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HIV & AIDS - Part 1 (Part 2)

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Index: - HIV-AIDS - Male  Youth Prostitution - Homosexuality:  Biological  or  Learned ? Public School Issues - Transgender / Transvestite / Transsexual - Lesbian  &  Bisexual Women - Homo-Negativity / Phobia - Identity Formation  &  Coming Out - Counseling  &  Therapy - Professional Education  - Bisexuality - Religion   &  Spirituality - Gay & Bisexual Male Suicide Problems - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction  -  - GLBT  History - Community Attributes  &  ProblemsCouples / Families / Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence - The Elderly - Race/Ethnic Minority Issues: U.S., Canada, Europe,  New Zealand & AustraliaLatin America / Africa - Middle East / Asia

HIV - AIDS - 1 & 2

Part 1 (This Page): - The Second HIV Infection Wave. - Adolescents & Young Adult Males. - Ethnic Minority Males. - Intergenerational Issues. - Transgender. - Bisexuality. - The Elderly. - Lesbian / Bisexual / Heterosexual Women.

Part 2: - Prisons. - Small Cities & Rural Areas. - Substance Use / Abuse. - Child Sexual Abuse. - Barebacking & Public Sex. - Continuing HIV Epidemic / AIDS related Drugs / Vaccine. - Drug Resistant HIV. - HIV Situation Worldwide. - AIDS & Related Problems. - Internet Resources. - Books. - Full Text Papers.

Little Taiko Boy

Closeted Calamity: The Hidden HIV Epidemic of Men Who Have Sex with Men (2010): The HIV pandemic has historically been thought of as either concentrated in specific populations—such as gay men, injection drug–users, sex workers—or generalized across the entire population in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. But as more and better epidemiological data has become available, the evidence is clear: men who have sex with men (MSM), regardless of whether or not they identify as gay, also are at the core of those generalized epidemics.
MSM in the Global AIDS Epidemic (2011): Gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionately heavy burden of the HIV pandemic. In low- and middle-income countries, MSM are 19 times more likely to be infected with HIV than the general population. Despite elevated HIV prevalence rates and heightened vulnerability to factors that drive HIV transmission, MSM have been under-recognized, under-studied, under-funded, and under-served historically in the global response to HIV & AIDS. The Global HIV Prevention Working Group estimates that HIV prevention services reach only 9% of MSM worldwide...
Men, males and MSM: For many years it has been recognised that HIV/AIDS programmes directed at "gay" men are likely to reach only a small proportion of their intended audience, particularly in the developing world. For many men who have sex with men, "gay" is a foreign concept; it is American, middle-class, effeminate, transvestite, transgender or a word they seldom hear. .

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The Second HIV Infection Wave

The Second Wave Will Drown Us [American Journal of Public Health, 93(6): 872-881, June 2003 - PubMed Reference. Full Text]: "Two years ago, in these pages, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) forecast a resurgent HIV epidemic among US men who have sex with men (MSM)... Earlier this year, the CDC announced that its forecast already had come true: new HIV diagnosis increased by 14% among US MSM between 1999 and 2001..." (p. 872) "Despite such warning from the CDC and the Institute of Medicine, prevention efforts fall prey to political opportunism, misplaced moralism, stigmatization, and homophobia... Most schools continue to refrain from even the meekest adaptation to gay adolescents' needs for safety and mutual affiliation, much less and authentic respect that might nourish self-respect..." (p. 878). - Global: MSM still marginalised in AIDS response (2007). - Where’s The Outrage? HIV Rate Soars in Young Gay Men (2008). - Biology Leaves Gay Men Highly Vulnerable to HIV: Study (2012): New research pinpoints a major reason why gay and bisexual men remain so vulnerable to the AIDS epidemic: When it comes to the transmission of HIV, a man who has unprotected anal intercourse is at especially high risk. - The HIV Epidemic Among MSM is Still Expanding (2012): “While the global trajectory of HIV in so many places and in so many populations, happily, is in decline,” said Dr. Beyrer, “that is not true for men who have sex with men. This is one of the relatively uncommon components of global AIDS that’s still expanding. It’s happening in rich countries and poor countries. It’s happening where MSM face criminal penalty, social stigma, and sanction, and it’s happening in places like France, where they don’t.” - Shame = Death: HIV/AIDS Complacency in the Gay Community (2012). - Reclaiming HIV as a ‘Gay’ Disease (2012). - High rates of unprotected sex and serosorting among men who have sex with men: a national online study in Norway (2012). - America’s Hidden H.I.V. Epidemic (2017): Why do America’s black gay and bisexual men have a higher H.I.V. rate than any country in the world?

The Shocking Second HIV Epidemic Among U.S. Gay Men That No One Is Talking About (2012): Some LGBT rights groups today are focused on topics that make for an easier sell to the rest of society than HIV/AIDS. - Discrimination and homophobia fuel the HIV epidemic in gay and bisexual men (2012): Despite clear evidence for the social determinants of HIV transmission, there have been limited efforts targeting these social inequalities. - HIV and AIDS among Gay and Bisexual Men (2012, CDC): Gay and bisexual men - referred to in CDC surveillance systems as men who have sex with men (MSM) - of all races continue to be the risk group most severely affected by HIV. CDC’s most recent data show that between 2006 and 2009, the number of new infections that occur each year increased among young MSM - driven by an alarming 48 percent increase among young, black MSM 13 to 29 years old. - HIV/AIDS Backgrounder: Gay, bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): HIV infection rates remain high among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Toronto. In 2009, gay men accounted for 69% of HIV positive test results in Toronto,. Overall, gay men account for 71% of people living with HIV/AIDS in Toronto. - HIV diagnosis rate still rising for gay, bisexual men (2012): The number of New Zealand gay and bisexual men with diagnosed HIV more than doubled between 1999 and 2009, University of Otago research shows.

World AIDS Day 2012: Fighting HIV/AIDS in the LGBT Community:     Gay and bisexual men and other MSM are only an estimated 2% of the population but make up an astounding 64% of all new HIV infections. In 2009, 52% of people living with HIV in the United States were MSM. In 2010, MSM accounted for 51% of all AIDS diagnoses. Black MSM acquire HIV at rate of 2.8% per year (50% higher than white MSM). Black MSM under 30 acquire HIV at a rate 3 times their white peers. In a meta analysis of 29 studies by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 27.7% of transgender women tested positive for HIV; 73% of HIV-positive transgender women were unaware of their status. - AIDS 2012 Recap: The Lancet Symposia Series on MSM and HIV (2012): The medical journal The Lancet published a July 2012 special series exploring the unique aspects of the HIV epidemic in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM), showing that it is factors such as the biology of anal sex, the characteristics of MSM networks, and known behavioral factors that are driving the epidemic in this population. - The Sobering Truth of HIV among MSM (2012): The idea of “turning the tide” against the AIDS epidemic will prove to be no more than a slogan if more is not done to address the growing number of gay/bisexual men infected with HIV worldwide, experts said today.

HIV-related stigma within communities of gay men: A literature review (2012): While stigma associated with HIV infection is well recognised, there is limited information on the impact of HIV-related stigma between men who have sex with men and within communities of gay men. The consequences of HIV-related stigma can be personal and community-wide, including impacts on mood and emotional well-being, prevention, testing behaviour, and mental and general health. This review of the literature reports a growing division between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men, and a fragmentation of gay communities based along lines of perceived or actual HIV status. The literature includes multiple references to HIV stigma and discrimination between gay men, men who have sex with men, and among and between many gay communities. This HIV stigma takes diverse forms and can incorporate aspects of social exclusion, ageism, discrimination based on physical appearance and health status, rejection and violence. By compiling the available information on this understudied form of HIV-related discrimination, we hope to better understand and target research and countermeasures aimed at reducing its impact at multiple levels.

El-Hayek C, Bergeri I, Hellard ME, Pedrana AE, Higgins N, Breschkin A, Stoové M (2010). The changing age distribution of men who have sex with men diagnosed with HIV in Victoria. Medical Journal of Australia, 193(11-12): 655-658. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. Following a period of sustained increase between 2000 and 2007, the median age at HIV diagnosis among MSM declined significantly, from 38.8 years in 2007 to 35.3 years in 2008 (P=0.023), remaining at 35.9 years in 2009. Between 2007 and 2008, the median age of syphilis and gonorrhoea notifications also declined, from 40.6 to 36.0 years and from 32.3 to 29.3 years, respectively. The median age of HIV testing among MSM in the VPCNSS population remained constant between 2006 and 2009, at 33.0 years. Compared with older MSM, those aged less than 35 years were more likely to have never previously been tested for HIV (relative risk [RR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.30-1.41]); to not know the HIV status of their regular partner (RR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.21]); and to report inconsistent condom use with casual partners (RR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.14]) and regular partners (RR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00-1.14])... Younger MSM in Victoria may be at increasing risk of HIV infection. Enhanced methods of monitoring HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission in younger MSM are needed, as well as prevention messages to target this group, who may not fully understand their HIV risk.

HIV rate 44 times higher in gay, bisexual men. CDC: HIV infection a rite of passage? (2010). - Recently diagnosed and younger HIV-positive gay men taking more sex risks in Boston study (2010). - Addressing the rising HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (2010). - Raw Emotion: Thoughts on Why Gay Men Bareback (2010). - Groundbreaking Analyses Reveal Astonishing Rates of HIV and STDs Among America’s Gay Men (2010). - Highest-ever HIV diagnoses in gay men (2012): The number of gay and bisexual men being diagnosed with HIV in the UK reached an "all-time high" in 2011, according to the Health Protection Agency (HPA). 

New Paradigms of Risk and Protection: Understanding the HIV Epidemics among Gay and Bisexual Men (2012): HIV epidemics among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are fundamentally different from other groups at risk. These differences help explain why HIV epidemics among these men are expanding in low, middle, and high income countries, including the US, and why current HIV prevention and treatment programs are not working as well as they should. Biological, network, and social/structural factors combine for these men and lead to more rapid and efficient HIV spread in their communities—individual risk behaviors for HIV infection contribute only modestly to these dynamics. Responding to the epidemics of HIV among gay and other MSM will be challenging and require leadership, vision, and new science. This response is critical in order to achieve global control of HIV in the years to come. - A New HIV Prevention Paradigm for Gay and Bisexual Men in the U.S. (2012): Available evidence indicates that traditional risk reduction strategies on their own are inadequate to turn the tide against AIDS. This underscores the need for new approaches to address the broader social and structural factors that contribute to disproportionate infection rates among gay and bisexual men. This issue brief outlines a new paradigm for HIV prevention in the gay community.

