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"We asked respondents to talk about the way that being gay and their social and sexual lives might facilitate their use of alcohol and other drugs.
Almost universally, respondents talked about the norm of (often excessive) substance use on the gay commercial scene and in gay social networks generally.
Others talked about such norms within their own intimate relationships... (UK: Keogh et al, 2009)

The Queer Politics of Drugs. - Why do queer* folk use drugs?

Page Index: - General: Mostly American & Canadian. - Methamphetamines & Party Drugs. - Lesbian / Bisexual Women. - Australia / New Zealand. - Europe. - Tobacco. - Highlights: Papers. - Internet Resources. - Abstracts. - Bibliographies. - Books. - Full Text Papers / Documents.


General: Mostly American & Canadian

Alcohol use among the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Community (2010). - Lesbians and Substance Abuse (2010). - Concern at drug use in Brighton's gay community (2009). - Two-thirds of young US gay men use drugs says study, amid alarm that HIV research under threat (2003). - Higher use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco in gay, lesbian and bisexual population (2007, NZ, Alternate Link). - Chicago Holds Forum on LGBT Substance Use Among Seniors (2006). - Chasing the dragon: Crack use rising among queer seniors (2007). - Coming to America to be gay (2001): "The urge to fit in takes its toll. "Gay immigrant participation lends itself to venues with substance abuse and lots of sex," says Diaz." - Poly-drug use common amongst gay men in UK. - Fact File: Gay Drug Culture (2004). - Gay Scene: Drug Information. - Party drug dependence higher among gay men, expert warns (2010). - LGBTTTIQ Overview (Canada). - Gay Teens Turning to Drugs & Alcohol. - Same But Different: Substance use in queer and trans communities. - Doing “Sex Drugs”: Accomplishing Social Identities as Young Black and Latino Gay and Bisexual Men (2010).

 
Studies: Young Gay Men More Likely to Take Drugs (2003). - Gay Men at Increased Risk for Drug Addiction and Alcoholism (2006). - NIAAA: Sexual Orientation and Alcohol Use Disorders (2005). - Queer teens more likely to use crystal: study (2006) - Substance Abuse Among Among Gays and Lesbians (2007).- Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Drug Abuse and Alcohol Abuse. - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Substance Abuse N/A: "Alcoholism is a fatal chronic illness affecting the lives of 20-30% of the homosexual population. Studies have found that 35% of lesbians had a history of excessive drinking, compared to only 5% of the heterosexual women. In addition, further studies have shown that 30% of lesbians and gay men are addicted to drugs, suggesting that the gay and lesbian community constitutes a high-risk population with regard to alcoholism and drug abuse..." (Alternate Link).- Pride Institute: Drug Abuse: Studies indicate that, when compared with the mainstream (heterosexual) population, LGBT people are more likely to use drugs, have higher rates of substance abuse, and are more likely to continue drug abuse into later life. Although LGBT people have been shown to use all types of drugs, certain drugs appear to be more popular in the LGBT community than in the mainstream community.

Advocate Poll: Has recreational drug use become a rite of passage for gay men and lesbians?  Yes =  38.3%, No = 51.3%, Undecided = 10.4%. - June 30, 1976: A legacy of drugs. - Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Use in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) Communities (Australia, 2009).  - Substance Abuse: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transsexual, Transgender, Two-spirit, Intersex and Queer (LGBTTTIQ, Canada).  - Facts on Lesbian & Gay Substance Abuse (2000). - Gay people & drugs (West Midlands, UK). - Addictions and Homosexuality: Research problems. (Social Action Project) - Lesbian & Bisexual Women and Substance Abuse (PDF Download, Alternate Link). - Consumo de drogas y alcohol en la comunidad GLTB: Estudio de CIPAC revela que literalmente nos estamos matando (2004). - Harm Reduction: Let's Stand Up For Queer Youth. - Social Risk Factors Associated with Substance Abuse Among Gay and Lesbian Youth. - What Is a Gay Friendly Alcohol Rehab? -Alcoholism Is a Disease in the the Gay and Lesbian Population Too. - 3 new studies cite HIV risk of meth use (2007): Number of Clinic clients seeking help for club drug abuse on the rise. - Gay Youth Report Higher Rates Of Drug And Alcohol Use - University Of Pittsburgh Researchers Report Findings In Journal Addiction (Meta-Analysis, 2008). -  Dependência Química e Diversidade Sexual (2010) [Chemical Dependency and Sexual Diversity.] Google Translation.

Online Paper: Alcoholism and addiction in homosexuals: etiology, prevalence & treatment (1995). (PDF Download). - Real World Chris and Alcoholism in the Gay Community (2002). - Drugs Taint an Annual Round of Gay Revels (1998). - Stopping Stereotypes: Gays, Lesbians & Alcoholism (2009). - Stopping Stereotypes: Gays, lesbians: Problem Drinking and Alcoholism (2009, PDF Download). - WOMONSPACE Our Voice in the Lesbian Community - Substance Abuse. - The Latest Breakthroughs in Recovery from Addiction: A Report from the Twelfth Annual Gay and Lesbian Addiction Studies Conference (1997). - Why Health is Larger than You and I (1999): "Furthermore, AIDS is not the only serious health concern among young gay men, as I personally know several young guys who are gay or bisexual and who have had their lives and health negatively affected by drug abuse." - Drinking Motivations Among Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual College Students (2006). - Disclosure of Sexual Orientation and Subsequent Substance Use and Abuse Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: Critical Role of Disclosure Reactions (2009).

1999 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey: "Sexual minority youth (those who identified themselves as gay/lesbian/or bisexual and/or who had any same-sex sexual contact) had higher rates of drug use than their peers, including higher lifetime rates of using marijuana (70% vs. 49%), cocaine (29% vs. 9%), methamphetamines (30% vs. 7%), and injected drugs (18% vs. 2%)." - Effects of Life Stressors on Substance Use Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth. - Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) and Transgender (LGBT) Substance Abuse Issues: Are Substance Abuse Issues: Are They at Higher Risk for They at Higher Risk for Substance Substance Abuse (PDF Download). - Alcohol & Seniors: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Older Adults. - Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems & Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Individuals (PDF Download) by NALGAP. - Use of crystal methamphetamine and other club drugs among high school students in Vancouver and Victoria (Canada, 2006, PDF, Reference Page): The 2.5% of students who identified themselves as gay or bisexual had significantly elevated risk of previous year use of MA (odds ratio [OR] 26.28), ecstasy (OR 3.29),and ketamine (OR 8.26).

SIECUS Fact Sheet: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth N/A (Alternate Link): "A study of public high school students in the ninth to twelfth grades in the 1995 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance found: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual orientation was associated with an increased lifetime frequency of use of cocaine, crack, anabolic steroids, inhalants, “illegal,” and injectable drugs  Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth were more likely to report using tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine before 13 years of age. (Reference: R. Garofalo, R. Cameron Wolf, S. Kessel, et al., 1998, “The Association between Health Risk Behaviors and Sexual Orientation among a School-based Sample of Adolescents. Pediatrics, 101(5): 895-902.” PubMed Abstract. - “It’s One of the Better Drugs to Use”: Perceptions of Cocaine Use Among Gay and Bisexual Asian American Men (2010).

Teen Assessment Project Executive Summary For the Community of Dover: Teen Assessment Project (TAP) (PDF Download): ""gay” (3%)". - Gay Teens in Upstate New York: A Study [TAP] of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Health Risk Behaviors (2001): "They are much more likely to: have tried to kill themselves; not feel safe in school; have sex several times a week; and never use condoms. In addition, these teens reported that they were much more likely to experience unwanted touching and sexual intercourse both by another teen and by an adult. They also indicated that they are many more times likely to be hurt at home, hurt by another teen, adult, or by boy/girl friend."

Drugs in the Gay Scene (The Stonewall Generation) (Alternate Link): "Drugs were part and parcel of the San Francisco experience, as well as the baby-boomer experience nationwide in the '70s... Especially in the heavy leather bathhouses, towards the time that they got shut down, they were mostly drug dens. It was very conducive to the kinds of things people were doing, but there was a lot of drugs. I remember at Animals, you could literally go up to the person running at the desk and say, "Okay, what room is the person selling in tonight?" And he'd go, "Oh, well, there's a store set up in room 12."" - Poppers – the Sweet Smell of Hypocrisy: Despite the massive amount of public resources being ploughed into safer-sex messages targeting Crystal-Meth users, binge drinkers and participants in other more well know high risk sexual behaviours, alarming research carried out by the Medical Research Council and the Terrance Higgins Trust has recently declared that poppers appear to be “the only drug associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV” and concluded “if you sniff poppers there’s an increased risk of HIV transmission if you have unprotected sex”. In 2007 the Terrance Higgins Trust also released findings of a major new study which discovered 80% of HIV positive men used poppers compared to 58% who remained negative. The connection between HIV and poppers is indisputable. 

Just Can't Get Enough (2001): "When it comes to discussing drug and alcohol use among gay men and lesbians, it’s easy to simply focus on the sexy stories most widely reported by the mainstream media... One thing that’s extremely common in the homosexual experience, however, is that gay and lesbian bars and clubs are often among the first places young queers feel comfortable with their sexuality. "Look at the community. It revolves so much around bars and clubs," says Fitzsimmons. "When you’re coming out, your self-esteem might be shaky, and drugs or alcohol is a good way to calm down. But it’s very easy to slip into a situation where that becomes an addiction or that use puts the user at risk."" - Jane Likes Girls - Television movie 'The Truth About Jane' depicts a gay teen coming out: "Substance abuse, especially, can become an easy coping strategy; Jane, for example, at one point sneaks out of her house to drink her frustrations away." - Sex and Living: London’s gay scene in crisis (2007).

Drug Abuse in Gay Males. - Drug and alcohol abuse as part of many problems facing GLB youth. (A part of document: "Health Concerns of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Community" 2nd Edition, 1997: PDF Download) - Related Statistics for Youth. - Opinion: "Don't get me wrong; I have no problems with the clubs in Buffalo. I like to go out sometimes myself. The problems I have are all the people who go out there to just get drunk and do drugs. Too many times lately I've seen my gay friends drown their sorrows in a bottle of their favorite alcohol or just get drugged up to forget things." - A Dialogue with John Preston: "...alcoholism and drug abuse are clearly out of control problems in the gay community, No one gets a handle, comes close to, or wants to deal with them. Socially, the urban gay world continues to revolve around bars." Suddenly, Everybody's Talking About Crystal and Sex: (Alternate Link) "I believe we gay men have always used drugs and alcohol as a coping mechanism to deal with the issues of gay oppression: we drink or take drugs because life is difficult, dating is dangerous, and relationships are frightening. And the drug that is most popular now, back from the 70s, is crystal, used among gay men as a sexual enhancement." 

Party On: (PDF Download N/A) (Alternate Link) The party scene... The dancing, the community, the drugs... Columnist Alan Ilagan gives us some perspective on the scene and his opinions of it. "From the giddy Ecstasy-driven heights of raving youngsters to the depths of those drowning in the dreaded K-hole, casual drug use on the gay scene may have deeper repercussions than a bad trip or a speed-induced freak-out. In one sense, drugs have become just another mask that we as gay men put on in order to hide our true selves. Even though many of us have come out of the closet, we still sometimes feel the need to hide ~ from pain, from possible rejection, from life itself. What better way to do it than in an altered state, where we can always lay claim to the excuse that "we weren’t our real selves"? Of course, there is another contingent which believes that drugs such as Ecstasy and alcohol enable them to reveal who they really are uninhibited and honest in a way that is often forbidden in society." (Other Articles. - Alan's Web Site). - Foul shot (1999): Steroid use by gay males. - Steroids and Club Drugs (2010). - Gay men, sex and drugs: Steroids (2007). - UK Gays and Lesbians more likely to use Steroids than heterosexuals (2010).

Spinning out of control: "For some sex addicts, sex alone isn't enough of a high. They turn to crystal meth, a form of speed that doubles as an aphrodisiac. Here is a snapshot of what that experience can be like..." - Crystal Ball (2002): (Alternate Link) The party drug crystal meth is fueling a new epidemic of unsafe sex - and, Ethan Brown reports, some experts fear the party's only just begun. - The sting (2000): Navy investigators seeking ecstasy dealing at Washington dance clubs are accused of targeting gay sailors. Demon Drugs (1999): "Danny Reese. He explored Ecstasy, nightlife, and sex as a part of coming out, then left Vancouver's gay party scene after he decided his drug use had become a problem." - Party Drug Use: - Overview. - Drugs, Doses & Effects. - Risks & Long-Term Effects. - Treatment & Prevention. - Party Drugs in Toronto's Gay Dance Club Scene: Issues for HIV Prevention for Gay Men (2004, PDF Download). - Gay men and the consequences of party drugs (Conference PPT, 2009).

The Queer Issue - The return of public sex (2002): "Insecurity has fueled the use of crystal meth and GHB. Both of these drugs, especially in combination, impart what Piel calls "that sense of erotic urges beyond your own control." Marathon sex sessions become uninhibited, athletic, passionate, transcendent—"better than any porno," says one 21-year-old tweaker. The rampant use of steroids, which are more readily available to gay men than ever before thanks to their potential to stave off AIDS wasting, adds to the feelings of power, sexual energy, and invulnerability. And as anyone who's seen a G fallout knows, drugs certainly inhibit the ability to negotiate safer sex." - Dutch to legalise gay sex in public park (2008). - On the beat: debate on public sex dividing the gay community (Australia, 2010). - Atlanta Police Chief Says Public Sex, Drugs Reason For Atlanta Bar Raid — Although None Were Found (2009). - Boston Cops Take on Vandalism, Assaults in Park... But ’Public Sex’ Makes the Headlines (2009). - Factors associated with sex in the context of methamphetamine use in different sexual venues among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (2010): For purposes of analysis, respondents were classified according to their preference of sexual venue: private (e.g., home), commercial (e.g., bathhouse), or public (e.g., public park or restroom).

