Male Youth Prostitution
/ Male Sex Workers
2: History / Film / Books / General)
Index: Male Youth Prostitution - - Homosexuality: Biological or Learned ? - - Public School Issues - - Transgender / Tranvestite / Transsexual - - Lesbian & Bisexual Women - - Homo-Negativity / Phobia - - Identity Formation & Coming Out - - Counseling & Therapy - - Professional Education - - Bisexuality - - Religion & Spirituality - - HIV-AIDS - - Gay & Bisexual Male Suicide Problems - - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction - - GLBT History - - Community Attributes & Problems - - Couples / Families / Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence - - The Elderly - - Race/Ethnic Minority Issues: U.S., Canada, Europe, New Zealand & Australia - - Latin America / Africa - - Middle East / Asia
Vancouver (1997): Pleasure and Pain - Inside the Sex Trade. - Escaping Boys Town: Vancouver’s male sex workers fight to come out of the street’s shadows N/A (2009, Reference). - Some related statistics. - Key Materials on Men Who Have Sex With Men at UNAIDS (To 1999). - Anthropology: Glimpses of AIDS and Male Prostitution (1990). - Glimpses of AIDS and male prostitution (Science News) - Blood and Memes on the Marciapiede: Memetics And Migration: "Prostitution isn't just about sex, and it isn't only venereal germs which are transmitted. It is also a ritual about difference, dominance, exploitation, and humiliation; and it is these memes which are also transmitted and reinforced with each coupling." - Politics and Biomedicine: Studies of Gay Men, Prostitutes Come Under Scrutiny (2003). - Montreal: Street Youth: On the periphery of services but at the centre of our concerns (2002, PDF Download): "30% have lived off prostitution..." - Chicago: Youth Homelessness: Youth On The Streets and On Their Own (2001, PDF Download): "12 percent had engaged in prostitution..."
The Invisible Boy: Sex for Sale N/A - by Peter McKnight, Toronto: "Recently, I found myself on television discussing the dangers of youth prostitution with three experts... While my fellow panelists engaged in a lively debate about whether the impugned law might save lives, one thing went unquestioned: the lives at risk were all female. When I noted that only one of the three murdered Toronto prostitutes was female (one was male and one preoperative male-to-female transsexual), one helpful expert informed me that “the vast majority” of prostitutes are female... Given the prevalence and problems of male prostitution, why do the boys remain invisible?" - The Boy's Stroll (Regina): "Here in Regina a number of studies have been done on child and female prostitution, but not much is said about male prostitution." - Projects in Manitoba: Under the Crime Prevention Investment Fund: "Homosexual boys are also often at risk because of the marginalization they suffer from peers and family... While children as young as 6 have been found prostituting, many youth enter the sex trade between the ages of 13 and 15. Aboriginal youth are over-represented. 86% of sexually exploited children experience intense violence, even death, at the hands of their dates, gangs, partners, or pimps, and young male prostitutes are also at increased risk of "gay bashing." ... Male and female prostitution is concentrated in specific Winnipeg communities, including the downtown area and North End neighbourhoods."
Child Prostitution 05/12/01: "One in five prostitutes operating in Glasgow is a young boy and some are as young as ten years old when they are lured into this dangerous and degrading world. Despite their high numbers on the streets, many male prostitutes miss out on the support available to female victims of the sex industry..." - Support for boys on the game (2001, UK): Far less has been done to help boys involved in prostitution than girls. Mike George on attempts to redress the balance: "Steven has been selling sex for the past four years. He says he does so because it allows him to buy expensive clothes, go to the best restaurants and have a lifestyle which makes it appear he is in control of his life. He thinks that what he does now, at 18, is not so different to what happened when he was a child, when his stepfather, after repeatedly abusing him sexually, took him to the homes of friends. There, in exchange for sex, he was given gifts and treats..." - Boys and young men abused through prostitution (UK): "Many of the young men involved in prostitution have run away from abusive home or care settings and have often truanted from school. Barnardo's figures show that more boys go missing at a younger age than girls. Of 166 boys reported missing in a year in Bradford, 52 were aged 12 and under, of which 21 were aged 10 and under. Just over half had gone missing from their family home, and nearly a quarter from residential care. There are clear links between being in care and sexual exploitation. One study found that two thirds of male prostitutes interviewed had been in local authority care." - No son of mine! Children abused through Prostitution - Summary (PDF Download): The words of a 14-year-old boy abused through prostitution: "Well, do you think I just woke up one day and thought I know I'll be a rent boy today? Thousands of things have happened to me to get me here -mum leaving, no-one at home, hanging round the pub late and waiting to go home with dad, having blokes try to touch us up, seeing boys do tricks and getting cash and fags. If you want to change me, you're probably going to have to do thousands of things too, to balance it out.“ - Fresh Start Program (2003, City of Atlanta Department of Corrections): "Street Life: An alternative lifestyle therapy group. Focuses on male prostitution-the behavior, risks and stigma associated with this lifestyle and addiction." - Young Prostitutes Sell Body and Soul to Street.
Dancing on a Cliff by John Dentinger (1992): "I had taught America's sons and daughters physics, helped design our nation's defenses, and written for magazines that you can buy in your corner drug store. On a parallel track, I became an outlaw. I didn't merely make occasional forays into the front lines of the sex and drug revolutions. I worked there. Let me describe the sex, first. From age 26 to age 28 - while teaching undergraduate physics labs at U.S.C. by day - I was a call boy by night. I had about two or three hundred clients during that time (more than I had students)... Being a call boy wasn't a line of work I advertised widely, although the stigma for male prostitutes is a great deal less than for the female counterpart. To the extent that there is negativity ("He's just a gigolo," or "He's just a kept boy,") the source is primarily envy, which is flattering. More usually there's a certain admiration that you were able to sell a commodity that normally only women can sell. This is particularly true for fast-lane urban gay men, for whom hustling is only a short step beyond their every day life- styles. When female prostitutes get dressed up for a call, they wear a "tarty" getup and have a lot more sex, with a much greater variety of partners, than the typical heterosexual woman. When male prostitutes get dressed for the street or for a call, they dress much the same as any guy in a gay bar, and they don't have sex with a greater number of partners than their non-working counterparts. Usually when I tell someone that I'd been a call boy, the response is not, "Ooh, what a whore," but, "Oh, John, how exciting." It's not a nightmare to most gay men; it's a fantasy. There are some other differences between male and female prostitution. Men, more than women, need to husband their sexual energies carefully (gotta be ready for the next client). That's why it's high flattery for a hustler to say, "I'd fuck him for free."
Meadmore Interview (1998):
"I love that song you wrote, "Never trust A Hustler." That one comes
from experience. Your hustler boyfriend Monty stole and sold your
guitar and amp-Marshall stax, and all your Joel Peter Witkin prints
that you posed for and all your one-of-a-kind John Wayne Gacy paintings
that feature you and Mr. G in very romantic coupling." - Barney
Frank and the Male Prostitute (1989). - Barney
Frank admits to having sex with young male aide (1989).
New Under the Sun (1998): In 1990, the
House publicly reprimanded another Massachusetts congressman, Barney
Frank, for among other things using his political influence to fix
parking tickets for an intimate friend who was also a male prostitute.
Since then, Frank has been reelected consistently. - The
Kimberly Conundrum: How a crack-smoking male prostitute became the basis
of a controversial theory about who killed Kimberly Ernest. - The
Elusive Male Prostitutes (1999). - Rupert
Everett (1999): ""I´ve never regretted anything I´ve said, even
the stuff about being a male prostitute. I´m not ashamed of it. It
was necessary for me at that time in my life. I was going for a career
in acting, but I wasn´t completely successful. So, I became a male
escort." (Quotation: Everett to Atlanta´s Southern Voice). (Short
Biography). - Pete Doherty Reveals He Was A Gay Rent Boy (2005). - Male Prostitution Along U.S.-Mexico Border May Increase HIV Risk, Needs Further Study, Experts Say (2002). - Adolescent male prostitution by choice (1989).
Minister Admits to Buying Drugs and Massage (2006). - Confessions of an Angry Hustler: Ted Haggard's bitter boy toy tells all (2006). - Ted Haggard on homosexuality:
“We don’t have to debate about what we should think about homosexual
activity, it’s written in the Bible.” Watch it (from the new
documentary “Jesus Camp“). - Dear NBC: No more Ted Haggard/gay hustler stories, please!
(2007): Less than two weeks after NBC’s Law & Order aired an
episode titled Church about a televangelist involved with a gay hustler,
last night’s Law & Order: Criminal Intent aired an episode called Brothers Keeper about a televangelist involved with…a gay hustler. Wow! What are the odds? - Priest Stole Church Money for Male Escorts and More, Say Cops (2010).
Embracing the "inner ho": David Sterry is a baseball writer and former male prostitute who is working on a novel with no sex in it (2002). - Grilling The Chicken: Q&A With David Sterry, Former Rent Boy (2005): "When he was 17-years-old, David Henry Sterry left his suburban childhood to attend a Catholic college in Hollywood. As it turned out, the place didn't have dorms. And he only had $27 in his pocket. His parents were too distracted to help. Not that David, whose teenage mantra was "whatever," knew how to ask. The first person he talked to in Hollywood -- an anonymous man with a T-shirt that read "Sexxy" -- offered him a steak, took him back to his house, and raped and robbed him, setting him on a path that quickly led to a seven-month career as a male prostitute. "Chicken: Self-Portrait of a Young Man for Rent," is not a dark, brooding memoir. From the first page, Sterry writes with the mordant, jagged wit of Chuck Palahniuk. Sterry's encounters range from the cliché -- there's the "take-no-prisoners, lifestyles-of-the-rich-and-famous, old-fashioned, newfangled orgy" -- to the truly horrifying." - Chicken: Self-Portrait of a Young Man for Rent - by David Sterry. (Amazon.com Reference).
Sex trade involvement and rates of human immunodeficiency virus positivity among young gay and bisexual men (2001). "The study is based upon data obtained from a prospective cohort study of young gay and bisexual men [in Vancouver, Canada]... Sex trade involvement was defined as the exchange of money, drugs, goods, clothing, shelter or protection for sex within the one year prior to enrollment... Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed regular alcohol use (Odds Ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% CI : 1.8-7.2), aboriginal ethnicity (OR = 3.7, 95% CI : 1.6-8.7), unemployment (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.1-7.3), history of residence in a psychiatric ward (OR = 4.2, 95% CI : 1.8-9.8), bisexual activity (OR = 7.0, 95% CI : 3.5-14.1) and the use of crack (OR = 7.4, 95% CI : 3.0-18.7) to be independently associated with sex trade work. Sex trade workers had a significantly higher HIV prevalence at baseline compared with non-sex trade workers (7.3% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). As well, HIV incidence was found to be significantly higher for sex trade workers compared with non-sex trade workers (4.7% versus 0.9%, P = 0.011). (Full Text link given: International Journal of Epidemiology). Factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants in a prospective study of injection drug users (2004). - The Vanguard of Sexploitation: Vancouver research hurts those it claims to help by Andrew Sorfleet (1997).
Vanguard Study: (Revised
Version at Vanguard
Project (Latest Site for Vanguard Project Studies). "One-quarter
of participants had been paid for sex at some point in their lives, of
whom 60% had done so in the previous year. 10% had paid another male for
sex, of whom 40% had done so in the previous year. Relative to the remainder
of the cohort, men who were paid for sex in the last year were significantly
more likely to be: younger; non-white (44% vs. 23%); have less than a high
school education; live in unstable housing; earn less than $10,000/year;
identify as bisexual (46% vs. 6%); report non-consensual sex (47% vs. 31%);
start having sex with men and/or women at younger ages; use of coke/crack,
heroin, poppers, or injection drugs (23% vs. 3%). Sex
trade workers more at risk. - A boy's life:
"At almost midnight and with the interview over, Desmond stands and
walks off with another young hustler down to the other end of the
block. A male prostitute in loose-fitting clothes and a skateboard
plops down to take over Desmond's old spot nearby. The business of
Ex-hustler hopes to help men in sex trade
(2008, Vancouver, BC): Matthew Taylor was never your typical hustler.
