the various failures of white masculinity to live up to its own projected ideal of complete mastery over Wetem culture and its non-white-male subjects."
Gay men with low status likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, uToronto study says.
Green AI (2008). Health and Sexual Status in an Urban Gay Enclave: An Application of the Stress Process Model. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49(4): 436-451. Abstract. In Toronto: "Data consisting of in-depth interviews with 70 gay men coupled with three years of fieldwork demonstrate a sexual status order that privileges caucasian, middle-class men in their twenties  and early thirties, and that disadvantages black and Asian men, men over 40 years of age, and poor men..."
Caluya, Gilbert (2008). ‘The Rice Steamer’: race, desire and affect in Sydney’s gay scene. Australian Geographer, 39(3): 283-292. Abstract. PDF. I soon realised, however, that by virtue of a racial regime of signs, I had been relegated in circuits of queer desire, to a racial/sexual type  regardless of body shape, sense of style or modes of behaviour. I was for all (sexual) intents and purposes ‘Asian’... Lastly, even if a bar or club doesn’t discriminate at the door in terms of race, the spatio-sexual interactions within commercial gay venues can still regulate the mobility and distribution of racial bodies... These racial boundaries mean that gay Asian men and rice queens have to continually map the gay scene in terms of where they can go to find sexual partners and where they are less likely to experience racism. For gay white men who are sexually repulsed by
Asian men it means having to evade areas in which Asian men congregate or to police gay spaces through racist practices... Nevertheless, in the current context of self-possessed sexual identities where desire is still overcoded, we cannot be too forceful in calling for the deterritorialisation of desire. It is not my intention to stop people from desiring along the lines of race (or gender for that matter), but to call attention to the contingency of such sexual identities and to remind us that sexuality is not the final word of desire...
All the Bloody Colors in the Rainbow - Lance Galloway.
Once in a while, when some gay people march in protest or argue in favor of equal rights, such as gay marriage, I cannot help but wince. Although I wholeheartedly agree with gay marriage (of course), I cannot help but wonder what is wrong with these people? They are vocal about equal rights, and they get enraged when anecdotes of discrimination that they identify with come onto the table. Yet they discriminate themselves.  Who am I talking about?  Gay people... who are racists. Isn't it a bit oxymoronic? Shouldn't gay people know how much it sucks to be discriminated against, thus be more open-minded? The reality is (as we probably all know)… that is not the case...
Troy Phillips: Asian & Masculine: A Body of Work.
Having spent five years of my life living in and travelling extensively through Asia, I have always been struck by the underrepresentation of Asian masculinity, particularly in Western culture, save for a few clumsy cliches. Further, in a sea of media imagery, the few spare islands of representation of the Asian male are, I find, unsexualized... This project features an eclectic mix of twenty-two models from eleven various Asian backgrounds and different walks of life. The collection of work is a gift to all – male, female, Asian, non-Asian, straight, gay – to highlight new figurations of both the universality and the individuality of Masculine Beauty.
Exhibiting art about the male body by Asian and international artists.

Shiau H-C, Chen CC (2009). When Sissy Boys Become Mainstream: Narrating Asian Feminized Masculinities in the Global Age. International Journal of Social Inquiry, 2(2): 55-74. PDF Download.

Yellow Peril: Reconsidered by Paul Wong (1991). Alternate Link.
Yellow Peril: Reconsidered is a diverse selection of experimental and documentary photo, film and video work produced by Asian Canadians. It includes artists and producers of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and Filipino origins. This grouping of twenty-five artists' works, collaborations and community projects represents the voice of new immigrants and of those who have been here for many generations...
Many of the Yellow Peril artists are gay or lesbian, and some have dealt with these issues in their work. I have included Chinese Characters, the seminal work by Richard Fung that examines the desires of gay Asians in relation to white gay pornography. Richard Fung has produced an important body of work that is closely linked to a better understanding of self-identity. When I first met Richard in 1987, I remember being put off by his manner. I saw this later as perhaps my inability to place him. It wasn’t native-born English, it wasn’t English as a second language, it wasn’t just the affected speech of a homosexual, nor was it the accent of a UK education. Like many of the artists in this exhibition, he is not native-born, but neither is he fresh-off-the-boat. He was born and raised in Trinidad. Fung continues to produce work about being on the outside of already marginalized issues...

A-Men Magazine
A-Men publication is a photoessay book on Asian gay men, capturing the crossroads of art, sexuality and cultural identity. The ”A-Men” project has brought together photographers and writers from the Asian gay community to develop work that challenges and informs our understanding around sexuality, ethnic identity, and multiculturalism. Importantly, it is a resource that addresses HIV health promotion through the community's lens, meeting people where they are at: the challenges of negotiating identities that span cultural, geographical, religious and family spheres, and how that affects outcomes of health behaviour and wellbeing. It is also to give the Asian gay community a voice, a space for visibility.

Schneider, Jeffrey L (2002). Secret Sins of the Orient: Creating a (Homo)Textual Context for Reading Byron's "The Giaour". College English, 65(1): 81-95. PDF Download. In defining "homotextuality," Rudi C. Bleys notes that it "manifests itself more often in rhetorical style than in content. A document becomes 'of homosexual interest' by its use of carefully chosen adjectives, by the adoption of particular 'signifying' images, names or terms, or by its connection to an Orientalist or Primitivist trope" (11). In using the term "homotextuality" to form my notion of a (homo)textual universe, I focus first on the way the sexual excesses inscribed in eighteenth- and nineteenth- century Oriental discourses served to open up "queer" spaces in Romantic literature, while analyzing the degree to which the master narrative of British colonial domination was in part dependent on narratives of the sexual degeneracy of the Other. More specifically, I concentrate on Lord Byron's "Oriental Tale" The Giaour as a case study both to illustrate the workings of homotextuality and to examine the degree to which Byron in his use of these tropes implicates himself in the British imperial project.

Angry-Gay-Black-Canadian-man: Why Does Society Ignore The Racism Of The White Gays?
Excerpt: The white gay mafia is not one person it is an organized syndicate of North American media outlets such as white gay owned newspapers, magazines, celebrities, and white gay political organizations. It is a chilling reminder and warning to black gays and straights about the “influence”, “racism”, and “hypocrisy” of the white gay mafia. Is there homophobia in the black community yes it does exist. Is there racism in the white gay community the answer is a resounding yes and it is very real and ugly... The white gay mafia have been shrewd in crafting their new victim status card. If you criticize a white gay person these days you will automatically be branded a “homophobe”. Are white gays free from criticism? Sure seems like it... Yet you never read in print, listen to news broadcasts on the radio or television about white gay racism. The mainstream North American media has a hunger and a penchant for trying to “depict” “all” blacks as “homophobes”. Yet will the mainstream media publish articles about the white gay racists? Of course not because whites control the mainstream media. White gays and straights are the top editors, the managing editors, producers, editor in chiefs, in the mainstream press. You will also notice the lens will be of course from a Eurocentric perspective... It is also unfortunate that some black gay people have been “silent” about the obvious attempts by the white gay mafia to undermine black public figures. My perspective is if we are silent then we are a part of the problem. I believe black gays should speak out against this hypocrisy and bigotry of the white gay community... The white mafia wants to present the “frame” and the “lens” to paint the entire black race as “anti gay.” Yet what about white gays being anti black? Where are the articles about white gays racism and bigotry? Why is there this racist double standard? Are white gays free from criticism? It definitely sure seems like it. I have not read one single news article that has exposed the virulent hypocrisy and anti black racism by the white gay North American community...

Interview with Photographer Jeff Sheng:
Stonewall is a great example.  That we as LGBT people have been trained to proudly imagine this as the "birthplace" of LGBT rights, yet many in the community do this without a deep examination of what the implications of writing that history really means.  What does it say for us as a community when those that fought the hardest and bravest during Stonewall - drag queens and trans-identified people of color - are the ones that we as a community are quickest to render invisible or exclude from legislation in cases such as the federal employment non-discrimination act (ENDA)?  How did we erase those brave individuals from the way most LGBT people think about Stonewall?  One would think that our so-called heroes in the birthplace of our movement would be those currently most celebrated and protected -- and have the most leadership roles in our current LGBT organizations... yet this isn't the case at all.  Again, I ask, how does one "truth" colonize and erase another "truth?" ...

University Courses

Asian American Sexualities: Stanford University. PDF Download.

Coloring Queer, HMSX 380, San Francisco State University (2004, Word Download): Queer Studies and Ethnic Studies often seem at odds.  While scholars of both fields tout their dedication to social justice, they frequently ignore the very issues of one another.  Myopic white privilege and homophobia within communities of color appear to lay at the root of this seemingly benign neglect.  This course addresses the disciplinary void by illuminating the very intersection of race and sexuality through queer communities of color themselves.  The course focuses less on the causes of the erasure and more on how queer individuals of color negotiate family, race, and desire, and ultimately carve out spheres of sexual fulfillment in both positive and destructive ways.


Amazon: Gay Asian Books/Papers.

Espiritu (). Ideological racism and its cultural resistance: constructing our own images.
PDF Download.

Asian Stereotypes collapse gender and sexuality.

Cho S, Ed. (1998)
. Rice: Explorations into Gay Asian Culture + Politics. Toronto: Queer Press. Review by Stephen Murray. Amazon.

Obendorf, Simon (2005). Reading racial gaze : western gay society and pornographic depictions of Asian men. In: Kendall, Christopher N., Martino, Wayne (Eds). Gendered outcasts and sexual outlaws: sexual oppression and gender hierarchies in queer men's lives. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press. Amazon.

Jackson PA (Profile), Sullivan G, Eds. (1999). Multicultural Queer: Australian Narratives. New York: Haworth Press. Google Books. Amazon.
Review by Dean Chan: (Alternate Link) About half of the essays are autobiographical in orientation, while the remaining contributions mainly take the form of scholarly research and empirical analyses. The essays are not strictly arranged according to thematic concerns; instead, they unfold as an echoing of parallel concerns refracted through multiple shared perspectives and contemporary experiences. What the essays have in common is akeen attentiveness to power differentials in Australian multicultural society. Many of the writers address issues of racism and discrimination within both straight and queer communities. These concerns are surveyed using a variety of case studies both micro (be it in the form of specific interpersonal relationships or a personal ad), and macro (be it in terms of bureaucratic multicultural policies or HIV/AIDS issues)... An important sub-theme under consideration is the potential erosion of self-esteem as a consequence of systemic racism within lesbian and gay communities. Essays by Annie Goldflam, Hinde Ena Burstin, Rose Kizinska, Audrey Yue and Tony Ayres examine selected instances of 'internal discrimination', so to speak. Ayres claims that one outcome of experiencing such discrimination is the propensity for the individual to develop a sense of self-loathing, thereby resulting in a form of internalised racism. (p 92) Kent Chuang offers a reflective exploration of being doubly marginalised as an 'Asian' in the 'gay community'. His account is especially notable in that painful life episodes are tempered with humour and incisive irony to produce a self-portrait of contradictory experiences and ambivalent allegiances. For as he admits, 'Even at my stage of mature 'enlightenment' I don't deny that sometimes it still feels good to be seen with pretty white boys and hunky guys on the [gay] scene, so who am I to point a finger at anyone?' (p 40) ...

Wat EC (2002). Making of a Gay Asian Community: An Oral History of Pre-AIDS Los Angeles. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Amazon. Related Information. Abstract. Barnes & Noble: Synopsis. Summary. Review. GLBQ: Los Angeles. Book Review: Gay Asian-Pacific Organizing in Los Angeles in the 1960s-80s.

Leong, Russell, Ed. (1995). Asian American Sexualities: Dimensions of the Gay and Lesbian Experience. Amazon. Google Books.

Eng DL, Hom AY, Eds. (). Q & A Queer and Asian: Queer & Asian in America. Blackwell Reference. Contents. Review. Temple University Press: Contents. Amazon.


"Preface Introduction Q & A, Notes on a Queer Asian Americ" by David L. Eng and Alice Y. Hom.

Part I: Working Out - 1. "Going Home, Enacting Justice in Queer Asian America" by Karin Aguilar-san Juan (PDF Download) - 2. "The Heat Is On Miss Saigon Coalition, Organizing Across Race and Sexuality" by  Yoko Yoshikawa - 3. "Queer Asian American Immigrants, Opening Borders and Closets" by Ignatius Bau - 4. "Coalition Politics, (re) Turning The Century" - Vera Miao.

Part II: Im/proper Images - 5. "Creating, Curating, and Consuming Queer Asian American Cinema, An Interview With Marie K. Morohoshi Ju Hui" by Judy Han With Marie K. Morohoshi - 6. "'A Vaudeville Against Coconut Trees', Colonialism, Contradiction, and Coming Out in Michael Magneye's White Christmas" by Victor Bascara - 7. "Looking for My Penis, The Eroticized Asian in Gay Video Porn" by Richard Fung 8. Lisa's Closet Gaye Chan.

Part III: Keeping Records - 9. "Sexuality, Identity, and The Uses of History" by Nayan Shah - 10. "History of Disease Patti Duncan 11. Queer API Men in Los Angeles, A Roundtable on History and Political Organizing" Introduced and Edited by Eric C. Wat and Steven Shum - 12. "Toward a Queer Korean American Diasporic History" by Jeeyeun Lee.

Part IV: Closets/margins - 13. "Litany" by Russell Leong - 14. "Trying fo' Do Anykine to Donna, Fragments of a Prose Work" by Donna Tsuyuko Tanigawa - 15. "Transgender/transsexual Roundtable" Transcribed by Diep Khac Tran, Edited by Diep Khac Tran, Bryan, and Rhode - 16. "Mahu, The Gender Imbalance" by Jennifer Tseng. 17. "Curry Queens and Other Spices" by Sandip Roy.

Part V: Paternity - 18. "In his Arms" by Joel Barraquiel Tan - 19. "The Strange Love of Frank Chin" by Daniel Y. Kim - 20. "The Unknowable and Sui Sin Far, The Epistemological Limits of "Oriental" Sexuality" by Min Song - 21. Webs of Betrayal, Webs of Blessings" by You-leng Leroy Lim - 22."Heterosexuality in The Face of Whiteness, Divided Belief in M. Butterfly" by David L. Eng.

Part VI: Out Here and Over There - 23. "Monster" by Justin Chin - 24. "Coming Out Into The Global System, Postmodem Patriarchies and Transnational Sexualities in The Wedding Banquet" by Mark Chiang - 25. "Incidents of Travel" by Ju Hui "Judy" Han - 26. "Transnational Sexualities, South Asian (trans)nation(alism)s and Queer Diasporas" by Jasbir K. Puar - "Selected Bibliography, Anthologies, Fiction, and Nonfiction" Compiled by Alice Y. Hom -  "Resource Guide" Compiled by Alice Y. Hom. - "About The Contributors".

Kumashiro  KK, Ed. (2001). Troubling Intersections of Race and Sexuality: Queer Students of Color and Anti-Oppressive Education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Amazon. Google Books. Barnes & Noble. Contents.
"Foreword" by Didi Kbayaat. "Preface" by James T. Sears. Acknowledgments.   
1. "Queer Students of Color and Antiracist, Antiheterosexist Education: Paradoxes of Identity and Activism" by Kumashiro, K. K. (1). Pt. I    Identities and Cultures"  (27). - 2. Eres Maricon? Por "Eladio" by Michele Garrett - Excerpt (31) - 3. "To Be Objectified" by 'Kayla Chan' (33) - 4. "When Fitting In Isn't an Option, or, Why Black Queer Males at a California High School Stay Away from Project 10" by Lance McCready (37) - 5. "An Interview with Dena Underwood" by Cby Ryan Spain (55) - 6. "Chosen" by Gordon de Frane Excerpt (61) - 7. "Where Have All the Queer Students of Color Gone? Negotiated Identity of Queer Chicana/o Students" by Cristina M. Misa  (67) - 8. "GAM4GWM" by William Tran (81) - 9. "Where I Am Today" by Teddy Consolacion (83) - 10. "Undressing the Normal: Community Efforts for Queer Asian and Asian American Youth" by Varney, J.A. (87) - 11. "An Interview with Quincy Greene" by Cby Ryan Spain  (105) - 12. "There Are No Gay Koreans" by Alexander Hakyun Hong  (109) - 13. "Adolescent Sexual Orientation, Race and Ethnicity, and School Environments: A National Study of Sexual Minority Youth of Color" by Russell, S. and N. Truong  (113) - 14. "First Nations, Queer and Education" by Raven E. Heavy Runner (131) - 15. "Gray Boy, Rainbow Man" by 'Shadow Wolf' (135) Pt. II: Antiracist, Antiheterosexist Education (139) - 16. "Narratives of Hybridity and the Challenge to Multicultural Education" by Linda Scholl (141) - 17. "Systemic Anti-Oppression Strategies for School Counselors as Allies Advocating for Queer Children, Youth, and Families of Multiracial Experience" by Stuart F. Chen0Hayes (163) - 18. "Race and Sexual Orientation in Multicultural Feminist Teacher Education" by Paula Ressler (179) - 19. "'If I Teach about These Issues They Will Burn Down My House': The Possibilities and Tensions of Queered, Antiracist Pedagogy" by Lisa W. Loutzenheiser (195)
Index   (215) - About the Contributors   (223) .