New York City Department of Health Bureau of HIV Prevention Gay and Lesbian Health Report: Substance Abuse. (Alternate link) - GLB Youth And Drugs.- Of greater San Diego's 2.7 million people, approximately 10% are gay and lesbian. Of those, one third - 90,000 persons  - are affected by alcoholism and/or drug abuse. - And Now, A Word From Your Mother.... Drug & Alcohol use and abuse in gay society N/A. - Sex for two days straight: Exploring the enduring appeal - and some of the risks - of ecstasy (1999). -  Meth, Men, Myths: Increased Risk in the Gay Community N/A (1996). - In New York City, it is estimated that there are more than 300,000 of us who are having problems with alcohol and other drugs ...

Lesbians, Gays, and Alcoholism Treatment: Challenges to Recovery (Alternate Link). - Health Concerns Among Gay Men (1998). - Correlations between substance abuse and a history of violence among homosexual men and women (1998). - Gays, Lesbians, Alcoholism Treatment. - A Safe Place for Recovering GLBTis. - Hi, my name is Mac and I am an Alcoholic: "Due to the high incidence of alcoholism and drug addiction amongst members of the gay community, I feel that I would like to share the story of my own alcoholism and addiction. With it, I will also share the story of the sometimes rocky road of recovery..." - Shift Peer Recovery Network: Supporting dynamic recovery paths by uniting our LGBTQ community to experience freedom through empowerment.

Pride Institute, the nation's leader in providing addiction treatment for the lesbian, gay, and bisexual communities, provides such an environment. - A lifetime of lost weekends: Analysis / Programs targeting gay & lesbian addicts help them keep clean (1999). - A drug rehab for the GLBT communityGay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgender Recovery and Spirituality Sites on the Web. - Recovery in the gay and lesbian community. - Gay Drug Rehab and Gay Alcohol Rehab Programs in Texas. - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Treatment for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (GLBTQ) Population. - Options: Treatment for Drug and Alcohol Addiction, Especially For Us. - Gay Drug Rehab Programs and Drug Rehab Programs; Is There a Difference? - Lesbian Alcohol Rehab Treatment. - LGBT Drug Rehab.

From Soulforce: Drug Addiction, Loneliness, Self-Hatred, Guilt, and Fear: - Substance Abuse in the Gay and Lesbian Community. - Getting Help For Yourself or For Someone You Know. - A Wide Selection of Helpful Resources.

Gay/bi men & substance use (pt1. 1995). - Gay/bi men & substance use (pt2, 1995). - Lesbian Alcohol and Drug Support Group. - Living and Loving as a Clean and Sober Lesbian

ADAPT (Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Training): - Fact Sheet on Gay / Lesbian Substance Abuse N/A. - Gay/Lesbian Sensitivity Trainings for Substance Abuse Counselors N/A. - Drug Can Be Lethal If Taken With Alcohol N/A: "An increase in recreational use of gamma hydroxy butyrate, or GHB, among gay and bisexual men has resulted in an alarming rise in reported overdoses in recent weeks. Many of the dozen GHB overdoses reported in Ann Arbor and Ferndale were among gay and bisexual men." - Alcohol and Seniors: Alcohol Dependence and Misuse among Older Gay and Lesbian People (2006, Alternate Link). - Chicago Holds Forum on LGBT Substance Use Among Seniors (2006).

The APA Healthy Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students Project. - APA GLBT Publications & Resources. - Counseling & Treatment Issues: An Annotated Bibliography N/A.

Substance Use among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations (2000): This session will investigate specific issues that are related to substance use within the LGBT community, and will explore topics relating to the assessment and delivery of substance use services to LGBT populations. Structural and other barriers will be identified, and recommendations will be outlined to improve access to service deliver... Social identity and substance use in the lesbian community. - Risk and protective factors associated with substance use among gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents. - Substance use and high risk sexual behaviors among rural gay men. - Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population. - A challenge for managed care: Addressing addictive disease treatment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. - Lesbians, Gays, and Alcoholism Treatment: Challenges to Recovery.

Specialty Programs Impress Many at Facility for Drug Rehab in Florida (2007): "After extensive research & experience in treating the GLBTQ population, Lakeview’s medical staff began to see the impact heterosexism, homophobia, prejudice and discrimination could have on individuals. For this reason they developed Freedom Rings a program for drug rehab in Florida based on the belief that the vast majority of the GLBT community would derive greater benefit from a gay friendly drug rehab program, one that incorporates quality drug addiction treatment with “real world” interaction. Overall, for a person to derive the greatest benefit out of a facility for drug rehab in Florida, they must feel safe enough to be completely honest, secure in not being judged and in an addiction treatment setting that resembles the “real world”. For certain groups such as the Gay and Latino community, this can prove extremely difficult in a drug rehab, addiction treatment program or alcohol rehab that does not view sexual preference and cultural differences as a priority..." - Lakeview Health Systems Drug Rehab Center, Specializing in Gay Friendly Addiction Treatment Programs, Launches New Comprehensive Website (2007).

Kû Aloha Ola Mau: A place of healing and recovery: "In the 1980's, with the advent of HIV/AIDS, DASH was faced with a new disease and a new stigma. Its devastating effects threatened the lives of first, gay males, then injection drug users and then the general population. Forced now to pay attention to this stigmatized population, the community provided more resources to care for drug users and persons with AIDS. This movement miraculously saved the State from sky rocketing HIV infection rates that other states experienced because of transmission through injection drug users." - Supporting Transgender People Living with Addictions: A Skill-Building Workshop for Addictions Service Providers (2007). - The Washington Transgender Needs Assessment Survey: Executive Summary (2000).

 Drug Rehabs for the LGBT Community. - GLBT Dual Diagnosis Treatment Programs in Florida. - GLBT Friendly Alcohol Detox Programs; Only a Few. - The GLBT Community and Their Need for Substance Abuse Treatment. - Living Sober - by Dwight Stevers  - Lesbian Social Drinking: The role of Alcohol in Growing and Living as Lesbian N/A. Lesbian and Bisexual Women and Subtance Abuse (2001, PDF Download). - Overcoming addiction without getting addicted to God (2007). - Preventing Substance Use, Sexual Risk and Suicide in Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Teens (2006).

Bisexual Drug and Alcohol Addiction Treatment: Individuals who live alternative lifestyles are fighting a “two front war” when they suffer from addiction.   On one front lies the battle against the specter of drug and alcohol addiction – on the other is coping with ignorance about their lifestyle.   For individuals of the bisexual community, facing up to and conquering addiction can be a challenge. Why do Bisexual Men and Women develop Addictions? Oftentimes, a bisexual individual will be faced with ignorance and intolerance over their lifestyle.   As a result, many will slip into depression or suffer from other mental health issues.  If these men and women do not seek professional help for these conditions, they are likely to self-medicate using drugs and alcohol.   Unchecked, the combination of mental illness and substance abuse can lead to serious addiction issues. In addition, there is sometimes a “party scene” attached to the bisexual lifestyle.  In these settings there is an acceptance of heavy drug or alcohol use.  That makes it very difficult for the individual to break the cycle of addiction (as they fear being ostracized by their peer group).

L.A. Gay & Lesbian Center: Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drug Prevention: Trying to stay away from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs?  Whether you are recovering from addiction, still struggling with substance abuse or simply prefer meeting people in alcohol- and drug-free environments, the L.A. Gay & Lesbian Center has special events just for you. Substance-free events offered through the Center's Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Prevention program (ATOD) include: ....

NYC Alcoholism/Addiction and Gay-Related Link.Prevline's Publications for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, & Transgendered Communities (Use Search). - Best Practices for Lesbian/Bisexual Women with Substance Use Disorders (2009). - Bridging the Gap: Alcohol Related Treatment and Lesbian Identified Persons (2010). - Lesbians’ Drinking Patterns: Beyond the Data (2003): Abstract

Treatment Options Are Available For Substance Abuse (1999). - Why LGBT Treatment? - Help for addicts (2001): "Aiming to provide better substance abuse treatment for gay patients, the federal government in January issued a new guide to assist in the development of culturally relevant rehabilitation programs for gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered people." - Seattle's Drugs & Alcohol Resources.

Alcohol abuse and dependence in the gay and lesbian populations. - Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems & Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (Lgbt) Individuals.(PDF Download)

In July of 1979, the National Association of Lesbian and Gay Alcoholism Professionals - now the National Association of Lesbian and Gay Addiction Professionals (NALGAP) - was formed to fight an epidemic: alcohol and other drug addiction in the gay and lesbian communities and homophobia in the alcoholism and drug addiction treatment fields. - NALGAP Web Site: "Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems & Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Individuals" provides an overview of of LGBT substance abuse issues (PDF) - LGBT Populations: Substance abuse statistics. - Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth / Adults [& Substance Abuse] N/A: "Research has found that gay, lesbian, and bisexual Americans are at increased risk for alcohol and other drug problems. Although this audience comprises more than 10 percent of people at risk for problems, alcohol and other drug programs generally do not address their prevention needs."

At the Pacific Research and Training Alliance N/A: "We established the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Technical Assistance Project in 1995, with additional funding from the California Department of Alcohol and Other Drug Programs. This project became one of the first programs in the country to offer training, program assessments, and information on the problems of substance abuse in the LGBT community. In 1998 the project expanded into tobacco education and research with additional county and state grants, and co-produced Practical Guidelines When Considering Tobacco, Alcohol and Pharmaceutical Funding. The year 2000 saw funding levels doubled and continued growth in the project." - The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Technical Assistance Project. - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender LGBT Substance Abuse (2002).

Center for Addiction and Mental Health: Gay Males, Lesbians, Bisexual People. - CAMH: Rainbow Services: "provides counselling to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and transsexual people who are concerned about their use of drugs and alcohol. Our services are available to individuals with a variety of goals, including those who want to try to quit, cut down, or who would just like to gain more awareness about their drinking or drug use. Our programs are specialized to take into account the unique needs and issues that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and transsexual people face..." - Substance Use: Issues to consider for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, transsexual, two-spirit, intersex and queer communities.

Pilot Project: Substance Abuse, Comorbid Mental Health  Problems, and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Gay Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents. "To address these gaps in our knowledge, the proposed RO1 study is a 5-year longitudinal study that will identify the influence of risk and protective factors associated with substance abuse disorders, comorbid mental health problems, and HIV risk behaviors among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents as they move from adolescence to young adulthood." - Risk and protective factors associated with substance use among gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents

From Prevline: Resource Guide: Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexuals and Transgender Populations.N/A. - A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Individuals (PDF Download) (Related Information).  - Celebrating the Pride and Diversity Among and Within the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Substance Abuse Prevention & Treatment Issues N/A. - 5 Key Facts N/A. - Prevention Primer: Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual Youth/Adults N/A SAMHSA. "...alcohol and other drug programs generally do not address their prevention needs. "Proceedings, The Research Symposium on Alcohol and Other Drug Problem Prevention Among Lesbians and Gay Men. California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs (1991). Prevention Resources N/A. - Treatment & Recovery Resources N/A. -  Club Drug Scene Quiz N/A. NOTE: Fed LGBT website erased by Bush drone (Posted by Sheelzebub January 23, 2006 in Bush Admin): "Reader Andy of Eleventh Avenue South shot me an email to answer the question that I posed in an earlier post, How long before a Bush drone puts a stop to this? The answer is 12 days, friends. That’s how long it takes for a Bushie to scrub a government web site of gay-positive content. The URL: http://ncadi.samhsa.gov/features/lgbt/ used to go to the “Celebrating the Pride and Diversity Among and Within the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations” section (Google cache of the yanked page here) of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s web site. Surfing there today, you receive the following message..." - SAMHSA Move Against Gay References Sparks Outcry. - Deleted Webpages from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (N/A, Related). - Substance Abuse: Prevention & Treatment Issues N/A. - Specialized Treatment Programs Sparse for Gay and Lesbian Clients, SAMHSA Says (2010).

Homeless Queer Youth: "Life on the streets may involve the use and/or abuse of alcohol and drugs, criminal activity, survival prostitution, violence, dropping out of school, and exposure to HIV and other infections. Durby states that drug use 'is almost routine among homeless youth.'" - Street of Broken Dreams: "What led you to start tricking? D: Drugs. I didn't know how to support my drug habit, and I didn't want to steal money from my family, so I came to the boulevard. David, so you do it for the drugs? Are most of the hustlers doing it for the drugs? D: Yeah, most of them are. The ones that are not doing it for the drugs are the lucky ones. They can get out quicker..." - Young, homeless, gay and on meth (2007). - Advocacy groups call for action on homeless gay youths (2007): " Once homeless, the report says, these young people are more vulnerable than their peers to mental health problems, substance abuse, and sexually transmitted diseases. The report's lead author, NGLTF policy analyst Nicholas Ray, said about one third of homeless gay youths engage in ''survival sex''—exchanging sex for money, food, clothes, or drugs." - Homeless Queer Youth (2006): PDF Download.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness: Download Page. - Full Report: PDF Download: "The combination of stressors inherent to the daily life of homeless youth leads them to abuse drugs and alcohol. For example, in Minnesota, five separate statewide studies found that between 10 and 20 percent of homeless youth self-identify as chemically dependent. These risks are exacerbated for homeless youth identifying as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB). Personal drug usage, family drug usage, and the likelihood of enrolling in a treatment program are all higher for LGB homeless youth than for their heterosexual peers... In recent years, increased attention has been paid to how LGBT youth might be at particular risk for substance abuse and associated health risks. Social stigma is a potent force behind the substance abuse problems of LGBT homeless youth. LGBT youth in general experience chronic stress that is inflicted by peers and family members in the form of verbal and physical abuse. However, this verbal and physical abuse is associated not only with increased substance abuse by LGBT youth but also with negative outcomes including schoolrelated problems, running away from home, conflict with the law, prostitution and suicide... In their six-state, eight-city study of public health issues that focused on substance use, Van Leeuwen et al. indicate that alcohol abuse was more common among LGB respondents (42 percent of sample) than non-LGB youth (27 percent of sample) and 38 percent of LGB youth had been in a substance abuse treatment program, as compared to 27 percent of non-LGB youth." - The fact sheets for Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Florida, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. - More Help Urged for Homeless Gay Youth (2007). - Characteristics and HIV risk behaviors of homeless, substance-using men who have sex with men (2006).