He entered the trade at age 31, and unlike most, it wasn’t out of
desperation. He worked as both a transvestite and a man, but working the
former was far more lucrative. Besides, the transvestite population is
so tight-knit in Vancouver that this was where he felt welcome...The
challenge with this initiative, he says, is that there’s so much
groundwork that needs to be done. There are virtually no services
provided for male sex workers in this city, and nothing like Hustle has
been done before. All sex-worker support organizations that exist are
geared toward women. There are other services out there, like PEERS,
that have exiting programs that include men and the transgender
population, but some of those who have been through these programs feel
that their needs are secondary. According to researcher Sue McIntyre,
one young man interviewed for her seminal 2005 study, Under the Radar:
The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men , said he felt that whatever the
men were provided in these programs–time, condoms, even coffee–were
merely leftovers... BOYS R US is one of the very few organizations in
Canada catering specifically to men. Founded in Vancouver in 1997, it
provides food, support, and occasional life-skills workshops for male
and transgender sex workers, but only three nights a week. Beyond this,
there are virtually no male-specific programs in this country.
Homeless Gay Youth: For Group of Young People, Village Piers Mean Home (New York) (New York Times, July 18, 1998): "Men in expensive cars cruised by. Frequently they stopped, exchanging brief, hushed words with youths who approached, climbed into the cars and rode away... Hernden said he became depressed when confronted with the reality that few doors were open to him without a high school diploma. He began to work as a prostitute... At the time, Richardson was homeless, turning tricks on the streets of Baltimore in exchange for a place to sleep, he said. Richardson said he told his mother and sisters he was gay, and then endured a year of homosexual slurs from his family."
20/20 reports on homeless gay youth (1999): "Without a home, or family, these teenagers often pay devastating price for their sexual orientation. Experts say about a third of all teenage suicide attempts are by gay and lesbian kids. Often, these teens turn to prostitution to survive: ". . . maybe it doesn't start with survival sex. Maybe it comes with some adult saying I'll give you a bed. I'll give you a hot meal. You can stay at my house. And then comes the attack," Ms. Eggleston [the executive director of Hetrick Martin Institute] says."
lost boys (1997). - Alternate
link: Boston Phoenix Archives: "Male prostitution is a world apart.
Female prostitutes are often the products of broken homes where drugs,
violence, or incest prevail. But young men who sell sex on the street often
end up there because of their sexual orientation. Many run away or are
disowned by their families for being homosexual. "Gay male prostitutes
all have the same story," says Gerry Cheney, an outreach worker for prostitutes.
"They're confused about their sexuality, so they turn to a family that
is unwilling to accept the lifestyle. Out of shame, or sometimes because
they are forced to, they leave home, quit school, and end up on the street,
drug-addicted and homeless... Male prostitutes start shockingly young.
The average age at which young women get involved in street prostitution
is 16.9, according to a study conducted by the San Francisco-based Delancey
Street Foundation, an organization that does outreach work with female
prostitutes. Young men, however, enter into prostitution at 14 or even
younger, says Sean Haley, director of adolescent services for JRI Health,
in Boston -- the city's only outreach program for male commercial sex workers."
Samuel G, Benjamin K (2013). Calgary Sex Work Trends. Calgary: AIDS Calgaryt Awareness Association & shift: Support Services for people in the sex trade. PDF Download.
This review provides a critical examination of the literature relating
to indoor sex work among individuals of all genders, as well as outdoor
mal e and transgendered sex workers. The literature reveals a heavy
focus on the realities, needs and i ssues facing female outdoor sex
workers, which is estimated to make up only a small proportion of the
sex industry. In reality, approximately 80-90% of sex workers work in
indoor environments (STAR, 2005; Bruckert & Chabot, 2010); areas
that include: brothels, parlours, hotels, and individual and/or client
homes. Furthermore, very little research has been conducted with male
and transgend ered sex workers as a distinct group, even though they do
make up a significant proportion of the industry. Canadian research
estimates that male sex workers alone make up 20-25% of the industry
(Bruckert & Chabot , 2010). The handful of Canadian studies that are
included in this analysis however, do include a small proportion of
male and transgendered participants as part of the study sample.
Yolo (2011). Old White Men, Young Black Boys & the Sexual Legacy of Slavery.. in the Light of Penn State. Excerpt:
At this point, I did not know that the Spring Street Arby’s and the
subsequent area around the club 708 is a space where many sex workers,
most of them African American boys & trans women, are solicited. I
had no idea as I would learn later through my work in HIV & AIDS
prevention & education, that most of those young African American
boys and trans-women would report that the majority of their clients are
middle aged white men. At first I thought little of it. I mean, why
wouldn’t the majority of them be middle aged white men, who in this
country would be more likely to have the disposable income? As I
continued my studies in African American literature and history I found a
few things that took me somewhere else. Where to you might ask? Why to
Slavery my dear friend.
Kularski CM, James RM (2011). Absent Masculinity in Feminist Discourse on Sex Work. Topics in Women’s Studies: Transnational Feminism. PDF
Download. Men receive very little coverage as sex workers in
academic discourse. Their contributions to the economies of third world
countries are seldom acknowledged along with their female counterparts. A
similar situation occurs with the presentation of women coerce girls to
become prostitutes. There is little discourse involving the topic.
Feminist discourse on the topic of sex work is limited to a
female-centric industry that is operated by men. The primary discussion
of male sex workers is through the frame of homosexual male prostitutes.
Male sexual slavery is not discussed at any length in any academic
articles. Some references to male prostitution are made in work on sex
tourism, but the “beach boy” prostitutes get buried beneath layers of
discourse involving the history of women in the sex trade in the
Caribbean, essentially the men are cast off as a footnote in the
research (Kempadoo, 2001b). It is important that these omissions be
understood so that discourse may be equitably conducted and no group be
excluded due to patriarchal myths or gender bias. The global sex work
industry is interpreted by Western society to be an act of violence
against women (Kempadoo, 2001). This interpretation does not provide for
the presence of men in the global sex trade in any capacity other than
Morrison TG, Whitehead BW (2007). "Nobody's
ever going to make a fag pretty woman": stigma awareness and the
putative effects of stigma among a sample of Canadian male sex workers. Journal of Homosexuality, 53(1-2): 201-217. Abstract.
The purpose of this study was to examine male sex workers' awareness of
the social stigma surrounding involvement in the sex industry and the
possible effects of that stigma. Personal interviews were conducted with
21 men (9 independent escorts who advertised via the Internet and 12
escorts/erotic masseurs who were on contract with an agency). Results
indicated that a majority of interviewees believed sex work was
stigmatized but attributed this stigma to society's tendency to conflate
escort/erotic masseur with street-based prostitute and society's
negative view of human sexuality in general and homosexuality in
particular. It should be noted that interviewees did not necessarily
perceive the gay community as more tolerant than the heterosexual
community of persons involved in the male sex industry.
Smith MD, Grov C, Seal DW (2008). Agency-Based Male Sex Work: A Descriptive Focus on Physical, Personal, and Social Space. Journal of Men's Studies, 16(2): 193-210. PDF
Download. Thirty male sex workers (MSWs) from a single agency
participated in a qualitative interview about social and occupational
aspects of their lives. MSWs established physical (defined areas where
clients were not invited) and psychological (limitations of relationship
with clients, other escorts, and the agency manager) boundaries to
construct personal and professional space regarding sex work. Physical
and psychological boundaries often were blended (e.g., bringing
friends/family to the agency, utilizing the agency as a “drop-in
community center”). The agency further mitigated negative aspects of sex
work by providing job training, social support, stigma management, and
dual-use space. Actors co-created a context wherein business could be
conducted while meeting MSWs' psychosocial needs.
Lay, John Phillip (2008). Dangerous, Desperate, and Homosexual: Cinematic Representations of the Male Prostitute as Fallen Angels. Master's Dissertation, University of North Texas. Download Page. PDF Download.
The purpose of this study is to frame the cinematic male prostitute as a
"fallen angel" to demonstrate that the evolution of the cinematic
hustler has paralleled historicized ideological definitions of male
homosexuality. Because cultural understandings of male homosexuality
frequently reflect Judeo-Christian ideological significations of sin and
corruption, the term "fallen angel" is utilized to describe the hustler
as a figure who has also succumbed to sin due to his sexual involvement
with other men. This study constructs an epochal analysis of eight
films that explores the confluence of the social understanding of
homosexuality with the cinematic image of the hustler from the mid 1960s
through the present. In doing so, this study shows that the image of
the cinematic hustler is intricately tied to the image of the male
homosexual in material cultures and eras that produce them. A
filmography is included.
Hunt G, Chamberland L (2006). Is Sex Work? Re-assessing Feminist Debates About Sex, Work, and Money. Labour/Le Travail, 58 (Fall): 203-216. PDF
Download. Review Essay. Sex Work Is Used as an umbrella term to
encompass a variety of acts involving a commercial transaction for a
sexual activity, such as stripping, escorting, erotic massage, telephone
or internet sex, and prostitution. Sex worker is used as a less
offensive, non-discriminating alternative to terms such as whore or
slut. The term sex work is also used as a political statement, one that
helps to legitimize and rationalize the sex industry, and help empower a
pro-sex, sex workers’ social movement. Sex workers represent a
continuum: at one end are children or adults who are forced into sexual
acts against their will, with little opportunity of escape; at the other
end, are adult sex workers who voluntarily and willingly select sex
work as their principal occupation... Sex for money has always been a
fact of life. These books help us to appreciate and better understand
the supply side of the sex work economic equation. All of the books
frame sex work as more and more like other service-sector labour, and
they challenge us to make sense of this development. These books also
remind us that there is great diversity in sex work in terms of
location, working conditions, type of work, type of worker, and power
relationships, and that one analytical lens or presupposition is too
limiting. For some workers, pride is a driving force, and they see
themselves as part of a pro-sex, sex workers’ movement. For others, it
is a temporary route out of poverty. For yet others, sex work operates
in conjunction with a decline into drugs and decay. Sex work may be work
by many measures we might use, but, given the range of activities it
involves, distinctions do need to be made about its boundaries. Sex work
is more and more a diversified phenomenon. One size of analysis does
not fit all situations.
Uy JM, Parsons JT, Bimbi DS, Koken JA, Halkitis PN (2004, Abstract). Gay
and bisexual male escorts who advertise on the Internet: understanding
reasons for and effects of involvement in commercial sex. International Journal of Men's Health, Spring. Full
"The predominant reason these men were engaged in escorting was for
monetary gains and benefits. The majority of the men (n = 29, 63.0%)
endorsed money-related benefits as being a reason for their
participation in sex work. When asked to describe the positive aspects
of being a sex worker, one participant said, "The extra money. Just
this money that's not taxable, and it's instant, instant gratification.
It's not hard work. Nothing else." Often, remunerations were generous
and on occasion included trips abroad among other gifts, as explained
by one participant:... Sense of self. Many participants talked about
how having sexual encounters with generously paying clients bolsters
their sense of self. Having clients request their services, they are
made to feel empowered, desired, attractive, and important, this
elevates the escort's self-esteem... While the majority of participants
did not report a positive change to their personality, 12 participants
(26.1%) did, by reporting at least one positive change that was gained
from sex work including increased confidence, increased outgoingness,
and improved body image. One particular escort involved in sadism and
masochism (S&M) explained how his growing self-assurance developed
from his vocation:... Sex. Clearly, sexual activity is an integral part
of an escort's profession, with 18 participants (39.1%) in this study
citing their enjoyment of sex as a reason for being in this particular
line of work. Most participants were able to recall pleasurable sexual
interactions with clients, and some deemed them as a critical reason
for involvement in escorting... Participants expressed that the sexual
experiences they had, subsequent to their entry into sex work, were no
longer as thrilling or as stimulating as they once were. Excessive
sexual activity through work had minimized the pleasurable aspects of
sex and had rendered sexual activity banal and at times tedious..."
Spangenberg, Mika (2001). Prostituted Youth in New York City: An Overview. PDF Download. As boys primarily cater to the homosexual population and due to the additional stigma attached to homosexuality, there is little research about boys in prostitution in general or in New York in particular. When asked, several interviewees were able to estimate the scope of boy prostitution here. In Breault’s estimation, if the boys prostituting in the West Village as well as the transgendered youth are included with the boys involved in prostitution for survival, there would be a higher number of prostituted boys than girls. Eunice Spivey, Senior Case Manager at Promesa’s Transitional Independent Living Program for young homeless males aged sixteen to twenty, also believes that there are more boys than girls in prostitution in New York.16 In addition, most male adolescent prostitution occurs in large cities with significant gay populations like New York.