Dangerous desires and post-queer HIV prevention: Rethinking community, incitement and intervention (2009): HIV prevention among gay men seems to be failing. Unprotected sex between men has been rising for some time and incident infections are increasing in many Western gay communities. This paper argues that our efforts in prevention for gay men have steadily become less effective. Risk reduction strategies that formed the central plank of HIV prevention among gay men for nearly 15 years need to be re-thought and prevention seen more as social intervention focused on sexual ethics and sexual cultures. To start this rethinking, this paper seeks to (1) re-theorize the relation between social change and behaviour change; (2) re-assess gay community purposefully beyond ‘queer’; and (3) re-conceive prevention education as cultural intervention and incitement. Hopefully, re-conceiving prevention in this way might lead to a renewed research agenda, focused on the social and less on the behavioural, and to renewed prevention efforts. - HIV/AIDS and Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (2009).- HIV/AIDS: Crisis among Young Black and Latino Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (2009). - 1 in 5 Gay and Bisexual Men in Major Cities are HIV Positive, but Many Unaware of Status (2010). - Anal cancer, HIV, and gay/bisexual men (2009).

Are We Forgetting about Gay Male Adolescents in Aids-Related Research and Prevention? (1996). - Sexual Risk Behavior and Drug Use in Two Chicago Samples of Men Who Have Sex with Men: 1997 vs. 2002 (2010, Unsafe anal sex increased). - HIV and AIDS among Gay and Bisexual Men (2010, CDC, N/A): MSM is the only risk group in the U.S. in which new HIV infections are increasing. While new infections have declined among both heterosexuals and injection drug users, the annual number of new HIV infections among MSM has been steadily increasing since the early 1990s. - The global epidemic of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (2009). - HIV/AIDS: Crisis among Young Black and Latino Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (2009).

When plagues don't end [American Journal of Public Health, 93(6): 861-2, June 2003 - PubMed Reference. Full Text]. - HIV returns [American Journal of Public Health, 93(6): 860, June 2003 - PubMed Reference. Full Text]. - Increasing proportions of Australian gay and homosexually active men engage in unprotected anal intercourse with regular and with casual partners [AIDS Care, 14(3): 335-41, June 2002 - PubMed Reference]. - HIV infections soar among gays. - The VOICES/VOCES success story: effective strategies for training, technical assistance and community-based organization implementation. - HIV/AIDS Epidemic Raging Among Men Having Sex with Men (MSM): amFAR Announces New Initiative in Sydney to Address the Crisis. - A Discursive Approach to Disinhibition Theory: The Normalization of Unsafe Sex Among Gay Men. - Unsafe, Unwanted: Sexual Coercion as a Barrier to Safer Sex among Men Who Have Sex with Men. - Stigma, Concealment and Symptoms of Depression as Explanations for Sexually Transmitted Infections among Gay Men. - Cognitive therapy can reduce risky sex amongst gay men with compulsive sexual behaviour. - Stigma, Concealment and Symptoms of Depression as Explanations for Sexually Transmitted Infections among Gay Men (2007).

Emerging and Re-Emerging HIV Epidemics among Gay and non-Gay Identified MSM: Globally, and in nearly every country, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV infection and AIDS.  Despite continued denial and stigma in many places, and after twenty-five years of a worldwide pandemic, MSM are now described as a priority for HIV interventions in many national HIV plans... In the United States, MSM are being infected at a rate of approximately 1.9-2.9% per year, which if not reduced, is capable of indefinitely sustaining prevalence rates of more than 25% among MSM older than 30.  Black gay men in the U.S. are among the hardest-hit population in the world, with rates of HIV now due to infect more than half of all young Black gay men by the time they reach age 35. - Dangerous desires and post-queer HIV prevention: Rethinking community, incitement and intervention. - Framing dilemmas during sex: A micro-sociological approach to HIV risk.

Temoshok LR, Wald RL (2008). Integrating multidimensional HIV prevention programs into healthcare settings. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5): 612-9. PDF Download. Abstract. "HIV risk behaviors are much more common among persons with mental illness (68–73) and active substance abusers (74–79). Additionally, increased levels of transmission risk behaviors are found among individuals with severe social needs, such as homelessness (68,80), domestic and/or intimate partner violence (81–83), and juvenile delinquency (78). These findings suggest that, rather than conceiving of HIV transmission risk as a specific behavioral problem requiring narrowly targeted services, it is important to recognize the role of a broad range of social, psychological, and medical services in promoting and enhancing HIV secondary prevention. Importantly, receiving treatment for mental illness was found to reduce transmission risk behaviors in active drug users (84). Housing programs, social work services, and general mental health care may all indirectly reduce transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals; thus, they represent critical components of HIV primary care."

A Clue to Why Gays Play Russian Roulette With H.I.V.: Most young gay and bisexual American men who were found to be infected with the AIDS virus in a recent study were unaware of their infection, according to a finding reported recently at the 14th International AIDS Conference in Barcelona by Dr. Duncan MacKellar, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study surveyed 5,719 men, ages 15 to 29, of whom 573 were discovered to be H.I.V.-positive. Of those 573 men, 77 percent did not know that they were infected. Despite having engaged in frequent high-risk sex like unprotected anal intercourse, most of these men still believed that they were at low risk of contracting H.I.V.... Still, there is an aspect of this dangerous behavior that has eluded explanation: the strikingly self-destructive nature of unsafe sex. Why would anyone knowingly expose himself to a potentially lethal infection? Gay Men and the Self Destructive Impulse: This paper was delivered at the ‘Men’s health in south London’ conference, at guy’s hospital. - Gay men’s HIV prevention needs ‘shifted to the back burner’, claims UNAIDS. - A third of HIV+ gay men ignorant of their infection: london study.

The effect of partner characteristics on HIV infection among African American men who have sex with men in the Young Men's Survey, Los Angeles, 1999-2000[AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A): 39-52, 2003 - PubMed Reference]: "Previous studies have documented disparities in HIV prevalence by race among men who have sex with men (MSM), even after adjusting for traditional risk factors." - HIV risk and prevention among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men: listen to our stories [AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A): 7-20, 2003 - PubMed Reference]: "Despite increasing need for HIV prevention research and intervention programs, the voices and stories of Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) have remained absent from HIV prevention literature." - Age and race mixing patterns of sexual partnerships among Asian men who have sex with men: implications for HIV transmission and prevention [AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A): 53-65, 2003 - PubMed Reference]: "Recent studies of U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) have reported high rates of unprotected anal intercourse but low rates of HIV infection among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) men." - Risk among young gay and bisexual men living with HIV [AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A): 80-9, 2003 - PubMed Reference]: "The influence of sexual orientation was examined on sexual risk behaviors, disclosure patterns, substance use, and stressful live events among 231 gay and bisexual youth living with HIV. Youth were mainly of ethnic minority heritage: 69.3% were Hispanic, African American, or biracial."

Unsafe sexual practices are common, say US studies (BMJ, 2003) - Doctors fear that rise in infection rates points to a return to unsafe sex (BMJ, 2003). -  Syphilis outbreaks reported in Manchester and Brighton (BMJ, 2000). - Unsafe sexual practices are increasing among gay men in London (BMJ, 2000). - Rate of syphilis is increasing among gay and bisexual men, especially those who have HIV N/A. - Gay Newspaper Kills Critical Stories. - Pushin’ the Limits. - June 15, 2004 - How Do You Know What You Know?: Provocative Gay Men's HIV Prevention Campaign Launches in Ontario June 16th. - The Internet, Sex, & AIDS.

A process of vulnerablelization exacerbates the risk for HIV infection among young gay men (YGM). - Sex, intimacy and power: The lived experiences of young gay men (YGM) in the context of rising HIV infections in Vancouver. - Predictors of HIV seroconversion among young gay men who have sex with men. - Determinants of sexual risk behaviour among young gay and bisexual men: A two-city comparison. - Beliefs about "cum," condoms and intimacy among young gay men (YGM) in the context of rising HIV incidence in Vancouver. - Related Information: The Seminal Truth?: Presented at the 2000 Gay Men's Health Summit

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Adolescents & Young Adult Males

Report: "Dangerous Inhibitions: How America is letting AIDS become an epidemic of the young." - AIDS Experts Warn: Failed Prevention Efforts Endangering American Youth. - At-Risk Populations: Young Gay Men Ignore HIV Warnings. - HIV infection on the rise in US. - HIV in Young Gay Men on Rise Despite Campaigns. - The Facts: Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: At Risk for HIV & AIDS. - Young Gay Men Talking: Sex & AIDS. - Need for Sustained HIV Prevention Among Men  who Have Sex with Men. - Young Gay Men at Risk. - Gay Identity and HIV. - HIV & AIDS Statistics for Gay Men (USA) / by ethnic groups. - The Voice of AIDS Project, a new multi-media campaign targeting young, gay/bisexual men in Michigan, will be unveiled at a press conference hosted by MAPP on Tuesday, April 8, 2003 at 1:00 p.m. at the Community Pride Building, 429 Livernois St. in Ferndale. One in nine gay men in Michigan are HIV-positive, and each week another nine gay men become infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Half of these new infections are among young men under the age of 25. - HIV in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Review of Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors, and Interventions (2011). - HIV and Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (CDC, 2011). - HIV Infections on Rise Among Young Gay and Bisexual Men (2012). - Secondary Prevention Needs of Young Gay/Bisexual Men living with HIV/AIDS (2012, PPT Presentation).

CDC: HIV among Youth (2011): Young MSM, especially those of minority races and ethnicities, are at increased risk for HIV infection. In 2009, young MSM accounted for 27% of new HIV infections in the US and 69% of new HIV infections among persons aged 13–29. Among young black MSM, new HIV infections increased 48% from 2006 through 2009. - CDC: HIV rates high among young gay men, many unaware they're infected (2012). - New Study Finds Greatly Elevated HIV Infection Rates Among Young Black Gay and Bisexual Men in the U.S. (2012). - Young Black MSM Acquiring HIV at Three Times the Rate of White MSM (2012).

HIV/AIDS in Adolescence. - Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Estimates and Trends From Four Nationally Representative Surveys (Homosexuality is ignored). - Adolescents and HIV: the 2002 Hopkins HIV Report. - Youth and HIV Expert Issues Call to Action. - Second wave of infection feared. - Many Young Gay Men Do Not Have Safe Sex. - The Facts About Young People and HIV. - The Young and the Restless. - Study: Gay men spreading AIDS at alarming rate. - Big HIV Spread Among Young Gays. - Prévalence du VIH et prises de risques chez les jeunes ayant des rapports homosexuels. - Questions sur la prévention du sida chez les homosexuels. - Analyse des comportements sexuels des jeunes homo- et bisexuels. - Age-Concordant and Age-Discordant Sexual Behavior Among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents (2011).