Health Concerns of the Transgender Community: "Many members of the transgender/transsexual community rely on prostitution as one of the few available work options. As the evidence from interviews and observations suggests, this is particularly a risk for transgenders who come from low income and minority communities. Transgenders who are involved in sex industry work are especially at risk for alcohol and intravenous drug abuse... Both alcohol and drug use, often rooted in feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, are common in the transgender community as a whole, not just among sex industry workers. Drugs used by transgenders include crack and heroin; methods of use include snorting, free-basing, and injecting. Although accurate statistics on drug and alcohol use are scarce, there is substantial evidence in the published literature and from interviews in Boston that such use is widespread and significant. A study of transgender prostitutes in two areas of Atlanta, Georgia found the rate of crack use to be 71% and 56.3% respectively. The MDPH/GISST study estimated that at least 80% of Boston's transgender population has a drug and/or alcohol problem."

Gender Identity 101: A Transgender Primer.(Alternate Link) "As with the general population, transgender persons of color are more likely to be economically disadvantaged and face disproportionately higher rates of victimization, unemployment, substance abuse, HIV infection, prostitution, and other difficulties. Transgender persons of color also report a loss of community identity when their gender identity becomes known. In African American, Asian, Pacific Islander, or Latin American contexts, for example, heterosexual males and females commonly stereotype gay males and lesbians as no longer a part of their ethnic  community because they assume that all people of color are or should be heterosexual. This ostracism carries over to transgender individuals (Source: Israel & Tarver, 1997). " - Building culturally sensitive substance use prevention and treatment programs for transgendered populations (2000). - Engaging Transgender Substance Users in Substance Use Treatment (2006). - Healthy People 2020 Transgender Health Fact Sheet (2010).

Substance abuse counsellor's attitudes regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered clients (2000). "242 substance abuse counselors in Iowa completed mail-in questionnaires... The counselors reported very little formal education regarding the needs of these clients, and nearly half had negative or ambivalent attitudes. Respondents had the greatest negativity  regarding transgendered clients and reported knowing the least about this group. Counselors frequently lacked knowledge about the legal issues of these clients, the concepts of domestic partnership and internalized homophobia, and family issues." - GLB Issues; What you need to know (APA). - Treating substance abuse in sexual minorities: Providing appropriate services (2007, PPT).

 Launch of Healthy People 2020, USA (2010): Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health: Goal - Improve the health, safety, and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. - Overview - LGBT individuals encompass all races and ethnicities, religions, and social classes. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions are not asked on most national or State surveys, making it difficult to estimate the number of LGBT individuals and their health needs. Research suggests that LGBT individuals face health disparities linked to societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of their civil and human rights. Discrimination against LGBT persons has been associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders,1 substance abuse,2, 3 and suicide.4 Experiences of violence and victimization are frequent for LGBT individuals, and have long-lasting effects on the individual and the community.5 Personal, family, and social acceptance of sexual orientation and gender identity affects the mental health and personal safety of LGBT individuals.6.

Temoshok LR, Wald RL (2008). Integrating multidimensional HIV prevention programs into healthcare settings. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5): 612-9. PDF Download. Abstract. "HIV risk behaviors are much more common among persons with mental illness (68–73) and active substance abusers (74–79). Additionally, increased levels of transmission risk behaviors are found among individuals with severe social needs, such as homelessness (68,80), domestic and/or intimate partner violence (81–83), and juvenile delinquency (78). These findings suggest that, rather than conceiving of HIV transmission risk as a specific behavioral problem requiring narrowly targeted services, it is important to recognize the role of a broad range of social, psychological, and medical services in promoting and enhancing HIV secondary prevention. Importantly, receiving treatment for mental illness was found to reduce transmission risk behaviors in active drug users (84). Housing programs, social work services, and general mental health care may all indirectly reduce transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals; thus, they represent critical components of HIV primary care."

Alcoholism & Addiction in the Gay Community (2008): For more than 25 years, conventional wisdom has held that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are much more likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs than are their heterosexual counterparts. But recent efforts to clarify and quantify the prevalence of drug and alcohol use within the LGBT community have cast doubt on the veracity of this long-held belief. There is little argument that individuals in some subcategories of the LGBT community are at higher risk for abusing certain substances. For example, the early 2000s saw a dramatic spike in crystal meth use among sexually active gay men. But the tenet that all LGBT persons are at significantly greater likelihood of abusing alcohol or other drugs has come under increased scrutiny in recent years....


Methamphetamines / Party Drugs

Crystal meth is an intensive stimulant with disinhibitory qualities (2007): "Once very big amongst some of the US gay community but now spreading fast into mainstream culture, meth was originally used by bikers and truckers to stay awake on long journeys." - Crystal Meth in New York: A Serious Problem for the Gay Community (2010). - Crystal Meth & Sex: What's love got to do with it? - tweaker.org: "This website contains information for gay and bisexual men who use methamphetamine. We in no way promote or encourage the use of this controlled substance. Instead, we seek to help individuals minimize the harms associated with use of methamphetamine. Because of our harm reduction goals, some language and imagery may not be suitable for individuals under 18 years of age." - GLMA Report Finds Meth Addiction Among Gay and Bisexual Men is Treatable (2006). - The trouble with Tina (2003): Experts say crystal meth is worst ‘club drug’ addiction to kick.  - Meth group's Degan praised by national treatment center (2008). - The New Plague: An Epidemic Swallowing Gay America (2002, Alternate Link). - Crystal addict must hit bottom first: experts - Patience advised for family, friends often manipulated by meth abusers (2003).

CRISSY Campaign. Make Room for the New Girl in Town - CRISSY has Arrived! New STOP AIDS Project campaign talks about the relationship between sex, crystal meth (speed) and HIV (1997). - Who's that girl? Crissy is the new meth in your neighborhood (1997). - Making Everything Crystal Clear. - Tina Rules (1997): "Easy as it may be to say that crystal is a problem that belongs solely to the circuit crowd, it's actually far more insidious and is used by gays of all socio-economic levels." - From the LGBT Health Channel: Party Drug Use (2001). - crystalneon.org: "This website contains information for gay and bisexual men who use methamphetamine." - crystalneon.org's resources. - Is L.A.'s gay community suffering a crystal epidemic? It depends on who you ask (1999). - Crystal Meth and the Gay Community (2006). - The Gay Community's New Epidemic (2001): "the epidemic of drug use in the gay clubs. The use of the drugs is so tied to the place they are consumed that they have been nicknamed "club drugs." Among the favorites are crystal, GHB, ketamine and ecstasy." - Methamphetamine and HIV (2004).  - Unknown odds: Mixing party drugs & HIV cocktails (1999).

Singing Through the Silence of Crystal Meth Addiction (2009). - Life or Meth. - The AIDS epidemic is soaring in the gay community, blamed this time on drug abuse. Crystal meth is behind the rise in HIV infection. - Crystal Meth, HIV and the Gay Community (2004). - Crystal meth threat growing: Gays' use in N.E. fueling HIV fears (2005).  - Speed Nation: Methamphetamine, HIV and Hepatitis (2005). .- Crystal Meth and HIV/AIDS: The Perfect Storm? (2007) - Back from the brink: crystal meth has destroyed the lives of countless gay men. Yet the courageous survivors are fighting to stay clean and start new lives (2005).

Drugs and Alcohol: Use or Chemical Dependence? (1997) - Risky Business (2006). - Party drug use (2001). - Club Drugs (2004). (Alternate Link)- Worrying About the Dark Side of 'Circuit Parties'. - Circuit party planners meet to discuss unsafe sex, drugs (1997). - As New Years' weekend approarches... (1998): "Gay City is concerned about how little information is available to gay and bisexual men on the risks associated with the combination of certain common club drugs. To respond to this problem, Gay City is launching a new media campaign to address the use of recreational drugs among Seattle's gay and bisexual men." - Gay City urges Gay and Bisexual men to party smart for New Year’s Eve (2000): "'Obviously the most healthy choice is for people not to use party drugs,' said John Leonard, Gay City executive director. 'But for many in the Gay community, drug use is a big part of our culture.' - Why? "It was about 4:00am, January 1, 1990. I was reeking of alcohol..." - The Alcohol and Drug Wildcard: Substance Use and Psychiatric Problems in People with HIV (2000).

GLMA N/A (1999): methamphetamine use has been a particularly destructive problem for members of our community for quite some time. An analysis of 2,300 "speed" clients seen by providers of direct drug treatment services in San Francisco in 1994-95 demonstrated that 39 percent of them were LGBT and 37 percent were HIV positive. - Celebrating Difference? Recreational Drug Use in Manchester's "Gay Village (2000)." - Westside / Cover Story, Positively Risky; Sex-Enhancing Drug May Expose New Generation of Gay Men to AIDS (1995). - Ninety Gay Minutes in the Life of Rufus Wainwright (2007): ...And perhaps most notably, he's a gay musician who is utterly frank about his sexuality, his troubled past, and his opinions. And yes, people still buy his records... Many celebrities wouldn't hold up to – let alone stand for – an unfiltered look at the ins and outs of their professional and private lives. But Wainwright has been an uncommonly candid figure since the beginning, speaking publicly about both family struggles (his parents' divorce; his issues with his father) and his battles with drug addiction, both of which also became catalysts in his songwriting..." - Relations lesbiennes et beaucoup de drogue pour Lindsay Lohan N/A (Related). 

Meth Use Among Gay Men Decreasing; Other Drug Use Holding Steady (2007). - The Gay Community's New Epidemic N/A: "the epidemic of drug use in the gay clubs. The use of the drugs is so tied to the place they are consumed that they have been nicknamed "club drugs." Among the favorites are crystal, GHB, ketamine and ecstasy." The ABC’s of X K & G: "The drug 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), most fondly known as ecstasy, XTC, X, or Adam, is one of many designer drugs who's use runs rampant in the gay community. Ecstasy is a type of amphetamine (speed) and shares properties of both amphetamines and hallucinogens. The increasing use of ecstasy is related to an undeserved reputation for safety, affordability, and the effects of benevolence and emotional bonding that ensues. Touted as a drug that enhances sexual libido, more accurate accounts describe sensations of "loving everything and everyone around you", and enhancing empathy, introspection, and communication." - New Data Reveals Shifting NYC Meth Demographic (2010): Almost a decade later, the attention once focused on meth in the gay population of New York City has greatly diminished. Some would have us believe that this is because the drug is no longer abused, and that their peers have ostracized those few who are still using the drug. The latter may be true and likely the result of effective media campaigns, but this remains an area of speculation without the evaluation research to support it. The former is completely false. A stroll of any Internet site geared at sexual hook-ups will prove quite the contrary, especially as the clock approaches midnight and the night turns into day.So why have we stopped paying attention to the meth problem? .

Healthy and Gay (2001): In this, the last of our "Party People" series, I wanted to wrap up and draw some closure to the topic of party drugs before moving on to discuss other gay related health issues. Over the past three months we have focused primarily on the three "newest" of the popular party drugs. It is important to remember that these are certainly NOT the only drugs on the scene. Reports show that in the gay community use of ecstasy, special K, and GHB is higher than ever; but our community is also still frequently using drugs like cocaine, crystal meth, LSD ("acid"), rohypnol ("roofies"), Viagra, and poppers." - Risky sex, drugs: circuit party norms? - Dangerous Liaison: Club Drug Use and HIV/AIDS (2002). - Gay Men May Take Health Risks At 'Circuit Parties' (2001): "He and his colleagues surveyed nearly 300 gay and bisexual men in the San Francisco area... Most of the men reported using at least one recreational drug when attending an out-of-town circuit party, Colfax and his colleagues report, with 80% taking Ecstasy, 66% taking ketamine, 43% crystal methamphetamines, 29% the so-called 'liquid Ecstasy' GHB, 14% taking the impotence drug Viagra, and 12% taking amyl nitrates, also known as 'poppers.' (Related 2001 Research Paper) - Rise in Viagra Abuse Spells Trouble: Gay men mixing erectile drug with illegal substances, health officials say. - Viagra Use Among American Gay Men Cause for Concern (2002).

Poppers and Viagra heady, deadly combo (2001): "The study also confirmed the experts' suspicions -- the connection between gay men, Viagra, combination drugs and unsafe sex. While most experts agree that the popper/Viagra combination is dangerous and lends to unsafe sexual environments, it is not usually lethal. Still, the link between Viagra and illicit drugs has sparked other studies since the 1999 circuit party study." - Gay Community Meets to Discuss Viagra Danger N/A: "Viagra is said to counteract temporary impotency induced by the use of cocaine, methamphetamine (crystal), ketamine (special k), and other illegal substances such as ecstacy." - All mixed up N/A (Google): "Viagra, ecstasy, crystal, ketamine, and poppers each has its own dangerous effects. But taken together, they create drug combinations that can kill." - Drug & Alcohol Facts. - Rapid Review Response – Impact of Methamphetamine and Poppers on Sexual Risk Taking (2009).

Club Drug Use and Dependence Among Young Adults Recruited Through Time-Space Sampling (2009, New York, Full Text). Though participants reported using an array of club drugs, almost all participants (90.0%) were cocaine users. Although there were several sexual orientation and gender differences in recent drug exposure, patterns of use (measured in days) were fairly similar across gender, sexual orientation, and age. Finally, a majority of individuals (58.5%) met or exceeded criteria for club drug dependence, with most (61.7%) indicating cocaine was the one drug causing them significant problems.