Sex and the unspoken in male street prostitution (2007):
Although the overwhelming majority of male prostitutes work through
agencies or by placing their own ads, most studies of male prostitution
focus upon young men who work on the street. Remarkably, these studies
seldom identify the dynamics of poverty and street-level violence as
important elements of their examination. Investigations of male sex
work-few though they are-focus almost exclusively upon sexual aspects of
"the life." Despite the importance of these networks in shaping the
contours of street life, and often in enabling one's very survival, the
primary research focus has remained on questions of sexual identity,
sexual practices with clients, and sexual abuse as a causative factor.
Meanwhile, studies that do examine the dynamics of male street life
typically do not examine questions of prostitution or other issues
related to sexuality. A dominant theme within this literature consists
of specifying the social mores of the most aggressive and socially
problematic participants within street society, particularly gang
members and drug dealers. The dissimilar nature of these images relates
directly to the political projects of the dominant culture, which, in a
very general way, seeks to "rescue" (reintegrate) deviant white youth,
while controlling and excluding deviant youth of color. The political
aim of reintegrating runaways into middle-class trajectories has the
effect of authorizing certain discourses regarding their behavior on the
streets, while marginalizing or completely disallowing others. This
article seeks to examine and challenge these trends of representation.
Prostitute's Past Protected by Rape Shield Law? Arguments heard to
determine whether 15-year-old's past can be explored in a Pa. courtroom".(To
access place "Prostitute's Past" in search wiondow at http://www.lawnewsnetwork.com/).
clue from body frozen for 30 years (Alternate
Link): "The frozen body of a boy prostitute who died in 1969 from something
"highly unusual" was later found infected with a strain of HIV, pushing
back the first recorded AIDS case in the United States by a decade."
Catholic priest Kevin Gray stole $1M and spent it on male escorts: police (2011). - Gay escort talks about priests who hire male prostitutes (2010). - Vatican hit by gay sex scandal (2010): Vatican chorister sacked for allegedly procuring male prostitutes for papal gentleman-in-waiting.
Angels of Mercy: Light in the Darkness of Polk Street (1995): "They leave families that are physically, sexually and emotionally abusive only to be victims harassed once more by adults who treat the youth as a commodity to be bought and sold... San Francisco's Polk Street is known for teen-age prostitution..." - Male Youth Prostitution in Philadelphia N/A (1998). - Male prostitution in Washington, D.C. N/A - Psycho-social aspects of male prostitution in Washington, DC. (1990. Alternate Link) (Related Book) - The Life of an Escort: Nam Hao (Must Scroll). - Chevy Chase Principal Resigns Male Prostitute Allegations Probed (1989). - The Final Transformation (1978): "When I was 18, I quit college and headed for New Orleans. I worked as a waiter at a place which was a haven for male and female prostitution. They let me wear face makeup and lipstick. I soon became adept at male prostitution." - The Ex Files: Not Your Usual Gays.: He signed up for an escort service and began selling his body for 80 dollars per hour. Eventually, [John] Paulk racked up over 300 sexual partners. However, writes Paulk, he became tired of being "sexually used". After a while, he dropped out of the escort business. Without the income it had provided..." - New York DJ Arrested For Trying to Solicit Male Prostitute in Brooklyn (2013): Popular radio DJ and producer, Mr. Cee was arrested May 3 in a prostitute sting. According to the New York Daily News, the 46-year-old, named Calvin Lebrun, was taken into custody in Brooklyn after trying to solicit an undercover police officer who was posing as a male prostitute.
San Antonio (1996): Sixth man jailed in Internet male prostitution ring. - Filipino Gays Targeted Again in the Mideast N/A: "Though Philippine officials did not link the actions in Qatar and Kuwait, the existence of an enormously lucrative male prostitution ring, headquartered in Manila, is believed to be in operation in countries throughout the Middle East." - Vox Interviews: Buckcherry: "Keith and I started this male prostitution ring and it just got old. We were sick of all of the…"
Rent Boys: Notorious trophy boy Andrew Cunanan's relationships with rich older men were not unique. A look inside San Diego's silent subculture (1997): "David is a kept boy. This year, he’ll collect $50,000 from two much older male sponsors who pay him for sex and companionship. It’s a thriving underground industry, David says. And he’s far from alone in taking care of business." - The Life of a Trophy Boy (Washington Post) (1997): "The sugar daddy and the house boy, the older gay man and his baby-faced companion, is a gay paradigm that traces back centuries. It is rooted in the long history of homosexual stealth-English lords who carried on with young kitchen hands, prominent married men who found young underlings at the office." - Who is Andrew Cunanan? (1997). - Three Month Fever: The Andrew Cunanan Story (1999). - A male prostitute with the AIDS virus went on television under court order to warn those who may have had sexual contact with him (1998).
The London, Ontario 1993-96, "Child-Sex Porn Ring": Possibly not what the police and the media led many to believe. Transcript of the CBC program IDEAS (4-part). - Alternate "Ideas" transcript link from CBC Radio.
Part of the Canadian walnet.org "sex worker information site:" - Male sex worker issues. Considerable "bio" information relating to teenage male hustlers. Many articles and news items. - Ryerson Prof: I'm A Hooker. - The Gerald Hannon Affair. - Related listing of articles.
Toronto Transgendered Sex Workers Murdered by Same Gun (1996). - UF
Study: Discriminatin forces transvestites into protitution: "Being
ostracized from society forces many transsexuals and transvestites into
prostitution, putting them at risk for abuse, violence and the deadly virus
that leads to AIDS, a new University of Florida study finds. Often rejected
by their families at an early age, and with few sources of social support,
they are left with little option for survival other than prostitution,
said James "Al" Bay, a UF graduate student in anthropology who did the
research for his dissertation." - Transsexuals
forced into risky business - study (1998): "The study of Miami male transsexuals
found they were often rejected by their families at an early age and had
few ways to make a living other than street prostitution, in the course
of which they were often subjected to robbery and rape." - Transsexual prostitution in New Zealand: Predominance of persons of Maori extraction (1984).
The Toronto Trans and Two-Spirit Primer: An Introduction to Lower-income, Sex-working and Street-involved Transgendered, Transsexual & Two-Spirit Service Users in Toronto (2006, PDF Download. PDF Download): "Legal Issues affecting Lower Income Trans/Two-Spirit People: There are a number of legal issues facing lower-income and sex-working trans and Two-Spirit people. There are laws affecting sex workers, human rights laws, and legal identity issues. Laws affecting Sex Workers [are].... The community has been subject to constant harassment and sweeps by police and at one point had to switch to working on the west side of Jarvis to avoid the 51 Division’s jurisdiction. While some attempts have been made to work with a GLBT Toronto Police Liaison Committee on these issues, decriminalization is necessary for the community to work and live safely."
Studies of Street Youth and Younger Male Sex Workers in Canada. - A psychosocial study of male prostitution (1989). - Les masseurs et escortes; si personne ne se plaint, la police n'interviendra pas! (Translation)
A preacher's son (David Kyle): From many years of youth prostitution to becoming a Christian Minister N/A: (1995, Alternate Link) "You see, when I was eight or nine, I suddenly became sexually obsessive and suicidal - classic signs of having been sexually abused, although to this day I have no such memories. I was a spoiled brat, selfish and perverse, full of rebellion and seeking to prove to everyone who looked my way that I was not the goody two-shoes that everyone was trying to typecast me as - being a preacher's kid. I cursed a blue streak, just to get laughs and to keep the neighborhood bully from beating me up every day. Seeing one day that he was in a particularly foul mood, I took off my clothes and ran around the playground just to make him laugh. It worked and for the first time, I realized that I could get people to like me by taking off my clothes - a revelation that would eventually give birth to almost a decade of prostitution." - From Preacher's Kid To Prostitute To Priest: Freedom From Homosexuality: David Kyle Foster's Testimony (2002): "My hustling began one night in St. Petersburg, Florida. I had made several suicide attempts that God had thwarted and I went to the pier to talk to Him, because I could not understand how He could love me and leave me in such pain. Unknown to me at the time, the pier was a hangout for male prostitutes. As I sat on the railing, men in cars would try to wave me over. I thought it must be a drug-selling place. Then a guy came over and told me that I was doing it wrong. "Doing what?" I asked. He then proceeded to describe how to be a successful male prostitute, as he was. I was flabbergasted. I didn't even know that male prostitutes even existed and was floored that someone would think that I was one. I was also intrigued. I was also mad at God. After all, I had come there to talk to Him and had found myself in such a place. So, to spite God, I decided to try it - just once. It was steeply down hill from there."
Priest (1997): (Google
Search) Father River Sims - priest
of the Evangelical Anglican Church in America - a gay man and former
worker - helping street "kids" from age 12 to over 35 - often sex
Description of life on Polk Street, San Francisco given, including male
prostitution: "A 12-year-old was out here one night, and I knew he had
warrants, and I told the officer: 'You know, you need to pick this kid
up. He's 12 years old. He said: 'Let the old men have their toys.' What
does that say about where we put our priorities.. The cutest but most
heartbreaking of the kids is angel-faced Bobby, a hardened,
tough-talking 13-year-old. He climbs onto the seat next to Sims,
devours leftover Cokes and potato chips, and vents his anger at a john
who'd tried to pick him up: "The fucker tries to buy my 13-year-old
ass, then complains I tried to rob him!" - Maverick priest braves indifference, poverty to reach young sex workers (2006):
"Sims estimates he's attended 1,000 funerals for young sex workers and
addicts since he established his ministry more than a decade ago. Some
were as young as 12; none were older than 28. All led lives that were
far too sad and complicated for their years... - John
Green, the pastor with the pavement parish (1993): " Helping male prostitutes
to get off the streets on Chicago's north side has been John Green's full-time
ministry ever since he earned his master's degree from the Graduate School
at Wheaton College in 1992... The guys don't like to be identified as being
involved in prostitution even when they are. They generally prefer the
term 'hustling'." - John
Green: A light for Chicago's night community (2000): "Founded by Wheaton (Illinois)
College graduate John Green, Emmaus Ministries reaches out to the "night
community" in a neighborhood known for its gay bars and clubs. Most of
the prostitutes are young, homeless men addicted to alcohol or drugs. Despite
their homosexual clientele, 75 percent of those involved in prostitution
consider themselves heterosexual, Green says. Rather than steal to survive
and/or feed their habit, they sell their bodies." - Where Hustlers Find Hope (2006):
Male Prostitutes in inner-city Chicago are finding a new kind of love
from a radical ministry that offers compassion instead of
Former Male Prostitute Helps Hustlers Leave R.I. Streets
(2011): For 10 years, Rich Holcomb worked as a prostitute on the
streets of Montreal. Now he is trying to help others. In the summer of
2010, Holcomb surveyed 50 men who have earned money hustling on the
streets of Providence. He has started a program dedicated to reaching
out to male sex workers-Project Weber, named in honor of Roy Weber, a
19-year-old hustler who was found dead on Christmas Day in 2003. Weber’s
murder remains unsolved. Male sex workers work night and day on the
streets of downtown, around the Amazing adult bookstores and areas
around the Mega-Plex bathhouse. They typically range in age from 18 to
55... Now 35, Holcomb is determined to offer a way out for male
sex workers in Providence, many of whom travel here from other states
due to the city’s sex-friendly climate. Rhode Island lacks the resources
needed to provide counseling and treatment for them. Holcomb hopes to
open a drop-in center that will have access to HIV testing and condoms.
Deeper in the Shadows: Where the boys go is much more obscure (1997, Alternate Link): "The Bridge Team's main goal is to reach women, but the team also works with male prostitutes. The "boys" tend to be even younger than their female counterparts; most are between 15 and 20 years old. The male prostitutes don't walk the streets the way the women do. They loiter behind the Springfield Newspapers building and the Peter Pan bus station, waiting for customers - generally older men - to pick them up." - Antiques 'stolen by prostitute' (An International Story - USA/Australia).