Kumashiro KK (2004). Restoried Selves: Autobiographies of Queer Asian-Pacific-American Activists. Google Books. Amazon. Review.

Drummond MJN, Filiault SM (2007). The long and the short of it: Gay men’s perceptions of penis size. Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review,  3(2): 121-129.
Full Text.

Eng, David L (2001). Racial Castration: Managing Masculinity in Asian America. Perverse Modernities. Durham: Duke University Press. Abstract. Amazon. Google Books.

Review: Groover, Noreen (2002). The politics of representation in Asian American literature. The College Literature, September. Full Text.
Review includes review of two other books:

Yin, Xiao-huang. 2000. Chinese American Literature Since the I 850s. The Asian American Experience. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Ma, Sheng-Mei. 2000. The Deathly Embrace: Orientalism and Asian American Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  208 pp.

Chung, Hye Seung (2006). Hollywood Asian: Philip Ahn and the politics of cross-ethnic performance. — The Evening Class Interview With Hye Seung Chung (Book's Author).
But there was something else about him, Hye Seung commented, "something almost campy." There was the rumor that Ahn was homosexual and—as an aside—Hye Seung recounted that she received a couple of hate mails from the gay community for not establishing that Ahn was homosexual in her book. But how could you, I asked her, when there was no direct evidence or admission on his part? Exactly, Hye Seung agreed. Maybe he was bisexual? She didn't know. There are conflicting stories and the bottom line is that he never identified his sexuality. Besides, that was not the concern of her book. But she can say in retrospect that there was something in his performances you could say was campy. The way he carried himself. Almost a comedic quality. In some of his minor roles there's something campy about how he plays the sidekick to the masculine male hero. It's somewhat appealing for being a little less aggressive than most masculine portrayals at the time. His was a different kind of masculinity. Even before there was such a thing as the new "softer" masculinities that became a big thing in the '70s, if you look at Ahn's performances in the '30-'50s—except, of course, for the WWII propaganda films where he plays an outright villain—there's a softer, kinder masculinity that somehow appealed to everyone...

Bomani Baruti, Mwalimu K. (aka Larry D. Crawford). Homosexuality and the Effeminization of Afrikan Males. Akoben House. [Comment: Is some of what is said below also related to the western perception of Asian males?]
Summary: Homosexuality and the Effeminization of Afrikan Males begins with an Afrikan Centered investigation into the origins and historical evolution of homosexuality. This elemental study expands into a detailed analysis of the most important part of this work, the growing gender confusion of Afrikans socialized into European culture and society. The historical relationship of white supremacy, based in the real and perceived threat of Afrikan males, to European global cultural imperialism/hegemony provides the foundation for these arguments. In plain terms, there is a direct relationship between the forced enslavement of Afrikan males into European society, the ongoing fear of Afrikan men by European men, the racist economic order that has gradually but systematically reduced its need for Afrikan labor since the official end of the Afrikan’s physical enslavement and the subsequent growing effeminization of a significant number of Afrikan males in this Western society. The process and desired result of this effeminization process is a significant part of the means by which European society seeks to reduce/eliminate the potential expression of a righteous rage by Afrikan men. This methodical demasculinization manifests itself in numerous ways and rationales, from within the prison system to higher education to single parenting to the labor market to the church to the media, all of which are thoroughly discussed in this book. At the base of this assault is the historical confusion and cultural alienation of Afrikans themselves. If people act toward any problem without historical awareness, for all problems are located in history, then in all probability they act wrongly or, as many prefer to say, they do no more than react. Therefore, many of us who are alarmed over this growing sexual confusion are mostly reacting to what is being done to our sons. And, because of this, we are unable to effectively arrest the European psychosexual assault on them. We do not see ourselves as powerful enough to stop others from turning our sons into their daughters. In the Western cultural context, men fear men, not women. And European men fear Afrikan men for many good reasons. They understand that the best way to significantly reduce this threat is to turn your enemy’s males into females so that they make themselves into nonthreats. Blame for powerlessness in the face of assault falls on the victim. That undeniable truth is what this book attempts to explain in as great a detail as possible so that Afrikans can act on a deeply informed Afrikan interpretation, and not a European fiction, of Afrikan traditions.

Bomani Baruti, Mwalimu K. (
aka Larry D. Crawford). The Sex Imperative is an Afrikan centered analysis of the West’s obsession with sex. Akoben House. [Comment: Are Aisan males also positioned in certain ways within western sexual cultures?]
Summary: This book details and explains the history, nature and peculiarity of European sexual behavior and the culture which drives it. The author brings the inordinate priority of individual and group sex in European culture to our attention in a number of ways. He examines the printed, oral and visual media’s efforts to aggressively and with conscious intent highlight and promote the most extreme and individualistic sexual acts and confusions. He delves into a family of languages that since the earliest Greek writers has cultivated the degradation of females, the sexual exploitation of children and animals, the priority of sexual conquest and satiation, and a glorification of vulgarity. He analyzes the sexual personalities and behaviors of the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman mythology whom they created and who provided the model for mortal European sexuality. He looks at the sexual symbolism that increasingly pervades public Western society, being found everywhere from body ornamentation, such as tattooes and body piercings, to children’s movies to the newest wave of “soft porn” romance novels. And he exposes their normative sex-violence connection that for many makes sex their all in all and gives them emotional content; and through looking at the cultural history of gender/sex confusing initiatives, trends and patterns having the deliberate end goal of global unisexualization. These, of course, are only a few of the topics that are brought into this critical and long overdue discussion of the peculiar historical sex imperative of Europeans. But not only does The Sex Imperative look at the source of the problem and its many confusing and destructive manifestations, it specifically addresses the introduction and spread of these perversions into the Afrikan community. One way the author does this is to take us on a historical journey through several generations of music to demonstrate that what we hear and see today in the music and music videos is not new. Even though the lyrics have become cruder and cruder, the message has remained constant. Through the author’s eyes, we can see a natural progression in this effort to somehow fit Afrikans into European sexual culture. Attempts to graft the European sex imperative onto the Afrikan personality began well before “old school” music, where a sexual priority was already being pushed beyond its natural limits through the airwaves and personal contact between members of these two groups. The goal has been the gradual but complete internalization of the peculiar bedroom behaviors of Europeans by Afrikans so that the extremes and perversions Europeans naturally practiced would appear less abnormal to a world where Europeans have always been a significant minority. The Sex Imperative unlocks secrets, secrets that are hidden right before our eyes in the music, commercials, schools, magazines, stores, technology, trends, that allow Afrikans to fall prey to a voluntary sexual slavery because we do not know what we are dealing with or where it is taking us. Not only does this book provide an historical and contemporary cultural map of the European sexual landscape, as truly seen and understood only by them, but, if we let it, it also provides an Afrikan centered foundation out of which we can sexually locate ourselves in the natural ways that constitute the traditional mind of Afrika.

Kimmel MS (2004). Masculinity as homophobia: fear, shame, and silence in the construction of gender identity. In: Murphy, P.F. (ed.) Feminism and masculinites. Oxford University Press, pp.182-199. PDF Download.
PDF Download.
The fear of being seen as a sissy dominates the cultural definitions of manhood.  ... By the end of the century, new European immigrants were also added to the list of the unreal men, especially the Irish and Italians, who were seen as too passionate and emotionally volatile to remain controlled sturdy oaks, and Jews, who were seen as too bookishly effete and too physically puny to truly measure up. In the mid-twentieth century, it was also Asians—first the Japanese during the Second World War, and more recently, the Vietnamese during the Vietnam War—who have served as unmanly templates against which American men have hurled their gendered rage. Asian men were seen as small, soft, and effeminate—hardly men at all. Such a list of "hyphenated" Americans—Italian-, Jewish-, Irish-, African-, Native-, Asian-, gay—composes the majority of American men. So manhood is only possible for a distinct minority, and the definition has been constructed to prevent the others from achieving it. Interestingly, this emasculation of one's enemies has a flip side — and one that is equally gendered. These very groups that have historically been cast as less than manly were also, often simultaneously, cast as hypermasculine, as sexually aggressive, violent rapacious beasts, against whom "civilized" men must take a decisive stand and thereby rescue civilization. Thus black men were depicted as rampaging sexual beasts, women as carnivorously carnal, gay men as sexually insatiable, southern European men as sexually predatory and voracious, and Asian men as vicious and cruel torturers who were immorally disinterested in life itself, willing to sacrifice their entire people for their whims. But whether one saw these groups as effeminate sissies or as brutal uncivilized savages, the terms with which they were perceived were gendered. These groups become the "others," the screens against which traditional conceptions of manhood were developed. Being seen as unmanly is a fear that propels American men to deny manhood to others, as a way of proving the unprovable—-that one is fully manly. Masculinity becomes a defense against the perceived threat of humiliation in the eyes of other men, enacted through a "sequence of postures" — things we might say or do, or even think, that, if we thought carefully about them, would make us ashamed of ourselves (Savran 1992, 16). After all, how many of us have made homophobic or sexist remarks, or told racist jokes, or made lewd comments to women on the street? How many of us have translated those ideas and those words into actions, by physically attacking gay men, or forcing or cajoling a woman to have sex even though she didn't really want to because it was important to score? ...


A national conference of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Asian Americans, South Asians, and Pacific Islanders: August 14 to 16, 2009 - Seattle, Washington. PDF Download.
Building on past national convenings, the National Queer Asian Pacific Islander Alliance (NQAPIA), a federation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Asian American, South Asian, and Pacific Islander (API) organizations, is planning a national activist convening in August 2009 in Seattle, WA. We hope to acquire and expand the aptitude, ability, and achievements of LGBT APIs, break barriers, and connect community so that we can build the capacity of local groups, invigorate grassroots organizing, train leaders, and challenge homophobia, racism, and anti-immigrant bias... In response, the National Queer Asian Pacific Islander Alliance was formed as a federation of LGBT Asian American, South Asian, and Pacific Islander organizations to build the organizational capacity of local LGBT API groups, develop leadership, invigorate local organizing, and challenge homophobia and racism.

Berkeley’s 1st Queer and Asian Conference - "Story-ing the Silence: Filling the Pages" - will be held on Saturday, May 3rd, 2008.

1st Annual Queer and Asian Conference N/A: Categorically speaking, where do you fit? Which bubble do you circle? Which box do you scratch down a checkmark in? Mark one. Only one. Prioritize. The box confines. The box omits. The box silences. As nearly half a century of progress, activism, and change have demonstrated that “Asian” is obsolete—we are not one people, but many; we’ve garnered more boxes to choose from. But it is still a box. The box confines. The box omits. The box silences. We’ve reached an age of intersections. The “Asian” collides with the “Queer.” Decide. Are you the L, G, B, T, I, Q, Q, or A? And if you mark a Q, what Q is it? In this age of intersections, the boxes multiply. The silences multiply. In the end, what story does the box tell?

Behind every box there’s a story. What is yours? What is ours? Berkeley’s 1st Queer and Asian Conference will be held on Saturday, May 3rd, 2008. The theme is Sto ry -ing t he Sile nce: Filling the Pages. This year’s conference is organized by the University of California, Berkeley’s student group Cal Q & A (Cal Queer & Asian). As we put a story to the silence, we hope this will be a day for community building and networking; a place to explore the intersections of our identity, and share our experiences, our stories as individuals; our stories as community. Together, let’s break through the compounded silences of Queer and Asian.

Payne, Robert (2007). Gay scene, queer grid. Paper presented at the "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" conference, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. PDF Download.
Download Page.
Abstract: Following Michel de Certeau’s theory of spatialising, tactical practices of the everyday, Bryan Reynolds and Joseph Fitzpatrick argue for a distinction between “subjective” and “transversal”kinds of territory. Transversality acts to cut across the gridded lines of hegemonic place which serve to bind intelligible subject positions. If the terms of transversal territory can be applied to the production of queer space as the mobile appropriation of place across and beyond normative bounds, how do we theoretically conceive the urban, gay community-imagined zone known as “the gay scene” in relation to sexual and gender norms? Moreover, as these social and sexual dynamics are increasingly located on websites such as Gaydar, to what extent is the utopian promise of cyberspace fulfilled in activating a queer ethics of identification? Taking evidence from both “scenes”, this paper concludes that Gaydar works to reinstall a normative grid of intelligibility of gendered, sexual and racial subjects.

Steep, Ian (2007). ‘GWM ISO GAM’: Mediated identities and ethnicity fetish.
Paper presented at the "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" conference, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. PDF Download. Download Page.
Abstract: This paper explores the notion of space as a medium that allows the construction of social relationships. One such space is the internet. This paper considers the ways that gay Caucasian men who are exclusively attracted to men of Asian ancestry use the interent – particularly, internet personal advertisements – to construct social relationships with the men to whom they are attracted. The paper is a preliminary report of a study in progress into the ways in these men construct and give meaning to their attraction. The study uses the theoretical framework of fetish. Scripting is accepted as one way of making sense of the world. The paper suggests that gay men who have a racially-based fetish undertake significant intrapsyching scripting in order to symbolically construct reality to establish an identity and social relationships that meet their particular needs.

Cho, Alexander (2009). Whiteness, Masculinity, and Hyperlinked Scopophilia:'s Straight Boys Gone Wild. Paper presented at Internet Research Conference. Abstract.
While a significant amount of scholarship has been written about the precarious situation of people of color in gay porn, there has been very little counter-analysis of the painstakingly constructed, ex-nominated, hegemonic, hetero-masculine whiteness in the same genre...

Han, Chong-suk (2009). I Know a Lot of Gay Asian Men Who are Actually Tops. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08. Full Text.
Abstract: Despite the well documented cases of racism toward gay Asian men in the gay community, there is currently little research examining how gay Asian men manage and negotiate gay racial stigma. In this article, we examine stigma management and negotiation strategies employed by gay Asian men and explore how gay Asian men engage in stigma management strategies in order to maintain a positive sense of self and counter the effects of racism in the gay community. 

Wong, Alan (2007). Who is Asian?: Representing a Pan-ethnic Continent in LGBTIQ Community Activism. Paper presented at the 4th Conference on Sex & Sexuality. PDF. (Project Archives).

Helms, Joshua  (2007). Constructed Online Identities: Capturing Anonymity.
Paper presented at the "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" conference, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. PDF Download. Download Page.
Abstract: This article was written in conjunction with my photographic piece, Capturing Anonymity, which showcases digital portraits of gay men who use Gaydar, a computer-mediated chat site, to meet other gay men. These portraits are projected simultaneously with conversations had with the participants about their usage through a digital projector. Numerous images cycle through, with no indication of which belongs to which chat conversation, in an effort to dispel the projected stereotypes that Gaydar perpetuates. This article examines how Gaydar helps to develop or influence a gay man’s identity, sometimes for the better, and other times for the worse. The piece ultimately unearths how identity is directly affected through using Gaydar, as well as my own experiences in exploring these difficulties.

Hoi Leung, Lau (2005). Gay Specificity: The Reworking of Heteronormative Discourse in the Hong Kong Gay Community.  aper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.
Abstract: This qualitative research is a study on the specific culture of the gay community in Hong Kong. Mainstream academic research on Hong Kong gay community has mostly focused on the construction and formation of gay identity and gay culture especially under the postcolonial context of Hong Kong. By adopting narrative analysis of the life histories of gay men, the research focus has been placed upon their self-recognition of gay identity, closet practices, coming out process, and sexual and intimate relationship. In response to this mainstream agenda, this study purports to explore two relatively neglected empirical phenomena concerning Hong Kong gay community, namely the adoption of zero-one role division and the marginalization of the sissy gay men. These two contentious issues define my research focus.

Excerpt: The first concerns with the various role divisions such as “1”, “0”, “10”, “top”, “bottom”, and “both” in the Hong Kong gay community. Some gay men will try to label or categorize themselves in terms of certain roles, especially when they are looking for sexual, love, or intimate relationship with other gay men... The second phenomenon I would like to address in this study is the widespread anti-effeminacy prejudice among the Hong Kong gay men. Although both historically and ideologically gay culture has been a challenge to normative heterosexuality, the gender-nonconforming gay men, or the so-called “sissy gay men”, suffer stigmatization and discrimination not only from the heteronormative society at large, but also among the gay community itself...

