Townsend, MH, Wallick, MM., Pleak RR., and Cambre KM. (1997). Gay and lesbian issues in child and adolescent psychiatry training as reported by training directors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol 36(6). 764-8.
OBJECTIVE: Although increased evidence of disproportionate psychosocial risk and other health problems encountered by lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) youths has emerged, no study has described how the topic of homosexuality is addressed within child and adolescent residency psychiatry training. METHOD: Residency training directors in U.S. child and adolescent psychiatry programs were asked questions about instruction on the topic of homosexuality and the care of LGB patients, the department's view of whether homosexuality represents a pathological condition, the director's awareness of LGB colleagues and residents, and the director's opinion of LGB residents' disclosure of their homosexuality to their patients and patients' families. Asking similar questions facilitated a comparison of survey results with those of an earlier study of general psychiatry training directors. RESULTS: The reported departmental attitudes about whether homosexuality represents a pathological condition were essentially equivalent in general and child programs. Child and adolescent training directors were, however, less likely to have a favorable view of disclosure of sexual orientation to patients, less likely to know LGB residents or faculty, and less likely to report LGB residents an asset to their departments. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction that the majority of child and adolescent training programs would reflect a heightened awareness of the vulnerability of LGB youths was not confirmed.
Zuger, B. (1989) Homosexuality in families of boys with early effeminate behavior: an epidemiological study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18(2), 155-66.
New York University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, New York
In the course of a long-term study of 55 boys with early effeminate (cross-gender) behavior an effort was also made to ascertain the presence of sexual deviance in their parents, siblings, uncles, and aunts. For most of these groups of relatives, only one to three members in each group were found to be homosexual, equaling 4% male and 1% female for the total test population. Compared to similar studies, the results were not too different except in the case of the siblings of one study where the incidence was much higher. Some evidence is considered for the speculation of a nongenetic, congenital cause of homosexuality.
I wonder if they would ever do a study of high intelligence in families and label it "an epidemiological study."
Kourany, RF. (1987) Suicide among homosexual adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 13(4), 11-17.
Little attention has been given in the professional literature to suicide among homosexual adolescents. Sixty-six adolescent psychiatrists responded to a questionnaire on the subject. Results from this survey suggest that many experts are not working with homosexual adolescents. On the other hand, the majority of those treating them considered them to be at higher risk for suicide and agreed that their suicidal gestures were more severe than those of other adolescents.
Bloch, S. (1997) Psychiatry: an impossible profession? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31(2), 172-83.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, St Vincent's Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the disconcerting question as to whether psychiatry is a fully-fledged profession or not. METHOD: A review of pertinent literature regarding the criteria of a profession, the vulnerability of psychiatry to abuse, and potential models for the proper practice of psychiatry. RESULTS: Psychiatry lost its professional anchorage entirely with its misuse to suppress dissent in the former Soviet Union and in the so-called euthanasia program in Nazi Germany. It remains vulnerable to abuse unless psychiatrists recognise the professional criteria they must satisfy. A new symbol, a humble stool, is proposed. Its, three legs represent the three equally significant dimensions of psychiatric practice: science, art and ethics. CONCLUSION: Psychiatry just 'scrapes home' in constituting a profession but only subject to three provisos:namely (i) that psychiatrists appreciate the need to achieve a coherent body of special knowledge through a genuine creative process which necessarily results in uncomfortable tension from time to time; (ii) that we promote the art of psychiatry by cultivating an ethos of caring and sensitivity; and (iii) that we function within an articulated ethical framework with respect for codes of ethics as guidelines.
Christensen, RC. (1997) Ethical issues in community mental health: cases and conflicts. Community Mental Health Journal, 33(1), 5-11.
University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville 32610, USA.
Abstract >p? Ethical issues pervade community mental health yet, surprisingly, the field has been virtually ignored in the academic realm of medical ethics. In the past decade, the ethical questions in psychiatry which have attracted the most scrutiny are derived from the "dramatic" issues of psychiatrist-patient sexual relationships, the tradition's practice of involuntary commitment, and the therapist's duty to warn potential victims at the expense of breaching a client's confidentiality (Eth, 1990; Dyer, 1988; Bloch, Chodoff, 1991). Yet the "pragmatic," and more pervasive, ethical tensions which arise in the daily practice of community psychiatrists have warranted little attention. Both medical ethics and community psychiatry suffer as a result. Nonetheless, ethical reasoning is intricately entwined in the decisions and relationships which make up the community mental health setting. For example, trying to determine what is the "right" thing to do for a client inevitably entails judgments about moral, social and legal matters. In other words, no decision in the clinical setting is purely psychiatric (Perlin, 1989).