Profile of a pedophile: How a prominent Ware attorney preyed on troubled boys - and why some people in town continue to stand by him: "Sure, there were whispers: What did Pentlarge really want with these troubled boys? He was an out gay man, out and proud. When accusations of child molestation surfaced in the mid-1980s, Pentlarge and his friends deflected them by crying prejudice and homophobia. Well-meaning people were intimidated by the insinuation that questioning Pentlarge's motives was an act of bigotry, that it fed into a detestable stereotype that suggests gays are pedophiles at heart. But the whispers persisted. By the early 1990s, the volume grew loud enough to reach the ears of the state police. And then, investigators say, the boys themselves balked. They agreed to tell their stories, but hesitated to testify - out of fear and shame and, perhaps, admiration. Or even love... The Pentlarge case demonstrates how easy it is for society to remain blind to child sexual assault, especially when the victims are adolescent boys. It also shows that when the perpetrator is an otherwise upstanding member of the community and his victims are tainted by troubled pasts, it is painfully easy for justice to be denied..." - Campaign official is ‘high risk’ sex offender (2010). - Pentlarge and Another v. Sex Offender Registry Board et. al. (2011).
City of night (PDF Download) (by Three Dollar Bill): "Friedman, 30, hustled for seven months to pay the rent when he was a closeted freshman at the University of Minnesota a decade ago. "I was a sex worker long enough to figure it was exciting but not what I was looking for: The protections were very few... "A lot of hustlers are runaways," Mack explains. "They get propositioned all the time and eventually they say yes. It's not as awful as it's made out to be. Ideally the money is good and you develop relationships with people not from your side of the tracks, whereas the gay community is completely homogenized. You also become really good at talking with people. Sometimes all you do is talk. People are lonely."" - Saints and sinners: (Alternate Link) ""I had a stable of repeat customers," says the onetime gay hustler and Chicago native who used to place escort ads in newspapers when he attended the University of Minnesota. "I wedged them in around classes," he says."
Montreal, Canada: Study of 919 street youth, 71% male, 89% francophone (1997) - (Canadian Public Health Association) "Twenty one per cent of boys reported having engaged in prostitution and 10 of them were infected." - "Dynamique intrapsychique du sujet prostitué en regard d’un fonctionnement carencé: processus individuel et perspectives d’intervention". (Summary of a Master's thesis study on adolescent male prostitution, Université de Québec, 1993.) - Male Prostitution in Montreal: "On estime à plus de 230 le nombre de prostitués masculins qui travaillent sur la rue." - "A" pour actes, "M" pour mutuels: Le travail du sexe au masculin et le sida au Canada (PDF version of document available). - Prostitution masculine et risque d'infection au VIH. Persistance du risque après l'arrêt des comportements deprostitution: l’étude longitudinale OMEGA (2002, Translation). - Débroussailleur et démystificateur (2003, Translation): Dans son nouvel ouvrage, Michel Dorais éclaire le phénomène de la prostitution masculine. - Les Cowboys de la Nuit: Prostitution masculine (2003, Translation). - Entretien avec l'auteur de "Travailleurs du sexe": Michel Dorais (2003, Translation).
M is for MUTUAL, A is for ACTS: Male Sex Work and AIDS in Canada: - Études sur les jeunes de la rue et les jeunes hommes travailleurs du sexe au Canada. - Studies of Street Youth and Younger Male Sex Workers in Canada. - Clients des travailleurs du sexe hommes au Canada. - The Clients of Male Sex Workers in Canada. - Travail du sexe au masculin et identité sexuelle au Canada. - Male Sex Work and Sexual Identity in Canada. - Travailleurs du sexe hommes autochtones. - Aboriginal Male Sex Workers.
Reaching Out: Male and Female Sex Workers - Durban, 10 July 2000: "In the presentation from the US, Baney et al allowed that he and his research team were surprised that more people actually considered themselves sex workers, than he or his team had previously thought, and yet recruitment of commercial sex workers or body workers was always a challenge as they functioned in a world where distrust of others was as real an issue as the entrapment they faced. Some of the common counselling issues faced by these men in his sample were isolation, sexual compulsion, self-esteem and self worth, personal relationships and sexual objectification by themselves and their clients." - Sexwork Cyber Center: The Need For Sex Workers. Sex work Archives: http://archives.healthdev.net/sex-work.
The impact of transphobia on HIV risk behaviors among male-to-female transgenders in San Francisco (PDF Download): Focus Group (N = 48) & Cross-Sectional Sample (N = 332), most having had a commercial sex work history: 29% reported having attempted suicide, with another 15% having experienced suicidal ideation. - HIV risk behaviors among male-to-female transgender persons of color in San Francisco (2004, PDF). - Gendered sex work in the San Francisco tenderloin (1999).
Healthy Hustling. - How "Healthy Hustling" was made. - Hook Online: A magazine for men in the sex work industry: Archive Article Search Available. - What It Cost by T.R. I was a male prostitute from age 12 to 35. - How I got lost finding myself: The story of a young Amsterdam boytoy. - Body Work for Men. - Suited & Booted. - The Bill Gates of hustlers: PDF Download.
prostitution challenges feminists arguments (1999):
"While it is in fact true that the majority of prostitutes in this country
and the world are female, and that the majority of clients are men, a more
serious consideration of male prostitution might greatly enrich the feminist
debate precisely because it would serve to complicate the arguments of
both sides. If prostitution is simply an expression of men's sexual dominance
over women, then what is the social significance of male prostitution,
of the availability of male bodies for sexual use on the market?" Live!
Nude! Boys! How I spent a year preparing to be a hot-bodied stripper -
then decided I didn't want to be an object of desire (1999). - Study: Male sex trade workers need support (2009, Calgary, Alberta).
Boyer, Debra Kay (1986). Male Prostitution: A Cultural Expression of Male Homosexuuality. PhD. Dissertation, University of Washington. PDF Download. Download Page. [Related Paper: Boyer, Debra (1989). Male Prostitution and Homosexual Identity. IN Gay and Lesbian Youth, Gilbert Herdt, Ed. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press & In: 1989 Journal of Homosexuality, 17(1/2): 151-184.] In this study I demonstrate how adolescent male prostitutes have linked the meaning of a personal homoerotic preference and subsequent homosocial identity with the social action of prostitution. In several major studies, a homosexual identity for male prostitutes was disclaimed. Prostitution was explained using socio-economic factors or perspectives of individual pathology. A recent study suggested that male prostitution has become "gayer," but does not describe the relationship of homosexuality to male prostitution in theoretical terms. Many of these studies are weakened by a Western perspective of homosexuality that is concerned with etiology and pathology. By contrast, I examined homosexuality as a symbolic construct whose expression is shaped by the dominant sex and gender system of American culture. The research approach taken was shaped by my view of homosexuality as one of a variety of permutations of social-sexual behavior to be found in various types of social organization and not the result of individual or social pathology.The research process included a combination of quantitative and qualitative procedures. The quantitative data permitted an analysis of conditions and constraints common to male prostitutes. These included: (1) sexual identity, (2) sexual exploitation, and (3) family rejection. I have argued that these factors bounded their perceptions and alternatives. Using an interactionist perspective, I developed an interpretive model to demonstrate the interplay of objective and subjective factors from which male prostitutes construct social definitions and subjective meanings linking homosexuality and prostitution. I have argued that adolescent gay males develop a self-understanding that includes prostitution as part of their homosexual world due to: (1) stigma associated with homosexuality, (2) approval of active male sexuality, (3) sex construed as a commodity, and (4) self-objectification resulting from experiences of sexual exploitation. I show how the male homosexual subculture provided adolescent gay males with a coherent social role and identity that included prostitution.In summary, I try to demonstrate how behavior classed as deviant is a socio-cultural phenomenon produced from cultural constructions of sex and gender. From this perspective one can begin to understand how prostitution makes sense to an adolescent gay male who is trying to understand what it means to be homosexual in American culture.
McIntyre S (2005). Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men. PDF Download. Executive Summary. Executive Summary.
Some Study results for 37 male youth prostitutes in Alberta (For More Information):
|Young men in this study were gay, heterosexual and bisexual
54% of this population are of Aboriginal heritage [61%]*
51% had involvement with Child Welfare Services [55%]
Over half of this population had grown up in care.
60% had a history of being thrown out of their homes [51%]
65% had not completed high school [65%]
95% had a history of running away [83%]
86% experienced staying in shelters [64%]
57-70% had a history prior to the street of being sexually violated
86% had been physically violated or abused while growing up
73% began the sex work under the age of 18 [73%]
49% began sex work by the age of 15
35% began sex work by the age of 13
Males enter the trade younger and stay longer than young women
Drug use is extensive
Almost everyone felt no one should do this type of work
The fear of gay-bashing exists
54% identified periods of contemplation of self-harm
[69%] began hustling because they needed a way to make quick cash
[51%[ were introduced to the trade by a friend
* Percentages in Square Brackets (e.g. [64%]) are from the larger McIntyre (2009) Study.
House: Male Prostitution in Latin America - 1998 - by Jacobo Schifter
"Twenty-five young men between the ages of 13 and 27 were interviewed for
this study." (Google Books). - In Spanish: La
casa de Lila. Un estudio sobre la prostitucion masculina. (Book
among gay and other men who have sex with men in Latin America and the
Caribbean: a hidden epidemic? (2002) "MSM in the region are culturally diverse,
with mediation of social class, sex, and ethnicity. Around core gay subcultures,
non-gay identified MSM interact with them and frequently exchange sex for
Mexico: - Crece sin control la prostitución masculina (2013): Un aumento desconsiderado en la prostitución masculina ha alertado a las autoridades de Salud, que reconocieron el riesgo latente de infección por vía sexual al no haber un control de los prestadores de este servicio. Pese a no tener un censo del número de hombres que se dedican a la prostitución, reportes policiacos indican que el mayor punto de servicio sexual de varones, se realiza sobre la Carretera Transístimica, donde varios homosexuales prestan sus servicios sin previo chequeo médico y sin que la autoridad municipal garantice su estado de salud. - Prostitución masculina y turismo sexual (2013. Translation). - Charla sobre el fenómeno de la prostitución masculina (2012, Translation): Un recorrido que hizo durante un año en los sitios donde el sexo se vende... Durante un año, Jesús Flores recorrió los territorios de Torreón donde se desarrollaba la prostitución masculina. De 2007 a 2010, para sacarle provecho a su investigación fotográfica, se pasó como actuante, adoptando la postura de comprante y realizando paralelamente bitácoras escritas y visuales de cada uno de los episodios por los que debió pasar. Al respecto, Jesús Flores nos dice: "lo que hago aquí ahora en este espacio de la Galería de la Secretaría de Cultura es una charla mejor que una exposición, pues en la charla hay un dinamismo entre el espectador y la obra y como son muchas imágenes y videos preferí vaciarlas todas".
Azaola E (2000). Boy and Girl Victims of Sexual Exploitation in Mexico. UNICEF-DIF. PDF
general, it could be said that while boys who are being exploited
predominate in the tourist zone (la Costera, la Condesa), girls prevail
in the centre zone, as has happened for a long time back in the hotels
and bars of the red light district.... Some of these boys are
transvestites and for this reason, especially at night, they dress as
women. Some of them also take hormones to transform their bodies...
Another transvestite boy, aged 15, that we interviewed on the beach,
said that he was born in Guadalajara and that he left home when he was
12 to go and live in the streets in Mexico City where he was in an
institution for some time, but left because he wanted to go to
Acapulco. He explained that one of the reasons why he decided to leave
home and then the institution was because they made fun of him. Now he
lives near the beach with a group of friends who prostitute themselves
like him. He explained that he finds his clients during the day on the
beach or at night in the streets where he dances a bit to attract
attention... One 17 year old boy who lives in the streets explained why
boys like himself prostitute themselves. He said: “I’m from Altamirano
but I’ve been here for several years now. The first time I went to the
main square (Zócalo) and joined the others. I left home because
of family problems and because my mother preferred that man to me... I
left home when I was 8 and I’ve only been back twice since then. I’ve
met many people in the Zócalo who live in the streets..."
Córdova Plaza, Rosío (2004). Factores
de riesgo en la adquisición de VIH/SIDA entre varones participantes del
circuito homoerótico comercial en Xalapa, Veracruz. Salud Problema, No. 16; Nueva Época, Año 9, enero - junio 2004: 5-18. Download Page: Translation.