Nguyen Duc, Thinh (2007). Fairies in the Far East: Now and Then. Paper presented at the Third Semi-Annual Conference on the Rhetoric of Monstrosity. PDF Download.
Abstract: Homosexuality in Vietnam enjoys an invisible status that has to do with many social, cultural and historical factors. In this paper, I will attempt focus on the historical contribution of colonialism to the non-existence of homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity. Specifically, I will assess the historical influence on Vietnamese contemporary perception of homosexuality and the associated homophobia brought about by the 100 year of French colonization. 

Carroll, Graham (2007). Monstrous Love: Exploring the Grotesque Transformation of Sexuality From Ancient Greece to Early Christendom.
Paper presented at the Third Semi-Annual Conference on the Rhetoric of Monstrosity. PDF Download.
Abstract: This paper traces the evolution of homosexuality from Ancient Greece to early Christianity, through the lens of the Greek myth of Apollo and Hyacinth. It seeks to identity the reasons why sexuality fell from a socially acceptable practice to a religiously feared one. The paper seeks to not only identify how Christianity monstrified homosexuality (and in doing so became a monster itself), but also to reveal elements of homosexuality considered most monstrous by Christians.

Pyke, Karen D (2003). "Who Wants to be With A Short Asian Guy?”: The Internalization of Subordinated Masculinity Among Asian American Males. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Men's Studies Association Meeting.
Abstract: This study examines the internalization of “gendered racism” among second generation Korean and Vietnamese American men. Asian American males must contend with “controlling images” perpetuated in the white dominated society that subordinate their masculinity and racially construct them as wimpy, submissive, small in stature, non-athletic, and nerdy, on the one hand, and as hyperdomineering brutes on the other hand. The kinds of gendered racism that Asian American males experience and how they respond is the focus of this investigation, which draws on in-depth interviews with 100 sons of Korean and Vietnamese immigrants in southern California. Respondents reiterate in their narratives the negative caricatures of Asian masculinity that they have grown up with and continue to endure. Over and over again as they describe Asian American males in general, their sense of themselves as men, or their experiences with gendered racist attacks on their masculinity, they painfully touch on derogatory stereotypes of Asian masculinity, including notions that they are unattractive to females, especially white females. Over and over again, they reaffirm the demonizing images of Asian American males, even as they relate accounts of resistance against the stereotypes. This study also examines the strategy of hypermasculinity, including the denigration of women, that some respondents engaged as a strategy for resisting feminized notions of Asian masculinity. The findings highlight a process of mental colonization among new non-white Americans who learn self-hatred as they adapt to the patriarchal white supremacist values of the mainstream society.

Websites / Forums

Newsletter: Lavender Godzilla: Voices of the Gay Asian Pacific Alliance. 2008: January. February. April. May. June. 2007 Newsletters. 2006 Newsletters.

Asian representation in the gay community: Forum

Dissertations / Reports

Robertson, Richie (2005?). Men’s Friendships and Supports. PhD. Dissertation. Swinburne University. PDF Download.
Related Publications

Robertson R, Buzwell S, Cook R (2005). Men and masculinities: Shame and support in heterosexual and homosexual men's close friendships. In T. Bowles (Ed.), The Good the Bad and The Ugly. Proceedings of the APS Psychology of Relationships Interest Group 5th Annual Conference (pp 125-134). Melbourne: The Australian Psychological Society.

Robertson R (2006). Shame and boundary regulation in straight and gay men’s close friendships. Gestalt Journal of Australia and New Zealand, 2(2), pp 42-64.

Gopalkrishnan, Carl (2000). A Sociological Analysis of Gay Racism and Its Affect on Asian Men in HIV Social Research in Australia. Master's Dissertation, Department of Sociology, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Murdoch University.
Page for Thesis Download (Alternate Link, Murdoch University).
Armengol Carrera, José María (2006). Gendering Men: Theorizing Masculinities in American Culture and Literature. PhD Dissertation, University of Barcelona. Download Page.
Abstract: This thesis attempts to “gender” men by theorizing masculinities in American culture and literature. It tries to demonstrate that (white heterosexual) men, like women, are also gendered beings; that they have, therefore, undergone specific social, cultural, and historical gendering processes; and that, in contemporary American culture, such gendering processes play a key role in men’s lives as well as their literary representations. Focusing on masculinity as a specific political and social construction, rather than a universal and immutable entity, the study aims, ultimately, to prove that what was socially formed might be socially and culturally re-formed as well...

Sonnekus, Theo (2009)
. Macho men and the queer imaginary: A critique of selected gay 'colonial' representations of homomasculinity. De Arte, 80: 37-53.
Download Page. PDF Download.    Related to: Sonnekus, Theo (2008). Invisible Queers: Investigating the 'other' Other in gay visual culture. Master's Dissertation, University of Pretoria. PDF Download.
Cowboys and crooks: ‘Real’ men versus racial ‘Others': ... What is troubling about ‘straight-acting’ gay men and the archetypal images that they valorise, is the hierarchy of gender performances that result from positioning homomasculinity at the apex of Western male identity constructs (Clarkson 2006:202; Paglia 1990:14, 15). The admiration of masculine forms of sexual expression may in fact embrace traditional white, patriarchal disdain for, and oppression of, the feminine ‘Other’ (Clarkson 2006:202). In a pair of decisive essays, Geisha of a different kind: Gay Asian men and the gendering of sexuality (2006) and They don’t want to cruise your type: Gay men of colour and the racial politics of exclusion (2007), Chong-suk Han explores the primacy of white, masculine-identified men in queer cultures, along with the marginalisation of gay blacks5 in those same constituencies. In engaging with Han, it appears that the ‘colonial’ aspect in gay culture is at its most explicit with regard to the manner in which gay blacks are conceived of, and represented. Han (2006:9, 10), in following Edward Said, states that the processes of ‘othering’ by which ‘the Orient’ was created in the Western imagination, hinged not only on notions of mystique and romanticism, but were also politically driven in terms of establishing the superiority of the West against all that is represented by the East. Moreover, the supposed dominance of Western powers ‘took on a distinctively gendered tone’ in which the male Asian body figured prominently as ‘feminine’ – a feature common amongst the emasculating, colonial images of African men as well (Han 2006:10; Pieterse 1992:128). Han (2006:13, 17) therefore argues that the historical ‘feminisation’ of the East is rearticulated in the construction of the gendered identities of gay Asian men as the ‘feminine’ counterparts of ‘masculine’ gay white men. Since images of white gay men are privileged in mainstream gay visual cultures, while images of gay blacks are practically non-existent (Reddy 1998:68; Sonnekus and Van Eeden 2009:92), the domain in which the gender divides between black and white subjects are the most visible is pornography (Han 2007:52). This evidently points toward the problem of the conditional acceptance and inclusion of blacks in gay culture and media: gay blacks seemingly appear solely as fetishised objects for the pleasure of white gay men, but are practically ‘invisible’ beyond the realms of sexual commodification (Han 2006:25; Chasin 2000a:158). The manner in which gay blacks are differently represented from white men in hardcore pornography also reveals that the gender hierarchy present in gay culture is apparently inescapable. Han (2006:16, 17), for example, observes that in print pornography ‘white men are often shown full-frontal, while Asian men are shown mostly from the back … it is the white male cock (manhood) that is desireable as opposed to the Asian male, whose most desireable attribute is his ass (womanhood)’. Consequently, it is again the white man who epitomises homomasculinity, in a traditionally patriarchal, colonial vocabulary, by performing his sexual prowess as active and dominant through the penetration and ‘conquering’ of the passive, inferior and feminised, but not necessarily female, ‘Other’ (Boone 1995:92; Radel 2001:54; Lahti 1998:198). The coloniser/colonised dichotomy is reinstated in gay culture through the images and practices that attribute gendered and racial identities to black ‘Others’, because those same identity positions, as applied to white men, are mostly propagated as hierarchically superior. Thus, whereas the image of the cowboy, for example, represents a romantic, masculine ideal that may improve the self-image of white gay men, the image of the submissive, frail ‘geisha’ devalues the gay Asian male body (Han 2006:21). From a psychosocial point of view, Han (2006:22) shares Frantz Fanon’s notion that stereotypes of ‘otherness’, produced by white cultures, are internalised and performed by blacks themselves (Hall 1996:16). Han (2006:18) observes that in contemporary queer communities and interactions amongst gay men, the feminisation of gay Asian men appears to be so ingrained that relationships between them are contemptuously defined as ‘lesbianism’ by other gay Asians who prefer white partners. In view of this, Han (2007:62) argues that some gay blacks also internalise the supposed primacy of white masculinity and the aesthetics or physical ‘ideals’ that accompany it, since they are more likely to explicitly exclude ‘blacks’, even more so than gay white men, when seeking out companionship. The ubiquity and veneration of images of white men in the gay media therefore have further detrimental effects for gay blacks who also value race-biased, Westernised notions of  ‘beauty’ or desirability (Han 2006:22). This is evident in the manner in which gay blacks prefer white partners, and are selectively racist with regard to the notion of blacks as unbefitting sexual partners (Han 2007:60). By placing white masculinity on a pedestal, gay blacks are not only re-inscribing white supremacy, but are also left with feelings of inadequacy because of not measuring up to the Eurocentric standards of physical beauty that manifest in gay visual cultures (Han 2006:23).

Dang A, Hu M (2004). Asian Pacific American lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people: A community portrait.
New York: National Gay & Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute. General Information & Download Links. PDF Download: Full Report PDF Download. Alain Dang.

Dang A, Vianney C (2007). Living in the margins: A national survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Asian and Pacific Islander Americans. New York: National Gay & Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute. General Information & Download Links. Executive Summary. PDF Download: Full Report. Alain Dang.

Lee, Byron King Hin (2007). Reading GAM in craigslist personal ads: Constructing gay Asian males during the negotiation of anal intercourse. Essay, Dept. of Women's Studies, Simon Fraser University.
PDF Download. Download Page.

Sagara, Reid T (2006). ‘Bitch, I’m not one of you, and you’ve made that perfectly clear’: Gay Asian Male (GAM) Identities/Bodies in the Gay White Supremacist Imagination. Paper presented at the  50th Annual  Midwest Modern Language Association Convention, 2006. Abstract.
Abstract: My paper interrogates the discursive construction of Gay Asian Male (GAM) identities and bodies on the popular website  This discursive construction is interesting for several related reasons.  First, GAM bodies and identities are produced/maintained hypertextually; as such, these bodies and identities are textualized through digitally mediated representations and readings, thus calling attention to the politics of representation and to the complexities of “reading” these non-material bodies.  Second, the range of possible Asian identities is collapsed into a pan-Asian Asian identity, a common colonizing practice that renders invisible the differences across Asian groups and that recalls the racist assertion that “All Asians look (and are) alike.”  Third, and perhaps most importantly, the implications of this discursive construction of GAM identities and bodies challenge the commonly articulated communitarian rhetoric of “gay community,” which is neither inclusive nor universal and which is predicated on an a priori gay white male identity.  My reading of the website focuses on the structural elements that delimit and sometimes exemplify the discourses under scrutiny, the banner advertisements that peripherally contribute to the discourses on the website, and the participant-produced discourses in the personal profiles and chatroom spaces.

Gay and Lesbian Asian-Americans Struggle to Find Acceptance in Conservative Congregations. - Katelyn Jacobson.
On Thursday, May 15, the Lionel Cantú GLBTI Center screened “In God’s Eyes,” a short documentary that chronicles a similar struggle within the Asian-American queer community, and two families who came to grips with reconciling the church children with their gay children... “For me as a gay man, if I wanted to come out to my Chinese grandparents, they would have little comprehension about what I meant,” Tai explained. “My grandparents equate homosexuality with prostitution, and there is no way that they would ever get it. I don’t want to just confuse them and break their hearts.” ... “I kind of wish that it dealt with more of the differences between Asian churches and non-Asian churches,” said third-year Chaclyn Hunt, a member of FEAST. “And it was really short — one minute the parents were crying, and then they had accepted her, just like that. I think it could have shown more of what people go through.” After the Chi family accepted their daughter, they found themselves alone in a sea of rejection from their own congregation, and struggled to find an Asian church anywhere that would support their daughter’s sexual orientation... “It’s important to recognize that there are Asian-American churches that are affirming of queer people,” Tai said. “The diversity within the Asian-American community is extensive and includes those who are very affirming, who are very open-minded, and the stereotype of Asian-Americans being more closed to this issue does not always hold true.”

Shek, Yen Ling (2005). The relationship of racial identity and gender-role conflict to self-esteem of Asian American undergraduate men. Thesis. Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park. PDF Download.

Shek, Yen Ling (2006). Asian American Masculinity: A review of the literature. The Journal of Men's Studies, 14(3): 379-391. Abstract. Excerpt.. With free acess courtesy of your local library.


The Journal of Men's Studies Article Access.

Fung, Richard (1991). Looking for my Penis. In: Bad Object-choices (Eds). How Do I Look? Queer Film & Video, 145-168. Seattle: Bay Press. Full Text.

Kumashiro KK (1999). Supplementing normalcy and otherness: Queer Asian American men reflect on stereotypes, identity, and oppression. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 12(5): 491-508. Download Page.

Mao, Limin (2002). Gay and Caucasian Men in Sidney: Cultural, Social and Cognitive Factors Associated With Sexual Practices. PhD. Dissertation. The University of New South Wales, Australia. PDF Download.

Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai (2005). A Missing Voice: Asians in Contemporary Gay and Lesbian Social Service Literature. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 17(3): 87-106. Abstract.
Abstract:  Contemporary gay and lesbian social service literature still heavily focuses on White middle/upper-class issues and uses an isolated and fixed concept of homosexuality. As a result, the discourse has only a limited applicability to people with “dual” or “multiple” identities, accentuating the power of those who control the discourse and the oppression of those with “dual” or “multiple” identities. Using Asians as a case example, I argue that the lack of published articles about Asians in contemporary gay and lesbian social service literature is the result of the different worldviews of Asian and White queers. However, this deficiency is sustained by social structures that are saturated with White middle/upper-class values. Implications of this situation and some directions for social change are discussed.  

Chang S, Apostle D (2008). Recommendations from the AGMC Conference, 2004. Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 4(1): 56-60. PDF.

The barriers that many culturally and linguistically diverse GLBTIQ people face are significant. They are often shunned by their own families and communities; only then to discover that racism and intolerance is often as rampant within the gay and lesbian community as it is within the broader community. Unfortunately there are very few avenues of support and understanding for people living these experiences. However, in Australia over the past decade or so, a number of culturally based GLBTIQ groups have formed of their own accord. In Victoria alone there are now at least 20 groups representing over 34 cultures. These groups have traditionally formed to provide social support to GLBTIQ people living with the often unique issues of coming from a diverse cultural background. These groups provide an important ongoing support and developmental role within the gay and lesbian community...

Raj, Senthorun (2011). Grindring Bodies: Racial and Affective Economies of Online Queer Desire. Critical Race and Whiteness Studies, 7(2). Download Page. PDF.

Online technologies provide new participatory spaces for gay men to organise sexual and intimate encounters. While these spaces are often characterised as enabling new forms of sexual subjectivity and queer sociability, they also mobilise new sexual templates or rules around discourses of whiteness and cultural otherness. Using Foucaultian concepts of subjectivity and disciplinarity in conjunction with Sara Ahmed’s (2006) concepts of racialised affects, labour and performativity, this paper traces the ways in which Grindr, a social networking iPhone application for same-sex attracted men, shapes and regulates intimacies and sexual subjectivities. It is suggested that whilst Grindr provides a forum for users to engage in new forms of pleasure and erotics, the encounters between bodies are marked by profiles and conversations which filter and govern intimacy through disciplinary norms around race, masculinity, whiteness, physical aesthetics and geography. Whiteness, in particular, becomes a privileged form desiring capital, enabling bodies that ‘pass’ as ‘White’, while marking out bodies which do not. Racial ‘others’ become produced in this economy of desire as fetishes or repugnant objects. Exploring the construction of multiple sexual subjectivities through an autoethnographic lens, I que(e)ry the transformative and liberatory potential of Grindr by critiquing the intimate relationship between sexuality, desire and race in the context of gay male social networking.

Diehl HA (2004)
. Beyond The Silk Road: Staging a queer Asian America in Chay Yew's Procelain. Studies in the Literary Imagination, 37(1). Full Text.