Young People at Risk: HIV/AIDS Among America’s Youth. - Peer Education Not Fear Education. - AIDS Video Censored. - Preventing Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents: The Benefits of Gay-Sensitive HIV Instruction in Schools. - HIV/AIDS: The Untold Story. - HIV Prevention Messages Failing to Convince Gays - Condom-FREE Anal Sex Keeps Virus on Increase. - Safe-sex education and the death drive. - The Scenography of HIV Infection for Young Gay Men: Educating Emotion and Desire: Individuation and sexual identity. - Contracting HIV... A Suicide Problem? - "I felt as if I had committed suicide for a good lay." This quote from the journal of an HIV-negative gay man about his feelings of guilt for having anal sex, even with a condom, stirred many feelings in me as well-along with a few questions. - A Clue to Why Gays Play Russian Roulette with HIV. (Alternate Link) - Intentional HIV Contraction: A Policy Change for Youth in Care: "When we think of suicide we do not usually think of someone knowingly and willingly contracting HIV. This paper recommends expanding our consideration of suicide to include intentional contraction of HIV." (Alternate Link)

Gay men unaware of AIDS infection status (2002): ""Clearly, unrecognized infection with human immunodeficiency virus is a problem in men who have sex with men," said Duncan MacKeller, an epidemiologist with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.  "A substantial number of young gay and bisexual men of all races have HIV, do not know they are infected, do not think they are at risk, are not getting tested and may be unknowingly transmitting the virus to their partners," he said... Of 5,719 young gay men [age = 15-29] tested in several American cities - Baltimore, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York and Seattle - 573 or about 10 percent of them tested positive for HIV... Of those 573 infected individuals, 440 men or 77 percent were unaware they were infected." - Reality Check N/A: Percentage of men who did not know they were positive (by race/ethnicity): African-American (91%), Latino (70%), White (60%). - HIV leaps among young gay Americans. - Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: At Risk for HIV and STDs. - HIV/STD Prevention and Young Men Who Have Sex with Men. - What Are Young Gay Men's HIV Prevention Needs? - What Are Adolescents' HIV Prevention Needs?

Thousands do not know they are HIV positive (UK): Thousands of people in the UK are unknowingly carrying the virus that causes Aids, according to a series of anonymous surveys... among gay and bisexual men - the most HIV-aware section of the community - as many as 40% of people attending sexually transmitted disease (STD)  clinics do not know they are carrying the virus." - Does Desire Displace Knowledge? Young Men and HIV/AIDS.

HIV Transmission and Prevention Among Adolescents. - Talking to Your Children About AIDS. - Youth and AIDS Projects (YAP).  - NYU study: condoms don't increase teen sex activity. - Study blasts abstinence programs (Must Scroll). - Condom distribution not enough, say Vancouver community AIDS educators. - Need for Sustained HIV Prevention Among Men who Have Sex with Men (adolescents). - The Adolescent AIDS Program: Provider Trainings on HIV/AIDS & Adolescents, and Gay and Lesbian Youth.

AIDS at 20: Complacency returns (M. Signorile): "Last Friday, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control  and Prevention released a study that provided the most sweeping evidence yet of a return to a 1980s-era AIDS surge. New infection rates for  gay men in the United States, between the ages of 23 and 29, have almost doubled from a few years ago, rising to 4.4 percent per year. In 1997, when the new infections were averaging between 2 and 2.5 percent per year, epidemiologists expressed great alarm, warning that if the number remained constant, in 10 years, approximately 25 percent of gay men in that age group would become HIV positive."

Harvard AIDS Review, Fall, 1998, "Young Gay Men at Risk": "Young gay men in the United States currently become infected with HIV at a rate of 4 percent a year. At that rate, half of all gay men who are now 18 years old will be HIV positive by the time they are 30... With infections high among young gay men and many older gay men returning to unsafe sex, gay community leaders know they must step up efforts if they are to avoid the tragic, unnecessary loss of another generation of gay men to AIDS. - Rate of New HIV Infections Rises Sharply in San Francisco: "Following years of steep declines, the rate of new HIV infections in San Francisco surged in 1999 to levels that parallel those in sub-Saharan Africa, where one in four  adults is infected with the virus that causes AIDS." - Oral sex has near-zero HIV risk according to new San Francisco study (PubMed Abstract).

AIDS roars back: Blacks hit hardest (Chicago Tribune, 2002): "While some observers blame ignorance or denial of HIV's risks, others in the gay community say some young gay men may see infection as inevitable or even socially desirable... Yet gay men still account for 53 percent of AIDS cases in Chicago, where gay activists and public health officials say they are seeing a disturbing trend of sex without condoms... A CDC study released in February showed that 30 percent of gay Black men between the ages of 23 and 29 were HIV-positive; the rate among adults in hard-hit South Africa is 20  percent... Yet the new survey revealed a new infection rate of 4.4 percent for young gay men. The rates ranged from 2.5 percent among gay white men to 14.7 percent among gay Black men... Said Gaylord: 'They won't say gay because gay is a white thing.' The presence of Black men in denial makes prevention efforts that much more difficult, Edwards said. 'If you make an AIDS awareness poster that's clearly aimed at gay men, a lot of the Black men you're trying to reach will say, `That's not me.'" Edwards said. 'The question  becomes how you reach them without offending them.'"

Working against an epidemic: Young, gay black man preaches for safe sex: "If black gays don't have enough to worry about with rampant shame or homophobia - both issues that can cause a crippling stigmatization in the black community - they now have to face a growing threat of AIDS. According to a study released in February by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a staggering one-third of young, gay, black males in large U.S. cities are infected with HIV... According to Lamar, younger gays are preyed on by older gay men, who want to brag that they're the first to have sex with them.Some of these young men are more likely to have risky sex, such as anal intercourse without condoms..."

Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C infections among young men who have sex with men. The Baltimore young men's survey (XIV International AIDS Conference): 863 MSM - 15-29 - 33.4% African American, 53.7% white - 76.5% homosexual, 19.9% bisexual -  median age of 23 - "Prevalence of HCV was 5.6% and of past or present HBV infection was 14.4%, whereas the proportion HBV susceptible participants was 66.9%. HIV co-infection was 34.7% for HBV and 27.1% for HCV. Multivariate risks for HCV were: African American (OR=2.8; 95%CI:1.5,5.3), Asian (OR=5.4;1.4,19.9), injection use (OR=9.2;4.3,19.9); and for HBV: HIV positivity (OR=3.4;2.0,5.8), African American (OR=2.4;1.5,4.0), Asian (OR=3.7;1.1,11.9), Hispanic (OR=5.6;2.4,13.2), and having over 20 male lifetime partners (OR=2.9; 1.6,5.5). Conclusions: HCV (5.6%) and HBV (14.4%) infection are quite high among YMSM, particularly affecting HIV infected individuals and minorities. HCV infection is primarily explained by injection drug use."

Young gay and bisexual men are engaging in high risk activities. - New generation of gay men at AIDS risk: Studies released at global meeting show high rates of HIV infection, low testing and prevention knowledge (2002). - HIV infection as leading cause of death in young adults? - AIDS is leading killer of homeless 25-44 years old. - Man to stand trial over infecting teenager with HIV. - Silence = Deaf  -  In the translation from English to sign language, HIV education loses something: Lives. (Alternate Link)

New Mexico Governor's Task Force on HIV/AIDS: Position Statement: High HIV Infection Rate Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: "HIV/AIDS is a very serious problem among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New Mexico. Three quarters (75%) of the state's HIV/AIDS cases are among men who have sex with men."

From Boston's Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Access Project: - The Boston Young Gay Men Study (abstract). - The Boston Partners Study (abstract). - Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Study of Their HIV Risk Behavior (abstract). - Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Serosurveillance Survey (abstract). - Research Documents, Some Available for Download.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Ethnic Minority Males

HIV/AIDS Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men - United States, 1989-1998. - Communities of Color and HIV/AIDS. - Minorities and HIV Infection. - Balance of AIDS Cases in Gay and Bisexual Males Tips Toward Minorities. - The Collaborative HIV-Prevention Research in Minority Communities Program: A program that provides funding for research with ethnic minority communities. - Name-calling: for minorities already mistrustful of government, HIV names reporting could lead to fewer people getting tested for the disease. - Correlates of Risk Patterns and Race/Ethnicity among HIV-Positive Men who have Sex with Men. - Preventing HIV among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. - Racial/ethnic disparities in diagnoses of HIV/AIDS--33 states, 2001-2004. (Alternate Link). Psychosocial Issues & HIV Health Disparities Among MSM of Color and the Need for REM Researchers (2007, PDF). - HIV/AIDS: Crisis among Young Black and Latino Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (PDF). - Hispanic/Latinos, Substance Use, and HIV/AIDS (2008, PDF). - Chopsticks don't make it culturally competent: addressing larger issues for HIV prevention among gay, bisexual, and queer Asian Pacific Islander men (2009). - Sexually adventurous subculture and drug use influence unprotected anal intercourse among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) (2006). - Transgender Latinas & HIV (2007). - Black Men Who Have Sex With Men and the Association of Down-Low Identity With HIV Risk Behavior (2009). - HIV prevention for black men who have sex with men in the United States (2009). - HIV/AIDS: Crisis among Young Black and Latino Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (2009, PDF).

Alarming HIV infection rate among black gay and bisexual men (2012): The HIV infection rate among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. now rivals what is seen in the worst impacted parts of the world, including Southern Africa, according to recent studies.  The numbers were more alarming than expected for health care providers, researchers and policy professionals already focused on this issue. A study by the HIV Prevention Trial Network (HPTN) found that black MSM in the U.S. who are under 30 have a 5.9% infection rate, which is 3 times the rate among their white peers and is comparable to rates in the general population in sub-saharan Africa’s hardest hit regions. - U.S. black gay, bisexual men have much higher HIV infection rates (2012). - To End AIDS Among Black Gay and Bi Men, There's a Need for Action (2012): The face of AIDS as imagined by some in America is that of a black gay or bisexual man. Indeed, black gay and bisexual men, or men who have sex with men (MSM), have the highest HIV rates in the country. - Back of the Line: The State of AIDS Among Black Gay Men in America (2012): Although Black gay men have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic first appeared in the early 1980s, the country has yet to mount a meaningful response to this crisis. Representing a mere 1 in 500 people living in the U.S., Black gay men account for nearly 1 in 4 new HIV infections. And the problem is getting worse, with new infections among Black gay men rapidly rising. HIV represents a lifelong threat for Black gay men. A young Black gay man has a roughly 1-in-4 chance of being infected by age 25. By the time he is 40 years old, the odds a Black gay men will be living with HIV is roughly 60%. One can scour the entire world and struggle to find a population more heavily affected by HIV/AIDS than Black gay in the U.S. - More Black Gay and Bi Men Are HIV Positive; Most Unaware (2010). - Reversing the Alarming HIV Increase Among Black Gay Men, Part 1 (2012).