This paper examines how dominant conceptions about sexuality become
mooring standpoints for self perception (others perceptions) of subjects
that, coming from rural areas to the city of Xalapa in Mexico and
finding there high concentration of students, found in sexual work an
income source. This paper also explores how these conceptions impact
these subjects' exposition to HIV-AIDS and other STI risk situations. - Entre chichifos, mayates y chacales (2002, Translation):
Este texto, resultado de una investigación acuciosa, explora los
diversos modos en que se ejerce en Xalapa, Veracruz, el trabajo sexual
masculino, desde los diversos perfiles de sus protagonists y los sitios
de intercambio comercial, hasta la persistencia de actitudes machistas
que favorecen el incremento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual.
Córdova Plaza, Rosío (2006). Trabajo sexual masculino y factores de riesgo en la adquisición de VIH/SIDA en Xalapa, Veracruz
[Doctora en Ciencias Antropológicas. Investigadora del Instituto de
Investigaciones Histórico-Sociales de la Universidad Veracruzana,
México]. La manzana, 1(2). Download Page. Translation. Full Text. Translation. Tipos de trabajadores:
Encontrarse involucrado en el circuito de sexo comercial no permite
automáticamente que alguien se asuma como trabajador sexual. Para ello
se precisa, por un lado, del reconocimiento de que se está ofreciendo un
servicio específico por el que se recibe un pago, ya sea en efectivo o
en especie, y, por otro, de cierta constancia en su ejercicio, de manera
que se torne una actividad regular gracias a la cual se satisfacen
algunos o todos los requerimientos económicos del individuo. En este
sentido, se puede participar en el circuito sin una clara conciencia de
que se está ejerciendo algún tipo de prostitución. Existen variados
factores en el trabajo sexual que permiten agrupar a los trabajadores en
diversas categorías. La primera gran diferenciación se puede establecer
en función de la personificación de género que exhiban los sujetos, es
decir, entre aquellos que intentan ofrecer características femeninas
mediante la indumentaria, el empleo de prótesis, maquillaje y actitudes,
a quienes se les denomina “vestidas” o travestís, y los que observan o
exacerban los rasgos masculinos, llamados “mayates”. Este aspecto es el
rasgo más conspicuo en la asunción de una identidad por parte del
trabajador, a partir del cual manifiesta su pertenencia a un grupo, el
reconocimiento de su orientación sexual y la manera en que define sus
propias conductas. Asimismo, de esta diferenciación derivan
características específicas que les son asociadas, como la ocupación de
un espacio geográfico exclusivo para cada categoría, ya sea en la vía
pública (trottoirs) o en centros de diversiones y “clínicas de masajes”,
además de cierta especialización en los servicios ofrecidos que
condiciona el tipo de clientela a la que se dirigen. Otro aspecto
importante en esta clasificación es el referente al tiempo dedicado a
realizar la actividad, pues mientras que para algunos el sexoservicio es
una ocupación de tiempo completo y su única fuente de ingresos, otros
la ejercen de manera intermitente o esporádica, ya sea porque tengan
otra forma de allegarse recursos o porque es una manera de satisfacer
deseos homosexuales, involucrándose en relaciones homoeróticas en
espacios marginalizados de la esfera social en la que se vive, dado el
carácter oculto y casual que puede revestir este tipo de relaciones.
Villalva, Patrici (2012). Él y él: la convivencia y los sentimientos en la prostitución masculina en la ciudad de México [He and He: Cohabitation and Feelings Involving Male Prostitution in Mexico City]. Trayectorias, 14(33/34): 115-130. PDF
Download. In a homophobic society like Mexico’s, speaking
about male prostitution, involving people of the same sex, is inevitably
associated with homosexuality. This is an arbitrary representation of
the sexual diversity operating in this type of commercial sex. Within
the dynamics of male prostitution in Mexico City, involving clandestine
activity, ignored and stigmatized, they will eventually come to form
homoerotic couples between client and prostitute, mutually agreeing to
live together for short or long periods of time. The aim of this paper
is to analyze how cohabitation via prostitution takes place, considering
the function and significance of feelings in this way of experiencing
male prostitution, highlighting the couple made up of the client assumed
homosexual and the male prostitute known as the “mayate”.
Soriano KA, Arcos LA, Pavón RS (2010). Turismo sexual, prostitución varonil y vih-sida en Cancún. Teoría y Praxis, 7: 115-127. PDF Download. Translation. Este trabajo forma parte de la investigación Dimensión Territorial del Turismo Sexual en México, que se desarrolla en el Instituto de Geografía de la unam y que reúne académicos de diferentes disciplinas de 12 instituciones, entre ellas la Universidad de Quintana Roo, Unidad Académica Cozumel, cuya participación estuvo enfocada a revelar la dimensión territorial del turismo sexual en Cancún, a partir del análisis de la prostitución masculina. Los resultados surgen de las entrevistas a profundidad realizadas a 12 jóvenes de entre 17 y 29 años, que revelaron brindar un servicio sexual dirigido a varones turistas o residentes a cambio de un pago monetario y quienes se autodefinen como prostitutos. Se destaca el contagio de enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ets) –como el vih-sida– al que se exponen estos jóvenes que ofertan sus servicios desde lugares exclusivos –como los spa– hasta en anuncios periodísticos, internet, tarjetas personales o bien en las principales avenidas de la ciudad de Cancún. Finalmente, se rescatan elementos que permiten visualizar los diversos factores que intervienen en este problema de salud pública.
El servicio escort gay, mucho más que sexo y diversión (2007, Translation):
"Ser escort gay profesional requiere mucho más que un rostro
varonil o un cuerpo perfecto. Además de proporcionar masajes y
sexo, los expertos en la materia son educados, finos y cultos. Descubre
qué es el escorting. ¿Contratarías uno?"
Prostitución Masculina (2003, Translation):
Así de sencillo, puedes contratar prostitutos, van desde
clasificados en periódicos donde puedes encontrar mínimo
10 anuncios de hombres de entre 15 y 30 años que ofrecen sus
servicios, veladamente como compañía, masajistas o
strippers, pero esperando vender sexo; los que se anuncian en internet,
los que se ubican en las calles, los sexoservidores con efigie de
mujer, y hasta los llamados "güachos" que son soldados que se
ubican cerca de zonas militares. Manejan diferentes tarifas, tan
disparadas que van de los 300 a 2000 mil pesos, pero todos
desafían el riesgo de contraer enfermedades de
transmisión sexual, violencia, además de
corrupción y extorsión, tanto de los llamados "padrotes"
y de las autoridades. Jerry, stripper, aseguró que de las 20
llamadas que recibe a la semana sólo dos son mujeres, es decir
el 10 % se trata de clientes femeninos, el 90% restante son hombres; y
para no "quedarse sin comer" dice que le es preciso acceder a dar
servicio a hombres por la falta de mujeres que se animen a
contratarlo... "Los hombres en este país que buscan los
servicios sexuales de los 'gays' no aceptan ser bisexuales u
homosexuales y se escudan diciendo que ellos solamente penetran a un
gay", dice Freddy... Muchos de los hombres que se prostituyen poseen un
empleo regular durante el día, ganan salarios arriba del
mínimo e incluso son estudiantes de nivel básico o
bachillerato que viven con sus padres, sin que éstos se enteren
de lo que hacen sus hijos... Las calles donde se prostituyen
también son escenarios de violencia. Ahí son amenazados o
golpeados por clientes u otros que repudian lo que hacen. Los clientes
en ocasiones no les pagan por sus servicios y en el peor de los casos
los llevan a sitios apartados donde los dejan abandonados. Con
frecuencia se dan riñas entre los mismos compañeros de
oficio... Otra cara del sexo comercial masculino lo ejercen
hombres con una imagen pública de mujer: las llamadas vestidas,
diferenciadas de los travestis, que trabajan en bares. Las
vestidas son independientes, trabajan el sexo en la calle o en
las carreteras, y son las que más sufren la extorsión."
Nuevas masculinidades: (2005, Translation)
"La migración y la prostitución masculina indígena
en el Distrito Federal, en los recientes años, han representado
una nueva problemática con características peculiares que
ha retado las tradicionales formas de ser de los hombres. ¿A
qué situaciones vivénciales se exponen en un medio ajeno
al suyo? En un trabajo de tesis, tanto de licenciatura como de
maestría en Antropología de la UNAM, por Patricio
Villalba en 1998 y 2002, y un programa de doctorado sobre el
análisis del fenómeno migratorio de jóvenes
indígenas, se señala el enfrentamiento de dos culturas,
la dominante y la dominada. Su condición de inmigrantes sin
redes de apoyo, aunado al hecho de ser indígenas, empieza a
manifestarse en desventaja, por lo que en estos jóvenes emergen
diversos mecanismos psicológicos de defensa para ocultar la
identidad que los delata como tales. En la capital, su identidad
étnica pierde significado, ya no son nahuas, otomíes,
totonacos y chinantecos, entre otros, ahora se les identifica
simplemente como albañiles, taqueros, vendedores ambulantes o
limpiaparabrisas. Las desigualdades sociales, económicas y
culturales se concentran en las grandes ciudades. Y al adentrarse en
ellas las necesidades van en aumento, es cuando entran en escena toda
suerte de oportunistas que los engañan, roban o vejan. Este
estudio refleja que 30 jóvenes indígenas emigrantes de
los estados de Chiapas, Guerrero, Estado de México, Hidalgo,
Oaxaca, Puebla y Veracruz, con edades desde 15 a 23 años, un
bajo nivel educativo, optaron por la prostitución como un medio
para subsistir en su nuevo contexto socio-cultual..."
masculina (Translation). - Prostituição Masculina (Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos em Sexualidade Humana , Translation). - Prostituição
masculina (2010, Videos, Translation). - Paulistanos que ganham a vida vendendo o corpo (2011, Translation). -
A Psychosocial Study of Male-to-Female Transgendered and Male Hustler Sex Workers in São Paulo, Brazil (2011). - Psychosocial pathways to inconsistent condom use among male sex workers: personality, drug misuse and criminality (2011). - Profissionais do sexo se reúnem em Brasília para discutir prevenção a DST (2010, Translation): O Encontro de Trabalhadores Sexuais Masculinos (Entrasex), que vai até sexta-feira (27), conta com a participação de representantes do governo e de movimentos sociais LGBT.
El Departamento de ITS, Sida y Hepatitis Virales celebra el Encuentro de Prevención con Trabajadores Sexuales Masculinos (2010, Translation): Por
primera vez, trabajadores sexuales masculinos de todas las regiones
brasileñas, ONG, gestores y activistas se reúnen con el Gobierno federal
para discutir cuestiones de salud y prevención de enfermedades como el
sida y las ITS. El Encuentro Nacional de Prevención entre los
Trabajadores Sexuales Masculino (Entrasex), promovido por el
Departamento de ITS, Sida y Hepatitis Virales, se celebra en Brasilia
del 25 al 27 de agosto, en el hotel Lake Side, y en él participan 75
personas, 25 de ellos profesionales del sexo. - Prostituição masculina “floresce” no Porto (2012, Translation). - Prostituição masculina oferece riscos para clientes e garotos de programa (2012, Translation). - Prostituição masculina é tema de pesquisa na Saúde Pública (2012, Translation).
Beneath the Equator: Cultures of Desire, Male Homosexuality, and Emerging Gay Communities in Brazil - 1998 - by Richard Parker (Google Books).
Based on long-term field research carried out over more than 15 years,
Beneath the Equator examines the changing shape of male homosexuality
and the emergence of diverse and vibrant gay communities in urban
Brazil. Drawing on detailed ethnographic description of multiple sexual
worlds organized around street cruising and impersonal sex, male
prostitution, transgender performances, gay commercial markets and
establishments, gay rights activism and AIDS service provision, Richard
Parker examines the changing sexual identities, cultures and communities
that have taken shape in Brazil in recent years. - Travestí: Sex, Gender and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes - 1998 - by Don Kulick (Google Books). Book Review.
masculina muitos conceitos para várias práticas (2003, Translation). - Idéal
physique féminin, gay et travesti au Brésil ou nouvel esthétisme
du corps technologique? (2001, Translation): "Dans la prostitution masculine, la jeunesse
est un capital, mais dont la rentabilité s’érode vite. De
fait, il semble que le culte de la jeunesse soit encore plus en vogue au
Brésil qu’en Europe. Par contre pour aller travailler en Europe,
le travesti doit être ‘produite’, c’est-à-dire être
passer par le processus de chirurgie esthétique. Une ‘bombadeira’
avec vingt ans d’expériences de production de corps travestis me
racontait que pour gagner de l’argent, le travesti se prostitue. Pour se
prostituer le travesti a besoin d’un corps. Un corps produit. Pour attirer
l’attention du client. Pour se sentir mieux avec soi-même. Ce n’est
pas supportable de sortir dans la rue avec des seins faits de torchons.