Excerpt: Still, Porcelain is not "about" John Lee's guilt or innocence any more than it is "about" how he, as a subaltern, cannot speak. Such banal and simple-minded interpretations fail to do justice to what is, at its core, a nuanced and incisive critique of racial homophobia and Queer racism. Early in the play, John Lee hints at this central thematic concern when he insists, "Tell me what you see, Dr. Worthing" (43). Another scene in the play ends with John Lee's asking Dr. Worthing, "What do you see me as?" Then, the very next scene begins with the other voices chanting a mantra of pejoratives directed at John Lee (38-39). Silenced within the dominant culture, ignored within gay communities, and ostracized within his Asian family, John Lee ultimately reveals the ways in which gay Asian American masculinities are, in contemporary American culture, overdetermined by deeply entrenched cultural narratives that shape and are shaped by systemic regimes of Queer racism and racial homophobia. Within this context, silence must necessarily be a prerequisite for John Lee's life and dramatic narrative. His story (i.e., the story of being gay and Asian American) can never be revealed/told because that story will always and only be inflected through cultural narratives that render his identity pathological-if that identity is rendered tangible at all-that render his affections violent, and that render his voice silent.

Gilbert Caluya (2006). The (Gay) Scene of Racism: Face, Shame and Gay Asian Males. Australian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies e-journal, 2(2): n.p. Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page.
Abstract: As adept as we have become in tracing the discursive and institutional contours of contemporary Australian racisms, such a focus sometimes shifts attention away from the ‘lived experience’ of racism, in Fanon’s sense. What does it mean to face racism? What does it mean for gay Asian men to face racism on the gay scene? How is it possible to face racism? Indeed, do we face racism or does racism ‘face’ us? Drawing on autoethnographic research, this essay focuses on the lived experience of anti-Asian racism on the gay scene. It analyses cultural examples of racial wounding on the gay scene to tease out the constitutive role of shame for gay Asian men’s racial-sexual subjectivities.

Han, Alan (2006). I Think You're the Smartest Race I've Ever Met: Racialised Economies of Queer Desire. Australian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies e-journal, 2(2): n.p. Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page.

This paper explores how queer white men become both the desiring subjects and desirable objects of the queer male gaze. By analysing the personal experiences of queer Asian men, this paper argues that queer white men claim possession of desire as capital through racialised economies of queer male desire. These economies privilege queer white men by racialising queer Asian men and other non-white queer men, and ascribes them desirability according to the queer white male gaze. By racialising nonwhite queer men, queer white men’s whiteness is unracialised, and so, conceals their possession of desire as a white possession. I argue that it is only by exploring how queer white men claim possession of desire as capital within these racialised economies of queer male desire, that we can consider how they dominate the queer male gaze.

Australian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies e-journal, Volume 2, Number 2:

Special Issue: Queer Race. Edited by Damien W. Riggs. Editorial: PDF Download. Download Page.


Donna McCormack: 'Dreaming Across the Sea': Queer Postcolonial Belonging in Shani Mootoo's Novels. Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page.

Gilbert Caluya: The (Gay) Scene of Racism: Face, Shame, and Gay Asian Males
Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page.

Elaine Laforteza: What a Drag! Filipina/White Australian Relations in The Adventures of Priscilla Queen of the Desert.
Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page.

Alan Han: I Think You're the Smartest Race I've Ever Met: Racialised Economies of Queer Desire.
Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page

Nicholas Birns: 'The Earth's Revenge': Nature, Diaspora, and Transfeminism in Larissa Lai's Salt Fish Girl. Abstract. PDF Download. Download Page.

Acknowledgments PDF Download.
Download Page.

Chang S, Apostle D (2008). Recommendations from the AGMC Conference, 2004. Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 4(1): 56-60. PDF. Download Page.

The barriers that many culturally and linguistically diverse GLBTIQ people face are significant. They are often shunned by their own families and communities; only then to discover that racism and intolerance is often as rampant within the gay and lesbian community as it is within the broader community. Unfortunately there are very few avenues of support and understanding for people living these experiences. However, in Australia over the past decade or so, a number of culturally based GLBTIQ groups have formed of their own accord. In Victoria alone there are now at least 20 groups representing over 34 cultures. These groups have traditionally formed to provide social support to GLBTIQ people living with the often unique issues of coming from a diverse cultural background. These groups provide an important ongoing support and developmental role within the gay and lesbian community...

Jackson PA (2000). That's What Rice Queens Study!' White Gay Desire and Representing Asian Homosexualities. Journal of Australian Studies, 65 (June 2000): 181-88. Full Text. PDF Download.

Kee, Joan (1999). (Re)sexualizing the Desexualized Asian Male in the Works of Ken Chu and Michael Joo. JOUVERT: journal of postcolonial studies, 2(1). Full Text. Download Page.

Williams, Vikki (2002). Representations in the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual & transgendered Community Media [Online, Composite ], Deans Off. Educ. Lang & CommServ, Melbourne, Vic, Austalia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Excerpt: The gay community is as diverse as the mainstream community, yet, as in the mainstream community, this diversity has never been presented within its media. Traditionally, pictorial images in gay newspapers have mostly been of young, good looking, white men. Many of these images have been overtly sexual and have celebrated the male ‘body beautiful’. The second most commonly found image is of drag queens. As these two image types do not encompass the entire community, other community members, such as lesbians, disabled people, older men and men from non-Anglo-Saxon backgrounds have been under-represented and marginalised. As the gay community has sought to define itself and become more accepting of its diversity, the sub-culture has undergone a series of changes in an attempt to become more inclusive. This is reflected in the current name - the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered community or GLBT for short. Anecdotal evidence seems to suggest that whilst individual community members may be more aware and accepting of the community’s diversity, the images presented within the GLBT community media do not reflect these changes in attitude. Nor are these changes necessarily reflected in publications of various community organisations...

Poon Mk-L, Ho PT-T (2008). Negotiating Social Stigma Among Gay Asian Men. Sexualities, 11(1/2): 245-268. Abstract.

Poon Mk-L, Sin R. (2008). “Without power analysis, there won’t be equality”: Interrogating the idea of love in Asian/Caucasian gay relationships. Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 4 (3): 198-200. Full Text. Download Page.

In his article “‘Without love, there won’t be us’: A narrative of a GAM-GWM couple”, Budiadi Sudarto attempts to debunk the stereotype that Asian/Caucasian gay relationships are predicated on racial oppression and marginalisation. What bounds these couples together, Sudarto argues, is not race, but “romantic love,” “emotional attachment” and “desire to be together for the long haul” (2008, p. 30). Thus for Sudarto, race no longer matters in this type of relationship. Here we argue that Sudarto’s article does not provide a critical intervention to challenge the negative stereotype of Asian/Caucasian gay relationships as he claims but, rather, reproduces the neo-liberal ideology that maintains the cultural hegemony of whiteness in contemporary Western societies...

Sudarto, Budiadi (2008). ‘Without Love, There Won’t be Us’: A Narrative of a GAM – GWM Couple. Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 4(1): 23-34. PDF Download. Download Page.

Poon Mk-L, Ho PT-T (2006). The discourse of oppression in contemporary gay Asian diasporal literature: liberation or limitation? Sexuality & Culture, 10(3): 28-58. Abstract.

Poon Mk-L, Ho PT, Wong JP, Wong G, Lee R (2005). Psychosocial Experiences of East and Southeast Asian men who use gay Internet chatrooms in Toronto: an implication for HIV/AIDS prevention. Ethnicity and Health, 10(2): 145-167. Abstract. Full Text.

Unfriendly remarks were also commonly made by some participants toward other gay Asian men in an attempt to distance themselves from the racist stereotypes: ‘Most Asian [gay men] act like sissies going to molly maid camp . . . All they wanna look like is cute, docile and effeminate’ (a 23-year-old participant). Unsurprisingly, within this social context, some participants internalized negative feelings about themselves and other gay Asian men: "I don’t find myself very excited about chatting with someone who’s Asian ’cuz I don’t want to date anyone Asian. I live the stereotype that I hate. It’s very weird but that’s the way it is . . . you want the truth. That is the truth. But even if I am a stereotype or not, I don’t think people online [or offline] give you a chance . . . I have some self-esteem problems mainly due to the Caucasian gay crowd. (A 19-year-old participant)...

Poon Mk-L, Ho PT-T (2002). A Qualitative Analysis of Cultural and Social Vulnerabilities to HIV Infection Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Asian Youth. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 14(3): 43-78. Abstract. Full Text.

Ward, Jane  (2008). Dude-Sex: White Masculinities and `Authentic' Heterosexuality Among Dudes Who Have Sex With Dudes. Sexualities, 11: 414-434. 

I argue that in a culture constituted by both a racial and sexual binary, whiteness and heterosexuality are `natural' bedfellows that simultaneously signify the `really, really normal' subject.

Hibbins, Ray (2005)
. Migration and gender identity among Chinese skilled male migrants to Australia. Geoforum, 36(2): 167-180.

From Abstract: ...These Chinese skilled male migrants displayed qualities of hegemonic masculinity in their households where traditional Chinese division of labour persisted. The markers of masculinity included: centrality of work and education; being a successful provider and protector; the accumulation of wealth and power. Unlike local hegemonic variants of masculinity these males placed little emphasis on sport, sexual prowess and performance and alcohol consumption. There were no ambitions among this sample of males to model local variants of masculinities, however gay males in the sample while experiencing marginalisation, racism and homophobic behaviour at the hands of local hegemonically masculine males, were more like the local dominant males in terms of an emphasis on sexual performance and preferences for well-muscled and fit bodies. Gay males in the Chinese sample found it necessary to restrict their social circles and physical locales. This Australian study has demonstrated the importance of the cultural sensitivity of concepts in doing comparative studies, and of considering sexuality as a dimension of identity in migration research that seems to assume a heteronormativity in its samples.

Drummond MJN (2005). Asian Gay Men's Bodies. Journal of Men's Studies, 13(3): 291-300. Excerpt. Excerpt. Full Text.

Ayres, Tony (2000). Sexual Identity and Cultural Identity: A Crash Course. In Helen Gilbert, Tseen Khoo and Jacqueline Lo (eds), Diaspora: Negotiating Asian Australia: Journal of Australian Studies no 65, St Lucia, UQP, 2000. Full Text. PDF Download.

Until recently, my desire has always been exclusively for whiteness. The handsome white men at the top of the sexual pecking order. The men in the porno movies and the ads for resort weekends in Palm Springs. Those ubiquitous shirtless men in the social pages. I’ve empowered these men with the tyranny of my longing just as they have disempowered me with their disinterest — perhaps this can be traced to the teenager poring over the social pages of Australian Gay. Or that first crush I had on the basketball star at high-school. Or maybe it was inherited from my mother who brought us to this country with the hope of becoming a part of the White Australian Dream, not realising that this dream only knew itself by excluding us.

Nguyen, Hoang Tan (2006). Reflections on an Asian Bottom: Gay Asian American Masculinity and Sexual Representation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, Oct 12, 2006. Abstract.

Abstract: This paper examines the alleged deformation of Asian American masculinity through a queer Asian American critical perspective. Juxtaposing Richard Dyer’s contention that gay male culture remains invested in “topness” alongside Frank Chin and his cohorts’ argument that white mainstream culture allots to all Asian men a seat at the “bottom,” I propose for gay Asian American subjects to strategically take up their assignment of “bottomhood” as a incisive critique of white hetero- and homo-masculinities as well as a challenge against the recuperation of a damaged heterosexual Asian American masculinity. Displacing the unhelpful binary of emasculation and remasculinization frequently mobilized in critical discussions of Asian American masculinity, I am interested in developing a theory of Asian bottomhood that disrupts the automatic alignment of bottomhood with “oriental” passivity and abjection...

Forever Bottom (Short Film) - Nguyen, Tan Hoang  1999  4 min.  USA. Wikipedia: Nguyen Tan Hoang.

A clever look at the stigma attached to being on the receiving end in gay male relationships. In a "psuedo-instructional" videotape, Hoang embraces the desires of full, unrepentant bottomhood, showing the independence and gratification of being the bottom. Forever Bottom! takes a humorous take on the insatiable appetite of an Asian male Bottom, posing a challenge and an invitation--aggressive, unapologetic, and ubiquitous--without revealing too much!

Planet Out: This video takes a humorous look at the insatiable sexual appetite of an Asian male Bottom. He seeks to reclaim the sexual authority and public space usually monopolized by the Top and refocuses attention on the unending pleasures of Bottomhood.

Nguyen Tan Hoang: a gay Vietnamese American video artist and academic. Nguyen's own research interests include Asian American masculinity in gay male video porn and Hollywood and international cinemas. - Nguyen Tan Hoang: Pirating the Popular Culture: Video artist Nguyen Tan Hoang spoke and showed eight of his experimental short films at Vassar yesterday. His works are ranging from four to eighteen minutes addressing various topics such as gay Asian American, Vietnamese pop cultures, and sex stereotype of Asian male in mainstream America media. Hoang received his Studio Art’s MFA at the UC Irvine, and is working on his PhD in Rhetoric/Film Studies at UC Berkeley... The video starts off with clips of fleeing boat people then progresses into homosexual pirates. Even though the piece relates to the Vietnamese people, he hesitates to show it to them because he concerns about the homosexual context..."- Pirated: Using a nonlinear "pirated television" editing technique the filmmaker recounts his escape from Vietnam as a child complete with capture by pirates and rescue by West German sailors and reveals the impact events played in developing his sexual identity. A film by Nguyen Tan Hoang. 2000. 11 min. - Short Bio: "His critical essay, "The Resurrection of Brandon Lee: The Making of a Gay Asian American Porn Star," will appear in the anthology Porn Studies (Linda Williams, Editor), from Duke University Press in 2004." - Some information about Bradon Lee: 1, 2.

Han, Chong-suk (2008). A qualitative study of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian and Pacific Islander gay men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(5): 827-837. Abstract.

In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group... In this article, I suggest that the high levels of racism experienced by gay API men may lead to unsafe sexual behaviors by leading gay API men to prefer white sexual partners who are seen as being in short supply. As such, gay API men compete for the sexual favors of white men, seeing them as ‘‘prizes’’ for playing by the ‘‘rules’’ of gay expectations. It is this competition for white male companionship, facilitated by the marginalization of gayAPImen in the larger gay community, that ultimately placewhitemen in a dominant position in sexual negotiations, leading gay API men to take sexual risks to win their favor...

Han, Chong-suk (2008). Sexy like a Girl and Horny like a Boy: Contemporary Gay ‘Western’ Narratives about Gay Asian Men
. Critical Sociology, 34(6): 829-850. Abstract.

Using critical discourse analysis, this article   analyzes the coverage in 'mainstream' gay magazines and argues that 'gay' publications have marginalized gay Asian men by simply ignoring their existence or   employing existing stereotypes about Asian men in general, thereby, maintaining 'gay' as largely a 'white' category and relegating gay Asian men to the margins of   the gay 'community'... Looking at gay media, it is evidently clear that the strategy deployed by gay publications to maintain white male privilege is one of exclusion. Asian men, and other men of color, rarely appear as subjects of a story and are rarely represented as contributors to the debates. As such, gay print media often speaks only to white men. Advertising that ‘targets’ the gay community is often no better. Ads that feature white men seem to be marketing to them, while ads that feature Asian men seem to be marketing them as commodities. The invisibility of Asian men in gay media is most evident between the pages of The Advocate, the largest gay and lesbian news magazine in the USA...

Han, Chong-suk  (2008). No fats, femmes, or Asians: the utility of critical race theory in examining the role of gay stock stories in the marginalization of gay Asian men. Contemporary Justice Review, 11(1): 11-22. Abstract.

Han, Chong-suk (2005). Gay Asian-American male seeks home. The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide, 12(5): 35-36. Full Text.

The situation for gay men of Asian descent in the U.S. has been are intimately tied to the same processes that led non-gay Asian men to be racialized and marginalized by mainstream society. While straight men have been able to function within the growing Asian-American community, gay Asian men continue to be marginalized both by the dominant society and by the Asian communities. If anything, they've been rendered even more invisible by a new cultural formation that stresses "family values" while it perpetuates the image of Asians as "America's model minority"--an image that denies the very existence of gay Asian-Americans. Studies on gender and sexuality have largely ignored racial minorities in their discussions. Given this invisibility, it is not surprising that so little has been written about the process of identity formation for gay Asian men. What is known about gay Asian-American men has come from the small but growing number of literary and artistic works produced by gay Asian men, as well as the literature on HIV/AIDS in the Asian-American community...

Han, Chong-suk (2006). Geisha of a different kind: Gay Asian men and the gendering of sexual identity. Sexuality & Culture, 10(3): 3-28. Abstract.