Ending Isolation, Anti-Racism Crucial to HIV Prevention " It has been from this isolation and toward the hope of community that much of the LGBT culture has been built. However, many people of color do not find sanctuary in the LGBT community, only a familiar kind of isolation born from discrimination and prejudice. According to the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force more than half of Black LGBT people agree that racism is a problem in their relations with the LGBT community and one-third reported negative experiences in LGBT establishments.  Addressing concerns of racism in LGBT culture must be immediate and sustained...  Racism is also a betrayal of the core values that we base the LGBT movement on: freedom from discrimination and harassment and equal access and opportunity. These ideals are hard won and are the stepping-stones to creating the kind of community and culture that we all long for and deserve. Coming out of isolation must be something available to all of us in the LGBT community. For these reasons, and many more, we must foster sustained dialogue within our community about the importance of diversity and inclusion..." - Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Standing At the Crossroad of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the United States (2006, PDF). -   “I Don’t Fit Anywhere”: How Race and Sexuality Shape Latino Gay and Bisexual Men’s Health (2007). - Rethinking HIV Risk for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (Video Presentations). - Social integration and health: community involvement, stigmatized identities, and sexual risk in Latino sexual minorities (2010). - HIV/AIDS: Crisis among Young Black and Latino Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (2009). - Latinos and HIV/AIDS: A Call to Arms for Gay and Bisexual Men (2012).

Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men and HIV/AIDS in the United States (PDF Dowbload, PDF Download): "Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, HIV incidence has been highest among men who have sex with men (MSM). Most new AIDS cases for which MSM is the HIV exposure category are now among MSM of color, who face extraordinary barriers to HIV counseling and testing as well as to care. Moreover, evidence suggests that AIDS surveillance data significantly underrepresent the rate of HIV/AIDS among men of color..." - Policy Facts: Communities of Color and HIV/AIDS. - Toward eliminating health disparities in HIV/AIDS: the importance of the minority investigator in addressing scientific gaps in Black and Latino communities. - Visibility Hidden: Rethinking BMSM & HIV Prevention (2007): Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) represent an increasing, and significant proportion of HIV cases in Toronto. Despite this trend, related research, education and prevention with this population has been notably inadequate and new prevention responses must be considered...

"FAGGOT MOTHERFUCKER"  said a Black man in the corner of 129th and Fifth Avenue in Harlem to  an effeminate gay Black man walking by. Most Black and Latino heterosexual men say they have called a homosexual "faggot" or "punk" at one time or another in their life, a new poll shows.- Combating HIV in Black and Latino Communities. - Expanded Coverage of AIDS/HIV in Underserved Special Communities: African Americans, Hispanics, Women, IVDUs. - HIV & AIDS Statistics for Gay Men (USA) / by ethnic groups. - Gay Minorities with AIDS Overtake Gay Whites N/A. - “Stuck in the Quagmire of an HIV Ghetto”: The meaning of stigma in the lives of older black gay and bisexual men living with HIV in New York City (2011).

New Executive Director of the AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts: "In the 19 years since the AIDS Action Committee was founded, the nature of the epidemic has shifted from one initially affecting primarily white gay men to one impacting people of all races and sexual orientations. Communities of color and young gay men, especially young African-American and Hispanic gay men, are currently at the highest risk for contracting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. - Recognizing and Responding to the Many Faces of AIDS in the USA. - Another Black Experience: Gay Daddy: "The piers are gone now. AIDS decimated a generation, and is now hitting another hard, particularly young gay black men, who are being infected at the same epidemic rate as Africans. I asked Al if he thought more funding would help, and he sneered, "Not until the black community confronts homophobia head on. Not as long as parents throw their kids away." Al tries to redeem them, but for young gay black and Latino kids, not enough has changed."

HIV/AIDS and People of Color. - Facts about HIV / AIDS in People of Color. - Minority groups and young gay men have high and worsening rates of HIV; prevention research is lacking, say UCSF researchers in new report.People of color confront HIV, health system. - People of color missing out on new drugs N/A. -  Children of the Epidemic. - A Youth Leader's Guide to Building Cultural Competence [PDF Download]: Chapter Four: Cultural Background for HIV/AIDS Prevention

Unrecognized HIV Infection, Risk Behaviors, and Perceptions of Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in Six U.S. Cities, 1994 - 1998. - HIV/AIDS hits African American community hardest. - HIV/AIDS Among African Americans. - Mobilizing against the HIV/AIDS Crisis among African Americans. - AIDS in the African and African-American Communities. - The shocking truth about the aids epidemic in Black America. - The Black Death: AIDS in the African-American community is a public health emergency - Why? The latest stats on HIV among black MSMs has everyone asking why prevention doesn't seem to be working. - Study: Black male gays, bisexuals hit hard. - USATODAY.com - One in 3 young gay black men are HIV-positive. - HIV Among African Americans (Harvard AIDS Review - Special Edition, 1996) - Blacks’ concern over HIV/AIDS rises as epidemic continues N/A (1998). - What Are African-Americans' HIV Prevention Needs? Are African-American populations at risk? - The San Francisco Black Community's Response to AIDS/HIV. - Lest We Forget: HIV/AIDS in the African American Community. - What Puts People At Risk? - African-Americans.

An epidemic in the making (1991): Open Season on Black Gay Men (1991). - And the Choir Sings On: Special Report (1994) - "From small rural churches to center city arenas, voices rise in a joyful noise for the Lord. But AIDS has cast a pall of silence over the black gospel music community." - Waking Up To Common Ground: dialogue between the African American and lesbian/ gay/ bisexual communities 1994.  (Alternate link)  - HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in the black gay community suffered another blow last month (1995)...  - Concern About AIDS in Minority Communities (1995). - Black Is... Black Ain't (1998) N/A: Cornelius Baker may be the most effective black AIDS advocate on Capitol Hill. But has he lost touch with the streets? - Two Nations Under Plague: Wake up, my gay, white brothers and sisters! AIDS is  ravaging people of color (1999).

The Hidden Epidemic: "It's called the 'down-low' - the lifestyle of black men who have sex with other men but keep it secret from the women in their lives. Men on the down-low risk more than rejection if they're found out - they face blame for fanning the flames of the AIDS epidemic." - The Low Down on Down Low Culture. - On the Down Low. - St. Louis: Some Gay Black Men Are Keeping a Deadly Secret. - "The Deadly Secret" - Men who sleep with men: Brothers on the down low pose a serious AIDS risk to Black women. - Why AIDS Is Rising Among Black Women. - Sex, Lies and Magazines: "...many African Americans are unwilling to acknowledge homosexuality in their communities, and many black males, even those who sometimes engage in homosexual sex.." - Men On The Down Low: Misinformation and Fascination. - Self-identification as "down low" among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 12 US cities

Racism. Homophobia. Which Do You Prefer? N/A "As a whole, black gay men have been invisible in American society. We have been scorned within the black community, which often denies our existence as gay men or views us with open hostility. In the general society as well as in the wider gay community, where racism is as prevalent as it is in society as a whole, we often encounter rejection and marginalization due to the color of our skin. The effects have been devastating, contributing to rates of HIV infection among men of color that far exceed those among other groups." - Homophobia, self-esteem, and risk for HIV among African American men who have sex with men.

A deadly taboo: Is homophobia in the black community fanning the flames of HIV infection among African-Americans, the hardest-hit population outside sub-Saharan Africa? (Alternate Link) - Homophobia and HIV in the black community: A conversation with Phill Wilson. - Coretta Scott King Assails Black Homophobia N/A. - My Gay Problem, Your Black Problem: African American men's fear and misconceptions contribute to their homophobia.- Are Black males homophobic?- AIDS and Black New Yorkers: Homophobia, Racism, and Rejection Fuel Rising Infections - Part 2: Black, Gay, At-Risk. - New Study Examines  America's Black GLBT Community. Research Teams Document Priorities and Demographics: Tell of Concern over HIV/AIDS, Racism & Homophobia. - Study Examines African-American Gays. - In AIDS Fight, Homophobia Hinders Blacks. - Black, Gay, At-Risk: Homophobia, Racism, and Rejection Fuel Rising Infections. - Homophobia As a Health Hazard. - Blacks Must Shout: 'Silence = Death' N/A - African-American Health Care Statistics. - "State of Emergency" on HIV/AIDS in the African American Community N/A.

Black Leaders Urge AIDS Action. - Experts urge black churches to help AIDS fight. - Get Churches in on the AIDS Battle. - Black leaders seek help in fighting AIDS N/A. - BCA Finds Black Churches Can Help Quietly Break AIDS Taboos. - Black Churches Banding Together to Battle AIDS, HIV. - The African-American Church & AIDS - Part 1 & Part 2. - Homosexuality and the Black Church. - It’s high time for black gays to ‘walk the daylight’ "A black gay man who attends a homophobic church for ‘the fellowship’ is like a black man joining a Ku Klux Klan gathering because they serve good hush puppies." - The Great Debate on Homosexuality in The Black Community.(Black print on black) - Homosexuality and the African American Church: The Paradox of the "Open Closet" Am. Behav. Scientist 42, 1117 (1999). - African American Churches and HIV/AIDS (Documents).

Has the Black Church Failed the Same Gender Loving Community? - Standing Up to the Black Church. - Same Gender—Loving Family, And Brother Outsider: The Life Of Bayard Rustin. - The Color of Being Gay: Part 1 - The Black Church and the effect that it has on the African American gay community. - The Color of Being Gay: Part II - Sexual and Racial Politics. - For Some Black Pastors, Accepting Gay Members Means Losing Others. - African American Roundtable: "Historically, African American churches have not dealt with human sexuality in a positive light. Our theologies are often negative about sexuality—particularly homosexuality—and this contributes to a fear of sexuality and destructive understandings of masculinity and femininity. We hope that the work of the African American Roundtable can lead to a radical transformation of thought and understanding in African American communities." - World’s largest black gay pride organization applauds Atlanta metro churches acceptance of black gay men and women. - Black Church Leaders Embrace Gays – Good or Bad?

AIDS and the State of Denial: "Some African-American leaders are urging the Bush administration to declare the HIV/AIDS epidemic a national state of emergency and provide federal funds for more effective treatment and prevention programs. But the state of denial is the primary reason  the epidemic has wreaked havoc within the black community; the virus has replaced murder as the leading killer of black men and women ages 25 to 44." - Could the Racism in Predominantly White Gay Communities be implicated in the increasing HIV rates of homosexually oriented males of colour? Little has been written on this subject. - The truth about Blacks and Gays. - Surge in New HIV Infections Among Young Gay Men in US, Particularly African Americans. - Perspectives on the AIDS Crisis: Why What Worked for White Gays Won't Work for Blacks Funding alone isn't enough. Different cultural approaches, issues of self-esteem, must be addressed.

Black Men & HIV: "But lost in this outcry has been real discussion about the group at greatest risk for HIV - Black gay and bisexual men. If we are serious about stopping AIDS, we have to end that silence - and in the process rethink our beliefs about what it means to be Black and male in America today. Half of all new infections among men are among Black men. According to a recent CDC study, nearly a third of Black men who are gay or bisexual have HIV before age 30. Some communities have greeted the news of these infection rates by blaming the victims - demonizing us and characterizing Black men as sexual predators or declaring that African American men who have sex with other men cannot be reached with effective solutions. It's an old, familiar song, the same thinking that makes it hard for us to get a cab in New York City..." - AIDS fight targeting young, gay black men. - HIV Prevention for Young African American MSM (PDF Download).