La honte, d’enlever ses vêtements et de perdre toutes ses plumes.
Le travesti ne peut pas supporter cela. Alors, elle modifie son corps pour
se sentir mieux et donner le meilleur au client. Avoir une prothèse
mammaire, c’est le certificat leur permettant de gagner leur vie. Pour
arriver à s’acheter une voiture, un appartement, c’est petites choses.
Il faut faire appel à un chirurgien. Plus le corps est bien produit,
le mieux il gagne sa vie (Mona, 2001)." - Introdução
ao Tema da Prostituição Masculina (2000, Translation).
de Andrade LT, Teixeira AE (2004). A territorialidade da prostituição em Belo Horizonte. Caderno Metropole, 11: 137-157. PDF Download. Translation.
O artigo realiza um mapeamento da distribuição espacial da prostituição
masculina e feminina em Belo Horizonte em três períodos. Durante o
primeiro período, entre 1897, ano de fundação da cidade, até 1930,
predomina a prostituição feminina nos cabarés situados em uma “região
moral”. O segundo período compreende as décadas de 30 a 60, quando a
prostituição feminina ainda predomina, mas entra em cena a figura do
“homossexual valente”. Nesse período, a prostituição ocupa novas áreas
da cidade, mas ainda se confina a regiões bem delimitadas. No terceiro
período, que se inicia nos anos 70 e vai até os dias atuais, registra-se
a emergência da prostituição masculina nos espaços públicos e
semipúblicos da cidade e um espraiamento tanto da prostituição feminina
quanto da masculina pela cidade, conquistando áreas consideradas nobres.
Verifica- se ainda a emergência de novos tipos, como a travesti, o
michê e as garotas de programas e uma significativa mudança nas relações
entre os diversos atores envolvidos na prática da prostituição,
marcadas agora por uma maior impessoalidade e profissionalização.
da Silva, Valdeci Gonçalves (2002). A representação social dos papéis sexuais ativo e passivo nas relações homoeróticas. na Revista Sanitas [Ativo e/ou Passivo, eis a Questão? ], 7(14). Full Text. Translation.
Com base na dissertação de mestrado “Faca de dois gumes: percepções da
bissexualidade masculina em João Pessoa-PB” (SILVA, 1999). Em cuja
pesquisa de campo foram entrevistados sete bissexuais michês e sete
bissexuais não-michês. O presente ensaio procura se aprofundar nas
discusões sobre a construção dicotômica das representações dos papéis
ativo/passivo na relação homoerótica, por meio de uma nova revisão
bibliográfica que faz um percurso histórico da questão desde a Grécia
Antiga até as suas implicações nos dias atuais.
Simões, Júlio Assis (2008). O negócio do desejo. Cadernos Pagu, 31: 535-546. PDF Download. Translation.
“Quando vou transar com um cliente” – diz um garoto de programa
entrevistado por Nestor Perlongher em O negócio do michê – “eu não sou
eu; eu sou a fantasia do cliente”. O desejo fora da ordem se vê
emaranhado, de saída, nas demandas da troca material e do imaginário que
o provoca e regula. Práticas apaixonadamente transgressivas vêm de
braço dado com os imperativos categóricos do comércio e da identidade.
Arrebatamento e regra, acaso e cálculo, prazer e prescrição são reunidos
de forma tensa e indissolúvel, não como pares de opostos bem
comportados em suas casinhas, mas como vivências alternadas,
simultâneas, embrulhadas umas nas outras. Na enunciação do rapaz se
condensa o complexo de questões que a prostituição homossexual masculina
abarca e projeta para além dela própria, e que formam a matéria desse
notável trabalho, reeditado em boa hora. Trata-se de uma etnografia
substancial e de um ensaio brilhante de interpretação teórica, que não
apenas se destaca no importante acervo de estudos socioantropológicos de
sexualidade feitos no Brasil, em sua época, como se mostra altamente
proveitoso e relevante à luz dos debates atuais.
de Sousa Sampaio, Fabrício (2012). O
“ponto” da sexualidade juvenil masculina: identidade, prostituição e
desejo entre os frequentadores de uma esquina profana na Cidade de
Sobral - CE. PDF Download. Translation.
A cidade de Sobral – interior do Ceará – possui uma marcação católica,
moralista e preconceituosa muito clara em relação às práticas sexuais e
às formas de conjugabilidade que fogem aos padrões heterossexuais. Mesmo
diante de manifestações de temor das famílias tradicionais, a cidade
possui alguns prostíbulos, mascarados na arquitetura de bar, de
aglomeração e azaração gay – consensualmente estigmatizados pelos
adultos sobralenses, mas nem sempre pela juventude. Nos últimos cinco
anos, na esquina de uma das mais movimentadas avenidas da cidade, alguns
jovens gays passaram a ensaiar a prostituição. Antes disso somente
existiam dois “pontos” de prostituição de rua, dos quais por força da
organização urbana engendrada pelo poder público via discriminação
imposta pelas famílias tradicionais, um deles foi desativado, ficando
apenas um que se localiza atualmente na saída da cidade para a capital
Fortaleza. Localização estratégica tanto com relação aos
“trabalhadores”, visto que seriam pouco incomodados pela população
sobralense quanto para os pretensos clientes, resguardando assim seu
anonimato frente aos olhares julgadores da cultura. Assim esta prática
ficaria invisível de certa maneira aos futuros homens e mulheres da
cidade. Mas, por força da transgressão, o “ponto” da OAB2passa a se
firmar na cidade e constituir, diferente do ponto da “BR”3, num
território de experimentação da prostituição homossexual de jovens da
classe popular e se torna reconhecido como tal. Com o passar dos anos, a
frequência de jovens e adolescentes aumentam e a dinâmica de
participação deste território particulariza-se. Relações de poder,
demarcação espaço-temporal, exigência identitária e aprendizagens de
códigos sociais passam a constituir elementos de convivência entre os
frequentadores do “ponto”. Assim, os mais experientes exigem certos
rituais de iniciação e atribuição de personagens identitários aceitáveis
aos neófitos travestis ou michês, como também controlam a demarcação do
território, principalmente frente a outros prostitutos ou travestis que
almejam trabalhar naquele espaço.
dos Santos, Maria Lourdes (2011). Esmiuçando vidas de homens prostitutos em Fortaleza. Paper presented at the XV Congresso Brasileiro de Sociologia. PDF Download. Translation.
Este ensaio faz parte de um trabalho mais amplo e tem por objetivo
apresentar alguns resultados da pesquisa empírica, que está sendo
realizada com os profissionais do sexo masculino1 em Fortaleza. O texto
tem como foco principal os circuitos diuturnos do centro da cidade: as
ruas por onde circulam os michês e seus clientes, as estratégias por
eles utilizadas para a abordagem, a transação comercial dos desejos e
prazeres, os riscos e perigos de trabalhar na rua, além do anseio de
partilhar outras afetividades culminadas nas poucas relações de amizade e
nas redes de sociabilidades construídas. Tem-se, também, a pretensão de
revelar alguns passos da pesquisa (e da pesquisadora em campo) como uma
experiência singular e inédita.
de Souza Neto, Epitácio Nunes (2010). Entre Boys E Frangos: Prostituição Homossexual Masculina em Recife. Master's Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE. PDF Download. Translation.
Residindo no bairro da Boa Vista, tenho a muito observado os processos
de transformações pelos quais a cidade do Recife vem passando. Como em
toda metrópole, o centro da cidade apresenta uma variedade enorme quanto
ao perfil social de seus habitantes. São trabalhadores, moradores e
visitantes que se misturam a uma massa de personagens sociais bastante
heterogêneos em estilo, classe social, estrutura familiar e cultura.
Verdadeiras aldeias ou tribos que estabelecem seus habitates ao
dividirem um mesmo espaço geográfico. Neste panorama as diferenças se
fazem visíveis e as categorias se estabelecem agrupando, nomeandos e
renomeandos os indivíduos. A sociedade passa a estabelece seus próprios
meios pelos quais categoriza as pessoas e define os atributos comuns e
“naturais” aos membros de cada uma dessas categorias. De um lado,
mendigos, assaltantes, pedintes, ambulantes, crianças em situação de
rua, bêbados, travestis, traficantes de drogas e garotos de programa,
entre outros, passam a compor a categoria dos “desacreditados” sob o
estigma da marginalização (GOFFMAN, 1988) e viver à margem de uma
sociedade onde se encontram as “pessoas de bem”. Cada grupo possui
atributos e características que definem as identidades sociais de seus
protagonistas, onde visibilidade e invisibilidade se transformam em
fatores de necessidade e sobrevivência. Neste contexto de invisibilidade
atuam e convivem os membros de uma subcategoria específica, formada por
homossexuais masculinos que se prostituem nas ruas, onde o negócio do
michê (PERLONGHER, 1987) estabelece critérios para o exercício das
práticas sexuais comerciais entre homens, tais como: valores monetários,
tempo de permanência na atividade, práticas sexuais e identidades
Saldanha, Rafael Araújo (2007). "A idéia é a fantasia, é ter quem vocệ quiser..." A Prostituição Masculina em SC. Master's Dissertation, History, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. PDF Download. Translation.
Localizados junto aos Classificados, dos jornais em formato tabloide,
encontramos os mais diferentes anuncios onde homens e mulheres
oferecem-se para servicos sexuais. Essa fonte escrita nos faz criar as
mais diferentes concepcoes acerca das pessoas envolvidas com a atividade
da prostituicao. Contudo, nao esclarece sobre suas praticas, seus
anseios, suas crencas, etc. O presente artigo pretende trazer mais
informacoes sobre a prostituicao em Santa Catarina, especificamente a do
genero masculino. Contamos, assim, com uma revisao bibliografica sobre
prostituicao e uma entrevista com urn ex-garoto de programa de
Florianopolis, alem de discutirmos os usos da historia oral para
sujeitos de fronteira, onde as referencias identificaveis devem ser
postas de lado para que a oralidade traduza uma realidade desconhecida
de Oliveira Lima, Wagner (2007). Ô de casa, ô da rua: território e derivas na prostituição masculina de rua em joão pessoa. PDF Download. Translation.
O recorte feito neste artigo envolve diretamente a pesquisa qualitativa
voltada para oito michês e um agenciador que atuam nas áreas do Centro,
a principal região homoerótica (Da Silva, 2005) da cidade. A
intervenção dos michês nestes espaços é o da passagem e da mobilidade. A
mobilidade que nos referimos está ancorada na conceituação proposta por
Balandier (1997) como uma característica da modernidade atual em que
prevalece o movimento, o que é fluído. Espaço pertencente a um tempo em
que “(...) a única certeza é a do movimento, onde toda a ordem parece se
dissolver na sucessão de mudanças, onde o real parece se seduzir em
transformações ou simulações múltiplas a escapar de qualquer tentativa
de exploração”. É sob esta perspectiva que os michês se jogam à deriva
nas calçadas e logradouros em busca de clientes que transitam pelo
dos Santos, Manoel Antônio (2011). Prostituição masculina e vulnerabilidade às dsts/aids. Texto & Contexto Enfermagem, 210(1): 76-84. PDF Download. Translation.
This exploratory, descriptive study was carried out to identify the
reasons that lead young men to enter the market of male prostitution,
the representations they elaborate regarding sexual practices they
adopt, and their perceptions of their own vulnerability to STD/AIDS.