Han, Chong-suk (2006). They Don’t Want To Cruise Your Type: Gay Men of Color and the Racial Politics of Exclusion. Social Identities, 13(1): 51-67. PDF Download.

Wang A (2000). Asian and White Boys' Competing Discourses about Masculinity: Implications for Secondary Education. Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 25(2): 113-125. PDF Download. Download Page.

Pon G (2000). The Art of War or The Wedding Banquet? Asian Canadians, Masculinity, and Antiracism Education. Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 25(2): 139-151. PDF Download. Download Page.

Moore C (1998). Behaving Outrageously: Contemporary Gay Masculinity. .Journal of Australian Studies 56: 158-168. PDF Download.

Proschan, Frank (2002). Eunuch Mandarins, Soldats Mamzelles, Effeminate Boys, and Graceless Women: French Colonial Constructions of Vietnamese Genders. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 8(4): 435-467. Page 1.

Xiaojing, Zhou (2002). Denaturalizing Identities, Decolonizing Desire: Videos by Richard Fung and Ming-Yuen S. Ma. Jouvert, 3(2). Full Text.

Both Fung and Ma re-articulate Asian American homosexuality in the contexts of immigration, colonial history, and Chinese diaspora. Investigating the mutually constituent categories of race, gender, nationality, and sexuality, they expose the simultaneous construction of "Otherness" and "whiteness" in a binary paradigm embedded in power relations... In articulating Asian American homosexuality, Fung and Ma undermine the raced and gendered national identity inscribed in phallocentric heterosexual rhetoric that constructs white men as the norm of "masculinity" and sexuality. Such identity constructs, Edward Said has argued in Orientalism, are overdetermined by power relations. Asian Americans' gendered identity and subordinate position are produced in the formation of American and Canadian national identities which are grounded in the ideologies of white supremacy and masculine domination. In 1899, Theodore Roosevelt justified U.S. imperialist interventions in the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Cuba on the basis that European Americans were of a "stronger and more manful race" than the native poeple of these territories (13:328). For Roosevelt, manliness assumes the capacity for self-government and self-defense, which were "essential virtues" of European Americans (13:446). Naturalized as such, European American manhood became the norm, against which Chinese and Chinese Americans were marked as the opposite examples. Roosevelt claimed that the Chinese naturally lacked "manly and adventurous qualities" (13:322).[4] ...

Dong, Lan (2004). Diverse Identities in Interracial Relationships: A Multiethnic Interpretation of Mississippi Masala and The Wedding Banquet. Xchanges, 4(1). Full Text. Download Page.

As a controversial feature film, As a controversial feature film, Mississippi Masala portrays the Asian diaspora's diverse, and at times confused, identity in a multiethnic context through an interracial love affair between two non-Caucasians in the American South in 1990. The narrative focuses on a love story between a Uganda-born Indian woman, Mina (Sarita Choudhury), and an African American man, Demetrius (Denzel Washington), as well as on the resulting intolerance and hostility from both ethnic communities. Nair's film not only complicates the binary of black and white but also challenges the notion of monolithic national and ethnic belonging.... At the opening of the film narrative, different ethnic groups lead a peaceful life as minorities in the American south. "Black, brown, yellow, Mexican, Puerto Rican – all the same," as Mina's relative, uncle Jammubhai (Anjan Srivastava) claims, "as long as you're not white, means you are colored." "United we stand. Divided we fall." As the plot develops in the film, the tension between the two ethnic communities is intensified by Mina and Demetrius's love affair. Mina's parents' absolute objection represents "the ultimate fear" of miscegenation among many Asian parents, "especially if the 'outsider' is other than white" (Fung 168). In the context of a usually repressed taboo in Asian American films, the passion between the leading characters Mina and Demetrius highlights the under-represented theme of interracial sexuality among the minorities...

The Wedding Banquet's polyglot nature as a particular device to represent the issue of the Asian diaspora's identity as a mixture. Director Ang Lee has admitted his keen concern about identity that he was exploring in the film: "I'm a mixture of many things and a confusion of many things ... I'm a sort of foreigner everywhere. It's hard to find real identity" (quoted in Berry 1993, 54). Structured as a bittersweet family drama, The Wedding Banquet also explores notions of queerness in the triangulated relationship of two men and a woman in a transnational context... Through feminizing the Caucasian partner in the interracial gay relationship, Lee depicts Wai-Tung as a counter image of the usually effeminate Asian male in early American media [3]. In this sense, the film challenges the stereotypical cinematic image of the Asian male. Simon's femininity, symbolized by cooking, housekeeping, and taking care of Wai-Tung, helps to establish the representation of Wai-Tung as a masculine character in the gay relationship.

Halberstam, Judith (2005). Shame and white gay masculinity. Social Text, 23(3-4): 219-233. Page 1.

Excerpt: At a conference ['Gay Shame" Conference] where disability studies was given a panel all its own (and an excellent panel at that) and the scope of the discussion was supposed to extend beyond the university and into activist and performance communities, the omission of people of color, or at the very least of queers explicitly working on race, was ominous. How do we explain the absence of both a panel on race and sexuality and queer people of color at a major queer studies conference in the year 2003? Is it the case that gay shame is not a rubric that relates to racialization? Has there been no relevant work recently on gay shame and race? Is queer studies white? Is queer activism white? Is race somehow not an important rubric for queer studies? Obviously, the answer to each of these questions is “no”: there has been a huge amount of work recently that foregrounds racial processes and indeed implicates shame in producing queer identities. New books by Rod Ferguson, Robert Reid-Pharr, Juana Rodriguez, Licia Fiol-Matta, and David Eng immediately come to mind, and older work by José Esteban Muñoz, David Roman, and Jacqui Alexander provide the critical backdrop against which and from which this new work emerges.2 Queer work on race has become central to the queer project in academia, and queer studies has moved far beyond readings of canonical white gay male authors and artists by tenured white gay male professors. So why, again, would a major national conference on queer studies include little to no work on queer race by published scholars in the field? I want to answer this question by providing here an expanded version of the paper I gave at the conference and then conclude with a brief summary of a series of skirmishes that developed at the conference around the topic of white gay male hegemony. In the course of this essay, some of my remarks, particularly those directed at white gay men, actually take on the form of shaming itself. While I realize that this performance of shaming is not the best way to dislodge its effects and influence, my argument throughout is that we cannot completely do without shame and that shame can be a powerful tactic in the struggle to make privilege (whiteness, masculinity, wealth) visible...

Zhang J (2006). From Silence to Struggle: A Study on Chinese American Men in Kingston’s China Men. US-China Foreign Language, 4(9): 7-11. PDF Download.

Drummond M (2005). Asian gay men, masculinity and the body. Paper presented at the Moving Masculinities Conference Australian National University Canberra December 2005.

Abstract: Men’s bodies have been increasingly placed under scrutiny in contemporary Western culture to the point where body image issues have become a health concern for males. Indeed, gay males have been identified as presenting a greater risk of body image disturbance than heterosexual males as a consequence of the aesthetically driven gay culture. While there are few services available for gay men with body image concerns there are even fewer available for gay men from non-English speaking cultures. This is a concern for young gay males coming from masculinised cultures in which living up to archetypal heterosexual masculine ideals is a cultural family imperative. Following an initial focus group interview with a cohort of gay men from a variety of cultural backgrounds, individual in-depth interviews with six Asian gay males were conducted and then thematically analysed to identify emergent themes. The research identifies the difficulties Asian gay males face associated with growing up in a highly masculinised culture. ‘Coming out’ to friends and parents, particularly fathers, was fraught with concerns. Consequently the men adopted dual lives, which ultimately negatively impacted their masculine and body identity. This presentation highlights the difficulties associated with being an Asian gay man growing up in Asia, which the men claim to be a ‘hostile masculinised culture’. Further, it emphasises the additional problems that can exist in being an Asian gay man now living in Australia particularly with respect to acceptance, ‘fitting in’ and masculine body identity. Finally, it identifies the virtues of being involved in counselling networks with other Asian gay men to provide the structure and support necessary for health promoting lifestyles, particularly where emotional and mental health are concerned.

Keamy,  Ron 'Kim' (2002). Ian's Story: the complex interaction of ethnicity, class and masculinities. Paper presented at the International Education Research Conference, Brisbane, Australia. Full Text.

Abstract: In this paper, a narrative is used to convey the complex connectedness that exists between class, ethnicity and masculinity. The story is of Ian, a successful academic who describes himself as Eurasian, and traces his development through parts of his childhood and into his professional career, using what Gough describes as a 'realistic fiction'. Relevant literature on masculinities and ethnicity is considered. There is some evidence to suggest that Ian has developed a fluid version of masculinity as a result of his Asian-Australian upbringing, and that he expresses different masculinities according to the social settings in which he finds himself. The paper concludes that masculinity interacts in a complex manner, along with class and ethnicity. This accords with Connell's (1995) caution that it is dangerous to think that there is a colored masculinity or a working class masculinity. The milieux of class and race need to be considered as well.

Themistou T, Wang J, Allan W (2005). Transcending socialised limitations in forming and maintaining intimate relationships in Asian gay men in Australia. Paper presented at the Cultural and Linguistic Diversity (CALD) Conference *Health in Difference". Abstract/Reference. PDF Download.

Abstract: ...Exacerbating this alienation are the impact of norms and attitudes of gay subculture. Asian heritage, and minority status within mainstream Australian society and gay culture, impose a further set of challenges for Asian gay men. This complex set of influences can negatively impact on the capacity of Asian gay men, living in Australia, to form and maintain intimate relationships with same sex partners. A workshop, during which Asian gay men explored and discussed these ideas, was conducted. By encountering other Asian gay men in a group context, the participants were able to attain insight into the socialisation factors that potentially negatively impacted on their capacity for intimacy. This encounter group provided the participants with the opportunity to normalise their own experiences and created potential to transcend impediments to functioning in intimate relationships with same sex partners.

Kapadia, Ronak (2005). "We're not gay; we're just foreign!": Desi Drags, Disidentifications and Activist Film in New York. Stanford Undergraduate Research Journal. PDF Download.

Abstract: This piece considers a moment of South Asian queer cultural production in the diaspora, specifically the activist film “Julpari” made in New York City. The documentary, produced for the South Asian Lesbian and Gay Association (SALGA) by Khuragai Productions, follows a group of South Asian urban immigrant male drag queens as they build community, practice drag and complicate what it means to be an immigrant and queer in New York City. My work draws on the writings of performance theorist José Esteban Muñoz to consider the disidentificatory tactics these men employ in their everyday lives. Disidentifications elaborates on the quotidian survival strategies minority subjects use in order to navigate mainstream white and gay culture. Through an analysis of films, scholars can analyze how questions of belonging and desire are complicated for queer immigrant subjects who must consider how their non-normative desire and practices are imbricated with their identities as diasporic national subjects.

Phua VC (2007)Contesting and Maintaining Hegemonic Masculinities: Gay Asian American Men in Mate Selection. Sex Roles, 57(11/12): 909-918. Abstract.

Abstract: The model minority stereotype depicts Asian Americans as a group that has succeeded in America and overcome discrimination through its hard work, intelligence, and emphasis on education and achievement - a modern-day confirmation of the American Dream. A large body of work by Asian critical scholars condemns this image and charges that it conceals more sinister beliefs about Asian Americans and other racial minorities in America. Is this critique correct? Does the model minority stereotype really mask hostility toward Asian Americans or breed contempt for other minorities? This article presents the results of an empirical study into the model minority stereotype. Using 1990, 1994, and 2000 General Social Survey data...

Han, Chong-suk Han (2008). Asian Girls Are Prettier: Gendered Presentations as Stigma Management among Gay Asian Men. Symbolic Interaction, 32(2): 106-122. Abstract.

Despite the well-documented cases of racism toward gay Asian men in the gay community, there is currently little research on how gay Asian men manage racial stigma. In this article, I examine the racial stigma management strategies of gay Asian men...

McGowan MO, Lindgren JT (2003)
. Untangling the Myth of the Model Minority. Minnesota Public Law Research Paper No. 03-8; Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 03-10. Available at SSRN: - or DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.420600

Chen, Anthony S (1999). Lives at the Center of the Periphery, Lives at the Periphery of the Center: Chinese American Masculinities and Bargaining with Hegemony. Gender and Society, 13(5): 584-607. Abstract & First Page.

Excerpt: But it is also essential to note that nearly all of the stereotypes are founded against images of hegemonic masculinity and portray Chinese American men by turns as "unworthy, incomplete, or inferior"(Goffman 1963, 128). Schematically speaking, they are seen as socially unskilled, grossly unathletic, and sexually unattractive when younger but publicly inhibited and privately despotic when older. Clearly, while the content of stereotypes may change-across the individual life course as well as the history of whole societies-their negative valorization does not. My empirical question thus remains, "How do Chinese American men 'achieve' masculinity in the face of negative stereotypes of them as men?" Put differently, "What gender strategies do Chinese American men adopt to 'achieve' masculinity?" ... According to Nigel, his erstwhile feelings are not uncommon: "An entire [younger] generation of Asian American gay men think they should have a white boyfriend." The attempt to obtain one is a widespread pursuit. He says, "I would say that 90 percent of all the gay Asian men I know in the United States are chasing after white boyfriends." Nigel once did so himself. For his first 10 years here, he spent most of his time "trying to be white, trying to fit in, trying to find a white boyfriend." During his "hazy days of self-loathing," as he calls them, he strove frantically to meet the masculine ideal. The key to dating success was "to be big," which is to say, having "a young white man's body." And so Nigel and his friends worked out constantly, even though "Asians have smaller bones and don't put on muscles in the same way." ... Slightly modifying her concept, I argue that a Chinese American man enters into a hegemonic bargain when his gender strategy involves trading on (or benefiting from) the advantages conferred by his race, gender, sexuality, class, accent, and/or generational status to achieve "unblushing" manhood. This bargain is possible because Chinese American men occupy a variety of positions in the social order, enabling them to deploy their given social advantages, whatever they may be, for the purposes of bolstering their masculinity. When a Chinese American man is located at the dominant end of at least one social hierarchy-whether it be race, class, sexuality, or generational status - he is in a position to strike a hegemonic bargain... Not all of the gender strategies evident in the life histories necessarily lead to a hegemonic bargain; some illustrate the potential to refuse it. Nigel once chose to compensate. Pining constantly after white men, he did everything in his power to make himself more attractive to them. After 10 years of trying to assimilate, he finally found limited acceptance in the white gay community. But the acceptance felt empty and hollow... All of the men I interviewed were honest and well intentioned. All of them struggled valiantly against racial prejudice. But in their own personal struggles against racism, in their struggles to fight off negative stereotypes about Asian American men, some of them may have inadvertently reproduced those stereotypes and given succor to certain views on masculinity that made those racial stereotypes possible.

Robinson, Russell K (2008). Structural Dimensions of Romantic Preferences. Fordham Law Review, 76: 2787-2819. Abstract & Link to Full Text.

Abstract Excerpt: ... Our celebrations should be tempered by the awareness that race structures even our most intimate relationships. Although two people have crossed racial lines and may have even committed to spending their lives together, we cannot easily conclude that they have transcended race... This essay allows me to extend the analysis from three of my prior publications and explore their intersections. First, I consider whether a proposal I made regarding expressions of racial preference in casting advertisements might be applied to such preferences in the online dating context. Second, I extend to the romantic arena a phenomenon that I identified as "perceptual segregation," previously examined primarily in the workplace. Third, I have previously argued that, in predominantly white and gay romantic marketplaces, men of color face pressure to conform to certain racialized sex roles, such as the "aggressive black top" and the "submissive Asian bottom." In the final part of this essay, I present an empirical study of online dating trends that tests this argument.