Club Drug Use in Los Angeles Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (2007, Full Text). Little is known about young men who have sex with men's use of club drugs and the risk factors associated with such use. A structured survey was administered in 2005 to 496 young men who were 18-22 years old (40% were 18-19 years old); self-identified as with a same-sex sexuality (83%), bisexual (16%), and/or had had sex with a man (97%); Caucasian (35%), African American (24%), and Latino of Mexican descent (40%). Subjects were recruited from gay-identified venues in Los Angeles... Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with recent club drug use, including place of residence, religiosity, disclosure of sexuality to family, frequency of attendance at bars/clubs, and involvement in sexual exchange and street economy.

Sexual marathons and methamphetamine use among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (2009, Full Text). A sexual marathon is defined as prolonged sexual activity over hours and even days. This exploratory study examined the phenomenon of sexual marathons in a sample of 341 HIV-positive methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Diego, CA. Eighty-four percent of the sample reported engaging in marathon sex while high on methamphetamine... Men who engaged in marathon sex used significantly more illicit drugs, were more likely to use sildenafil (Viagra) and amyl nitrates, and scored higher on a sexual compulsivity scale compared to men who did not engage in marathon sex.

Consistency and Change in Club Drug Use by Sexual Minority Men in New York City, 2002 to 2007 (2010). We used repeated cross-sectional data from intercept surveys conducted annually at lesbian, gay, and bisexual community events to investigate trends in club drug use in sexual minority men (N = 6489) in New York City from 2002 to 2007. Recent use of ecstasy, ketamine, and Y-hydroxybutyrate decreased significantly. Crystal methamphetamine use initially increased but then decreased. Use of cocaine and amyl nitrates remained consistent. A greater number of HIV-positive (vs HIV-negative) men reported recent drug use across years. Downward trends in drug use in this population mirror trends in other groups.

Multivariate modeling of club drug use initiation among gay and bisexual men (2008). This paper documents patterns and sequence of initiation of club drug use in a sample of 450 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Quantitative and qualitative baseline data from a year-long longitudinal investigation conducted between 2001 and 2005 were analyzed. The study focused on the use of five club drugs-cocaine, GHB, ketamine, ecstasy, and methamphetamine-using self-reported indications of use for a period of 4 months prior to assessment. Patterns of club drug use among gay and bisexual demonstrated that poly-club-drug use is common, and that patterns of use can be differentiated along the lines of age, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation, with those who are older, Black, and bisexual, reporting less club drug use. The majority of the men initiated use of the five club drugs as follows: (a) cocaine, (b) ecstasy, (c) ketamine, (d) methamphetamine, and (e) GHB. Variations in patterns were related to both age and level of poly-club-drug use.


Lesbian / Bisexual Women

Women's Health: Your Top Ten List (2001): (Alternate Link)"This isn't the only report of its kind. According to the new book, Addictions in the Gay and Lesbian Community, "recreational drugs, used as part of weekend and  night 'life' are particularly popular. In recent years these so called 'club drugs' have become a regular part of many gay men and women's social life." Ecstasy, GHB  and Special K all fall under the umbrella of club drugs."

Sexual minority adolescent girls: A population at risk? A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (2000): "The sexual minority girls report smoking, drinking, using illegal drugs and contemplating suicide all significantly more often than did the heterosexual girls... it appears that external stressors play a significant role in sexual minority girls' placing themselves at risk." - Understanding Differences in Substance Use Among Bisexual and Heterosexual Young Women (2008).

The nature and predictors of substance use among lesbians. "Two hundred sixty-three lesbians completed a self-report questionnaire as part of a larger study. Neither high rates of heavy drinking nor drug use were found in this sample. Among those who did drink excessively, it was associated with avoidant coping. Perceived stress and social resources did not differ significantly from the general female population. Levels of stress, social support, and coping style were not predictive of problematic substance use."

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey (2009, Full Text). The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW) than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably... LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent need for public health practitioners working in the area of substance use to recognise that drug consumption and use patterns of LBW are likely to be different to the wider population and that special considerations and strategies are required to address the unique and complex needs of this population.

Use of alcohol among lesbians: research and clinical implications (1997). "A review of the literature on the prevalence of alcohol use and problems among lesbians reveals that the few studies yielding information on this population are beset by design and methodological problems. Those factors possibly associated with higher risk status of lesbians are identified..." - Differences in club drug use between heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual females (2006). - The prevalence of alcoholism and feelings of alienation in lesbian and heterosexual women (2000).

Women who have sex with other women: HIV seroprevalence in New York State counseling and testing programs (1996). "HIV seroprevalence in women sexually active exclusively with women in this sample was calculated at 3.0%, at 4.8% in women sexually active with both women and men and at 2.9% in women sexually active exclusively with men. According to the self-reported data in this study, injecting drug use is, by far, the predominant risk factor for seropositive WSW. Significant HIV-related public health/preventative implications for WSW and their service providers  are suggested by this data, including the need for prevention education targeted to WSW who are IDUs..."

HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors among lesbians and bisexual women in San Francisco and Berkeley, California (1995). "A total of 498 lesbians and bisexual women was sampled from public venues in San Francisco and Berkeley, Calif, during 1993. The overall HIV seroprevalence was 1.2%. Ten percent of participants reported injecting drugs since 1978." - HIV Prevalence, Risk Behaviors, and High-Risk Sexual and Injection Networks Among Young Women Injectors Who Have Sex With Women (2003).

Out of It: The Results of DIVA's Lesbian Drug Survey: In an online survey, DIVA asked lesbians and bisexual women to tell us about their drug use. Almost 2,000 of you responded, of whom 36% said that you currently take illegal drugs on a regular basis. A further 45% told us that they had taken illegal substances in the past but no longer did. These figures reflect the findings of Stonewall’s Prescription for Change report, published last year. According to this groundbreaking research into lesbian and bi women’s health and wellbeing, drug use is far more prevalent amongst lesbians than women generally. In fact, we are five times more likely to have taken drugs at some point in our lives than our straight sisters.

Staddon, Patsy (2005, Word Download, Abstract). Labelling Out: the personal account of an ex-alcoholic lesbian feminist: In this paper, I look at my past alcohol dependency from a political as well as personal perspective. I consider the problems caused in my life and that of other lesbians by alcohol abuse, outdated treatment methods and self help organisations such as AA, which misrepresent social factors leading to alcohol abuse. I focus on a series of themes: the personal and political; lesbian bar styles; alternative realities; lesbian problem drinking; problems facing lesbians in treatment and engaging with Alcoholics Anonymous; treatment as it often is and treatment as it should be.


Australia / New Zealand

Drug Use and the Gay Men Project - Issue Papers, July 1999 (Australia) (PDF Download): (Alternate Link):  Issue Paper 1: The Social Construction of Risk and Control - Issue Paper 2: Drug Using Networks in Inner Sydney - Issue Paper 3 Injecting Drug Use and Risk - Issue Paper 4: Sex, Drugs and Risk - Issue Paper 5: Drug Use amongst Gay Men in a Large Regional Town in NSW. - Changing community, changing practice? Young gay men, HIV and gay community (Australia, 2004: Reference. PDF Download). See Section "Drugs: Drugs and safe sex, Drugs and gay community. - The Health in Men and Positive Health cohorts: A comparison of trends in the health and sexual behaviour of HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men, 2002-2005. National Centre in HIV Social Research.(2006, PDF Download): "Table 4.1a shows that, at every round of data collection, about 70% of the HIV-negative men reported having used at least one party drug in the six months prior to interview..." - Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco Use in LGBTI Communities: Linking sexuality and gender identity with drug, alcohol and tobacco use.

Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey: February 1996 to February 2006. (National Centre in HIV Social Research and National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales (2006, PDF Download, Alternate Link): "In February 2006 about 47% of the respondents reported having used ecstasy in the six months prior to the survey (see Table 7). Other drugs used by a sizeable proportion of participants were marijuana (38%), amyl/poppers (42%) and speed (26%). Special K, Viagra, cocaine and crystal meth were also used by about 20% of the men surveyed.". - Drugs, Space, and Sociality in a Gay Nightclub in Sydney (2004). - Gay Community Periodic: Quuenland, 2006 (PDF Download): "Based on responses to Question 53, about 60% of the respondents had used one or more of the drugs listed in the questionnaire during the six months prior to the survey... Participants were also asked about smoking cigarettes, pipes or other tobacco products and 45.1% of the men responded that they had smoked tobacco products..." - A History of Peer-Based Drug-User Groups in Australia (1993).

Project: Cocaine Use and Risks for HIV/HCV Transmission among IDUs in the Sydney Party Subculture (1999 - 2000). - Alcohol and other drugs - are trends changing? - ALSO and ADF Project on Alcohol and Drug Use. - Issues Paper Drugs & alcohol use within GLBTI communities (PDF Download N/A): Now part of a report: .PDF Download PDF Download.

Australia Releases Study of Gay Teens (1999): "Nearly half (49.1 per cent) had had a session of binge drinking (defined as five or more drinks on one occasion for boys and three or more for girls) in the previous two weeks. Self-identified gay male teens were twice as likely as their heterosexual peers to have three or more binge drinking sessions, and the girls were also more likely, although less markedly, the report says. Only 2.1 per cent of all students had injected drugs, but gay male teens were four times more likely to have tried it, and same-sex-attracted girls three times as likely." (PubMed Abstract)

Research in Australia: Gay community periodic surveys (Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne, Queensland, Canberra). - The role of drugs during group sex among gay men in Australia (2009).

Beyond Perceptions: A report on alcohol and other drug use among gay, lesbian, bisexual and queer communities in Victoria (June 2000: PDF Download. Web Page for Download) (PDF Download): "In 1998 the questionnaire was distributed to members of GLBQ communities throughout Victoria. A total of 518 (37%) were returned. The findings were compared to the 1998 National Drug Household Survey after appropriate statistical adjustments had been made. The questionnaire formed the basis of the quantitative analysis... Male respondents in the younger category (20-29yrs) had the highest rates of alcohol and other drug use in the last month (see table A). The most common were alcohol (93.5%), tobacco (34.8%), volatile nitrates (30.4%) followed by marijuana (23.9%) and ecstasy (23.9%). Heroin use was reported by 2.2% of this group. Those aged 30-39 years had the highest percentage reporting recent use of volatile nitrates (36.4%), marijuana (27.3%) and LSD (5.7%)... the level of use for most drugs in the present sample is substantially higher. For example 76% of younger people (20-29) in this GLBQ sample compared to 20% in the NHS had ever used amphetamines. Overall the alcohol and other drug use within the GLBQ communities is two-to four-fold higher than in the broader community. In this survey men were up to twice as likely to report having ever used any particular drug, compared to women.

Hillier L, et al. (2005). The association between drug use and sexual orientation in young women. Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society, La Trobe University. PDF Download. "9260 women, aged 22 to 27 years, of whom 8409 were heterosexual and 797 were non-heterosexual... After adjusting for age, region of residence, and father's occupation, non-heterosexual women were more likely to be current smokers (OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.61-3.89); consume alcohol at high risk levels (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.68-3.72); have used illicit drugs the last year (OR 5.50, 95% CI 4.51-6.71); and, to have injected illicit drugs (OR 12.26, 95% CI 8.53-17.63). Use of marijuana, amphetamines, LSD, ecstasy/designer drugs, tranquilisers, natural hallucinogens, cocaine, inhalants and barbituates were elevated in non-heterosexual women and these effects remained even after adjusting for age, region of residence and father's occupation."


Europe

Drugs & Alcohol, Know the Score...A Guide for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People (UK, PDF Download). - Party Drug Dependence Higher Among Gay Men, Expert Warns, UK (2010). - Major study reveals gay men remain UK's top drug abusers (2010). - Methamphetamine use among gay men across the UK (2010). - The lonely drug: crystal meth in the UK (2010). - Methamphetamine used by 10% of gay men in London, higher level of use seen in HIV-positive (2006). -  A Gay Man Speaks Out on Partying, Party and Club Drugs, and HIV.

The Gay Scene: London, Manchester, Brighton and Birmingham all have vibrant and lively gay scenes. The venues are close together in areas known as 'gay villages'. - Sex, drugs, alcohol and the scene: Even though it can be great fun, the scene is not always a friendly, welcoming place. It may not be the best place to make new friends. Instead the scene is often about sex, alcohol and recreational drugs. That can be a dangerous mix, leading to risky sexual behaviour and problems related to alcohol and drugs. Drugs and alcohol can make you more likely to do things you wouldn't normally do. That includes having sex in ways that could put you at risk of picking up or passing on HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases..

Lesbians, Gay Men and Alcohol Conference Report (UK, May 2001) Introduction & Discussion - Maeve Malley, Deputy Director, Alcohol East, and Jan Bridget, Lesbian Information Service. PDF Download.- Sigma Research: Gay and bisexual men HIV related journal articles.

Hickson F, et al. (2010). Tactical dangers: Findings from the United Kingdom Gay Men’s Sex Survey 2008. UK: Sigma Research. (PDF, Download Page) "This report outlines the main findings of Vital Statistics 2008 - our twelfth annual national Gay Men’s Sex Survey (GMSS). The community-based survey targeted gay men and bisexual men living in the UK and Ireland, and concerned HIV infection, sex between men, HIV prevention needs and service uptake.

Hickson F, et al. (2009). Tactical dangers: Findings from the United Kingdom Gay Men’s Sex Survey 2008. UK: Sigma Research. PDF. Download Page.

Hickson F, Weatherburn P, Reid D, Jessup K, Hammond G (2007). Consuming Passions: Findings from the United Kingdom Gay Men's Sex Survey 2005. UK: Sigma Research. PDF Download.

Ford Hickson: HIV Transmission during sex between men: who’s failing, what’s failing? CHAPS 12th Annual Conference Plenary Address, Brighton, March 2009. "A lot of suppressed mood requires a lot of mood enhancement. Gay and bisexual men are adept at selfmedication with alcohol and drugs. There is an ever expanding market in the supply of drugs on the gay scene with new letters being added frequently. The sexual market place is commercially dependent on them and taking them is normative. Anxiety at being in the sexual market place is a major driver of alcohol and drug consumption.9 Substance use is what might be called a second tier HIV risk behaviour. You cannot get or pass on HIV by drinking, eating or smoking drugs, no matter how much you consume. However, substance use can undermine prevention needs. Substances disinhibit and our culture excuses risk taking under the influence, so whether causal or not, drink and drugs often precede risk."