Data was collected through individual thematic semi-structured
interviews involving 24 Brazilian male adolescents and young adults. The
empirical data was then submitted to thematic analysis and examined
according to the theoretical references of the area. Participants
reported to having been involved in this activity for a short time and
pointed out economic advantages as their main motivation for such
involvement. All alleged the use of condoms in sexual practices which
involved penetration, but they did not take similar precautions with
oral sex. Their concern in playing the active role in sexual intercourse
was associated with an attempt to match the stereotype of masculinity
which emphasizes power/force/control, making the perception of their own
vulnerability more difficult to see. The social invisibility which
characterizes commercial sex makes these young people more vulnerable to
Barreto LC, da Silveira CD, Grossi MP (2012). Notas etnográficas sobre prostituição masculina em Florianópolis: entre o trabalho, o afeto e a sexualidade. Revista de Ciências Humanas, 46(2): 511-534. Download Page. Translation. Objetivamos compreender como se articulam trabalho, afeto e sexualidade na vida de homens que se prostituem na região central de Florianópolis/SC, utilizando métodos como observação, conversas informais, entrevistas semi-estruturadas e registro em diários de campo. Observamos que existem limites simbólicos entre as categorias,mas esses são reconstruídos e ressignificado sem função da relação estabelecida com clientes, parceiros, parentes e com a prostituição. O trabalho pode ser ocultado de familiares, mas usufruem dos seus rendimentose estão presentes nos espaços, nas entrevistas ou em tatuagens. Relações com clientes podem ser carinhosas, afetuosas e prazerosas enquanto as com parceiros se tornarem mais mecânicas e performáticas. O aprendizado de técnicas no trabalho agrega prazer às relações com parceiros e o carinho pelo cliente pode assegurar a satisfação da clientela. Noções tradicionais sobre relacionamentos afetivos e sexuais são simultaneamente reiteradas, como na dicotomia afetividade/passividade, e questionadas, como em concepções reinventadas sobre a traição.
Um olhar sobre a prostituição masculina - 2008 - by Andrea Martins Vicentini (Translation) (Review): O presente livro teve início com a pesquisa para o trabalho de conclusão do Curso de Direito orientado pela advogada, psicóloga e hoje coordenadora de TGI do Curso de Direito do Mackenzie, Doutora Lia Pierson, ele é fruto de um primeiro impulso de uma pesquisa acadêmica, que afinal transformou-se num repertório emocionado de depoimentos colhidos ao longo dos anos, e um emocionante livro sobre o polêmico tema da prostituição masculina. .
Sex, Gender, and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes
- 1998 - by Don Kulick (Abstract). - Anthropologist
to Speak About Male Prostitutes Crossing Gender Lines in Brazil (1996). - Male transvestite sex workers and HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1997). - Ronaldo in transvestite scandal (2008): Brazilian football star Ronaldo has been caught up in a sex scandal with three cross-dressing prostitutes. - Ronaldo absolved in transvestite prostitute flap
(2008): Cross-dressing prostitutes lied when they accused AC Milan
striker Ronaldo of using drugs and having sex with them during a motel
encounter last week, police said Tuesday. The prostitutes told police
they lied because Ronaldo did not want to pay them after finding out
they were men, police inspector Carlos Augusto Nogueira said.
The meeting of the michês - by Paulo Longo (1994, Alternate Link): In Brazil machismo rules and male prostitutes rarely dare admit they are gay. But the michês – or hustlers – of Rio are starting to come out of the shadows... Our experience has shown that poverty cannot be used as the only justification for prostitution. In our day-to-day work at Programa ‘Pegação’ – a slang word meaning ‘seducing’ or ‘catching someone for sex’ – most of the boys approach us first as potential clients. As time goes by, and the relationship gains more intimacy, we hear things like ‘With you I would have sex for free, ’cause I like you a lot’... Little by little, male prostitution is coming out of the shadows. This may not improve the way that it is viewed by others, but it does reflect an internal change. Until now, in the few academic papers, in the press and even in social debates, male sex work is not even up there with female sex work as ‘the oldest profession’... Michês working on the streets in Rio are generally very young, between 11 and 23 years old. (Profile of Paul Longo) (Alternate Link) - Michê: la masculinité au marche ou les aléas de la "prostitution virile" au Brésil (1995, Translation).
Human immunodeficiency virus incidence and risk behavior in the 'Projeto Rio': results of the first 5 years of the Rio de Janeiro open cohort of homosexual and bisexual men, 1994-98 (2002): "HIV incidence rate (IR).. differences were observed in four categories: (1) non-commercial sex workers and non-transvestites who had protected sex prior to study entry (IR 1.6 per 100 men-years); (2) non-commercial sex workers and non-transvestites who had unprotected sex prior to study entry (IR 2.7 per 100 men-years); (3) commercial sex workers (IR 3.5 per 100 men-years); and (4) transvestite groups (IR 16.8 per 100 men-years)."
"The ghetto is over, darling": emerging gay communities and gender and sexual politics in contemporary Brazil (1999): "The objective of this article is to map out some of the key tensions and power dynamics involved in the apparent consolidation of gay communities/culture in Brazil and to explore what might be gained and lost and for whom in these recent transformations of Brazilian male homosexualities. The data was obtained from ethnographic fieldwork among a group of transvestite sex workers based out of GAPA..."
Argentina: - A profile of clients of male sex workers in Cordoba, Argentina (2004). - Male sex workers in Cordoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences (2003, PDF Download. Full Text): "Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences (Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 13-3, 2003): "In terms of their self-identity, out of the 30 MSWs who answered the question, 10 of them (33.3%) self-identified as heterosexual and 9 (30%) as bisexual... The age of the respondents ranged from 18 to 37 years old. The mean age was 25.1 years. The single largest group of MSWs were between 18 and 21 years old. Those working as street sex workers were significantly younger (mean age of 21.7 years) than those working as independent MSWs (mean age of 29.3 years) (F1,29 = 20.82; P < 0.001)... When describing their sexual identity, the most frequent answer from the MSWs was "heterosexual (straight)," closely followed by "gay".
La Excreción Rectal De Hiv: Su Relación Con La Carg A Viral Plasmática Y Otrasets (2011, Translation): Este estudio realizado en Argentina, en las ciudades de La Plata, Córdoba, Mendoza, Rosario, Santiago del Estero y Viedma entre octubre 2006 y diciembre 2009 incluyó una población de trabajadores sexuales masculinos que incluía travestis, transexuales y transgéneros (trans) y hombres que tiene sexo con hombres (HSH). En él se estudió la prevalencia e incidencia estimada de HIV, HBV, HCV y sífilis mediante estudios serológicos, y de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y HPV mediante hisopado anal por técnica de PCR. Se incluyeron 383 personas con predominio de travestis (> 70%). Se observó una prevalencia de HIV de 34,1% (incidencia estimada de 10,7 personas/año - IC 95% 3.8-17.7); HBV de 40,2% (5,8% HBsAg +); HCV 4,5% y sífilis 50,4%.
Vujosevich J, et al. (2004). Trabajadores sexuales Masculinos. Biblioteca Virtual del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales. Word Download. Translation. Metodología:
El proyecto se desarrolla en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, realizando
observaciones dirigidas, entrevistas abiertas a informantes claves y
entrevistas en profundidad a trabajadores del sexo. Hasta la fecha las
observaciones y entrevistas sólo se han realizado a travestis que
ejercen la prostitución en la calle. Se han efectuado treinta
entrevistas en los barrios de Palermo, Saavedra, Núñez y Constitución...
Origen: La mayoría de las entrevistadas provienen del interior,
de las provincias norteñas del país. Vinieron de sus provincias hace
apenas un par de años corridas por un ámbito social hostil que les
negaba un espacio donde llevar a la práctica libremente su condición de
travesti. A la represión policial como el principal desencadenante de su
migración a Bs. As, las leyes duras que no sólo penalizan el ejercicio
de la prostitución sino que además impiden que circulen libremente
estando travestidos, se suma la exacerbación de los prejuicios sociales
característica de los pueblos pequeños.
Ecuador: - Realidad GLBT en Ecuador: prostitución masculina (2012, Translation): Muchas veces los jóvenes se venden hasta por una recarga para celular, mientras la sociedad consumista los va empujando a la marginalidad. Será la pobreza, la cesantía, la falta de oportunidades, el sistema incapaz de ofrecer una mejor calidad de educación…, lo que sí es cierto, es que son muy jóvenes, algunos en el comienzo de la pubertad. Han descubierto el precio de su cuerpo, lo negocian, han aprendido que se paga bien. Es el comercio sexual masculino que empieza a hacerse visible. No es extraño encontrar en páginas de contactos entre hombres, anuncios de jóvenes ofreciendo sus servicios a cambio de dinero en muchas ocasiones y en otras a cambio de ayudas de cualquier tipo, incluso hasta por una Black Berry, llegando al extremo de ofrecer sus servicios por tiempo de aire en un celular. La pregunta es, ¿hasta dónde llegará esta descomposición social? ¿Qué esperan los jóvenes de este tipo de transacción? ¿Les preocupará las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual o el VIH? Como ejemplo acá hay algunos anuncios, me reservo el nombre y número de celulares, fueron copiados literalmente.- PROSTITUCIÓN MASCULINA (PDF Download).
Bolivia: - Prostíbulos: Gays cobran fuerza en Santa Cruz (2004, Translation): El mercado del placer también es homosexual; se publicita en la prensa y hasta en Internet. Las ofertas son de jóvenes entre 18 y 25 años. El costo del servicio varía de Bs 100 a $us 50 la hora. Un anuncio en un diario llevó a Gonzalo hasta el lugar. Fue comisionado por El Nuevo Día para descubrir qué tipo de hombres eran los que ofrecían servicios sexuales a otros hombres, incluso por Internet... Este tipo de prostíbulos que funcionan como bares en la ciudad evidencian que la prostitución masculina ha cobrado fuerza, a pesar de la intolerancia de la sociedad ante el homosexualismo... En el boliche, José insiste en venderle a Gonzalo sus muchachos. Éste le indica que sólo fue a conocer el lugar para volver en otra oportunidad con más tiempo, obviamente finge estar interesado. El hombre le cuenta las mejoras que ha realizado en la casa: el living del fondo tiene aire acondicionado y sólo es para clientes vip. El muy zalamero lo invita a ir hasta allí: siente el cambio, el calor que no alivian los ventiladores se disipa de repente con el frío. Entonces nuestro curioso se anima a que le presente a los chicos, que tras unas palmadas aparecen al instante con sus torsos desnudos. Desfilan frente a él y mueven sus caderas sensualmente. José dice sus nombres, los que usan para este trabajo. A simple vista hay de diferentes edades, algunos aparentan ser adolescentes."
Chile: - Los peligros que envuelven a la prostitución masculina (2006, Translation): Una de las tesis con que trabaja la policía es que Hans Pozo ejercía el comercio sexual. Esta posibilidad hace reflotar el drama en que se desenvuelven los hombres que se dedican a esta labor, marcada por la enorme desprotección. Una de las líneas de investigación de la policía en torno al asesinato de Hans Pozo Vergara apunta al mundo del comercio sexual masculino. El joven se habría prostituido para poder satisfacer su adicción a la pasta base. El jefe regional de la Brigada de Homicidios, Rubén Molina, prefirió no referirse al tema. Diego tiene 27 años y hace cinco se convirtió en trabajador sexual. Sabe que lo que hace es peligroso, pero está dispuesto a seguir haciéndolo. "Igual uno se arriesga cuando va con el tipo, no se sabe con qué te vas a encontrar. No sabes si el tipo te va a sacar una cortapluma entre medio del auto después, de repente ni te pagan. A mí me han pegado dos veces no más, pero yo he visto otras cosas: pegan con palos y puntazos", manifestó el joven. - Seroprevalence of AIDS in Chilean male and female prostitutes. II.Male prostitution (1989). - Una mirada al desconocido mundo de la prostitución masculina en Santiago oriente (Translation).
Comercio sexual masculino (Translation):
Aveces se venden hasta por un plato de comida, mientras el
neoliberalismo imperturbable los va empujando a la marginalidad. Es la
pobreza, la cesantía, la falta de posibilidades, la incapacidad de
realizar sueños vacíos que le ofrece la sociedad de consumo. Son muy
jóvenes, algunos en el comienzo de la pubertad. Han descubierto el
precio de su cuerpo, lo negocian, han aprendido que se paga bien. Es el
comercio sexual masculino que empieza a hacerse visible. Es una “pega”
como cualquier otra. El Mums (Movimiento Unificado de Minorías Sexuales)
efectuó el Primer Seminario sobre Comercio Sexual Masculino en la
Región Metropolitana y Políticas Públicas en Vih/Sida. La organización
ha desarrollado investigaciones del comportamiento sexual de las
minorías discriminadas, área en la cual contó con apoyo de la Comisión
Nacional del Sida (Conasida). Los trabajadores sexuales masculinos,
trabajan en la calle o en privados, pueden ser independientes, con
departamento o desempeñarse en saunas u otros lugares. Los jóvenes
callejeros viven mayor precariedad y son más vulnerables desde el punto
de vista social. Cuentan con menos recursos en términos de apoyo y en su
mayoría tienen una gran carencia económica. También hay claras
diferencias entre los jóvenes callejeros de día y de noche. Tienen que
ver con estilos de trabajo, características, edades incluso. Los diurnos
son de menor edad, más precarios en términos sociales. Son los que
menos cobran, pueden irse con alguien por dos o tres mil pesos.