Excerpt: ... My second main point is that race structures our relationships, even when we think we have transcended it. Race may determine how power is allocated and exercised in interracial relationships. Racial privilege does not vanish simply because two people have committed to a relationship or marriage. It may continue to be a third member of the partnership, present in the bedroom and the relationship more generally, even if it is cloaked by norms of colorblindness... When race is not frankly engaged in relationships, the white partner and the black partner might have completely distinct experiences. Because the black person is likely to be more race-conscious and more sensitive to potential racial slights, she may be engaged in a constant racial negotiation. The white partner, by contrast, may be oblivious to these dynamics and attest that they enjoy a colorblind relationship. Meanwhile, the black partner may be asking: How much racial education should I have to do in this relationship? How many offensive remarks must I let slide? How many experiences with discrimination should I stifle for fear of aggravatingmy partner? At what point does it all become too much? And to the extent that some people of color have a high tolerance for racial humiliation and continue to prefer white people, what does that tell us about the enduring appeal of whiteness, even in communities of color? ... Because of the norm of colorblindness, we cannot expect all people to be frank about their racial preferences when it comes to dating and partnering. Although preliminary analysis showed that a relatively small number of users expressed racial preferences in their profiles, we wanted to learn whether a larger group of men [on] had racial preferences, even if they would not articulate them expressly and might not have even been conscious of them... We created each profile and posted it once by signing on during a Saturday night in the following order in Los Angeles: white top, white bottom, black top, black bottom, Asian top, Asian bottom, Latino top, and Latino bottom... The results of this study produced three main findings. First, as depicted in Figure 1 (next page), the results suggest a racial hierarchy among MSM. The white and Latino profiles received a similar number of e-mails, while the Asian and black profiles received a significantly smaller number. This finding suggests that scholars must be careful when discussing discrimination against people of color in romantic marketplaces. Not all racial minority groups are similarly positioned. The closeness of the results for whites and Latinos is surprising. Although white profiles received four more e-mails than Latino profiles, the difference is not statistically significant... In contrast to blacks and Latinos, sex role did not make a difference for Asians. Although Asians ranked below whites and Latinos, there was no disparity between the Asian top and Asian bottom profiles. Indeed, each drew exactly seventeen e-mails in the entire study. We expected the Asian top profiles to be disadvantaged as much as the black bottom profiles because they are counterstereotypical. Yet, the black top profiles received only a few more e-mails than the Asian top profiles. This finding might suggest that the stereotype of Asian men as feminine is no longer very salient among MSM. At the same time, our Asian top profiles may have been viewed as exceptions to the stereotype. Because the profiles reported the model’s statistics to be five feet nine, 165 pounds, with an eight-inch endowment (statistics that we expected to attract many users), the Asian top profiles may have surmounted the stereotype. A future study could test this by using less attractive statistics, say, five feet five, 120 pounds, and a six inch endowment to determine whether the Asian top profiles incur greater disadvantage than appeared in our study.

Romero,  Victor C (2005). Asians, Gay Marriage, and Immigration: Family Unification at a Crossroads. 15 Indiana International & Comparative Law Journal, 337. Abstract & Link to Full Text.

Abstract Excerpt: ...Aside from burdening the close to 36,000 binational same-gender couples in the nation today, restrictive U.S. immigration policies pose a particular dilemma to APAs who otherwise advocate family unity, yet embrace more traditional notions of the family. That is because traditional conceptions of marriage and the family may wreak havoc on the approximately 16,000 binational couples in which the foreign partner is Asian. APAs who clamor for family-friendly immigration policies but temper their advocacy with tradition create a risk of deportation for thousands of gay and lesbian Asian immigrants with whom they should seek to build coalitions. Advocating a traditional view of family unity thus endangers the immigration status of tens of thousands of Asian gays and lesbians, undermining claims to family unification the APA community has long valued.

Stein, Edward (2008). Born that Way? Not a Choice?: Problems with Biological and Psychological Arguments for Gay Rights. Cardozo Legal Studies Research Paper No. 223.
Abstract & Link to Full Text.

Abstract: Many people, especially legal and political advocates for gay rights, believe that it would be good for gay rights if sexual orientations were innate, inborn, or not chosen. The central legal context for the "born that way" and "not a choice" arguments for gay rights is the immutability factor in equal protection jurisprudence. Although many in the legal academy have argued against the significance of immutability, recently two state supreme courts, as part of denying claims for the legal recognition of same-sex relationships, invoked immutability as a condition for heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause and held that the gay plaintiffs had failed to satisfy this condition. This Article argues that there are serious problems with legal, ethical, and political arguments for gay rights that make use of scientific theories of how sexual orientations develop. On this basis and others, this Article concludes that advocates should avoid biological, psychological, and other scientific arguments for gay rights.


Sexual Racism / Gay Asian Male (GAM) pages. Andy Quan WebSite. - Alternate Link. - Related Letters. - The Fire of Andy Quan: An Interview.

How America Unsexes the Asian Male (1996, David Mura, The New York Times): In fiction, when East meets West, it is almost always a Western man meeting an Asian woman. There is constant reinforcement for the image of the East as feminine and the stereotype of Asian women as exotic, submissive and sensual. From “Madame Butterfly” to the “The Karate Kid”, Part II” and “Miss Saigon,” the white man who falls in love with an Asian woman has been used to proffer the view that racial barriers cannot block the heart’s affections. But such pairings simply place white men at the screen’s center and reinforce a hierarchy of power and sexual attractiveness. They play on the stereotype of the East as feminine. And where does that leave Asian men? A salient feature of the play “M. Butterfly” is that it affirms this feminine view of Asian men. In it, a French diplomat conducts a lengthy love affair with someone he believes is a woman but is actually a Chinese transvestite. The affair proves that Asian manhood is indeed difficult to find, at least for white Westerners. And when the “mistress” strips to a highly buffed and masculine body, it is not just the diplomat who gasps, but the audience as well.

Issues with race create problems in gay culture. - Jesica Feller. “There is so much criticism within the gay community,” says Tiffany Iseman. “We are more critical of each other than outsiders are of us, especially when it comes to Asian male couples.” Iseman explains that there are different levels of stereotypes and racism within the gay community, specifically toward Asian couples and gay Asian men. “Asian couples are called sticky rice, which isn’t as degrading as rice queens, which are Asian drag queens or transgender Asian men,” says Iseman. “Then there are slang phrases for gay men who go after Asian men. But the most widely criticized group within the gay community is Asian men who don’t speak English very well.” ...

Fried Rice: A Failed Attempt at Subverting Sexual Racism: Part I. Part 2 - Jason Tseng. I've been called a lot of things in my life. The standard pejoratives come to mind: faggot, Cocksucker, Chink... Commie chink. Although I took that last one more of a compliment, than anything else. But easily the most painful name came not from the homophobic jock or the drunken frat boy... It came from a lover. It came tangled between bed sheets; heads buzzing with the freedom afforded by alcohol, he whispered softly in my ear, "You're perfect. My perfect little geisha boy." To this day, those words, which I'm sure were intended to make me feel treasured and beautiful, continue to haunt me. Now, I have had my fair share of racially skewed relationships. In fact every substantial romantic relationship I've had has been with a rice queen. I had grown acustom to questions asking where I'm from. Seeing their confused faces after I tell them "Washington D.C.", I have learned to always qualify this with "but my family is from China." I see their disappointment in learning that I don't speak my "native tongue," or that I have never been "back." ...

Jimmy Chen's Gay Asian Confessions: This is the blog of a gay Asian American who moved from San Francisco to Los Angeles in pursuit of a dream: to shatter the glass ceiling in the entertainment industry while evolving into someone extraordinary.

Rainbow Nation and Gay Asian Male Stereotypes. - Ernie Hsiung

Being Asian in a Gay World: Read my Do Asian guys have a chance  thread. Notice how many people bluntly deny the racist attitude toward asian within the gay community. It's racism that noone wants to admit. Why? Because nobody wants to admit being a racist and few want to admit being sexually undesirable. Why? Because in our culture being sexually attractive is everything...

Coming Out: Gay and Lesbian Life in East Asia - BBC, 2000

Cut Sleeve Boys. Writer/Director Ray Yeung.

"...A common misconception of gay Chinese men is that they are all effeminate. Even though I wrote Ash as a very effeminate gay man, I wanted to turn this stereotype on its head. At the end of his journey, we discover it takes a true man to dare to be effeminate. In the modern scene, gay men are restricted by a self imposed ‘straight’ jacket which they feel pressurised to wear. Camp men are at the bottom of the hierarchy in the cruising ground. Is this a form of inverted homophobia? What is the point of coming out of the closet when you cannot be yourself? And what if you are attracted to someone who is as camp as you? Is distressed denim the new rainbow flag? In contrast to Ash’s feminineYing, I created Mel, the masculine Yang. Chinese men are rarely seen as sex symbols in Western media. In Mel’s case, not only is he aware of his sex appeal, he uses it. He is a muscle Mary who fits right into the gay scene. A circuit boy who is so assimilated, he is no longer satisfied with just one party or one lover. But where does a gay man go when the party is over? What if his name is no longer on the guest list?..." Film Review.

Hiding Out - Paul Masterson

Across Milwaukee’s diverse LGBT demographic profile, there’s at least one common thread: closeted men and women. Decades after Stonewall sparked a gay revolution, the phenomenon of closeted LGBT people living in a self-imposed limbo should be a thing of the past. But, for many, nothing has changed. In Wisconsin’s largely rural heartland, the reluctance of people to come out is understandable. Yet, even in progressive urban areas such as Madison and Milwaukee where dozens of LGBT organizations encompass everything from athletics to religion and include youth to seniors, closeted life is alive and well... Asian LGBT persons are particularly mired in the closeted dilemma. Their community is relatively new in Milwaukee and represents a small population. It is further segmented into yet smaller ethnic groups including Vietnamese, Hmong and Korean. None have a tradition of LGBT tolerance. Consequently, the Asian LGBT people are largely closeted. Several interviewed for this article, like “Tommy”, stated they only dated outside their community in order to diminish the risk of being outed. Many feared being ostracized from their closely-knit communities if their orientation were discovered. When interviewed for this article, Chad, who is out, said “as a gay man, other Asian Milwaukeeans avoid me. It may be a self-esteem issue or internalized racism, but definitely they are uncomfortable with an ‘out’ Asian and prefer ‘out’ whites, Latinos, or blacks.”

Wikipedia: Stereotypes of East and Southeast Asians in the United States.

Caught in the Middle: Who Am I? - Min-Je Michael Choi "This is a paper I wrote for my Asian American class (AAS 110), and it's my response to "Who Am I?". My identity. My being (or not?) Korean-American, a Man, and Queer. Enjoy!"

Asian American Stereotypes of Masculinity and Sexuality: An academic perspective on Ang Lee's film "The Wedding Banquet" with a particular emphasis on Asian American male masculinity and sexuality as portrayed in American cinema. - Alerion

Skeleton in gays' closets: Racism Bias investigation at Castro bar opens dialogue about prejudice. - Wyatt Buchanan

They are among the most maligned groups in society, but when it comes to discrimination, many say, gays can give as good as they get... The leading national scholar of racism among gay men calls the situation a catalyst. "People have discussed racism in the community for a long time, but to have such sustained public demonstrations out in the street in the very central part of the Castro -- it's a new moment in the history of the community," said Niels Teunis, an anthropologist and assistant professor of human sexuality studies at San Francisco State University... A 2002 survey of 2,600 gay black men attending pride celebrations, though unscientific in selection, found that 48 percent of respondents thought racism was a problem among white gays. That survey was published by the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute, which in 2004 released the results of a similar survey of 125 mostly gay Asian Americans living on the East Coast. Eighty-two percent of respondents in that sample believed such a problem exists... Entire portions of the gay community define themselves by physical characteristics and create a sub-subculture of bars, barbershops, street festivals and the like to cater to men who look like they do. "In the gay community, you have to have a sexual preference, and that makes it more difficult to talk about race and racism," Teunis said. Wilson Fang, a board member of Gay Asian Pacific Alliance in San Francisco, said he believes those complaining about discrimination at Badlands are being hypersensitive and said he is not bothered if someone is not sexually interested in him because of his race. "Sure it's slightly bothersome, but to suggest an individual is racist because he doesn't have a preference for someone, I don't think that's valid," Fang said. His organization supports the action against Badlands, but with the caveat that "many people in the gay Asian community feel conflicted on the issue of racism," he said...

I don’t have a racist bone in my body - Andy Quan

The gay world, like the straight world, has developed a ranking system of characteristics that are sexually appealing. Along with weight, fitness level, height, masculinity and more, race is considered to be an acceptable factor to take into account. I’d say that Asian guys are at the bottom of the sexual totem pole, but First Nations and aboriginal guys might have an even tougher time. Of course, the reverse is true: there are men who specifically eroticize others on the basis of race. Guys who chase Asian men are called Rice Queens... Just saw your ad on - do you know how it feels to be Asian and read something like "no asians please." Probably not, since you've probably not experienced racism all your life, and again on the gay scene. It reminds you that no matter what you look like, short or tall, square or round jaw, that some people don't want to even look at you because of your race. Even if you feel this way, you don't have to advertise it. You've already said that people have to send you photos. If Asian guys send you a photo, just say "no, not interested" or don't even respond. I'm trying to say this in the nicest way possible, but do you have to slap an Asian guy in the face every time they open your ad. Because that's what you're doing… Change it. I expected either nothing or an aggressive response but instead received the following: thanks for your message mate. It is food for thought and never really thought about it like that. We don't have a racist bone in our bodies, it is purely a matter of sexual preference. Since you have been so diplomatic and polite, my good deed for the day is to change the ad immediately. Have a good night!

Gay Asians: mad as hell & not taking it - 'Boiling Rice’ panel at Center explores widespread prejudice. - Kevin Spence

“Rice queen” describes a gay man who is attracted to Asians. “Rice paddy or killing fields” is a place frequented by gay Asians. “Gaysians” is an epithet used by racists. These narrow-minded quips, used too profusely today, some say, are indicative of widespread racism against and within the Asian-American community. The phenomenon was just one of the topics discussed at a May 8 symposium of gay Asian Americans at the Center inspired by the Blade article, “Boiling Rice,” also the name of the panel. In a city in which one of every 10 New York City residents is of Asian descent and with one of the largest Asian American populations in the country, some said the forum was long overdue. About 100 people let off steam and mobilized their energy for a planned Gay Asian Political Agenda. Audience members told how infuriated they were by recent racist door policies at nightclubs, bigoted Internet postings, stereotypic images of Asians as the “model minority” and increasing HIV-infection among young gay Asians. “The whole thrust of the panel was to get the ball rolling and bring together the community from immigration to racism,” said David Noh, a Blade writer and panelist...

Reaching OUT: Gay Asian Organizing. - David J. Keating

“I was looking forward to doing some community outreach work with GAPIC, Gay Asian Pacific Islanders of Chicago,” he said. “But when I got here I discovered that the group no longer existed.” In fact Kimpo, an HIV Project Coordinator with the Asian Health Coalition of Illinois, said he was shocked to learn that there was no community group for gay Asian and Pacific Islanders at all...  Kimpo also said being a gay Asian male can be difficult because many gay men, including Asian men, say they are only attracted to white men. “A lot of guys will say ‘I’m not attracted to Asian guys, but I’m not racist.’ I remember times when I was young, looking into the mirror and thinking my nose would look better if it were shaped like my white friend’s who lived down the street. Now, when I look back on those times, it’s hard to say I wasn’t subjecting myself to my own internal racism. I was ashamed of my own cultural features of my face,” he said. Amarathithada said he felt setting up a gay API group was important because it would help gay API men counter stereotypes...

Gay interracial relationships: On being “sticky rice” and loving other Asian men. - Efren

After coming out publicly in college, I began to meet other queer Asian men, whose preferences were more towards white men. What was annoying to me was that they always had to feel apologetic towards their preferences for me. One guy, who had also dated primarily white men, said in all sincerity, “Wow, that’s so cool that your first boyfriend was Vietnamese. That is so… so… revolutionary!” I remember looking at him and wondering what planet he stepped off of, and why he felt he had to justify his preferences to me, especially since there was no attraction between us. I can see where he was going — that he was going through the now oft-quoted adage (and I’m taking liberties with this) that “Loving Asian men is a revolutionary act,” especially if you’re another Asian American man who’s been taught to believe that white men are the pinnacle of desirability... t’s sad to see that the dialectic that exists among queer Asian men revolves around Asian and white, with very, very few Asian men dating other men of color, particularly black. Latino men are seen as being “almost white” and are seen as culturally acceptable, but I’ve only met 3 or 4 Asian-black male couples whose relationships lasted a long time and were not fraught with cultural expectations based on stereotypes... I remember when my partner and I were first dating, and we would hold hands in the Castro or in Union Square, and people would do double takes seeing two Asian guys together who obviously weren’t related. I remember getting the confused stares from fellow Asians with white partners who wondered what we were about — and the creepy, lust-filled looks from white guys trying to imagine us in bed. It’s nice to see that this is no longer such a novelty.

The Need for Brandon Lee: Sexual Racism and the Importance of Gay Porn - Stanley Fong

Despite a growing visibility of non-white gay males, the domestic gay porn industry is still very white-male dominated, and the lack of these “watchdogs” have allowed for a disproportionate amount of racial stereotypes. Most of these “ethnic” films, with titles such as Black Power (Catalina Black Gold Series), Cholos in Charge (Catalina Baja Bay Series), and With Sex You Get Eggroll (Catalina Far East Features), are not geared towards the ethnic audiences they seem to be presenting, but to a white male audience that finds pleasure in the propagation of racial stereotypes. In most of these “ethnic” films, the “ethnic” actors tend to keep within specific roles that are portrayed...