Keogh P, et al. (2009). Wasted opportunities Problematic alcohol and drug use among gay men and bisexual men. UK: Sigma Research. UK: Sigma Research. PDF Download. Download Page. - Alcohol And Drug Support Needed (2009): A new report released by Terrence Higgins Trust and Sigma Research states that more needs to be done to develop effective alcohol and drug support services for gay men.

Meads C, Pennant C, McManus J, Bayliss S (2009). A systematic review of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in the West Midlands region of the UK compared to published UK research. West Midlands: West Midlands Health Technology Assessment. Collaboration: Unit of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics. The University of Birmingham. PDF Download. See Section: "Illegal/recreational drug use – general".

Gay Men's Health N/A (UK): Drugs & Alcohol: "Recreational drugs and alcohol play an important part in the lives of many gay people. Although drugs and alcohol are often used responsibly and do no serious harm to an individual, this is not always the case. There are numerous related issues, such as legality, impact on sexual health, and the dangers of date-rape drugs. Our section drug information provides details on individual drugs, including cannabis and ecstasy, and gives often-used slang or alternative names. Those living with HIV need to be especially aware of the potential effects of using recreational drugs. see our section on "drugs and HIV". We also have a short guide to how drug and alcohol use could affect your sexual behaviour. In June 2005 Gay Men's Health launched Outing Drugs, a report giving the findings of its drugs and alcohol needs assessment. The report is available in PDF format here. - Drugs & Alcohol, Know the Score...A Guide for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People (UK, PDF Download). - Party Drug Dependence Higher Among Gay Men, Expert Warns, UK (2010). - Major study reveals gay men remain UK's top drug abusers (2010).

Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: a cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities (2008, Full Text. Full Text). Finally gay and bisexual users of alcohol or cannabis were more likely to use such drugs to facilitate sexual encounters and heterosexual users were less likely to use cocaine to enhance sensations and arousal... Along with being single, male and gay/bisexual, having been drunk in the past four weeks, and regular cocaine use were significantly associated with having had five or more sexual partners in the past 12 months. Of these, regular cocaine use and being gay/bisexual were the strongest predictors of multiple sexual partners. Gay/bisexual participants were four times more likely to have had five or more partners in the previous 12 months, and at similar increased odds of exchanging sex for drugs, compared with heterosexuals...  Along with being single, male and gay/bisexual, having been drunk in the past four weeks, and regular cocaine use were significantly associated with having had five or more sexual partners in the past 12 months. Of these, regular cocaine use and being gay/bisexual were the strongest predictors of multiple sexual partners. Gay/bisexual participants were four times more likely to have had five or more partners in the previous 12 months, and at similar increased odds of exchanging sex for drugs, compared with heterosexuals. .. hus, cocaine and ecstasy users aged 26–35 appear more likely to use in order to enhance sensations and arousal, but only for cocaine is such behaviour disproportionately higher amongst gay and bisexual individuals ..

Alcohol/Drug Misuse by Jan Bridget (UK, Lesbian Information Centre, Word Download).

Drinking in the Swedish gay and lesbian community (1999): Findings point at elevated levels of drinking among lesbians, but not among gay men. Gay men and lesbians do not, as in the general population, reduce their drinking with increasing age and there are very few gay and lesbian abstainers. - Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and their correlates among men who have sex with men in Norway: an Internet-based cross-sectional survey (2010, PDF): The STI prevention efforts among MSM should focus on Oslo and Akershus, promote safe sex practices and tackle sex-related drug and alcohol use. - 


Tobacco

Tobacco use high in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community (2010). - Tobacco industry targeting of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community: a White Paper (2007, Alternate Link). - HHS Tobacco Strategic Plan Launch: Eyewitness Account & LGBT Inclusion Details (2010). - Cigarette smoking among lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: how serious a problem? (United States, 2004). - A Qualitative Exploration of the Tobacco Control Needs of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Community in Colorado. - With one of the highest rates of smoking among minority populations, the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is also one of the most underserved in terms of research and programs (Word Download). - Smoking Among Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals: A Review of the Literature (American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001; 21-2) (PDF Download) - National LGBT Tobacco Control Network.

Tobacco as a Substance of Abuse (2009): Tobacco Use Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Studies show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth are significantly more likely than heterosexual youth to engage in high-risk behaviors (such as fighting, substance use, and alcohol use). 26, 27 Adolescents who report same-sex attraction or activity were 2.5 times as likely to smoke at least weekly compared with heterosexuals; bisexual/lesbian girls were 9.7 times more likely. 28 Ryan et al 29 found that 59% of teenagers who classified themselves as lesbian, gay, or bisexual reported using tobacco (compared with 35% of heterosexual teenagers), and almost half tried their first cigarette before 13 years of age. Lesbian and gay teenagers are also 4 times more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to use smokeless-tobacco products. Given that these youth are at considerable risk of tobacco use, population-specific tobacco-prevention and -cessation strategies are warranted.

California Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and Transgender (LGBT) Tobacco Use Survey – 2004 (2005). - LGBT Surveillance and Data Collection: Briefing Paper: Why capture LGBT smoking data? (2007). - Sexual Identity and Tobacco Use in a Venue-Based Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults (2008, PDF). - Cigarette Smoking Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Residents of the Inland Empire (2007). - Disparities in Smoking Between the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Population and the General Population in California (2007). - Does Tobacco Industry Marketing Excessively Impact Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Communities? (2007) - Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in tobacco use-related surveillance and epidemiological research.(2008, PDF). - Intention to quit smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender smokers (2009, PDF). - Preventing tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths (2005, PDF). -  Queer Quit: Gay smokers’ perspectives on a culturally specific smoking cessation service (2009). - Report on Tobacco Consumption Among Hispanic Latino LGBT Population (2010).


Excerpts / Highlights: Papers

Alcohol use, drug use and alcohol-related problems among men who have sex with men: the Urban Men's Health Study (2001): "Men who identified as being gay or bisexual or who reported sex with another man in the prior 5 years were included in this analysis (n = 2172)... A probability telephone sample of MSM was  taken within Zip Codes of four large American cities (Chicago, Los Angeles,  New York and San Francisco) estimated to have total concentrations of at least 4% of all households with one resident ... Both recreational drug (52%) and alcohol use (85%) were highly prevalent among urban MSM, while current levels of multiple drug use (18%), three or more alcohol-related problems (12%), frequent drug use (19%) and heavy-frequent alcohol use (8%) were not uncommon."

Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men (2010). ... illicit drug use in the past 3 months... Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.

Substance use among men who have sex with men: comparison with a national household survey (2001). "Compare substance use among men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk for
 HIV infection to a nationally representative sample of heterosexual men... Drugs with the highest relative risks were "poppers" (21.6 [15.2-30.8]), sedatives (6.98 [2.46-19.8]), hallucinogens (6.14 [4.61-8.17]), tranquilizers (4.99 [2.96-8.42]), and stimulants (4.47 [3.58-5.58]). RR was higher for weekly use of poppers (33.5 [12.5-89.6]), stimulants (2.75 [1.79-4.22]), marijuana (2.37 [1.93-2.92]), and cocaine (2.24 [1.32-3.79]); and for daily use of marijuana (1.49 [1.08-2.05]). - Sex, Alcohol and Other Drugs: More from SUMS (2001, the Seropositive Urban Men's Study).

Hustlers and dealers get gate at gay spa: Spa managers and police sources deny rumours of police surveillance inside the popular bathhouse (2000): "One of Toronto's leading bathhouses is barring hustlers and dealers after complaints from high-profile members of the gay community, tub sources say. According to some observers, it's the latest example of a gay haunt that tolerates open sexuality being forced to tone it down."

Nice Boys and Needles: A Closet Within A Closet: Injection Drugs, HIV & Gays (2001): "To this day, none of Michael’s other friends or his male partner of 7 years know that he became HIV infected not through unprotected sex, but while sharing syringes. “Nick” is still protecting his lost friend through concealing their identities in this story.As a former injection drug user and HIV prevention worker, he knows the importance of guarding secrets... A “nice boy” persona, narrowly defined images of those most at risk for HIV, profound losses from the AIDS epidemic, and, to a certain extent, prejudice toward and within the gay community all contribute to a “closet within a closet” when in comes to needle use among same-sex loving persons... Gay men who inject are 20 times as likely to acquire HIV then their non-gay counterparts and three times as likely to acquire HIV as gay men who do not inject... 'And, in this instance, why is it that even those members of the gay, white community feel compelled to keep secrets?'"

Victimization and substance use disorders in a national sample of heterosexual and sexual minority women and men (2010). - Individuals who are victimized - especially in childhood - likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs (2010): The research sample was nationally representative and consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older. They responded to questions about their use, abuse and dependence on 10 substances, such as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and pain medications. Researchers compared victimization experiences with four sexual identity subgroups (including "not sure") separately for men and women. Lesbian and bisexual women were more than twice as likely as heterosexual women to report any victimization experiences, the findings show. Three times as many lesbians as heterosexual women reported childhood sexual abuse, but researchers attribute this, in part, to lesbians' greater willingness to acknowledge and report this experience. Gay men also had high prevalence rates of victimization with about half of them reporting any victimization experiences in their lifetimes. They reported significantly higher rates of childhood sexual abuse, childhood neglect, partner violence and assault with a weapon than heterosexual men. Men and women who reported two or more victimization experiences had higher odds of alcohol and other drug dependence, indicating a cumulative effect of multiple victimization experiences, the researchers said. The findings also indicate that gay, lesbian and bisexual youth may use substances to cope with adverse psychological and interpersonal effects of victimization, thus increasing the risk for further victimization from others.

The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States (2010). More than two thirds of LGB adults reported at least 1 type of discrimination in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses indicated that the odds of past-year substance use disorders were nearly 4 times greater among LGB adults who reported all 3 types of discrimination prior to the past year than for LGB adults who did not report discrimination (adjusted odds ratio = 3.85; 95% confidence interval = 1.71, 8.66). Health professionals should consider the role multiple types of discrimination plays in the development and treatment of substance use disorders among LGB adults.

Responses to Discrimination and Psychiatric Disorders Among Black, Hispanic, Female, and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals (2010, Full Text). The sample included respondents in the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34 653). We analyzed the associations between self-reported past-year discrimination and past-year psychiatric disorders as assessed with structured diagnostic interviews among Black (n = 6587); Hispanic (n = 6359); lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB; n = 577); and female (n = 20 089) respondents. Black respondents reported the highest levels of past-year discrimination, followed by LGB, Hispanic, and female respondents. Across groups, discrimination was associated with 12-month mood (odds ratio [ORs] = 2.1-3.1), anxiety (ORs = 1.8-3.3), and substance use (ORs = 1.6-3.5) disorders. Respondents who reported not accepting discrimination and not discussing it with others had higher odds of psychiatric disorders (ORs = 2.9-3.9) than did those who did not accept discrimination but did discuss it with others. Black respondents and women who accepted discrimination and did not talk about it with others had elevated rates of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among individuals reporting past-year discrimination experiences. Certain responses to discrimination, particularly not disclosing it, are associated with psychiatric morbidity.

Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States (2009, Full Text). Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 (wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). A large national sample of 34 653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% white, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian and 2% Native American. Approximately 2% of the population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one life-time same-sex sexual partner and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction... Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines the reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for more effective prevention and intervention efforts that target subgroups at greatest risk.

Trends in HIV seroprevalence and risk among gay and bisexual men who inject drugs in San Francisco, 1988 to 2000 (2001, Full Text). "Trends in HIV infection and risk behaviors were calculated for gay/bisexual ( n = 1594 interviews) IDUs in 26 semiannual cross sections from 1988 to 2000... HIV seroprevalence among gay/bisexual IDUs decreased from the range of 35% to 45% in 1988/1989 to 25% in 1996 and then began to increase, reaching 42% in 2000. In contrast, HIV prevalence among heterosexual male IDUs remained stable during the study period. For gay/bisexual IDUs, injection and sex-related HIV risk behaviors declined modestly throughout the study period. As of the last cross section  (July 2000), however, over a third of respondents reported recent syringe sharing or unprotected anal sex."

HIV infection, sexual risk behavior, and substance use among Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons (2008, Full Text). Drug use and more education were positively correlated and greater age was negatively correlated with unprotected anal intercourse. Heavy alcohol drinking and use of drugs remain a significant public health problem in this population. Drug use was more closely linked to HIV sexual risk behaviors than was heavy drinking.

 Assessing the feasibility of harm reduction services for MSM: the late night breakfast buffet study (2006). Despite the leveling off in new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, new evidence suggests that many recent HIV infections are linked with the use of Methamphetamine (MA). Among anonymous HIV testers in San Francisco, HIV incidence among MA users was 6.3% compared to 2.1% among non-MA users. Of particular concern for prevention programs are frequent users and HIV positive men who use MA. These MSM pose a particular challenge to HIV prevention efforts due to the need to reach them during very late night hours. - Queer Practices for Harm Reduction: Inviting Lesbians, Gays, and Takatapui to be part of alcohol and drug harm reduction.

Overdosing among young injection drug users in San Francisco (2001). "Their median age was 22, and their median number of  years of injecting was 4. About 48% reported at least one overdose, with a median of two overdoses reported. Overdosing was associated with injecting "speedballs" (i.e. mixtures of heroin and cocaine), with borrowing syringes, and (with P-values of borderline statistical significance) with heroin injection and with gay or bisexual behavior. It was not associated with age, sex, years of injecting, or frequency of injecting. In multivariate analysis, only borrowing syringes and gay or bisexual behavior were independent statistically significant predictors, probably because gay and bisexual subjects were more likely to be heroin or "speedball" injectors."