HIV/AIDS in the African-American Community (2007). - Unintentional HIV exposures from young men who have sex with men who disclose being HIV-negative. - Op-Ed: "State of Emergency" on HIV/AIDS in the African American Community. - GMAD: "As New York City's premier organization serving Gay Men of African Descent (GMAD), our core mission is to empower gay men of African descent through education, advocacy, health and wellness promotion, and social support." - Declaring An HIV/AIDS State of Emergency In The African American Community In Georgia. - Black, Gay, At-Risk: Homophobia, Racism, and Rejection Fuel Rising Infections. - Black Gay Men And AIDS. - Homophobia causes AIDS: Study fingers anti-gay sentiment as a major factor in HIV’s spread among black men. - Black gay leaders express discontent with HIV efforts: Activists demand action from health agency during Atlanta meeting. - The Great Down-Low Debate. - Homophobic lyrics in reggae music, a health issue for black gay men. - Primetime Reports the HIV Epidemic Among Blacks … A Decade Too Late.

A Turning Point: Confronting HIV/AIDS in African American Communities (PDF Download): "The truth of the matter is in 2005 AIDS in America is virtually a Black disease. The epidemic will not be over unless and until Black people in America develop the capacity, infrastructure and commitment to make it so. The time is now to create a comprehensive, coordinated mass mobilization against the AIDS epidemic in Black America." ... This Call to Action underscores the devastating impact of HIV/AIDS in African American communities and urges state and local health departments, African American leaders, federal agencies, and policy makers to mobilize their responses to this crisis. While the early public health response to HIV/AIDS was not focused on African American communities in most of the country — despite evidence of an emerging epidemic — the crisis in African American communities nationwide is unconscionable and demands swift and decisive action. This Call to Action seeks to:..." - Minority AIDS Initiative threatened by funding changes.

The Body: African-American HIV/AIDS Resource Center. - BlackAIDS.org's Resources. - Black Issues Book Review: The Literature of AIDS. - The Black Church and HIV/AIDS: Resources Page. - National Library of Medicine: HIV/AIDS Minority Resources. - African American caregivers and HIV/AIDS formal resources - 1. - HIV/AIDS and the African American Community: Web-based Information Resources. - HIV Transmission and Prevention in African Americans: Related Resources

AIDS & African Americans: A guide for substance abuse, sexuality and care - 2000 - by Pamela Blackwell-Johnson  ( Link to Editorial Reviews) - The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics - 1999 - by Cathy J. Cohen (Link to Editorial Reviews). -  Honey, Honey, Miss Thang: Being Black, Gay, and On the Streets - 1996 - by Leon E. Pettiway (Editorial Review, 9 Sample pages). - Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men - 1999 - edited by Charles Michael Smith (Link to Editorial Reviews). - One More River to Cross: Black and Gay in America - 1998 - by Keith Boykin (Link to Editorial Reviews, 27 Sample Pages). - Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African-American Identity - 1998 - by Phillip Brian harper (Review). - The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities - 2001 - by Delroy Constantine-Simms (Interview with author) (Table of Contents) (Review: Black Gay / Gay Black). - A Whosoever Church: Welcoming Lesbians and Gay Men into African American Congregations - 2001 - by Gary David Comstock (11 Sample Pages) (Review). - Somebody's Knocking at Your Door: AIDS And the African-american Church - 1999 - by Ronald Jeffrey Weatherford and Carole Boston Weatherford. - Not in My Family: AIDS in the African-American Community - 2006 - by Gil L. Robertson (Review). - Beyond the Down Low: Sex, Lies, and Denial in Black America - 2004 - by Keith Boykin (Review) (Author Interview).

Black Men Who Have Sex With Men and the Association of Down-Low Identity With HIV Risk Behavior (2009): Black men "on the down low" have been considered prime agents of HIV transmission in the Black community despite little empirical evidence. We assessed the relationship between down-low identification and sexual risk outcomes among 1151 Black MSM. Down-low Identification was not associated with unprotected anal or vaginal sex with male or female partners. Future HIV prevention programs and research should target sexual risk behaviors of Black men, irrespective of identity, and not focus on the "down low."

CAPS: Hermanos de Luna Y Sol: HIV Risk Factors for Latino Gay/Bisexual Men. - Latinos and HIV: An Epidemic Waiting to Burst? - AIDS: Are Latinos A High Risk Population? - 'Breaking The Silence,' a Collection of Personal Stories by HIV-Positive Latinos and Latinas; AIDS Project Los Angeles Publishes Stories as HIV Prevention Effort N/A. - Internalized homophobia is a continuing obstacle to our ability to fully address HIV and AIDS issues related to gay and bisexual Latino men. (Alternate Link) - Deadly Silence: Taboos aid high incidence of HIV among gay Latino men N/A. (Related information in "Coming out in Spanish") - The Latino Lag: When it comes to care, Latinos are falling behind. - Preventing HIV among Latino and African American Gay and Bisexual Men in a Context of HIV-Related Stigma, Discrimination, and Homophobia: Perspectives of Providers.

HIV/AIDS In Latino Community Has Reached Crisis Proportions, New Nclr-Csulb Center For Latino Health Reports Findings. - HIV/AIDS and Hispanics. - Latino Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: Unique Needs and Challenges. - Event to bring awareness to AIDS in Latino communities. - Health, Culture, HIV/AIDS, and Latino/a College Students (PDF Download). - Bearing Witness: Resiliency In the Lives of (Homo)Sexual Latino Men (PDF Download). - The University of Illinois School of Public Health is launching a first-of-its-kind research project on Latino gay and bisexual men and HIV prevention. - Intimate partner violence and HIV sexual risk in Latino gay men: The role of sexual self-efficacy and participation in difficult sexual situations. - The Gay Men's Initiative: Breaking the Link Between HIV and Black Gay and Bisexual Men.

HIV Infection Cases Surging Among Latinos. (Alternate Link) - AIDS at 20: A Latino Primer. - Health care conference zeros in on AIDS among Latino males. - Gay Latinos Face Stumbling Blocks to Healthcare. - A Pozitive Difference: One man's dedication in creating a new social environment for HIV+ Latinos. - With CDC HIV Infection Rates on the Rise, New NGLTF Report Examines Direct Impact of Discrimination of Latino Gay Men: Social Discrimination and Health: The case of Latino gay men and HIV risk (PDF Download). - Latino Commission on AIDS: State of Emergency. - The University of Illinois School of Public Health is launching a first-of-its-kind research project on Latino gay and bisexual men and HIV prevention.

Race/Ethnicity Matters: Latino versus Caucasian Young Gay Men's Sexual Stories (AIDS Project Los Angeles: PowerPoint presentation / Download): "Very little is known, qualitatively, about the actual sexual lives of young gay men…even less is known about Latino young gay men... The focus of today’s talk is “sexualities, genders, nations, and races” ..my aim is theorize how race and nation matter in the co-production of gendered sexualities. Differences were noted in the following areas: coming out, sexual development, parental reactions, use of sexual scripts, and sexual risk behaviors... More than half reported coercive sex, ranging from rape, date rape, boyfriends who rape to ambiguous acts. More Latinos reported coercive sex.. Latinos tended to report rape perpetuated by older male family members... The greater prevalence of unsafe sex, sexual coercion, and participation at PSEs, probably reflects the social discrimination (racism and homophobia) and stigma experienced by Latino MSM (also see Diaz et al., 2001)." - Homophobia in Childhood Predicts Childhood Sexual Abuse among Latino Gay Men (PDF Download). - Higher HIV Rates Among Gay Latino Men Who Face Racism. - Does Silencio = Muerte? (Alternate Link)

Proceedings of the National Latino HIV/AIDS Research Conference. (Alternate Link) - Many Full Text Papers: Conference Process Note: Confronting Internalized Homophobia. - Introduction: An Overview of AIDS Among Latinos in the United States. -  Defining Epidemiologic Issues in Latino HIV/AIDS Research. - A Synopsis of Behavioral Science Papers on Latino HIV/AIDS Issues. - Latino Gay Men and HIV Risk-a New NGLTF Report: Social and Cultural Factors See Increased Infection Rate. - Contexts of HIV sexual risk behavior among Latino gay men (Abstract). - Interface of gender, culture, and context when addressing the needs of Latinos with HIV/AIDS (Abstract). 

What Are US Latinos’ HIV Prevention Needs? - What Puts People At Risk? - Latinos. - A Sociocultural Model of HIV Risk in Latino Gay Men. - Latino Gay Men and HIV: Culture, Sexuality, and Risk Behavior - 1998 - by Rafael M. Diaz (Abstract) (Abstract) (Link to Editorial Reviews, 19 Sample Pages).  Link to Interview with author. - Bibliography of Sexuality Studies in Latin America. - Latino/Hispanic Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual resources.

Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three U.S. cities. - Psychosocial, behavioral, and cultural predictors of sexual risk for HIV infection among Latino men who have sex with men. - Bisexual Latino Men and HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Risk: An Exploratory Analysis. - Latino Men's Sexual Behavior with Transgender Persons. - Sexual negotiation, HIV-status disclosure, and sexual risk behavior among Latino men who use the internet to seek sex with other men. - Higher prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men than non-Latino men who have sex with men: data from the Urban Men's Health Study.

National Native (American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian) HIV/AIDS Awareness Day: "March 21, 2007 marks the first annual National Native (American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian) HIV/AIDS Awareness Day. This day is an opportunity to increase awareness of the impact of HIV/AIDS on American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians. HIV/AIDS continues to increase among Native people. Per population, American Indians/Alaska Natives have the third highest rates of HIV/AIDS behind Blacks and Hispanics. Native people are more likely to live in rural areas and many rural areas have limited HIV testing services. Stigma about HIV and fear of seeing people they know from their close communities at local health care facilities may also stop people from getting tested. National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is an opportunity for Native people and others to create a greater awareness of the risks of HIV/AIDS to their communities; to remember those who have passed; to acknowledge those who are infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; to call for increased resources for testing; and to seek support for increasing treatment and care options.

HIV/AIDS among American Indians and Alaska Natives (2007). -  AIDS Risk is Still High in Indian Country, Organizations show concern. - The rising number of HIV infected Native Americans sparks alarm. - American Indian Populations Face AIDS Threat. - American Indian /  Alaska Native Initiative. - National Native American AIDS Prevention Center.  - Native Americans confront spread of HIV/AIDS. - Cumulative Growth in American Indian/Alaska Native AIDS Cases <1984 through June 2001 (PDF Download). - HIV/AIDS & Native Americans (1999, PDF Download). - HIV/AIDS among American Indians and Alaska Natives (2007: PDF Download). - American Indian Community House - HIV/AIDS Project. -  HIV Prevention for Gay / Bisexual / Two-Spirit Native American Men (Free Report). - Native America and HIV/AIDS Links to other World Wide Web sites.  - Two-Spirit Voices - Volume 1, Issue 1, 2. - The Provider's Guide to Quality & Culture: American Indians and Alaska Natives and HIV/AIDS (PDF Download).