Human Shopping (The Castro & Online): Marke B.

As a recovering raver and fervent believer in the One Nation under a Groove thang, I'm appalled by the turn nightlife's taking. Now that we can log on to the Internet at any time and carry out a "no fats, no fems, no Asians, no blacks" policy in the privacy of our bedrooms, are we letting our virtual human shopping leak off the Web and into the clubs?

And here I thought we were getting connected, not falling apart.

Bombarded by the ideal image of beauty, thanks to GQ and the plethora of other "fashion guides," I hated the way I looked, I hated my hair, my nose, my eyes, and my skin. It took years of deprogramming to get the "white was better" idea out of my head, and I had to do that by myself because there aren't a lot of people out there who are gay and Asian and proud.

Being Asian and being Gay: David Tsang

I am a gay Asian male, living in a predominantly white country. I am by no means implying that it's a bad thing, in fact I'm very lucky to be here. People around the world still die fighting for what I have. But being a gay Asian male in Canada is a different story from being a gay white male. It is a largely untold story, and it's not all rainbows and dancing queens. Being gay and of colour sets you apart from others because it really makes you an outsider...

Being gay was initially a big deal for my parents because, among other things, they were concerned about the legacy of the family name, the scepter of AIDS, and the fact that I might make the family lose face. Many parents of my Asian friends told their kids to stay away from me-until they found out that I wasn't the scary scum sucking slime they thought I was. They were even more convinced after their kids didn't turn gay. What a shocker. I can laugh about this, but I shouldn't. Some of my Asian friends who don't get the support from their families find that they don't have much else to turn to and end up turning to drugs, bathhouses, and strange men...

Bombarded by the ideal image of beauty, thanks to GQ and the plethora of other "fashion guides," I hated the way I looked, I hated my hair, my nose, my eyes, and my skin. It took years of deprogramming to get the "white was better" idea out of my head, and I had to do that by myself because there aren't a lot of people out there who are gay and Asian and proud...

Racism in Gay Culture: Hao Tat

Racism is a problem that crawls in the shadow of the gay community. It does not receive a lot of attention. It is true that there are other very important issues such as AIDS and homophobia, but Frank portrays a very good thought that "If we want the hetro community to accept us(,) we must first learn to accept one another."

What's wrong with "Gay=Asian"?

But there is another issue involved with the Princeton incident which is also similar to the 2004 Details Magazine "Gay or Asian" incident. There is a clear equation of "Gayness" and "Asianness". Many apologists responded by saying, "What's wrong with that? Do you hate gay people or Asian people?" AAM [Angry Asian Man] addresses this well: The graffiti, written on a whiteboard and a wall in blue dry-erase marker, read "Dry Dorms = Gay" and "Dry dorms are for Asians." That's racist! And you know why? It equates Asians with inherently being undesirable losers. Because it definitely doesn't intend to mean "Dry dorms are for cool people."...

Invisible no more: it's been a year since an offensive feature in Details inspired unprecedented activism and visibility among gay and lesbian Asians. So how much has really changed?: That invisibility is one reason both gay and straight Asians were outraged by Details magazine's "Gay or Asian?" stab at humor. When Wong first saw that April 2004 feature he was offended but not surprised by the sarcastically captioned photograph of a young, spiky-haired Asian man dressed in metallic shoes and a V-neck T-shirt Portrayals of Asian men as sexually ambiguous or purely feminine are still quite common, he says: "This is an issue that the gay Asian community has faced time and time again. There's so much ignorance." ... Gay Asians are still perceived as passive or exotic, says Alain Dang dang, 28, a gay Asian activist in Manhattan and a member of the New York API group. "The Details article really perpetuated the 'rice queen' phenomenon," he says, referring to gay men who pursue Asian lovers on the assumption they'll be passive or submissive. "It's a real part of my existence and my friends' existence. It's been hard." ... But support from such mainstream gay rights groups is still limited, Wong says. A recent unity statement from 22 gay rights groups didn't include a single signature from a gay Asian organization. "Asian-Americans are chief plaintiffs in lawsuits to win same-sex mintage, yet we weren't even asked to sign on to this statement," Wong notes. "This was an opportunity for them to reach out to us." It's true that gay Asian groups and activists have been left out in the past, Marra says, but she's optimistic. "It's amazing that our issues are even being discussed and being brought to the table," she says. "We are seeing an emerging movement."

Asian American Literature: GLBTQ - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Encyclopedia.

Asian/Pacific gays and lesbians share problems of invisibility specific to histories fraught with Orientalist stereotypes. To compound this situation, racialized and gendered stereotypes pervasive in heterosexual communities return to disfigure representations of Asian/Pacific homosexualities. For Asian/Pacific gays, Hollywood images of asexual Charlie Chans and emasculated Fu Manchus recirculate within gay communities where Asian/Pacific men find themselves repositioned as Cio-Cio-San from Puccini's Madama Butterfly.

Similarly, Asian/Pacific women's bodies are disfigured by racist constructions of "slanted cunts," while stereotypes of Suzy Wong and geisha girls configure the Asian/Pacific lesbian as a submissive, exotic object of lesbian desire or as solely an object of male desire and thus irrevocably heterosexual.

Although these problems of representation demand an interrogation of desires based on racial stereotypes, what is urgently needed is the recognition that Asian/Pacific gays and lesbians voice richly multiple and diverse identities.

Gay Asians: mad as hell & not taking it: 'Boiling Rice’ panel at Center explores widespread prejudice - Kevin Spence.

Audience members told how infuriated they were by recent racist door policies at nightclubs, bigoted Internet postings, stereotypic images of Asians as the “model minority” and increasing HIV-infection among young gay Asians. “The whole thrust of the panel was to get the ball rolling and bring together the community from immigration to racism,” said David Noh, a Blade writer and panelist...

Noh said he was appalled at rampant racism, coming mostly from within the gay white community, and noted messages from a chat room in which gay Asians were bashed.

One message stated, “With Asians, almost all of them do drag or walk like a faggot or skinny, limp-wristed and will basically suck off any old fat white man that they come across because that is all they are able to get looking the foul way they do. For fuck’s sake, even most Asians are repulsed by their own kind and chase white men because even they find themselves disgusting. They are.” This kind of talk, which would be condemned about any other group, is not all that uncommon under the anonymity of the Web, Noh added.

This particular chatroom was founded by an Asian American who frequents bathhouses, said Noh. He uses his experience as a gauge, of sorts, to determine Asian racism. Especially disturbing to Noh is intra-racism among gay Asians themselves. “There is a lack of attraction toward each other,” for some, he noted. “Why do so many refuse to consider it?”

The two schools of thought seem to be Asians who do not see a problem with not being attracted to fellow Asians; and thosewho see this attraction as a sort of incestuous relationship. “It’s always the white ideal that’s promoted which has influenced the way they see themselves,” Noh said. 

The Truth About Gay Asian Men
- Jason Chang (With Good Commentaries)

I realized I was not alone in this.  Most of the gay Asians I knew would only date white guys, and most of us just accepted this as the norm.  But as I looked more deeply into the phenomenon, I was astonished by how widespread it was, at just how huge a percentage of gay Asian men were attracted only to white men. I thought of how my gay Asian friends and I accepted dates from Caucasian men we weren't even attracted to, just so we could have a white partner.  And most of the gay white men we met were not interested in dating Asians.  As in heterosexual society, Asian men were considered to be at the absolute bottom in the hierarchy of desirability.  It seemed that the only white men who were interested in dating Asians were "rice queens" -- a non-Asian man, usually much older, who dates Asian men exclusively, with a single-minded passion bordering on fetishism and with attendant expectations of how Asians should behave.  The white men who could see us as individuals and not stereotypes were few and far between, so we potato queens just took whichever potatoes came our way. After that night in Boston, though, I became determined to examine my own prejudices against dating Asian men and to fight the lifelong conditioning that had taught me to think of myself and other Asian men as inferior to white men.  As my own ethnic self-esteem grew, I found myself becoming more and more attracted to other Asian men.  I began looking to meet and chat with other "sticky" Asian men.  But they weren't easy to find... On AOL, I sent instant messages to literally hundreds of other gay Asians, searched member profiles through the member directory and perused hundreds of personals ads.  Most of my IMs to other Asians on AOL were met with stony cybersilence or a one-line "Sorry, not into other Asians" reply.  The sad thing was that I wasn't even looking for those who only dated other Asians, just those who would even consider an Asian for a partner.  Of 110 personals ads placed by gay Asian men in AOL's Photo Personals section, for example, I counted 54 that had marked "white" or "Latino" in the racial preferences boxes, but excluded "Asian."...

Report: Vast Majority Of Gay Asian Americans Face Discrimination

A groundbreaking study released Tuesday reveals that 82 percent of LGBT Americans whose background is from the Pacific rim experienced discrimination based on their sexuality over the past 12 months, and the same percentage had experienced discrimination based on their race or ethnicity... Nearly all respondents (96%) agreed that homophobia and/or transphobia is a problem within the APA community. And, over 80% agreed that APA LGBT people experience racism within the predominantly white LGBT community.

Margins Upon Margins: Managing the Stigma of Race and Sexuality - Han, Chong-suk., Proctor, Kristopher. and Choi, Kyung-Hee. 

In recent decades, research on stigma has expanded to include how various groups manage their stigmatized identities. Despite the well documented cases of racism towards gay Asian men in the gay community and homophobia in Asian communities, there is currently no research examining how gay Asian men manage the stigmatized statuses of race and sexuality. In this article, we examine stigma management strategies employed by gay Asian men and explore how gay Asian men also reconceptualize their stigmatized statuses in an attempt to change their stigmatized status to a non-stigmatized one. We argue that stigma management involves not only managing the stigma but also redefining what it means to be a member of a stigmatized group.

Racism still an issue in the gay community (London, England)

You are more likely to see the following epithets than any discernible description of themselves or their prospective partners (sexual or otherwise)- "Sorry, not into Asians;" "Sorry, coloured skin just doesn't work for me;" "Whites only, no offence."

An oxymoron, if there ever was one.

Could this be something related to the realms of online dating alone? Not exactly.

I've encountered more cold shoulders and "thanks, no thanks" on Old Compton Street than Dating Direct or Gaydar. Admittedly, this may not be race-related at all...

I'm all for freedom of speech. If someone is uncomfortable with the fact that the colour of my skin is brown, let him say so (if I hit on him) and stay away from me.

What I cannot digest is the fact that even in this day and age, and in a tolerant society like Britain, race still plays a substantial role in people's lives. Gay people, of all, must know the perils of discrimination, subtle or overt.

That a significant proportion of the gay community subscribe to discrimination, in itself, is regrettable. What's worse, many websites don't seem to mind either.

New stereotypes for a new century - Andy Quan

What I’ve found liberating in Sydney is the diversity of tastes and desires. I’ve met Asian men who are attracted to other Asian men, or to all races, or generally to white men. Meanwhile, there are many men of all races in Sydney who are attracted to Asian men. Some know Asia so well that they express specialised desires: for Japanese men only, or for Thai men.

When I was young, I met some horrible older white men. They had generally been on trips to Thailand, treated me like a young sex worker, and subscribed to awful stereotypes about how polite I would be and how rich my culture was (even though they had no idea what cultural background I came from). In time, and in my travels around the world, I met younger men who for any number of reasons (a foreign student exchange, a crush on an Asian classmate) were primarily attracted to Asian men, but without the power imbalances or racism. These days, happily, I meet and have sex with men who are attracted to me both because of my race and regardless of my race...

However, humans are complex and contradictory. I’ve received e-mail from white men who have responded to the Sexual Racism Sux campaign who have dated and had sex with Asian men and decided that all in all, they are either less or not at all attracted to Asian men. I’m fine with this. At least they’ve tried! I also accept that men who have a preference for particular body types or features, say, a really hairy chest, are less likely to be interested in Asians. Furthermore, I’ve met interracial couples who I’ve judged as stereotypical (i.e. old white guy, young Asian guy), and then noticed that some of them are having longer and way better relationships than I’ve ever managed to have. So, all power to them!...

think that simple stereotypes of Asians with inferiority complexes and rice queens who are attracted to Asian men because they can’t find white partners should be retired. Or replaced with stereotypes of feisty gay Asian men all around the world who have sex with and are attracted to all races including whites and Asians; or with stereotypes of White or Latino or Black men who are sexy and confident and happen to have a real thing for Asians. I think the many confident Asian men on Fridae who are attracted to Asians or have Asian boyfriends are, collectively, a sign that the world that Mr. Sakakibara described is disappearing. For that matter, hasn’t he noticed that the non-Asian guys on this site are pretty damn cute too and not like the ones he described?

Meanwhile, you can catch me on the dance floor. I’ll be flirting with anyone handsome who catches my eye, whatever colour his skin… though under the disco ball, we all kind of glow in the same way.

Racism between Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Transgender People of Color

Racism And Homophobia On Gaydar And Other ‘Dating’ Websites
. A Petition

Archive for the ‘"China Dolls"’ Category. Being Gay and Asian in Australia. China Dolls (Part 1, 2, 3): Gay Asian in the West (1997). Related Information.

I have stumbled across Tony Ayres’ excellent film, China Dolls, on Youtube and, having worked out how to do it, have “embedded” it in my previous post, Marginalia.It’s a while since this film came out and it’s not otherwise particularly accessible, so I have taken the liberty of doing this for those who may have missed it.  It’s about 28 minutes in all...

Jackson comments (square brackets and an asterix in the margin): “The racialisation of homosexual desire is not a democratic form of cultural diversity or an expression of equivalenmodalites of erotic taste. In all Anglohone countries it is a tightly structured hierarchy in which White men are indisputably at the top of the sexual desirabvility stakes and Asian men are somewhere far beneath them.” ...

Ayres recounts the response of the first person he summoned up the nerve to speak to on his first visit to a gay bar, the Ainslie Pub, in his first year at ANU after having spent most of his childhood in Perth (underlining added but not by me). “so  I went up to him and said…didn’t even get a first sentence out.  All he said to me was, ‘Sorry, I’m not into Asians’.  And that was it.  End of conversation.  That was the first, although not the last time I heard that expression.  Being ‘Asian’, being Chinese, put me in a different category from the other men in the bar.” ... “What I didn’t realise was that, according to the predominant rules of Caucasian Western sexual attraction, being Chinese was actually a distinctive sexual category in a racial hierarchy.  Asians were behind Black and Latino men in the scale of things. Of course, white men were on top.”

In the heterosexual world, Asian women are coveted and fetishised.  From Syzie Wong to the Singapore Girl to Gong Li, the Asian woaman has traversed the distance into Western consciousness, embodying a sexy blend of enigma, suffering and compliance.  She is the epitome of femininity.  Because the mahority of gay Asian men in Australia are slimmer and smaller than their Caucasian counterparts, they are also stereotyped as feminine or ‘boysh’.  However, in a culture where Tom of Finland is the pinnacle of what is considered desirable, beling feminine is neither respected nor valued.  The same racial stereotype that makes Asian women desirable makes Asian men marginal.” ...

“In recent years there’s been a noticeable change in the gay scene.  The influx of Asian immigration through the mid to late 1980s has lead to an increased presence of gay Asian men in the late nineties.  A new generation of yong men are going to the gym, bulking up, doing drugs and dance parties, finding a place for themselves. It’s not just that the dominant paradigm of the desirable body has expanded, but there are now Asians who fit into this paradigm.  This is still buying into the cult of youth and beauty which dominates the gay scene, but it does suggest that race is no longer a total prohibition...

Is this the right direction?  If gay asian males attain power and status w/in the gay community through masculine constructs and arian [sic] stereotypes revolve around the effeminised nation could we not be seen to reproduce the patriarchal ordering or hegemonic masculinity that excluded asians in the first place?” That’s a pretty good question.

Queer in SF, Asian in SF Is Easy. Queer Asian? Not So Much. - Efren Bose
I can’t be solely a gay man, nor can I solely be a Filipino American. Being a friend to me means accepting me completely, not as a gay man who happens to have darker skin, nor as an Asian American man with an uncomfortable secret. Being part of my community means acknowledging and celebrating our differences, and using those differences to create an understanding and to find commonality. My partner and I have great, long-lasting friendships with other queer Asian men who’ve gone through similar struggles of trying to fit into a mold that the Queer Asian Men’s community forced us into, and the relief we all felt when we broke out of it. They range the full spectrum of the community: single and partnered; dating exclusively Asian to not caring about their partner’s ethnic background; monogamous and open relationships; bi, gay and trans; etc., but they’re looking for the San Francisco that my partner and I know: open, welcoming, and a place where people can really be themselves without having to pretend they’re something they’re not. We have created a community of progressive men and women, mostly people of color, mostly queer, but all of us are people who are experienced enough or open-minded and secure enough in ourselves to look beyond the superficial divisions that separate the queer community and communities of color and we can talk, bitch, laugh, eat, and take a break from everything that’s affecting us, whether it be the racism in the Castro, the homophobia in our ethnic communities, the misogyny, or all the other -isms that plague our lives on a daily basis. I wonder about other people out there, people who are trying to fit in, who jump from one place to another, trying to find a community that will accept them. And I wish I could say that those of us who are queer Asian men don’t need to do that, that our community is really all around us. But I can’t. And I’d really like to change that.