Substance use among gay and lesbian adolescents. "Surveys at a Massachusetts high school used multiple items to identify gay, lesbian, and bisexual teenagers. Students with consistent homosexual preferences had greatly elevated rates of substance use. Those who displayed a homosexual preference but answered less consistently also had somewhat higher rates of substance use but were closer to heterosexual youths than to more consistent homosexual youths. The differences in substance use were least for alcohol use and greater for "hard" drugs." - Riding the Rave scene: "In warehouses and stadiums across the country, gay youth have found an open, accepting, albeit chemically enchanced, place to be out..."

Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: a meta-analysis and methodological review (2008). Several decades of research have shown that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are at high risk for substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs). These problems may often start prior to young adulthood; however, relatively little is known about risk for substance use in LGB adolescents. The primary aims of this paper were to conduct a meta-analysis of the relationship between sexual orientation and adolescent substance use and a systematic review and critique of the methodological characteristics of this literature... he odds of substance use for LGB youth were, on average, 190% higher than for heterosexual youth and substantially higher within some subpopulations of LGB youth (340% higher for bisexual youth, 400% higher for females). Causal mechanisms, protective factors and alternative explanations for this effect, as well as long-term substance use outcomes in LGB youth, remain largely unknown.

Sexual orientation disparities in longitudinal alcohol use patterns among adolescents: findings from the Growing Up Today Study (2008. Full Text). Compared with heterosexual participants, youth reporting any minority sexual orientation reported having initiated alcohol use at younger ages. Greater risk of alcohol use was consistently observed for mostly heterosexual males and females and for bisexual females, whereas gay and bisexual males and lesbians reported elevated levels of alcohol use on only some indicators. Gender was an important modifier of alcohol use risk; mostly heterosexual and bisexual females exhibited the highest relative risk. Younger age at alcohol use initiation among participants with minority sexual orientations significantly contributed to their elevated risk of binge drinking. Our findings suggest that disparities in alcohol use among youth with a minority sexual orientation emerge in early adolescence and persist into young adulthood. Health care providers should be aware that adolescents with a minority sexual orientation are at greater risk of alcohol use.

Sexual orientation and drug use in a longitudinal cohort study of U.S. adolescents (2010). Age was also an important modifier of risk; differences in drug use between minority sexual orientation and heterosexual youth were larger during adolescence (12-17 years) than during emerging adulthood (18-23 years). Research must focus on identifying reasons why minority sexual orientation youth are at disproportionate risk for drug use. Such information is essential for developing interventions that are critically needed to reduce drug use in this population. Efforts need to begin early because large sexual orientation disparities in drug use are evident by adolescence.

Beddoes D, Sheikh S, Pralat R, Sloman J (2010). The Impact Of Drugs on Different Minority Groups: A Review Of The UK Literature. Part 2: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) groups. London: The UK Drug Policy Commission (UKDPC). PDF Download. In the absence of reliable data, treatment and service providers are likely to find it difficult to understand the particular needs of these groups and hence to be able to tailor provision effectively. The form and content of information, where it is available, and the nature of treatment, support and advice offered and who is offering it all need to be developed on the basis of an understanding of the different drugs used by LGBT groups, how and in what setting they use them and the factors that inhibit or promote use of services. Absence of reliable evidence also means that a strategic approach to drugs interventions among this community itself, and in relation to other groups, can neither be developed nor properly evaluated.

Sexual orientation and substance use trajectories in emerging adulthood (2010). Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of incoming first-time college students at a large public university (n = 3720)... Sexual minority and majority individuals exhibited differences in SUBs during emerging adulthood, especially when using self-identification to define sexual orientation. Individuals who endorsed a sexual minority self-identification at the onset of emerging adulthood, as opposed to 4 years later, evidenced exponential increases in rates of drunkenness and cannabis use. These results support that the timing of assessment is important and that some trajectories of sexual minority SUBs are non-linear during this developmental period.

Mental Health Differences between Young Adults with and without Same-Sex Contact: A Simultaneous Examination of Underlying Mechanisms (2010). Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use than those without such contact, but that different processes explain the disparities in the two outcomes. A substantial portion of the gap in depressive symptoms is explained by sexual minorities’ higher levels of stress exposure and their lower levels of family support and psychological resources. The gap in drug use is not explained by these processes, but is partially explained by self-exploratory attitudes and permissiveness of drug use in social networks.

K-Y survey re-prioritizes Gay and Lesbian health concerns (2001): "Although HIV and AIDS ranked #1 as the most pressing health concern for self-identified Gay men, who accounted for 64 percent of all  respondents, mental health/depression ranked at #2. Depression was the most pressing concern for 36.3 percent of Gay men and for  58.7 percent of Lesbians... Still, he found one finding particularly encouraging: 40 percent of Gay men said they never used party drugs, nor was it found in their close circle of friends. 'There’s a perception for a lot of people that all Gay men do drugs," he said. "People make assumptions, but we need facts more than assumptions.'"

Intimate Partner Abuse among Gay and Bisexual Men: Risk Correlates and Health Outcomes (2007).Depression and substance abuse were among the strongest correlates of intimate partner abuse.

Special Issue: Addictions in the Gay and Lesbian Community - Abstracts (Journal Of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3-3/4, 2000): Substance Abuse, Internalized homophobia, and Gay Men and Lesbians: Psychodynamic Issues and Clinical Implications by Robert Paul Cabaj. - The Prevalence of Alcoholism and Feelings of Alienation in Lesbian and Heterosexual Women by Carrie Jaffe, Pauline Rose Clance, Margaret Nichols, James Emshoff. - Gay Men, Lesbians and Substances of Abuse and the “Club and Circuit Party Scene:”  What Clinicians Should Know by David McDowell. - Treating Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Professionals with Addictive Disease by Penelope Ziegler. Gay Teens and Substance Use Disorders:  Assessment and Treatment by Eva Olson. - The Importance of Specialized Treatment Programs for Lesbian and Gay Patients by Daniel Hicks. - A Memoir of Homosexuality, Psychiatry, Chemical Dependence, Depression and Recovery: Confessions of a Social Activist by Anonymous. - Sex Like You Can’t Even Imagine:  “Crystal”, Crack and Gay Men by Jeffrey R. Guss. - Psychoanalytic and Behavioral Approaches to Drug-Related Sexual Risk Taking:  A Preliminary Attempt at Conceptual and Clinical Integration by David Ostrow, R. Dennis Shelby. - Sexual Compulsivity in Gay Men from a Jungian Perspective by John Gosling. - Reification and the ecstasy of the Chelsea boy by Stephen Hartman.

Do specialized services exist for LGBT individuals seeking treatment for substance misuse? A study of available treatment programs (2007): "In a recent search of SAMHSA treatment listings, 11.8% (N=911) of substance user treatment programs (including residential, outpatient, and partial hospitalization) in the United States and Puerto Rico indicated that they offer specialized services for LGBT clients. However, a telephone survey we conducted in 2003-2004 revealed that 70.8% of these "LGBT" programs were no different from services offered to the general population, and only 7.4% could identify a service specifically tailored to the needs of LGBT clients..." - Substance abuse treatment providers' explicit and implicit attitudes regarding sexual minorities (2007).

National Institute on Alcohol and Alcoholism (2002+). Module 10G: Sexual Orientation and Alcohol Use Disorders: Participant Handout. Full Text. "Researchers disagree as to the exact number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) individuals living in the United States and other countries (Berger & Kelly, 1995). Furthermore, considerable disagreement persists about the prevalence, causes, and consequences of alcohol use and abuse among LGBT persons. Based on early and methodologically unsound studies, reports of alarmingly high rates of alcohol and other drug use within the LGBT population were published. More recent investigations have revealed lower rates of heavy drinking and fewer differences in patterns of use between LGBT and heterosexual groups. Whether they drink more, the same, or less than heterosexuals, LGBT persons are subject to many of the same risks and consequences of use. In addition, they also encounter population-specific risks. When addressing alcohol use/abuse prevention and treatment issues, LGBT individuals deserve the same compassionate, informed responses as those given to other populations or groups. The goal of this module is to increase social workers' understanding of, and responsiveness to, the unique characteristics and concerns of LGBT individuals in relation to alcohol use, prevention, and treatment..."

Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men (2005): "Much of the research on alcohol use among sexual minorities has focused on White, middle-class, and well-educated lesbians and gay men. There is a clear need for more research with bisexual women and men and with sexual minority members of color. Longitudinal studies, including those that focus on treatment effectiveness, are particularly lacking..."


Internet Resources

Resources: - Iowa Subtance Abuse Information Center: Resources For Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, or Transgender Individuals N/A (Archive Link). - CAPS Resources. - Alcoholism Addiction and Mental Health Help: Addiction Treatment Information & Support - GLBT Programs.  - Jonathan Huttner: EzineArticles.com Expert Author. - LGBT Community in Recovery Resources. - DrugFucked, for Gay Men. - Project Neon: Information for gay and bisexual men who use methamphetamine. - Shift Peer Recovery Network: Resources. - Tweaker Meth/CrsytalResources (Site History). - NAMI: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) Mental Health Resources. - National Coalition of LGBT Health. - Gay & Lesbian Alcoholics: Alcoholism Recovery Support.

Resources: - Gay & Lesbian Alcoholics: Alcoholism Recovery Support. - A Collection of Alcohol and drug Recovery information for Gays. - Select AA Meetings for Gay Beginners and Visitors in Manhattan, NYC. - The International Advisory Council (IAC) serves the gay and lesbian members of A.A. - AA Resources. - Options: Drug & Alcohol Treatment for the Gay & Lesbian Community. - FreedomRings: A drug rehab for the GLBT community. - Out Interventions. - Pride Institute: LGBT mental health & chemical dependency care. - Spencer Recovery Centers: We offer many types of treatment some of which are detox, inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, residential living, and can custom design a treatment plan best suited for your needs. This site was built to introduce our gay and lesbian drug and alcohol abuse treatment track. - The Body Gay Men & HIV/AIDS Articles.

Resource links: - QRD (Queer Resources Directory) Search. - Gayscape. - Search Google.com - Search findarticles.com: many full text articles and papers. - Substance Abuse News & Resource Center (Use: Search). - LGBT Resources. - Wisconsin Department of Health Services. - Seattle GLBT Drugs & Alcohol Resources. - National Association of Lesbian & Gay Addiction Professionals (NALGAP) Resources.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Abstracts

Abstracts: - Victimization, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Gay/Bisexual/Two-Spirit and Heterosexual American Indian Men in New York City (2006). - Poly-club-drug use among gay and bisexual men: a longitudinal analysis (2007). - Intimate Partner Abuse among Gay and Bisexual Men: Risk Correlates and Health Outcomes (2007). - Depression ratings, reported sexual risk behaviors, and methamphetamine use: latent growth curve models of positive change among gay and bisexual men in an outpatient treatment program (2007). - Use of illicit drugs among gay men living with HIV in Sydney (2007). - Intensive sex partying amongst gay men in Sydney (2009).  - It's all about "connecting": reasons for drug use among Latino gay men living in the San Francisco Bay Area (2007). - Exploring racial and ethnic differences in recreational drug use among gay and bisexual men in New York city and Los Angeles (2006). - Use of crystal methamphetamine among gay men in London (2006). - Correlates of heavy substance use among young gay and bisexual men: The San Francisco Young Men's Health Study (2001). - Sildenafil (Viagra) and Club Drug Use in Gay and Bisexual Men: The Role of Drug Combinations and Context (2007). - Understanding differences in substance use among bisexual and heterosexual young women (2008). - Sexual health and stigma in urban newspaper coverage of methamphetamine (2008). - Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: findings from the California Quality of Life Survey (2009). - The consequences of substance use among gay and bisexual men: A Consensual Qualitative Research analysis (2009). - Inviting the Significant Other of LGBT Clients into Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: Frequency and Impact  (2010).

Abstracts: - Differences in club drug use between heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual females (2006). - Substance use and social identity in the lesbian community (2005). - Use of heavier drinking contexts among heterosexuals, homosexuals and bisexuals: Results from a national household probability survey (2005). - Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and other substance use among lesbian and bisexual women (2005). - Drug use, drug severity, and help-seeking behaviors of lesbian and bisexual women (2005). - Sexual and drug risk behaviors among women who have sex with women (2006). - Sexual risk factors among self-identified lesbians, bisexual women, and heterosexual women accessing primary care settings (2005). - Age and racial/ethnic differences in drinking and drinking-related problems in a community sample of lesbians (2006). - Club drugs as causal risk factors for HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men: a review (2006). - Butch/femme differences in substance use and abuse among lesbian and bisexual female youths (2006). - Assessment of Difference in Dimensions of Sexual Orientation: Implications for Substance Use Research in a College-Age Population (2005). - Age Differences in Lesbian Identity Development and Drinking (2007).  - Consequences of Frequenting the Lesbian Bar (2007). - Understanding Differences in Substance Use Among Bisexual and Heterosexual Young Women (2008). - Drug use and Hispanic men who have sex with men in South Florida: implications for intervention development (2009). - Behavioral couple therapy for gay and lesbian couples with alcohol use disorders (2009). - Binge drinking among gay, and lesbian youths: The role of internalized sexual stigma, self-disclosure, and individuals' sense of connectedness to the gay community (2009). - Victimization and substance use disorders in a national sample of heterosexual and sexual minority women and men (2010). - The Health and Health Care of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents (2010).

