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Homosexual Orientation Demographic Study:
Young Adult Calgary Male
End Notes, Tables & Bibliography
 


November 1996 • NOTE: This paper is an edited version of July 4, 1996 paper previously located at this website. The paper is now published (with some minor changes) under the title On the prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality in a random community survey of 750 men aged 18 to 27, The Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1998, p. 1-18. PubMed "abstract" link with a document delivery services. This study, combined with the results of another 1998 study, has produced a very important  CAVEAT ALERT!
See ADDENDUM..

ON THE PREVALENCE OF HOMOSEXUALITY AND BISEXUALITY IN A RANDOM COMMUNITY SURVEY OF 750 MEN AGED 18 TO 27

End Notes Tables & Biblio • IntroductionDiscussion

End Notes

[1] Canadian society is judged to be highly homophobic on the basis of our personal experience and that of our colleagues in the gay community of Canada, and data in the Canada Youth & Aids Study (King et al., 1988). For example, only 33 percent of Grade 7 students agreed with the statement "Homosexuals should be allowed to be teachers," and only 18 percent reported that "they would be comfortable talking with a homosexual person." If white adolescents had similar attitudes with respect to people of colour, the society producing youth would be deemed "extremely racist." The American studies included in Herdt (1989), and the work reviewed by Savin-Williams (1994) on the oppression and hatred experienced by gay and lesbian youth in high schools is another kind of evidence indicating the high degree of homo-hatred existing in North American cultures.

2. The 20 urban areas reported on by Binson et al. (1995) have a mean population 1.4 million, or about twice Calgary's population of .74 million. Given the general increase in percentages of homosexually oriented males with increasing larger cities (Michael et al. 1994; Binson et al. 1995), the underestimates we present for the Binson et al. (1995) male homosexuality results for the 20 urban areas sampled would be much larger if our sampling had been done in a city having 1.4 million inhabitants.

3. Our findings on homosexually oriented 18 to 27-year-old males in Calgary is a minimum estimate given that (a) Calgary's city centre harbouring the gay community (which has the highest proportion of homosexually oriented males in Calgary) and (b) Calgary's upper-class neighbourhoods (also expected to have higher proportions of homosexually oriented males, for reasons presented in this paper), are not represented in our sample. Therefore, more than 12.7 percent of Calgary's young adult males would be classified homosexually oriented on the basis of being currently homosexually active (9.2%) and or self-labelling as homosexual and/or bisexual (11.1%).

Table 1

First and Last Experiences of Voluntary Homosexual and Bisexual Contacts in 750 Adult Males Aged 18 to 27, and current Self-Declared Sexual Status
Age 
Category
First Homosexual Constact
Last Homosexual Contact
% Describing Self as Homo- sexual 18-27
% Describing Self as Bisexual 18-27
12 to 14
36/750
(4.8%)
21/750
(2.8%)
5/36
(13.9%)
7/36
(19.4%)
15 to 17
29/750
(3.9%)
15/750
(2.9%)
13/29
(41.4%)
12/29
(41.4%)
18 to 27
40/759
(5.3%)
69/750
(9.2%)
27/40
(67.5%)
10/40
(25.0%)
12 to 27
105/750
(14.0%)
105/750
(14.0%)
44/105
(41,9%)
29/105
(27.6%)

Table 2

Sexual Status of Sexually Active and Celibate Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Males at Interview, 
and Level of Depression in Past Two Weeks
Category
Active
Homo-
sexual
Active
Hetero-
sexual
Active
Bisexual
Celibate
Homo-
sexual
Celibate
Hetero-
sexual
Homosexual sex 1+
times in past 6 months
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
Heterosexual sex 1+
times in past 6 months
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
Totals
32/750
4.3%
544/759
72.6%
37/750
4.9%
13/750
1.7%
124/750
16.5%
Homosexual Self-Label
28/32
90.6%
0/544
0.0%
1/37
2.7%
13/13
100.0%
1/124
0.8%
Bisexual 
Self-Label
5/32
15.6%
10/544
1.8%
25/37
67.6%
4/13
30.8%
3/124
0.8%
Heterosexual Self-Label
1/32
3.1%
540/544
99.3%
30/37
81.1%
0/13
0.1%
123/124
99.6%
CES-Depression Scores - past 2 weeks
Standard Deviation (  )
14.6
(9.2)
13.7
(7.9)
15.7
(9.3)
27.1
(16.5)
23.6
(15.5)
% CES-D Score 28+
(cut-off for serious 
clinical depression)
6.2%
2.6%
10.8%
48.1%
21.8%

Note: Some males declared more than one type of sexual orientation. Categorization of 13 "celibate-homosexual" and 124 "celibate-heterosexual" males is based on predominant categories of self-declared sexual status. Bonferroni analysis for Depression Score, celibate heterosexual vs. all other groups, p <.01. Celibate homosexual versus all other groups, p <. 01. Eta (a non-linear measure of association derived from analysis of variance) for CES-D depression score across all groups: 0.16, p < .01.

References

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Bagley, C. & Tremblay, P. (1996). Suicidal crises and homosexual identity: Evidence from a random community survey of 750 men aged 18 to 22. Submitted.
Billy, J., Tanfer, K., Grady, W. & Klepinger, D. (1993). The sexual behavior of men in the United States. Family Planning Perspective, 25, 52-60.
Binson, D., Michaels, S., Stall, R., Coates, T., Gagnon, J. & Catania, J. (1995). Prevalence and social distribution of males who have sex with males: United States and its urban centers. Journal of Sex Research, 32, 245-254.
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Herdt, G. (1989). Introduction: Gay and lesbian youth, emerging identities, and cultural scenes at home and abroad. In G. Herdt (Ed.) Gay and lesbian youth (pp. 1-42). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.
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Roberts, R. & Vernon, S. (1983). The Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale: Its use in a community sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 41-46.
Savin-Williams, R. (1994).Verbal and physical abuse in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youth: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, and suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 261-269.
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Working Group (1995). Working group of the workshop on suicide and sexual orientation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 82-88.

 Introduction    •    Discussion


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