Rothblum, ED. (1994) "I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men. Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington.
The very recent history of pathologizing homosexuality still has a strong impact on the public in general and mental health professionals in particular. In contrast to the early research on sexual reorientation of lesbians and gay men, there is relatively little empirical research on the mental health issues of lesbians and gay men. Whether researchers choose to define sexual orientation by sexual behavior, self-definition, or membership in lesbian and gay community groups will have an impact on the results. Research on mental health issues that include lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual women and men would allow an examination of the relative salience of gender versus sexual orientation. Finally, the experiences of lesbians and gay men in society may place them at increased risk for some mental health problems and may protect them from other mental health problems.
Rothblum, ED. (1994) Introduction to the special section: mental health issues of lesbian and gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 211-2.
There has been little focus on the mental health of lesbians and gay men in the 2 decades since homosexuality was removed as a diagnostic from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (3rd ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1980).....
Clark, WM., and Seovich, JM. (1997) Twenty years and still in the dark? Content analysis of articles pertaining to gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in marriage and family therapy journals. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23(3), 239-53.
To what extent do marriage and family therapy journals address gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues and hoe does this coverage compare to allied fields? To answer these questions, a content analysis was conducted on articles published in the marriage and family therapy literature from 1975 to 1995. Of the 13,217 articles examined in the 17 journals, only 77 (.006%) focused on gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues or used sexual orientation as a variable. Findings support the contention that gay,lesbian, and bisexual issues are ignored by marriage and family therapy researchers and scholars.
The serious problem is of infinite magnitude with respect to bisexuality. The authors report that "only two studies included bisexuals, indicating a dearth of knowledge in this area." (p. 248) Therefore, "bisexuality" has had an most "non-existent" status in Family Therapy.
This was confirmed as the result of my field work in Calgary. For example, nothing less that a gay-identified family therapist (also a psychiatrist) told a group of people that, for him, when it comes to the therapeutic setting, bisexuality is irrelevant. In other words, he only believed that an individual was either homosexual or heterosexual, which means that his bisexual-identified clients were entering a 'world' where their reality was deemed non-existent. Where, in fact, they would likely be harmed. (Up to 1973, psychiatrists had formally dictated - partly as the result of a highly negative and dangerous "grandiosity" attribute - that homosexual people should not exist. This belief then 'validated' the many psychiatric 'cures' inflicted on these socially/religiously unacceptable - sick, mentally ill - people. To this date, psychiatrists have not formally apologized for the great harm they repeatedly inflicted on vulnerable - often socially abused and marginalized - people.)
I was quite angry with this gay psychiatrist who should have known better given that he had read my book in which the lethality of the "bisexuals do not exist" ideology (also very common in gay/lesbian communities) was described by using the case of Kurt Cobain and Pfaff (Hole's bassist) who both committed suicide. They were bisexual-identified in a 'private' world where the ruling ideology, as strongly manifested by Cobain's wife (Courtney Love) and others, was that bisexuality did not exist!
The psychiatrist in question also had a highly lethal status with respect to not having gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth issues addressed in Calgary (given that he was in a position to do this, such as being a consultant for a storefront school). When all GLB mental health professionals in Calgary were reproached for having done nothing in this respect (and this was done by me in the presence of the President of the Pediatric Society of Alberta) the psychiatrist quickly explained why the situation had existed: "There was too much to lose." That is, when issues are "sensitive" - or not what the majority in society want to see addressed - these gutless (traitor) gay/lesbian individuals will tow the line, even when it means that kids from their own 'tribe' will be continue to be harmed (and even die) because of the callous and self-serving lack of concern/integrity of these gay/lesbian 'professionals."
But: this is how, so it seems, promotions are obtained, as it happened for this psychiatrist who also let me know that he did not approve of my way of thinking and seeing things. He also revealed that he would have sought to harm me if he had been my therapist. When I was initially seeking help, as outlined in "The Save The World Factor, Part 1," his name headed the list of therapist supplied by my doctor. This "family therapy" psychiatrist is considered to be the top "sexual orientation" 'expert' in Calgary in the world of Medicine where it is believed that clients should not be harmed.
On the basis of the history of psychiatry (and associated 'professions'), a most interesting rule, or a psychiatry/therapy 'law' will be rendered.
If the client presents (or represents)
a reality which is at odds with social beliefs (or psychiatric beliefs),
the client will (must) be harmed to maintain social/psychiatric beliefs.