Abstracts: - Predictors of substance use over time among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: An examination of three hypotheses (2004). - Behavioral treatment approaches for methamphetamine dependence and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among urban gay and bisexual men (2008). - Lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients' experiences in treatment for addiction (2005). - Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths: who smokes, and why? (2007) - Delinquency, victimization, and substance use among adolescents with female same-sex parents (2006). - Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment (2006). - Gay/Lesbian sexual orientation increases risk for cigarette smoking and heavy drinking among members of a large Northern California health plan (2006). - Associations between substance use and sexual risk among very young men who have sex with men (2006). - Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population (2004). - Substance use, substance choice, and unprotected anal intercourse among young Asian American and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (2005). - Eo na Mahu o Hawai'i: the extraordinary health needs of Hawai'i's Mahu (2001). - Behavioral risk disparities in a random sample of self-identifying gay and non-gay male university students (2009). - Sexual Risk and Substance Use Behaviors Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (2009). - Homonegativity, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV status in poor and ethnic men who have sex with men in Los Angeles (2009). - Desire, drug use and unsafe sex: a qualitative examination of gay men who attend gay circuit parties (2010). - Alcohol and drug use and related consequences among gay, lesbian and bisexual college students: Role of experiencing violence, feeling safe on campus, and perceived stress (2010). - Sexual health, risk behaviors, and substance use in heterosexual-identified women with female sex partners: 2002 US National Survey of Family Growth (2010). - Walking the line: stimulant use during sex and HIV risk behavior among Black urban MSM (2010). - Personality disorders in gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender chemically dependent patients (2011).

Bibliographies

Bibliography: "Gay, lesbian and bisexual substance abusers" at the ALCOHOL & DRUG ABUSE INSTITUTE LIBRARY, University of Washington. - Ed Dworkin's "Substance Abuse" Annotated Bibliography. - Behavior and Substance Abuse (862 references). - Biblography of Gay and Lesbian Substance Abuse For the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry. - Sex workers N/A. - CAPS Biblliography / Abstracts. - Problems Specific To Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People: Articles Relating to Drug Abuse or Suicide by GLB Persons. - Counseling & Treatment Issues: An Annotated Bibliography N/A. - Gay and Lesbian Community and Chemical Dependence Indexed Bibliography of Articles Published in Professional Chemical Dependency Journals. - Bibliography for Working with Lesbian and Gay Clients. - LGBTTTIQ Substance Use/Abuse Papers. - CAMH GLBT Bibliography. - AFFIRM: GLBT Substance Abuse Bibliography. - Lesbian, Gay Men And Substance Abuse Resources (Word RTF Download). - Sexual Orirentation and Alcohol Use Disorders: See Bibliography. - A Selected Bibliography of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns in Psychology: An Affirmative Perspective. - Studies, Articles, & Reports with summaries to 1994: ATOD Resource Guide: Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals Section 2 - More than 80 Entries (See Section 2, Items to 1994). - Gay and Lesbian Community and Chemical Dependence Indexed Bibliography of Articles Published in Professional Chemical Dependency Journals (2008, PDF). - Bibliography, Special Populations, Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Substance Abusers: Before 2000, 2000-2007, 2008 to Present. - Gay and Lesbian Community and Chemical Dependence Indexed Bibliography of Articles Published in Professional Chemical Dependency Journals (To 2010).

Books

Books: - Counseling Lesbian Gay and Bisexual Persons With Alcohol and Drug Abuse Problems - 1994 -  by J. H. Niessen - Dual Identities : Counseling Chemically Dependent Gay Men and Lesbians - 1987 - edited by Dana G. Finnegan, Emily M. McNally (First Edition). -  Dual Identities : Counseling Chemically Dependent Gay Men and Lesbians - 2002 - edited by Dana G. Finnegan, Emily M. McNally (Fourth Edition) (Google Books)- Accepting Ourselves & Others: A Journey into Recovery from Addictive and Compulsive Behaviors for Gays, Lesbians & Bisexuals - 1989 - by Sheppard B. Kominars, Kathryn D. Komi (Google Books). - Coming out of Shame: Transforming Gay and Lesbian Lives - 1996 - by Gershen Kaufman and Lev Raphael. - Alcoholism and Homosexuality - 1982 - edited by Thomas O. Ziebold and John E. Mongeon (Google Books). - Double Duty: Gay Lesbian - 1990 - by Claudia A. Black. - Addiction and Recovery in Gay and Lesbian Persons - 1995 - edited by Robert J. Kus (Review) (Google Books). - Lesbians and gay men: chemical dependency treatment issues - 1992 - edited by Dava L. Weinstein (Google Books).

Books: - Vastly More Than That: Stories of Lesbians & Gay Men in Recovery - 1999 - by Guy Kettelhack. -  Addiction and Recovery of Gay and Lesbian Persons - 1995 -  by Robert J. Kus. .(Also published as Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, v.2, no.1, 1995) - Gay Men of Alcoholics Anonymous: First-Hand Accounts  - 1990 - edited by Robert J Kus.  - Pink Therapy: A Guide for Counselors and Therapists Working with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients - 1996 - edited by Charles Neal and Dominic Davies. - Making Lesbians Visible in the Substance Use Field - 2005 - edited by Elizabeth Ettorre (Google Books). - Substance Use Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients: Assessment and Treatment - 2009 - by Sandra Anderson (Review) (Review). - Pleasure Consuming Medicine: The Queer Politics of Drugs - 2009 - by Kane Race (By Author) (About the Author) (Review) (Google Books).- Substance Use Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients: Assessment and Treatment - 2009 - by Sandra C. Anderson.

Books: - The next step: lesbians in long-term recovery - 1994 - by Jean Swallow (Amazon.com Reference). - Amazon Spirit: Daily Meditations for Lesbians in Recovery - 1996 - by Eleanor Nealy. - Suicide Tuesday: Gay Men and the Crystal Meth Scare - 2005 - by Duncan Osborne. - The Politics of Crystal Meth: Gay Men Share Stories of Addiction And Recovery - 2005 - by Kenneth Cimino (Google Books). - Addictions in the Gay and Lesbian Community - 2000 - edited by Jeffrey R. Guss and Jack Drescher (Google Books) (Review). - Shameful Cravings: A Review of Addictions in the Gay and Lesbian Community - 2000 - edited by Jeffrey R. Guss and Jack Drescher. - Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Health - 2008 - edited by Harvey J. Makadon, Kenneth H. Mayer, Jennifer Potter, Hilary Goldhammer (Google Books). - The Health of Sexual Minorities: Public Health Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Populations  - 2006 - by Ilan H. Meyer and Mary E. Northridge (Review).- Unequal opportunity: health disparities affecting gay and bisexual men n the United States - 2008 -  by Richard J. Wolitski, Ron Stall, Ronald O. Valdiserri (Google Books) Conference Presentation by the Authors: Overview of Health Disparities Affecting Gay and Bisexual Men (2007. Abstract, PDF).

Books: - Lavender Light: Daily Meditations for Gay Men in Recovery - 1995 - by Adrian Milton. - Caring for lesbian and gay people: a clinical guide - 2003 -  by Allan Peterkin, Cathy Risdon (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review)- AIDS and Alcohol/Drug Abuse: Psychosocial Research - 1996 - by Dennis G. Fisher (Editor).  - Gay Men, Drinking, and Alcoholism - 1995 - by Thomas S. Weinberg (Google Books). - Gay and Sober: Directions for Counseling and Therapy - 1990 - edited by Thomas O. Ziebold and John E. Mongeon (Google Books). - Crystal Meth And Men Who Have Sex With Men: What Mental Health Care Professionals Need to Know (Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy) - 2007 - edited by Milton L. Wainberg, Andrew J. Kolodny, Jack Drescher (Google Books). - Cruise Control: Understanding Sex Addiction In Gay Men - 2005 - by Robert Weiss (Review).


The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports

Full Text Papers / Documents

Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies / Reports (and/or Abstracts):


Adams J, Braun V, McCreanor T (2007). Warning Voices In A Policy Vacuum: Professional Accounts Of Gay Men’s Health In Aotearoa New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 30: 199-215. Full Text. PDF Download

AIDS Committee of Toronto (2001). Drug Use & HIV Risk Among Gay Men in the Dance/Club Scene in Toronto: How Should AIDS Prevention Programmes Respond? Full Text. PDF Download.

Alcoholics Anonymous (1989). A.A. and the Gay/Lesbian Alcoholic. New York, New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. PDF DownloadDownload Page.

Aleman K, Doctor R (2010). Lesbianism and mental health. In: Dora Kohen, Ed. Textbook of Women and Mental Health. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. PDF Download.

Allen O (2008). Lesbian, Gay & Bisexual Patients: The Issues for General Practice. Ireland: Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) & Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN). PDF Download.

Americal Psychological Association (PsychNet, 2003). Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay & Bisexual People. PDF Download. Full Text.

Amico J (2003). "Pink" and Different: Sexuality and Addiction. Addiction Today. 15(81). PDF DownloadDownload Page.

Amico JM (1997). Assessing sexual compulsivity/addiction in chemically dependent gay men. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4(4): 291- 297. PDF DownloadDownload Page.

Amirkhanian YA, Kelly JA, Takacs J, Kuznetsova AV, DiFranceisco WJ, Mocsonaki L, McAuliffe TL, Khoursine RA, Toth TP (2009). HIV/STD prevalence, risk behavior, and substance use patterns and predictors in Russian and Hungarian sociocentric social networks of men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 21(3): 266-79.  PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Barbara AM, Doctor F (2004, 2007). Asking the right questions, 2 : talking about sexual orientation and gender identity in mental health, counselling, and addiction settings. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. PDF DownloadDownload Page. - Asking the right questions, 2 : Project Evaluation and Report (2008, PDF)

Beatty RL, Lewis KE (2003). Substance Use Disorder and LGBT Communities. Resource Links, 2(3): 1-7. PDF Download.

Beckett M, Burnam A, Collins RL, Kanouse DE, Beckman R (2003). Substance use and high-risk sex among people with HIV: a comparison across exposure groups. AIDS and Behavior, 7(2):209-19. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Beddoes D, Sheikh S, Pralat R, Sloman J (2010). The Impact Of Drugs on Different Minority Groups: A Review Of The UK Literature. Part 2: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) groups. London: The UK Drug Policy Commission (UKDPC). PDF Download.

Bell AV, Ompad D, Sherman SG (2006). Sexual and drug risk behaviors among women who have sex with women. American Journal of Public Health, 96(6): 1066-72. PDF Download. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Bellis MA, Hughes K, Calafat A, Juan M, Ramon A, Rodriguez JA, Mendes F, Schnitzer S, Phillips-Howard P (2008). Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: a cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities. BMC Public Health, 8: 155. PDF Download. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Blanch Consulting (2003). Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health and Wellbeing Needs Assessment (Tasmania). PDF Download.

Blatt B, et al. (2010). Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community. Washington, D.C.: American Lung Association. PDF Download.

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Gee L, Lorvick J, Moore L, Seal K, Edlin BR (2001). Trends in HIV seroprevalence and risk among gay and bisexual men who inject drugs in San Francisco, 1988 to 2000. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28(3): 264-9. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Bobbe J (2002). Treatment with lesbian alcoholics: healing shame and internalized homophobia for ongoing sobriety. Health and Social Work. 27(3): 218-22. Full Text. Full Text.

Bockting W, Knudson G, Goldberg JM (2006). Counselling and Mental Health Care of Transgender Adults and Loved Ones. Vancouver Coastal Health, Transcend Transgender Support & Education Society, and the Canadian Rainbow Health Coalition. PDF Download.

Bradford J, et al. (2005). Transgender Health Access in Virginia: Focus Group Report. Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study, Phase 1. Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health. PDF Download.

Brewster KL, Tillman KH (2009). Minority Sexual Orientation and Substance Use among Adolescents and Young Adults. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco. Full Text.

Bridget J (2002+). LGB Alcohol/Drug Misuse. A UK Submission. PDF Download.

Brooks MK (2001). Legal Issues for Programs Treating LGBT Clients, Chapter 3. In:  SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 28-48. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Bryant KJ, et al. (2010). Integrating HIV/AIDS and Alcohol Research. Alcohol Research & Health, 33(3): 167-178. PDF Download. Full Text. Full Text.

Burgard SA, Cochran SD, Mays VM (2005). Alcohol and tobacco use patterns among heterosexually and homosexually experienced California women. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 77(1): 61-70. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Busser AR (2010). Key Concepts in Treating Patients with Sexual Differences. PPT Presentation. PDF Download.

Cabaj RB (2001). Clinical Issues With Gay Male Clients, Chapter 8. In:  SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 78-86. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Cabaj RP, et al. (2001). An Overview for Providers Treating LGBT Clients, Chapter 1. In: SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 1-14. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Cabaij RP, Smith M (2001). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities, and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care, Chapter 4. In: SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 49-60. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Cheng, Zhankun (2003). Issues and standards in counseling lesbians and gay men with substance abuse concerns. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 323-336. Full Text.

Chesney MA, Barrett DC, Stall R (1998). Histories of substance use and risk behavior: precursors to HIV seroconversion in homosexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1): 113-6. PDF Download

Clarke M (2007). Tobacco Use in Lesbian, Bisexual and Trans Women Communities. OWHN E-Bulletin, Spring. PDF Download

Clements K (1999). The Transgender Community Health Project: Descriptive Results. San Francisco Department of Public Health. Full Text.

Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Guzman R, Katz M (2001). HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 915-21. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

CMHA (1999). The Stigma of SubstanceAbuse: A Review of the Literature. PDF Download.

Cochran BN, Cauce AM (2006). Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30(2): 135-46. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. A Related Paper.

Cochran SD, Ackerman D, Mays VM, Ross MW (2004). Prevalence of drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US Populations. Addiction, 99: 989-998. PDF Download. Abstract

Cochran BN, Stewart AJ, Ginzler JA, Cauce AM (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5): 773-7. Full Text. PDF Download

Cochran SD, Mays VM, Alegria M, Ortega AN, Takeuchi D (2007). Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 75(5): 785–794. Full Text.

Cochran SD, Keenan C, Schober C, Mays VM (2000). Estimates of Alcohol Use and Clinical Treatment Needs Among Homosexually Active Men and Women in the U.S. Population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6): 1062-1071. PDF Download.