HIV/AIDS Among Aboriginal Persons in Canada: A Continuing Concern. - Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. - Assembly of First Nations HIV/AIDS Action Plan (PDF Download). - Examining HIV/AIDS among the aboriginal population in Canada in the post-residential school era (PDF Download). - An Overview of Models for Community Based Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Research (PDF Download). - Alarming rates of HIV/AIDS for Canada's Aboriginal women. - Ignorance, Indifference and Invisibility: The Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Epidemic, by LaVerne Monette, ... a two-spirit Ojibway originally from Winnipeg, Manitoba. She is the Executive Director of the Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy, a provincial AIDS service organization whose mandate is to provide HIV/AIDS information, health promotion and program and service supports for off-reserve Aboriginal people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS, their partners, families and communities. - Statement of Solidarity (2005): International AIDS Conference Local Host supports Aboriginal AIDS Awareness Week in Canada (PDF Download). - Addressing homophobia in relation to hiv/aids in aboriginal communities. - A New Look at Homophobia and Heterosexism in Canada. Discussion paper commissioned by the Canadian AIDS Society: PDF Download.

Special Initiatives: American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN). - American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian HIV/AIDS References (PDF Download). - Information Centre on Aboriginal Health (ICAH, Canada): Resources. - The Two-Spirit Tradition: Links to Resources. - Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two Spirit Information Pages and Suicide Issue, - Canadian HIV/AIDS Organizations.

Asian/Pacific Islander and HIV/AIDS in the United States.  - What Are Asian and Pacifc Islander HIV Prevention Needs? - Asian American Young Adult Males: Young Asian Men's Study: Results From Seattle. - Results From San Diego. - Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Prevention Research in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. - Asian-American & Pacific Islander: HIV Prevention Programs & Best Practices. - Publications & Videos. - HIV /AIDS & Asian-Americans / Pacific Islanders. - Fighting HIV/AIDS in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community Means Breaking Down Cultural, Language and Stigma Barriers

Changing America and AIDS: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. - Spotlight on local health issues: hiv/aids in the api community. - Fighting AIDS in Asia: 'gay'-related problems. - The Rediff Special / Ashok Row Kavi: The Coming Holocaust. - Alliance for South Asian AIDS Prevention (ASAP).  - Southeast Asia IDS/HIV Information.

Unrecognized HIV infection and barriers to testing among young Asian American men who have sex with men (XIV International AIDS Conference): 508 Asian-American MSM aged 18 to 29 years from San Francisco - 30% ethnic Chinese, 29% Filipino, 17% Vietnamese, 6% Japanese, 4% Thai, and 4% Korean - 122 (24%) never tested for HIV. "Of 13 men testing HIV+ (prevalence 2.6%), only 4 (31%) reported that they previously knew their HIV infection status. Men of Thai ethnicity were less likely to have tested (52% vs. 76%, p<0.01), yet were more likely to be HIV+ (9.5% vs. 1.9%, p<0.05) than other ethnic groups."

Asian and Pacific Islanders and HIV/AIDS (Health Brief: PDF Download): By exposure category, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience the severest impact of HIV/AIDS among adult/ adolescent AAPI males, accounting for 71% of cumulative AIDS cases, compared to 55% for Native American/Alaskan Native, 74% of White, 42% for Latino and 37% for Black MSM. From January 2001 to December 2001, 53% of new AIDS cases reported among AAPI males were among MSM. Studies have reported HIV prevalence rates as high as 27% for AAPI gay men in San Francisco and Orange County, CA.

AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. - An opportunity for prevention: prevalence, incidence, and sexual risk for HIV among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men, San Francisco. - HIV testing patterns and unrecognized HIV infection among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men in San Francisco. - Gay Asian men in San Francisco follow the international trend: increases in rates of unprotected anal intercourse and sexually transmitted diseases, 1999-2002.

HIV Transmission and Prevention in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans: Related Resources. - Asian and Pacific Islanders HIV/AIDS Awareness Day: Resources. - API HIV/AIDS Resources. -HIV/AIDS & Adolescents:  A Guide to Selected Resources. - Race/Ethnicity and HIV/AIDS (Article Listing).

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Intergenerational Issues

Young Gay & Bisexual Men and HIV: A qualitative study of safer sex knowledge and behaviour among young gay and bisexual men - 1998 - by John Maxwell, Gay Men's Health Promotion Coordinator. AIDS Committee of Toronto: "Many of the study participants noted that as younger gay/bisexual men, they often felt that they were "preyed upon" by older or more sexually experienced gay men - even other more sexually experienced gay and bisexual youth. One participant lamented the lack of "mentoring" in the gay community: "When I came out into the community (a few years ago) I felt that I needed to become totally immersed in the gay community. So, I left a lot of my straight friends behind. Unfortunately, rather than meeting other gay men who could help me manoeuvre my way in the community, I often met people who just wanted to take advantage of me, sexually."

A Highly Neglected Issue: Boys Who Have Sex With Men. - One of the extremely are studies of gay/bi youth and what they actually experience after making more formal contact with gay communities: Seal DW, Kelly JA, Bloom FR, Stevenson LY, Coley BI, Broyles LA (2000). HIV prevention with young men who have sex with men: what young men themselves say is needed. AIDS Care, 12(1), 5-26. Medline Abstract. Study Highlights / Excerpts.

Gay City crosses The Great Age Divide in public forum (Seattle Gay News, November 20, 1998): "The forum revealed how often Gay men make mistaken assumptions about each other, based on our own life experiences, misinterpreting the  intentions and behaviors of other Gay men older or younger than ourselves. The discussions revealed how we often mistakenly project our own personal assumptions and stereotypes onto one another, and fail to understand the experiences of Gay men  from another generation... Gay City forum "The Great Age Divide" didn't solve the problem of intergenerational misunderstanding and conflict, or answer the questions of where we go from here... Generalizing from the trend of the comments from the audience, younger Gay men tended to view older Gay men as bitter, angry, frightened of their sexuality, and sexually exploitative of younger Gay men... On the other hand, older Gay men tended to view the younger generation of Gay men as reckless,  misinformed, superficial, sometimes cruel, and sexually exploitative... Many people expressed the desire of a Gay community where we relate to one another not as sex objects, but find some deeper ground for encountering and enjoying each other, while some folk felt that sexual objectification of Gay men was entirely appropriate and to be expected."

Aging Disgracefully: The Problem With Older Gay Men (Part 1): "Older gay men and younger gay men rarely talk to each other... I went through my entire twenties without a single friendship with an older man. I felt manipulated by them.  There were only two kinds of older men, as far as I was concerned: Those who made a pass at you and those who didn’t... Now that I’m over 40, I’ve had to come face to face with my own questionable behavior with younger guys... (Part 2) There are plenty of young guys who want the sexual company of older men. But the majority don't. What they  want is friendship, guidance, advice and support. And too often, men like me use these potential gifts as a lure for sexual conquest. In gay life, the line between sex and friendship is thin, transparent and constantly moving... There is always something wrong when you sacrifice friendship for momentary pleasure. There is always something wrong with using experience and power to exploit youth and vulnerability. I had a responsibility to redefine what it means to be an older gay man and I failed miserably." - Older men, younger boys, or visa versa? (Alternate Link)"The old stereotypes of Dirty Old Man  and Exploited Youth are fast being done  away with. Here's a hard, critical look at gay intergenerational relationships.everybody knows that some older guys chase after young men. But these days, a surprising number of younger guys - of legal age ofcourse - are lusting after older - and sometimes much older - men." - The Experienced World of Young Gay Men who are Attracted to Older Men - A Phenomenological Study. (Alternate link with link to complete study in Finnish.)

Intergenerational Issues For Gay Asian Males: The Truth About GAM: "The pursuit of a white boyfriend is so intense that many gay Asian men would sooner date a much older white male partner than another Asian.  Asian and Friends and the Long Yang Club are both social organizations with numerous chapters around the world that are designed for Asian men to meet Caucasian partners.  I had attended some of their events in cities from Sydney to New York, and all I saw were 50-something white guys with their 20-something Asian boyfriends." - Gay Asian Pride: "Based on my personal experience and talking to friends, I have found that most "Asian admirers" (or "Rice Queens" as they are known in the community) are always older than their Asian "boyfriends." ...While perusing the gay bookstore, I noticed a porn magazine with only Asian male models. However, unlike Caucasian porn magazines, these Asian men obviously appeared to be in their teens with very effeminate bodies."

Gay Kids in the Real World (by Steve Silberman, Wired News, November 4, 1997): Almost every one of the boys I interviewed for my article informed me that they were regularly propositioned by older men on AOL. At first, when I asked them what they thought of that, they'd wrinkle up their noses and say things like, "Gross."  Then, often, later in the conversation, if the trust level got high enough, a teenager might admit to me that he himself had met an older boy or man online, and saw him in real life. Sometimes the two became friends. Sometimes they had sex. Sometimes meeting offline had turned out to be an uncomfortable experience, but sometimes the young man perceived it in a positive light - an introduction to a larger circle of friends, or an entree to the wider gay world. For some of these highly intelligent, articulate young men, an offline rendezvous with an older male was a risk that had turned out to be worth it... The truth is, gay teenagers and older gay men have always found ways to meet, despite every law against it. Those interactions, fraught with risk on every side, comprise a kind of initiatory process for young gay men..."

How may gay/bi males had sex with significantly older men when they were adolescents or younger? See: Rind B (2001). Gay and Bisexual Adolescent Boys' Sexual Experiences With Men: An Empirical Examination of Psychological Correlates in a Nonclinical Sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30(4): 345-268. (Full Text) (PubMed Abstract). What would have been the HIV prevention of these gay/bi boys? Nothing was written on the subject.

Brownworth, Victoria A (1992). America’s Worst Kept Secret: AIDS Is Devastating the Nation’s Teenagers, and Gay Kids are Dying by the Thousands. The Advocate, March 24, 38-46: "Gay boys and straight girls who are having sex for money, shelter, love - they are at risk. And our community, the gay and lesbian community - and I particularly fault gay men here - has done nothing to try to help our youth. Gay men view these boys as recreational toys to be used. I have heard many stories of HIV-positive men having unprotected sex with boys. They don’t think it matters. If there is a single reason why so little is being done in this country about adolescent AIDS, it is that as a nation we are terribly afraid of the sexuality of our teens. These kids, no matter how they identify, gay or straight, need more than condoms and instructions on how to use them. They need someone to talk to, a support network, a place where they can feel safe and secure and where their confidentiality and personal histories are going to be protected and respected." (The above is a quotation from Gabe Kruks, a researcher of gay youth problems. At the time, he was the director of public policy and planning for the Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Community Services Center.)