On being Asian and Gay in Straight White America - Angela Cheng

The racism I have experienced in the gay community is not the overt color of red but the subtle, unwavering tinge of blue. It is the blue in eyes that forget to see you, that sweep over you during a mainstream GLBT function. It is the default belief that gay America is gay white America. It is the lack of concern for you and your issues. It is the blue color of neglect and ignorance.

Let me just start off by saying that everyone is racist. So if you think you're completely not racist, you're wrong. This is something we all have in common.,,

The issue of Asian exoticism and eroticism - the so-called "Rice Queen/King" or "Curry Queen/King" exoticism of race, such as newspaper advertising a "Slender, Asian Beauty" - is a dangerous phenomenon. Like discriminating against a person based on the color of skin, exoticism sees only color and culture instead of individuality and personal truth. Exoticism perpetuates racial stereotypes and draws a lock box around the person. And since stereotyping is a wonderful tool for social control (i.e., All gay people have AIDS) exoticism also reflects and reinforces a hierarchy of power.

In the meantime, cheekily deemed "Potato Queens/Kings," many Asian-American queers vie for white partners. It is a concept that rides on the other side of exoticism and carries a heavy dosage of internalized racism.

I am guilty of internalized racism. I have been guilty of feeling grateful when someone displays interest in my skin color. I have been guilty of wanting white so that I could be white.

Social Discrimination, Friendship Network Interactions, Mental Health, and HIV Risk Among Asian Gay Men. Yoshikawa H, Wilson PA, Chae DH; National HIV Prevention Conference (2003 : Atlanta, Ga.).

This study aimed to examine, using quantitative and qualitative methods, how experiences of racism, homophobia, and anti-immigrant discrimination influence depressive symptoms and HIV risk among Asian gay men. In addition, responses of Asian gay men to these experiences, particularly conversations about safety and discrimination with friends, were examined as protective influences against depressive symptoms and HIV risk...

These studies show that interactions with gay friendship networks, specifically conversations about safety and discrimination experiences, may be protective against HIV risk and depressive symptoms. In addition, different kinds of responses to episodes of racism, homophobia, and anti-immigrant discrimination showed differential associations with HIV risk.

The Gay Asian American Male, Striving to Find an Identity - Tom Lee

"When I hear 'gay community' I automatically think 'white.' Being gay seemed like such a white thing. It never occurred to me that you can be Asian and gay," says 22-year-old college student Alex,* who is of Chinese descent. "Even though I'm Asian and gay, I just never associated the two. It was always one or the other." Alex's sentiments echo that of many gay-identified Asian Americans today...

Duazo has seen many gay Asian Americans struggling for years trying to forge an identity for themselves. "One of the biggest obstacles is maintaining that balance, trying to find an identity as Asian or gay or both. There's that conflict there. Being Asian, there's expectations you're supposed to live up to. Being gay contradicts those expectations," he explains. "Ultimately you have to [come to terms] with that."

Traditional Asian cultures' emphasis on close family units is one of the underlying issues that makes the gay Asian American experience different than other experiences, says Duazo. There are more incidences of Asian American men hiding their sexuality in order not to disappoint their families. "The family aspect is stronger in our community. It affects the coming out process with it being much harder because of close ties with family. It's hard to generalize for each ethnic group, but this is consistently a [theme] in the API community," he says...

In the past 10 years, the dating pattern of Asian American men have shifted from predominately Asian/white pairings to more Asian Americans dating others of their own race, according to Duazo. There are no theories as to why this phenomenon is occurring but Duazo offers some suggestions: "Maybe it's just the fact that they see other Asians doing it, or it's empowering that they don't have to wait around for white guys to tell them they are attractive. It’s an option now."

But just as the gay community should not be stereotyped, the gay Asian American experience is not the same for all. Some gay Asian American males have no problem integrating into the larger gay community...

Wong, Nelson (2009). My journey through sexual racism. Web Page

However, as every other guy I’d meet continued to reject me based on my race, I couldn’t help but feel that I had fallen into some sort of trap... It seemed so unfair that everything else about me - my capacity for love, my personality, my unique blend of looks, tastes, touch and humour - could be completely ignored due to my misfortune of having been born Chinese. I understood that attraction is a complex and individual experience, but I was shocked that sexuality and romance could be so racist.

Lindsay, Robert (2008). Race, Gender and Masculinity/Femininity. Blog, May 26. Web Page.

We are also hearing of many Asian female - White male relationships where the same thing is going on - the White male refuses to work and just lives off the woman, cheats on her and treats her like crap. She puts up with it once again because she wants to be with a masculine man so much she will tolerate being mistreated.

It even works within races. I'm White, and since high school, I have been hearing nice guys wail about how women and girls won't fuck them and even treat them like crap and how the biggest assholes who treat women like total shit have women coming out their ears. Women say they want a nice guy, but then they get with one, and his niceness seems wimpy to them, so they go for a more masculine guy who treats her poorly.

Chasing the White man syndrome, part 1, Part 2 (Can Asian Western gay relationships work in Singapore?). - Charles Tan  (Singapore) 

Society and Coming Out Issues for Asian Pacific Americans. Human Rights Campaign

Pui-lan, Kwok (2004). Religion, Sexuality, and Asian and Asian American Cultures: Embodying the Spirit in Our Communities. Word Download.

Confucius said: “Eating, having sex, human nature.” This means that our desires to nourish ourselves and develop intimate relations with others are part and parcel of being human. Yet, in Asian and Asian North American Christian cultures, we have been socialized to believe that sex is a tabooed subject, which cannot be discussed in public. During the nineteen years of PANAAWTM, this may be the first time that we discuss the relationship between religion and sexuality in an opening panel. What makes tonight’s event particularly meaningful is that we approach the topic from a multireligious perspective, as we try to discern the larger cultural patterns undergirding Asian and Asian North American women’s experiences about our bodies and sexuality.

Towards visibility: asian marching boys (Sidney, Australia) - David Chew

Since their debut at the 1999 Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras, the Asian Marching Boys contingent has become an increasingly prominent fixture... In doing so, also help to encourage them to take a more pro-active role in their search for their cultural, sexual and political identity. Above all, the group aims to be a social support network for Asian gay men in Australia. Sydney has always had a large Asian gay population who come into close contact with the rest of the Australian gay population, but the emotional and health needs (among other needs) of this group of men have often been neglected or unattended to. The Asian gay population has often been marginalised, isolated and discriminated against by the mainstream community, the Asian community and even the local gay community. Discrimination and racism, however, is often a result of bias-ness, negative stereotypes and portrayals of Asian gay men by the media and the gay community alike... Asian Marching Boys' participation in the 1999 Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras was the first attempt by the Asian gay community to bring together Asian gay men of all backgrounds in the New South Wales region, to promote visibility and a more positive image (sensual and masculine, not the typical feminine images often portrayed) of Asian gay men...

Race, Sexuality Make for a Two-Pronged Fork: Asian-American gays face dual problems. - Jeffrey Lau and Margaret Ou

IT'S HARD WHEN YOU STAND at the intersection of race and sexuality, Royce Lin says. Society is no friend of those who in their habits and nature differ from the mainstream; it is certainly no friend of the likes of Lin, a junior at Harvard who is both Chinese-American and gay. On him converges, therefore, the full array of pressures and prejudices -- the stuff of racial slurs and gay-baiting -- so commonplace in day-to-day life. But for Lin, who is the president of the Harvard-Radcliffe Bisexual Gay Lesbian Students' Association, and for all Asian-American gays, the cross borne is doubly heavy: he is rejected by other gays because he is Asian, and by other Asians because he is gay. Lin is part of a larger pattern: the "polymarginalized" minority, whose identity cuts across divergent categories and belongs nowhere in the social mosaic. Gay Asian America is a world of the persona non grata. From discrimination there is never respite, even amidst one's "own," Lin is an outsider among outsiders...

Showing their pride: Gay minority students deal with extra stereotypes in realizing their identities. Bethonie Butler

Junior communication major Amreth Long said his Cambodian-American background can make his experience as a gay man harder at times, "in the U.S. especially, where it's predominantly white male dominated and of course, fighting racism and fighting bigotry at the same time," Long said. "It's rough, but hey, it's a battle."

"I have to live both sides of the coin," he added. "It's a very bleak coin."

In addition, Booker said, minorities often face racism from the LGBT community.

"A lot of people don't realize that there is racism within the gay and lesbian community," she said. "Before you identify as gay or lesbian you identify with your culture." ...

Racism at the Bathhouse - Bathhouse Diaries (Alternate Link)

Well, I will tell you, I am Asian - Chinese to be exact.... When I first started going to the baths, I could not understand why no one was interested in me. I would hang out for hours and hours and no one would give me a second look. What was more disheartening was the fact that I saw some weird combinations at the baths. Some drop dead gorgeous white men would not even give me a second look, yet be with someone who (in my mind) was below average in the looks department. I know this sounds superficial, but hey I am gay! I am just as superficial and guilty in this thinking as the next gay man is. We are all chasing after the same thing. When I am at the baths, it seems to me that the only people who are interested in me are men over sixty-five, or men who weigh 350 pounds.

In the ten years that I have gone to the baths, I can count on one hand the number of guys in my age bracket that has hit on me. I will concede that there are some gay males that do have an interest in Asians. But those types of guys are EXTREMELY rare, and more likely, it is to fulfill a fetish. So after years of going to the baths, I have come to the conclusion that 99.9% of gay white men (GWM - the majority in the gay world) do not get turned on by gay Asian men (GAM). And the white men I am talking about are not all the GQ Adonis types either. Ordinary, middle-aged, average, even slightly overweight white guys generally show zero interest in Asians as well. When I came out, it never occurred to me that I would become invisible and undesirable and truly worthless in the eyes of so many gay men...

The reason why I am writing this is that it has taken me a long time to come to grips with the subtle racism that takes place not only in the baths, but also in the entire gay community worldwide. I hope other young gay Asians will read this and know that nothing is wrong with them. As a gay Asian newbie, you have just gone through this soul searching inside of you, coming to grips with your sexuality. You have never felt so alone, and then you come out. After being alone for so long, you are so excited by meeting new people and having new experiences. Then you face this enormous rejection by the gay community, and feel even more like an outsider and you do not know why. You were born in North America, and you feel North American. After reading this, now you know there is NOTHING wrong with you. This subtle racism happens everywhere in the gay community, and that is just the way it is.

Racism or Preference?

I thought it was interesting. According to the blogger, “Asian Men are completely undesirable by gay men of any color, including their own” and that a white preference in the gay community, “stems from all of the media images we are bombarded with on a daily basis.” But is this to say that physical and sexual attraction racial or racist? The blogger continues to observe: “Gay men aren’t attracted to women; so does that make all gay men sexist? Of course not. So that is how GWM (gay white men) rationalize this preference.” Interesting. …and no, I’ve never been to a bath house. And yes, I am curious… and no I would never go… well maybe… to observe the ethic dynamic of course. Here are a couple of videos on the topic: "Rainbow Nation" by WeAreNotAmused... Documentary, "Forbidden Fruit," from Australia.

Asian American Lesbians, Bisexuals and Transgendered Persons — Moving from Isolation to Visibility - Trikone Magazine. PDF Download.

Glenn Pagpantay, power gay Asian.

Why are gay Asian men not seen as beautiful in our society? The ideal beauty is very White, so Asians don’t fit into that. Also, being thin or muscular is much more preferred. Both ideals are very damaging to the psyche. "There’s so much diversity among Asian men, and many are very attractive in all their body shapes and sizes and body types. We need to redefine ideals of attractiveness. Sexual racism exists." How does that impact overall self-esteem for gay Asians? I think many gay Asian men internalize racism, and become more potato [term used to describe Asians who prefer White men]. So they are not attracted to other Asians. We need to promote healthy diverse images of gay Asian men and encourage various body types through media.

Running With The Bears - Ernie Hsiung

My not-so-secret secret is the following: I’ve always felt a little out of place with the gay community. My close friends in college were all straight, and when I had come out of the closet my last year of college I guess I expected this gay welcoming committee where I would instantly have a gay social network and have gay friends and go on gay dates. For a bunch of different reasons [read: low self-esteem] that didn’t happen, and ever since I’ve always been a little envious if I see a pack of gays in the Castro...

As a result of trying to find this gay place to belong, I ended up being involved in the bear sub-culture. I wasn’t necessarily searching for it - I had one friend into the scene, and as a result, I would hang out with his friends, go to the same parties if they were going out, and so on. I’ve become pretty close to a couple of them, but to most people, I’m sure I was just “the token Asian boy, hanging out with the bears.” Fuck it, they don’t know any better. And so what if I’m at a party everyone is drunk or high or making out in the backyard and I feel like the only one not partnered off? Oh well, good times or good stories, I suppose.

So when people told me that I should get a profile on the local classified website, saying I would be able to find someone relatively quickly to at least hang out with, I thought, “eh, whatever.” When my application wasn’t accepted the first time, I really thought nothing of it - maybe they’re just behind with their e-mail response times. Then it happened a second time. When it happened a third time, I got pretty irate,... It was only after reading the recent backlash against bear411 and reading this post by another gay Asian man who’s had difficulties getting on the same site that, oh shit, there really might BE some discrimination...

Int'l Blog Against Racism Week: M. Butterfly - Kate Nepveu

Gay friends have told me of a derogatory term used in their community: "Rice Queen"—a gay Caucasian man primarily attracted to Asians. In these relationships, the Asian virtually always plays the role of the "woman"; the Rice Queen, culturally and sexually, is the "man." This pattern of relationships had become so codified that, until recently, it was considered unnatural for gay Asians to date one another. Such men would be taunted with a phrase which implied they were lesbians.

Invisible no more - John Caldwell

It's been a year since an offensive feature in Details inspired unprecedented activism and visibility among gay and lesbian Asians. So how much has really changed? ...

That invisibility is one reason both gay and straight Asians were outraged by Details magazine’s “Gay or Asian?” stab at humor. When Wong first saw that April 2004 feature he was offended but not surprised by the sarcastically captioned photograph of a young, spiky-haired Asian man dressed in metallic shoes and a V-neck T-shirt. Portrayals of Asian men as sexually ambiguous or purely feminine are still quite common, he says: “This is an issue that the gay Asian community has faced time and time again. There’s so much ignorance.”

Nearing the one-year anniversary of the Details article, Wong says little has changed for gay Asian people. Yes, studies have been done and pro-Asian programs implemented, “but there’s still a lot of work to be done. We need to really speak out on our own invisibility.”...

Gay Asians are still perceived as passive or exotic, says Alain Dang, 28, a gay Asian activist in Manhattan and a member of the New York API group. “The Details article really perpetuated the ‘rice queen’ phenomenon,” he says, referring to gay men who pursue Asian lovers on the assumption they’ll be passive or submissive. “It’s a real part of my existence and my friends’ existence. It’s been hard.”...

This battle against expectations is also something many gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender Asian people face within their ethnic groups. “There’s racism in the gay community,” Park says. “But there’s a bigger problem of homophobia in the Asian–Pacific Islander community.” Cultural traditions of marriage and child rearing often make it difficult for gay Asian men to come out, says Dang, who was born and raised in Cupertino, Calif., amid a large and traditional Asian family. “All my parents want are grandchildren,” he says. “At every family event I’m accosted by relatives asking me if I have a girlfriend.”...

It’s true that gay Asian groups and activists have been left out in the past, Marra says, but she’s optimistic. “It’s amazing that our issues are even being discussed and being brought to the table,” she says. “We are seeing an emerging movement.”

Pon G (2000). The Art of War or The Wedding Banquet? Asian Canadians, Masculinity, and Antiracism Education. Revue canadienne de l’éducation/Canadian Journal of Education, 25(2): 139-151. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wang A (2000). Asian and White Boys’ Competing Discourses About Masculinity: Implications for Secondary Education. Revue canadienne de l’éducation/Canadian Journal of Education, 25(2): 113-125. PDF Download. Download Page.


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