Colfax GN, Mansergh G, Guzman R, Vittinghoff E, Marks G, Rader M, Buchbinder S (2001). Drug use and sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men who attend circuit parties: a venue-based comparison. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28(4): 373-9. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Colfax G, Vittinghoff E, Husnik MJ, McKirnan D, Buchbinder S, Koblin B, Celum C, Chesney M, Huang Y, Mayer K, Bozeman S, Judson FN, Bryant KJ, Coates TJ; EXPLORE Study Team (2004). Substance use and sexual risk: a participant- and episode-level analysis among a cohort of men who have sex with men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 15;159(10): 1002-12. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Corliss HL, Grella CE, Mays VM, Cochran SD (2006). Drug use, drug severity, and help-seeking behaviors of lesbian and bisexual women. Journl of Women's Health, 15(5): 556-68. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Corliss HL, Rosario M, Wypij D, Fisher LB, Austin SB (2008). Sexual orientation disparities in longitudinal alcohol use patterns among adolescents: findings from the Growing Up Today Study. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 162(11): 1071-8. Abstract. PDF Download.

Corliss HL, Rosario M, Wypij D, Wylie SA, Frazier AL, Austin SB (2010). Sexual orientation and drug use in a longitudinal cohort study of U.S. adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 35(5): 517-21. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download.

Crofts N. David H (1993). A History of Peer-Based Drug-User Groups in Australia. Journal of Drug Issues, 25, 599-616. Full Text.

Davies D (1998). The six necessary and sufficient conditions aplied to working with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients. The Person-Centered Journal, 5(2): 111-120. PDF Download.

Degenhardt L, McGuigan D, Clayton S (2005). Rapid assessment of crystal methamphetamine and GHB use in the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender community in New South Wales. NDARC Technical Report No. 235. Sydney, Australia: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales. PDF Download.

Deiss RG, Brouwer KC, Loza O, Lozada RM, Ramos R, Cruz MA, Patterson TL, Heckathorn DD, Frost SD, Strathdee SA (2008). High-risk sexual and drug using behaviors among male injection drug users who have sex with men in 2 Mexico-US border cities. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 35(3): 243-9. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Drumright LN, Little SJ, Strathdee SA, Slymen DJ, Araneta MR, Malcarne VL, Daar ES, Gorbach PM (2006). Unprotected anal intercourse and substance use among men who have sex with men with recent HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(3): 344-50. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Duesberg P, Koehnlein C, Rasnick D (2003). The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition. Journal of Biosciences, 28(4): 383-412. PDF Download

Eisenberg M, Henry W (2003). Social infuences on substance-use behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual college students: findings from a national study. Social Science and Medicine, 57(10): 1913-1923. PDF Download.

Eisenberg M, Henry W (2003). Substance use behaviors among college students with same-sex and opposite-sex experience: results from a national study. Addictive behaviors, 28: 899–913. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download.

Eliason MJ (2010). Environmental Prevention Stategies to Assress LGBT Alcohol, Tobacco and Drug Use. San Francisco: LGBT-TRISTAR, Best Practices Report Series. PDF Download. Download Page.

Eliason MJ (2009). Best Practices for Lesbian/Bisexual Women with Substance Use Disorders. San Francisco: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender, Treatment and Recovery Improvement, Statewide Technical Assistance Resources. PDF Download. Download Page.

Elovich, R (1996). Staying Negative - It’s Not Automatic: A Harm Reduction Approach to Substance Use and Sex. AIDS and Public Policy Journal, Summer/Fall. PDF Download.

Endal, Dag (2008). Alcohol and HIV/AIDS - possible connections. Full Text.

Enders K, Gil Gerald & Associates' LGBT-TRISTAR Division (2009). Harm Reduction as a Model of Intervention and Treatment: Theory, Definition and Approaches to Working with LGBT Populations. PDF Download. Download Page.

Fairbairn N, Kerr T, Buxton JA, Li K, Montaner JS, Wood E (2006). Increasing use and associated harms of crystal methamphetamine injection in a Canadian setting. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(2-3): 313-6. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Fals-Stewart W, O'Farrell TJ, Lam WK (2009). Behavioral couple therapy for gay and lesbian couples with alcohol use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37(4): 379-87. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Ferreira AD, et al. (2006). Profile of male Brazilian injecting drug users who have sex with men. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22(4): 846-860. PDF Download.

Finnegan DG, McNally EB (1996). Chemically dependent lesbians and bisexual women: recovery from many traumas.  Published simultaneously in: Journal of Chemical Dependency Treatment. 6(2): 87-107, and in: Chemical Dependency: Women at Risk - 1996 - edited by Brenda L. Underhill and Dana G. Finnegan, 87-107.  PDF DownloadDownload Page. - Out of Denial: An interview with Dana Finneggan and Emily McNally: PDF Download.

Finnegan DG, McNally EB (1995). The National Association Of Lesbian And Gay Alcoholism Professionals (Nalgap): A Retrospective. Published simultaneously in the Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 2(1): 83-90, and in: Addiction and Recovery in Gay and Lesbian Persons - 1995 - edited by Robert J. Kus (Review). PDF DownloadDownload Page. - Out of Denial: An interview with Dana Finneggan and Emily McNally: PDF Download.

Finnegan DG, et al. (2001) Counselor Competence in Treating LGBT Clients, Chapter 13. In: SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 114-121. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Finnegan DG (2001). Clinical Issues With Lesbians, Chapter 7. In:  SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 73-77. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Fisher DG, Malow R, Rosenberg R, Reynolds GL, Farrell N, Jaffe A (2006). Recreational Viagra Use and Sexual Risk among Drug Abusing Men. American Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2(2): 107-114. PDF Download. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Fogarty A, et al. (2006). The Health in Men and Positive Health cohorts: A comparison of trends in the health and sexual behaviour of HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men, 2002-2005. National Centre in HIV Social Research. PDF DownloadDownload Page.

Frazer S (2004). Changing community, changing practice? Young gay men, HIV and gay community. See Section "Drugs: Drugs and sage sex, Drugs and gay community. National Centre in HIV Social Research.  PDF Download. Download Page.

Freese T, et al. (2009). High Risk Sex Behavior and Meth Use in the GLBT Community: Drug-Sex Fusion and Methamphetamine Abuse Treatment Implications. Presentation PPT, 7th Annual Co-Occurring Disorders Conference. Long Beach, CA. PPT Download.

Freese TE, Miotto K, Reback CJ (2002). The effects and consequences of selected club drugs. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23: 151– 156. PDF Download.

Garofalo R, Mustanski BS, McKirnan DJ, Herrick A, Donenberg GR (2007). Methamphetamine and young men who have sex with men: understanding patterns and correlates of use and the association with HIV-related sexual risk. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(6): 591-6. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA, 2006). Breaking the Grip: Treating Crystal Methamphetamine Addiction Among Gay and Bisexual Men. PDF Download. Download Page.

Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA). Substance Abuse. In: Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA). Healthy People 2010: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health: 330-351.  PDF Download.  Whole Document: PDF Download. PDF Download.

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Ryan C, Hunter J (2001). Clinical Issues With Youth, Chapter 11. In:  SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals: 99-103. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

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Saltman D, Newman C, Mao L, Kippax S, Kidd M (2008). Experiences in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine use and associated depression in gay men and HIV positive men: in-depth interviews with general practitioners in Sydney, Australia. BMC Family Practice, 9(1). PDF Download.

SAMHSA (2001). A Provider’s Introduction to Substance Abuse Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Sarma K (2007). Drug Use Amongst Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Young Adults in Ireland. Dublin: BeLonG To. PDF Download.

Schwartz J, Andsager JL (2008). Sexual health and stigma in urban newspaper coverage of methamphetamine. American Journal of Men's Health. 2(1): 57-67. Abstract. Related 2007 Conference Paper: Full Text.

Seattle Commission for Sexual Minorities (2006). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth in Seattle: Report and Policy Recommendations. Submitted to Mayor Greg Nickels, City of Seattle. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Semple SJ, Strathdee SA, Zians J, Patterson TL (2010). Factors associated with sex in the context of methamphetamine use in different sexual venues among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. BMC Public Health, 10: 178. Abstract. PDF Download.

Semple SJ, Strathdee SA, Zians J, Patterson TL (2009). Life events and sexual risk among HIV-negative, heterosexual, methamphetamine users. Journal of Sex Research, 47(4): 355-63. Abstract. Full Text. Full Text.

Semple SJ, Zians J, Strathdee SA, Patterson TL (2009). Sexual marathons and methamphetamine use among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(4): 583-90. Abstract. PDF Download.

Shankle MD, Beatty RL(2002). Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) and Transgender (LGBT) Substance Abuse Issues: Are They at Higher Risk for They at Higher Risk for Substance Substance Abuse. University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. PowerPoint Presentation: PDF Download. APHA Conference Abstract

Shernoff M (1995). Counseling Chemically Dependent People With HIV Illness. Published in The Second Decade of AIDS: A Mental Health Practice Handbook edited by Walt Odets & Michael Shernoff, New York: Hatherleigh Press, 1995. Full Text.

Shernoff M, and Springer E (1992). Substance abuse and AIDS: report from the front Lines (the impact on professionals). Published in Lesbians and Gay Men: Chemical Dependency Treatment Issues, Ed. D. Weinstein. Harrington Park Press, 1992. Full Text.

Shernoff M, and Finnegan D (1991). Family Treatment with Chemically Dependent Gay Men and Lesbians. The Journal of Chemical Dependency Treatment, 4(1). Full text.

Shernoff M (1983). Nice boys and needles. New York Native, Issue 74, Oct. 10, 1983. Full Text.

Shoptaw, Steven  (2006). Methamphetamine Use in Urban Gay and Bisexual PopulationsTop in HIV Medicine, 14(2):  84-87. PDF Download.

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Shoptaw S, Reback CJ (2006). Associations between Methamphetamine Use and HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Model for Guiding Public Policy. Journal of Urban Health, 83(6): 1151-7. PDF Download. Abstract.

Shoptaw S, Reback CJ (2007). Methamphetamine use and infectious disease-related behaviors in men who have sex with men: implications for interventions. Addiction, 102 Suppl 1:130-5. Abstract.  Full Text. PDF Download.

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Simoni JM, Walters KL, Balsam KF, Meyers SB (2006). Victimization, substance use, and HIV risk behaviors among gay/bisexual/two-spirit and heterosexual American Indian Men in New York City. American Journal of public Health, 96(12): 2240-2245. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Skinner WF (1994). The prevalence and demographic predictors of illicit and licit drug use among lesbians and gay men. American Journal of Public Health, 84(8): 1307-10. PDF Download.

Sokol S, Gil Gerald & Associates' LGBT-TRISTAR Division (2009). Serving Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and/or Questioning Youth. PDF Download. Download Page.

Southgate E, Hopwood M (1999). The Drug Use and Gay Men Project: Issue Papers, July 1999. National Centre in HIV Social Research. PDF Download. Download Page.

Spindler HH, Scheer S, Chen SY, Klausner JD, Katz MH, Valleroy LA, Schwarcz SK (2007). Viagra, methamphetamine, and HIV risk: results from a probability sample of MSM, San Francisco. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(8): 586-91. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Staddon, Patsy (2005. Labelling Out: the personal account of an ex-alcoholic lesbian feminist:Journal of Lesbian Studies, 9(3): 69-78 Word Download, Abstract.

Stein M, Herman DS, Trisvan E, Pirraglia P, Engler P, Anderson BJ (2005). Alcohol use and sexual risk behavior among human immunodeficiency virus-positive persons. Alcohol, Clinical and Experimental Research. 29(5): 837-43. PDF Download. Abstract.

Strona FV, McCright J, Hjord H, Ahrens K, Tierney S, Shoptaw S, Klausner JD (2006). The acceptability and feasibility of the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project, a community-based contingency management methamphetamine treatment program for gay and bisexual men in San Francisco. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Suppl 3: 377-83.  PDF Download.

Temoshok LR, Wald RL (2008). Integrating multidimensional HIV prevention programs into healthcare settings. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5): 612-9. PDF Download. Abstract.

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Toro-Alfonso J, Diaz NV, Andújar-Bello I, Nieves-Rosa LE (2006). A Sample of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Strengths and Vulnerabilities in a Heterosexually Dominated Culture. Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 40(1): 59-68. PDF Download.

Tremblay F, et al. (2007). Different patterns of substance use signals different HIV risk behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM) in Montreal. Presentation: Canadian Association for HIV Research, Toronto, Avril 2007. PDF Download.. Download Page.

Tremblay F, et al. (2007). Alcool / drogues et sexualité: couple ouvert sur le risque? Presentation: Colloque provincial «Outillons-nous», Montréal, Février. PDF Download.. Download Page.

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Valentine G, Skelton T (2003). Finding Oneself, Losing Oneself: The Lesbian and Gay `Scene' as a Paradoxical Space. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 27(4): 849-866. PDF Download.

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Wilkinson W, Gil Gerald & Associates' LGBT-TRISTAR Division (2010). Culturally Competent Approaches for Serving Asian and Pacific Islander Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations in California. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wilkinson W, Gil Gerald & Associates' LGBT-TRISTAR Division (2009). Culturally Competent Approaches for Serving Transgender Populations. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wilkinson W, Gil Gerald & Associates' LGBT-TRISTAR Division (2009). Strengthening Linkages Between Substance Abuse Services Providers and LGBT Community Resources. PDF Download. Download Page.

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Young M, Stuber J, Ahern J, Galea S (2005). Interpersonal discrimination and the health of illicit drug users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(3): 371-91. Full text.

Zablotska I, et al. (2007). Gay Community Periodic: Quuenland, 2006. National Centre in HIV Social Research. PDF Download.

Zablotska I, et al. (2006). Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey: February 1996 to February 2006. National Centre in HIV Social Research and National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales. PDF Download.

Zak, Paul D (2010). Substance Misuse Among Elder Gay Men. LGBT-TRISTAR, Best Practices Report Series, July 2010. PDF Download. Download Page.

Zians J (2006). San Diego County Transgender Assessment Report. A project of the Family Health Venters of San Diego's Transgender Health Project. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Zule WA, Coomes CM, Karg R, Harris JL, Orr A, Wechsberg WM (2010). Using a modified intervention mapping approach to develop and refine a single-session motivational intervention for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men. Open AIDS Journal, 4: 132-40. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.


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