Kruks G (1991). Gay and lesbian homeless/street youth: special issues and concerns. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(7): 515-8. (PubMed Abstract): "The "sugar daddy" usually present himself to the youth in a loving caretaker manner. For street youth who have a past history of rejection and/or abuse, the promise to be loved and cared for is a compelling one. [These youth usually have many of these relationships and] each of these is a cycle of falling in love, believing that life will now be wonderful forever and that this older adult truly loves the young person, discovering that in fact it is just sex that the adult wants, feeling the impact of one more betrayal, and ending up on the streets again. This whole cycle lasts an average of 1-2 months, and the youth often becomes extremely suicidal at the end of each cycle" (Kruks, 1991, p. 518)

Report: "Dangerous Inhibitions: How America is letting AIDS become an epidemic of the young." (PDF Download) From in the "Older Partner" section of the report: "Many young people find older partners attractive. All the young men and women participating in one series of PMI focus groups said that they prefer their sexual partners to be at least five years older than them." - Teens with Much Older Sex Partner at Risk (Only female youth mentioned). - The same applies in: I care. Do you? (PDF Download) "In Indiana, youth represent nearly 4% of all diagnoses of HIV infection. Youth are especially vulnerable to sexual exposure to HIV. This is evident in the number of sexually transmitted diseases reported in Indiana in the third quarter of 2001. There were 462 cases of gonorrhea reported among 10-19 year olds and 1,305 cases of chlamydia in three months. Youth are sexually active. Female youth are especially vulnerable by having sex with older men. Over 30% of the diagnoses of HIV disease in this age group are female. The number of youth infected is unknown. Knowing that without treatment HIV infection often compromises the immune system within ten years to the point of a diagnosis of AIDS, one can assume that those who have been diagnosed with AIDS in their early 20s were infected when they were youth. The number of youth infected is unknown."

A report on the situation for adolescent females in SIECUS: - Young Women Have Higher HIV Risk When First Sexual Partner is Older. (Related Information) - "The study concludes that interventions aimed at adolescent women need to explore issues related to adolescents' implicit trust that an older male sexual partner is not infected or that he is taking the necessary precautions to avoid health consequences; and need to teach communication and negotiation skills to promote self-protective behavior during sexual encounters. Unfortunately, the authors do not address the social dynamics of older men having sexual relationships with adolescent women." - Only a hint that such a reality applies for adolescent males is present in: Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: At Risk for HIV and STDs.

AIDS and men who have sex with men (PDF Download): "Adolescent men frequently have sex with other males of their age group. They also sometimes have sex with older men — in some cases with men considerably older. This younger-older type of male-to-male relationship is common in certain cultures, where it is frequently within the family (with an uncle, for example). A ‘younger-older’ male relationship may be more or less consensual, or it may be a violent and abusive one. In either case the younger man is likely to be relatively vulnerable, because of a lack of knowledge about HIV and a lack of negotiating skills - and also because the older partner, simply because he has probably had many more sexual encounters, is more likely to be infected than a partner of the same age."

What are the HIV prevention needs of boys who have sex with men? - Next to nothing is available online or in written form on this subject possibly because the gay/bi males in HIV-AIDS-related organizations make sure this reality will not be addressed for "political" reasons. Is this another "Silence = Death" situation? - What one man was doing as a boy - The Curious Closets of Barton Benes: "Growing up with his grandparents in Queens, New York, after his parents separated, Benes would cut high school and sneak into Manhattan to get picked up by older men at the mob-run gay bars that shadowed the Beat streets."

Evaluation of an Adolescent HIV Prevention Program Focused on Gender-Based Norms for Sexual Behavior: "Approximately one out of four newly diagnosed AIDS cases in the U.S. occurs in persons under the age of 25. Because of an average 10-year period between infection and the onset of symptoms, it is estimated that the overwhelming majority of these young AIDS cases represent HIV infections that occurred during the teenage years. Adolescents, therefore, are an important target for HIV prevention efforts nationwide."

Comment on Terminology from India - Networks, language and sexual behaviours of men who have sex with men in an urban setting:  (PDF Download)"The Naz Project is beginning to use the term male to male sexual behaviours. According to them many boys experience homosexual behaviours at an early age. They are not ‘men’. The word man carries certain social signifiers around adulthood. The term men may exclude the ‘boys’ having sex with boys and men. However for the present study we have continued the use of the term MSM..." In America, the Povinelli et al. (1996: PubMed Abstract) study reports on a sample of 501 males aged 13 to 21 years "who self-identified as homosexual or bisexual or as having sex with men" (p. 33), the implication being that 13- to 16-year-old males are "men." The Remafedi (1994; PubMed Abstract) study sample of 239 males aged 13 to 21 years uses similar terminology. The males in the sample were "self-identified as gay or bisexual and/or had sex with men... High risk sex between men account for the largest proportion of AIDS cases among adolescents." (p. 163).  However, Morris et. al. (1995: PubMed Abstract) reported "that younger gay men with older partners are the leading edge of the [HIV-AIDS] epidemic in their cohort" (p. 24), and this problem would have begun early adolescence for some of the youngest males in the sample who were 18 years of age when studied.  (Source: A Highly Neglected Issue: Boys Who Have Sex With Men) Do gay/bi adolescent boys who are 13 to 16 years of age identify themselves as "men who have sex with men"? Maybe not.

From: Stall RD, Hays RB, Walso CR, Ekstrand M, and McFarland W (2000). The Gay '90s: a review of research in the 1990s on sexual behavior and HIV risk among men who have sex with men. AIDS, 14: Supplement 3: 5101-14. The following citation illustrates that HIV/AIDS researcher have been quite careful about not asking important questions to study subject: "In their review of age and HIV risk behavior among gay men Mansergh and Marks [1998] concluded that younger age was fairly consistently found to be associated with unprotected anal sex in North America, while only limited evidence was found for the association in European and Australian samples. Reasons for this are unclear. In order to assess more accurately the HIV risk for young gay men, it would be helpful to examine the degree of sexual 'mixing' across age groups and HIV status more closely. Although some studies have included assessments of perceived or known HIV status of young men's sexual partners, none of the studies reported the age ranges of the young men's sexual partners" (Stall et al., 2000: 5103, emphasis mine) (Source: A Highly Neglected Issue: Boys Who Have Sex With Men).

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Transgendered People

HIV/AIDS Risk Factors Among Transgender People in the U.S. (PDF Download). -Transgender HIV/AIDS Facts. - HIV Prevention and Health Service Needs of the Transgender Community in San Francisco. - Transgenders and HIV Risks: Needs Assessment (abstract).  

AIDS Prevention For Transgender and Transsexual Persons: A Collaborative Community-Based Program. - Transgender Safer Sex Issues. - Older transgenders and transsexuals and HIV: Risk and invisibility.  - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Vol 3, 1/2): Special Issue on Transgender and HIV: Risks, Prevention, and Care. Full text papers. - Transgendered people with HIV are making the system work for them. - HIV among transgendered people.

Transgendered Youth at Risk for Exploitation, HIV, Hate Crimes. (Alternate Link) - Bending the Mold: An Action Kit for Transgender Youth (PDF Download). - Transgendered Health Care.

Investigation of the high rate of HIV prevalence in the transgender African American community in San Francisco (USA): "A recent study among the estimated 3000 transgendered people in San Francisco revealed a significantly higher HIV prevalence among the African American transgender population than other racial/ethnic transgendered groups. Sexual and drug use behavior was determined to be similar among transgendered people of all races; therefore, the higher HIV seroprevalence rate among African American transgendered people warranted further investigation of the reasons for the difference among this population. (XIV International AIDS Conference) - Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus among male-to-female transgendered persons in San Francisco: "African-American race/ethnicity (adjusted relative hazard ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5-16.2) and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-13.1) were independent predictors of HIV seroconversion."

HIV prevention and educational needs of trans youth: "Trans youth are a complex population with regards to gender identity and gender expression and are often silenced by discrimination and oppression... Findings explored how and why trans youth place themselves at risk for HIV transmission, the different health care needs among various trans youth identities were examined, and the current barriers to health care services and need for trans-specific  HIV/AIDS outreach, services, education, and training for health service providers were  highlighted... A reported high seroprevalence rate, a low perceived HIV risk  yet a significant occurrence of risk behaviors for HIV transmission, and lack of trans-specific HIV prevention outreach, education, and health care services demonstrates a critical need for improvements on current services for trans youth." (XIV International AIDS Conference). - The HIV prevention and educational needs of trans youth: A qualitative study (Transgender). (Related Poster) (Related Brochure)

The impact of transphobia on HIV risk behaviors among male to female transgenders in San Francisco: "Seven focus groups were conducted with African American, API, and Latina MTF transgender participants... Mental health and psychological well being emerged as the most frequently mentioned issues and most widely shared health needs. Depression and low self-esteem were the primary concern in many participants their lives. Psychological vulnerability stemmed from socially and culturally oppressive forces that discriminate against and stigmatize transgendered individuals. Transphobia appeared to persist throughout the lifespan, often starting as early as childhood when individuals express unconventional gender roles. Mental health issues were found to contribute to a range of high-risk contexts and behaviors, including unprotected sex, drug use, relationships with abusive partners, and commercial sex work. (XIV International AIDS Conference, 2002)

Why are male-to-female transgendered persons at high risk for HIV?: a study of their male partners: "MST usually identified as heterosexual or bisexual. Most interviewees reported male and/or female sexual partners, in addition to their transgendered partners, in the last 6 months. Among MST, unprotected sex with high-risk partners of all genders is frequent." (XIV International AIDS Conference).

Need for HIV/AIDS education and intervention for MTF transgenders: responding to the challenge. - 'It's really a hard life': Love, gender and HIV risk among male-to-female transgender persons. - Overlooked, misunderstood and at-risk: exploring the lives and HIV risk of ethnic minority male-to-female transgender youth. - Intimate partner violence and HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. - Health and Health Care Among Male-to-Female Transgender Persons Who Are HIV Positive. - Transgender health: findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia.

HIV Transmission and Prevention in Transgendered People: Resources. Transgendered People Resources and Links. - Marginalized: Transgendered/Transsexuals: Resources. - Trangender Resources Linked to HIV/AIDS Issues (to 1999)

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Bisexual identity has never spread HIV: Some problems in addressing HIV issues in the bisexual population.Bisexual transmission significant In heterosexual HIV. (Alternate Link). - Sexual HIV risk behaviour among men who have sex with both men and women. - Unsafe Sex Common Among Bisexual Men. - Bisexuality & HIV. - BI & BYE. - What's Goin' On: Sex, Lies and HIV - Truth Hurts: She Knew I Had Sex With Men, She Didn't Know I Was Positive.  - Recruiting the Canadian bisexual male: implications for HIV prevention research.

'Secret' Bisexuality Among Black Men Contributes to Rising Number of AIDS Cases in Black Women. - The truth about bisexuality in Black America (Ebony Cover Story, August, 2002: Related Information). - Study: Bisexuals 'Bridge' Infecting Women with HIV. - CDC's HIV chief warns of complacency in AIDS fight: Bisexuality tough issue in prevention efforts, Fenton tells ATL group.

Black And Latino Male Bisexuality And HIV/AIDS: Gender, Context, And Culture Presentations (2006): Roles of Gender in the Sexual and Risk Behaviors of Black Men Who Have Sex with Both Men and Women (MSMW) in New York City. - Charging by the Orifice: Economies of Risk, Shame, and Pleasure among Dominican Male Sex Workers. - Social Context of Bisexual Behavior Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta, Georgia. - Between Borders of Desire: Familial Love and Bisexuality Among Latino Men. - Family, Religion, Communities and Implications for HIV Prevention in the Lives of Bisexually-Active Black Men.

Bisexuals Sexual Health Action (BSHA). Playing Safe With Both Teams: Bisexuality and HIV Prevention -  Bisexuality In The Media. - Bisexuality and HIV risk: Experiences in Canada and the United States. - Non-gay sexual subcultures: A content analysis of Sydney sex contact publications (2004: PDF Download).

Are Bisexual Men a Bridge Population for Transmission of HIV to Female Sex Partners? (Full Text Presentation: PDF) . - Black sexuality, social construction, and research targeting 'The Down Low' ('The DL').  - Self-identification as "down low" among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 12 US cities. - Exploring HIV prevention needs for nongay-identified black and African American men who have sex with men: a qualitative exploration. - Focusing "down low": bisexual black men, HIV risk and heterosexual transmission. - Sexual diversity among black men who have sex with men in an inner-city community. - The bisexual bridge revisited: sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men and women, San Francisco, 1998-2003.

Bisexually Active Adolescent Boys More Likely to Engage in Risky Behaviors: "Nearly 50% of the estimated 112,000 to 250,000 HIV-positive U.S. adolescents are young men who have sex with men, but some research has suggested that men who have sex with both men and women may have different "behavioral risk profiles" than men who only have sex with other men... However, the authors state that the different patterns of behavior between homosexually active and bisexually active young men illustrate the "urgent need for prevention programs addressing these youths' specific concerns" and it is important  to find ways to reach adolescents who engage in homosexual behavior but do not "label themselves as gay, bisexual or homosexual."

Note: There is very little HIV prevention information that is speficically directed at bisexual males. For a possible reason for this, see:  Family Therapy has treated "bisexuality" as a non-existent category  &   The Binary & Bisexual Erasure: A Hatred of Bisexual People in Gay Communities? Additional information in: Bisexuality, Bisexuals, and Biphobia. - about 50% of homosexually oriented young adult males in a Calgary study were bisexual (identity and./or behavior). About 70% of homosexually oriented adolescent males in Youth Risk Behavior Surveys identify as "bisexual".

Bisexuality & HIV/AIDS: A Global Perspective - 1991 - edited by Rob Tielman, Manuel Carballo, and Aart Hendriks - Bisexualities and AIDS: International Perspectives - 1996 - edited by Peter Aggleton.

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The Elderly

Seniors can’t be HIV-positive, can they? - 'Age isn't a vaccine' against HIV. - Age Is Not a Vaccine Against AIDS. - Seniors getting AIDS - and no one is talking about it. - HIV in elderly presents unique challenges. - Timidity about seniors and HIV now unaffordable. -  More evidence that older gay men with STIs at greatest risk of HIV: "The HIV epidemic amongst gay men in San Francisco is spreading most rapidly amongst gay men aged 35 and above according to a study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. The study reflects European data suggesting that older gay men are the group most likely to be newly infected with HIV and have unprotected anal sex..." - Canada: "Second Wave" of Sexually Transmitted Disease Hitting Negligent Over-40s. - HIV incidence increasing most rapidly among older gay men in Amsterdam

AIDS Among Persons Aged >50 Years. - Over-50 group surpasses young in AIDS reports. - Aids on the rise among over-50s.  - HIV, AIDS, and Older People. - HIV/AIDS and the Elderly. - Over 50 & Still at Risk. - Gay Lobby  Destroys Elderly Health Care? - Sexuality and HIV Issues Among Older Gay Men. - HIV and Aging: Emerging Issues in the HAART Era (2011). - “Stuck in the Quagmire of an HIV Ghetto”: The meaning of stigma in the lives of older black gay and bisexual men living with HIV in New York City (2011).

HIV and Older Adults: A Novela Approach. - Older, Yes . . . but Wiser? - Old AIDS: HIV and the Senior Citizen. (Alternate Link) - Promoting safer sexual behaviour to reduce the rising rates of HIV infection in the elderly: The role of education and attitudes. - What Are HIV Prevention Needs of Adults Over 50?  - Experience of Older Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV/AIDS

Aging with HIV. - Substance use and high risk sexual behaviors among rural gay men N/A: "A total of 770, sexually active, gay/bisexual men were included in this analysis. 88% were white, 63% were 30 years-old or older... Among older gay men, 50% reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex, 25% had anal sex with multiple partners, 45% received semen in their mouth during oral sex." - What are rural HIV prevention needs? - Ageism Affects HIV Prevention Efforts for Over 50 Groups. - Ageism and HIV.

Forever Young: "The age of 40 is often looked at as a turning point in people's lives. To some, it's an age that kind of signals an end to youth. Well, the truth of the matter is that 40 is indeed a turning point-but a positive turning point. At least that is what Francisco Negrete, a 39-year-old gay Chicano from Los Angeles, believes. He's looking forward to turning the big 4-0 with great anticipation... What's it like to come out so late in life? Frank says that there are certainly some challenges-one of the biggest of which is finding other gay Latinos his same age. There are few places that he knows of (other than the clubs and the general gay Latino scene) where he can go to meet other men his age. Sometimes, it's frustrating for him to realize that he's "too old" to be able to attend events being held for younger gay Latinos.... Another observation Frank has made about people his age is that most of them are HIV positive. He says, "Of the men that I do know who are over 30, probably more than half have this disease."

National Association on HIV Over Fifty. - NAHOF Third Annual Conference (1999): "Living with HIV into Later Life: Challenges for a New Century" - Conference Abstracts. - NAHOF 4th National Conference on HIV/AIDS and Aging (2001): "What About US? HIV/AIDS and the Aging of the Population" - Conference Abstracts.  - Bibliography. - Resources. - Mature Woman with HIV Feels Shunned by Her Own Community. - Why Me?

Family.net's Elderly GLBT  Health Issues: - Introduction - HIV and AIDS. - Older People and HIV: Related Issues

LGAIN Online Resources: AIDS and HIV. -  Older People & HIV/AIDS: Resources. - HIV/AIDS: Understanding Implications in a Aging Population (PowerPoint Presentation Download). - Research Network on HIV/AIDS and the Elderly.  - Older Gay Men: Research References (UK). - HIV and Aging Issues Bibliography.

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Lesbian / Bisexual Women / Heterosexual Women

At Risk: Young, Minority, and Lesbian Women (2002). - Percentage of Women with AIDS Increases in U.S., Minnesota. - What Puts women at Risk for HIV? - What are young women's HIV prevention needs- HIV-positive Women Have Different Needs. - A Guide to the Clinical Care of Women with HIV/AIDS, 2005 edition. - Common vaginal infection may double HIV acquisition risk. - Partnership Reaches Women Most At-Risk For HIV/AIDS: "The grants will reach the most vulnerable and hard to reach populations including African-American and Latina women who do not perceive themselves to be at risk for HIV, homeless and runaway girls, injection drug users and incarcerated women." - Black Women, Gay and Bisexual Men Face High HIV Risks in U.S., Canada. - HIV Risk for Lesbians, Bisexuals & Other Women Who Have Sex With Women (2009). - Why should lesbians think about safe sex?

HIV/AIDS among Women (USA): -The leading cause of death for African American women aged 25–34 years, the 3rd leading cause of death for African American women aged 35–44 years, the 4th leading cause of death for African American women aged 45–54 years, the 4th leading cause of death for Hispanic women aged 35–44 years. - Young Women of Color and the HIV Epidemic. - Young Women of Color and Their Risk for HIV and Other STIs (PDF Download). - HIV and AIDS among Women in Canada. - Women in Prison: The Impact of HIV.

Lesbians' Risk of HIV Infection May be Greater Than Perceived; Studies Highlight Need for More Lesbian Health Research.Say it! Women get AIDS!: HIV among Lesbians. - Lesbians and HIV Disease. - The Body: Lesbians and HIV/AIDS. - Woman To Woman: Lesbians Are At Risk. - HIV/AIDS and U.S. Women Who Have Sex With Women (WSW). - Health, Mental Health, and Social Service Needs of HIV+ Lesbians and Bisexual Women.

The Politics of Invisibility: HIV-Positive Women Who Have Sex with Women and Their Struggle for Support: "HIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been routinely overlooked by government researchers, health care providers, and the AIDS service community." - Lesbian Health Update: Lesbian and bisexual women at risk for STDs, HIV. - Lesbian Health Issues: We are not immune! - HIV & Women Who Have Sex with Women

What Are Women Who Have Sex With Women's HIV Prevention Needs? - Lesbian Safer Sex. - Lesbian Safer Sex: Think about your risks. - Lesbian Safer Sex. - Differences in Adjustment in HIV+ African American Heterosexual and Homosexual Women: "Lesbians reported less social support from their immediate family, but not from other sources such as friends, compared to the heterosexual women. Lesbians also reported less satisfaction with their social support network."

AIDS & Aboriginal Women. - Understanding the HIV/AIDS Epidemic among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: The Community at a Glance. -  Canada's continuing apartheid: The HIV risk profiles of aboriginal women who use injection drugs in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. - HIV/AIDS Prevention among Aboriginal Women: Training the Trainers Report (PDF Download). - Canada: Conference Told Aboriginal Women With HIV Suffer in Silence. - West Australian Aboriginal Women 18 Times at Risk of HIV: Study

Women of Color With HIV/AIDS Virtually Invisible. - Why AIDS Is A Growing Threat To Black Woman. - Why AIDS Is Rising Among Black Women.  - Young African American Women and HIV. - L:atinas & HIV (PDF Download). - HIV and Young American Indian/Alaska Native Women - Urban American Indian Women and HIV risk: the role of trauma and substance use.

OHTN (2010): Question: What relevant social and biological issues exist for women who have sex with women with respect to HIV prevention in Canada? The Issue and Why It’s Important.

Marrazzo JM (2004). Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11): 1974-1978. PDF Download.

Koh AS, Gómez CA, Shade S, Rowley E. (2005). Sexual risk factors among self-identified lesbians, bisexual women, and heterosexual women accessing primary care settings. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32(9): 563-9. PDF Download. Abstract.

Plumb MJ, et al. (1998). Drug Use and Increased Risk of HIV Among Lesbians and Other Women Who Have Sex With Women. In: Drug Addiction Research and the Health of Women edited by Cora Lee Wetherington, Adele B. Roman. PDF Download.

Women & HIV/AIDS Resources. - Women With HIV in Prison: Resources. 

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.

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