Deambulan principalmente en el sector céntrico, tienen menos experiencia
a diferencia de los de la noche, que tienen mayor manejo del entorno en
que se mueven. Mayoritariamente son jóvenes entre 18 y 22 años, de
sectores populares de comunas como Quilicura, Peñalolén, Conchalí, San
Bernardo. “La mayoría tiene enseñanza media completa o están
terminándola, proceden de familias nucleares, viven con ellas y el
comercio sexual lo ejercen clandestinamente”, explica Iván Salinas,
sociólogo del Mums. Pero también hay una minoría que está en la
enseñanza superior. Estos jóvenes se cuidan más. La mayoría trabaja por
cuenta propia y administra su negocio, generalmente en departamentos que
arriendan en Providencia o Las Condes. Un hecho ha llamado la atención
de los investigadores: “Hemos encontrado que empieza a notarse en el
mundo popular, una cierta legitimación del comercio sexual. Lo aceptan
como válido para ganarse la vida, y sobrevivir”, señalan.
Rodríguez L (2009). Caracterización del Trabajo Sexual en la Región Metropolitana (Mujeres, Hombres que tienen Sexo con Hombres y Transgéneros). PDF Download.
Peru: - Policía intervino local donde se ejercía la prostitución masculina (2012, Translation): Se trata del pub ‘Casanova’, ubicado en la primera cuadra del jirón Las Malvas. El establecimiento contaba con ambientes privados en donde los clientes mantenían relaciones sexuales y veían películas pornográficas. Cerca de veinte personas fueron detenidas, entre ellas varios menores de edad. Todos fueron llevados a la Fiscalía. - La prostitución masculina va en aumento en Lima (2012, Translation). - Prostitución masculina tras las rejas del penal de Lurigancho (2012, Translation). - El negocio de la prostitución gay se camufla en las calles de Lima (2013, Video, Translation): Los antros de la prostitución homosexual clandestina se han convertido en un sórdido negocio que se camufla en Lima bajo la fachada de discotecas, saunas, cabinas de videos y demás locales que no dudan en permitir el ingreso de menores de edad.
¡La Oferta de Chaperos/Fletes (Putos) va en Crecida! (2007, Translation): "Muchos de estos "trabajadores sexuales" buscan hacer creer que ellos, viven al margen del "mundo" homosexual en sentido estricto, aunque en su contrapartese convierten en sus parásitos y a veces en sus verdugos, ya que en algunas ocasiones hemos oído noticias de ataques de estos contra sus ocasionales clientes sobre todo cuando el contacto es mas continuo. En Lima es muy habitual verlos en zonas como el Centro histórico o en el distrito "open" de Miraflores. Algunos dicen ser "hombres que se prostituyen para los gays" y aunque son homosexuales, la mayoría no se considera a si mismo como tales, en tanto que habitualmente sienten también una forma de atracción hacia el sexo femenino. - Prostitución gay en Lima. Negocio redondo en corazón de Miraflores (2007, Translation): "El departamento está a nombre de Luz Gayoso de 24 años y la línea telefónica a nombre de Francisco Velit de 23. La policía investiga su participación en este negocio. Por lo pronto, la Municipalidad de Miraflores ya aplicó su propia sanción." - Municipalidad de Lima continúa persecución contra homosexuales (2006, Translation): "El serenazgo de la Municipalidad de Lima intervino a más de 50 jóvenes que, según el noticiario “90 segundos” (Frecuencia Latina), ejercían la prostitución homosexual en la Plaza San Martín..."
Nureña CR, Zúñiga M, Zunt J, Mejía C, Montano S, Sánchez JL (2011). Diversity of commercial sex among men and male-born trans people in three Peruvian cities. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 13(10): 1207-1221. PDF
Download. In Peru, commercial sex involving men and male-born
travestis, transgenders and transsexuals (CSMT) is usually represented
as a dangerous practice carried out on the streets by people
experiencing economic hardship and social exclusion. However, in reality
little is known about the complexities of this practice in Peru. This
paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of the
characteristics, patterns and sociocultural aspects of CSMT in three
Peruvian cities. The study included participant observation in sex work
venues and interviews with 42 sex workers and 25 key informants. We
found that CSMT in Peru takes many forms (some not previously described
in the country) and is practised in different places by people from
various socioeconomic levels. In many cases, the practice appears linked
to ideals of social mobility, migratory experiences and other economic
activities. In addition, the increasing use of the Internet and mobile
phones has changed patterns of sex work in Peru. We review the
implications of these findings for future research and public health
Uraguay: - Trabajadores sexuales y travestis: 37% tiene Sida (2011, Translation):
Tras haber sido rechazado dos veces, Uruguay cambió la estrategia para
acceder al Fondo Mundial de combate al SIDA, y finalmente lo logró: los
US$ 9,5 millones se concentrarán sobre todo en los transexuales que son
trabajadores sexuales. Entre 2008 y 2009, una camioneta del Programa
ITS/SIDA, del Ministerio de Salud Pública, recorrió lugares de trabajo
(esquinas) y puntos de encuentro (cines, whiskerías, casas de masajes)
de homosexuales y trans que se dedican al intercambio sexual. El equipo
lo integraban un médico infectólogo, una enfermera, el representante de
una organización social y encuestadores. El objetivo era medir cuántas
de estas personas estaban infectadas con VIH y graficar su ubicación en
la capital. Ese trabajo permitió saber, entre otras cosas, que la
prevalencia de SIDA en esa población asciende a 37%, mientras que en la
población general es apenas 0,42%. Otros grupos con alta infección son
los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (9%) y los privados de libertad
Los trabajadores sexuales masculinos son los más afectados (2008?, Translation):
"Uruguay tiene una epidemia concentrada", sentenció la directora del
Programa de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS), socióloga María Luz
Osimani. "Permanece prácticamente estable con cifras bajas a nivel de
población general. En el 2004 teníamos un 0,45% de prevalencia en VIH.
Hoy estamos en un 0,42 %", agregó. La directora indicó en el marco del
Día Mundial de la Lucha contra el VIH/Sida, que las poblaciones más
afectadas por esta enfermedad son los trabajadores sexuales masculinos
(Trans y Taxi boys) con un 19,3%, hombres que tienen sexo con hombres
con un 9% y las personas privadas de libertad con un 5,5% (datos del año
Sexual transmission of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections among male transvestite comercial sex workers in Montevideo, Uruguay (2003, PDF Download).
Salud: Acercándonos al conocimiento de dos poblaciones en condiciones de mayor vulnerabilidad para el VIH en Uruguay (PDF Download):
Estudio Serológico y Comportamental de Trabajadores Sexuales Masculinos
y Trans (9-142) & Estudio serológico y comportamental de
hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSHs) (143-220).
Trabajadores sexuales y travestis: 37% tiene Sida (2011, Translation):
Tras haber sido rechazado dos veces, Uruguay cambió la estrategia para
acceder al Fondo Mundial de combate al SIDA, y finalmente lo logró: los
US$ 9,5 millones se concentrarán sobre todo en los transexuales que son
trabajadores sexuales. Entre 2008 y 2009, una camioneta del Programa
ITS/SIDA, del Ministerio de Salud Pública, recorrió lugares de
trabajo (esquinas) y puntos de encuentro (cines, whiskerías, casas de
masajes) de homosexuales y trans que se dedican al intercambio sexual.
El equipo lo integraban un médico infectólogo, una enfermera, el
representante de una organización social y encuestadores. El objetivo
era medir cuántas de estas personas estaban infectadas con VIH y
graficar su ubicación en la capital. Ese trabajo permitió saber, entre
otras cosas, que la prevalencia de SIDA en esa población asciende a 37%,
mientras que en la población general es apenas 0,42%. Otros grupos con
alta infección son los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (9%) y los
privados de libertad (5,5%).
Paraguay: - Caracterizing the male sexual worker without gay identity and his vulnerability factors related to HIV (2008, Alternate Link): Most of the social and epidemiological is oriented toward gay and transgender population. Male sex workers with no gay identity have not been, as of today, a case of study in Paraguay... The MSWs do not assume any kind of identity other than the traditional one, In other words the masculine stereotype, nor they assume that sexual service is a job. They do not think of themselves as different from the general heterosexual groups and therefore they find it relative their high risk to HIV... Due to the fact that MSW do not identify themselves to any social group (gay) or epidemiologic (MSM) they remain overlooked before the prevention strategies. This lack of perception of belonging to a specific community makes it difficult to execute actions of empowerment, weakening their representation and advocacy in public policies-making process intended to take in account their needs. Therefore, promoting new research about this group, will result in the generation of more efficient prevention strategies.
Costa Rica: - Costa Rica desarrolla estrategias para llegar a los trabajadores sexuales masculinos (2012, Translation). - Costa Rica desarrollará estrategias para llegar a los trabajadores sexuales masculinos (2012, Translation):
La Ministra de Salud de Costa Rica Dra. Daisy Corrales se reunió con el
Director Ejecutivo de ONUSIDA Michel Sidibé en la sede de ONUSIDA en
Ginebra. La Dra. Corrales ha destacado el enfoque de su Ministerio en el
desarrollo de estrategias educativas para la prevención del VIH
dirigidas a trabajadores sexuales masculinos. "Tenemos que desarrollar
nuestras estrategias para llegar a los trabajadores sexuales masculinos
con información sobre el VIH y educación que sea relevante para sus
necesidades y de acuerdo con sus horarios de trabajo en particular",
dijo la Dra. Corrales. La prevalencia de VIH en Costa Rica entre los
adultos de 15 a 49 años de edad es del 0,3%. La enfermedad se concentra
en poblaciones clave como la población indígena migrante, hombres que
tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales y sus clientes.
Un estudio realizado en 2010 reveló que la prevalencia del VIH entre
los HSH era del 10,9% y de 13.7% en Sífilis en la misma población.
El Salvador: - Testosterona de alquiler (2005, Translation): Muchos de ellos son jóvenes ex universitarios, víctimas del rechazo familiar debido a su identidad homosexual; son marginados sociales y, en algunos casos, han sufrido abusos en su infancia. Sobreviven, en las calles de San Salvador, ejerciendo el oficio más antiguo del mundo. Uno de estos “trabajadores sexuales masculinos” narró a Vértice su historia, cargada de adicción a las drogas, sexo a granel, sida, violencia, meditación y esperanza. - El Salvador: trabajo sexual masculino y homofobia (2005, Translation): Muchos de ellos son jóvenes ex universitarios, víctimas del rechazo familiar debido a su identidad homosexual; son marginados sociales y, en algunos casos, han sufrido abusos en su infancia.
Hombres al mejor postor (2001, Translation): "Hombres de entre 15 a 30 años se anuncian en los diarios como masajistas o como bailarines o se sitúan en calles de la capital vendiendo sexo al mejor postor. ¿Qué hay tras ese comercio sexual? ¿Lo hacen por necesidad o por placer? ¿Hasta dónde llegan por dinero? ... “Jóvenes universitarios ofrecen compañía”, decía el clasificado de un periódico. Eso y un número de teléfono celular era todo lo que teníamos para comenzar un reportaje sobre prostitución masculina en San Salvador... FUNDASIDA realizó entre mayo y noviembre del 2000 un diagnóstico a 153 hombres entre los 16 y 30 años para evaluar los riesgos y las prácticas sexuales a los que están expuestos. Este determinó que el 60.2% de ese total es homosexual; el 26.2%, bisexual; el 2.0%, heterosexual; 19.8% es transexual y un 0.7% transgéneros... Haber sufrido abusos sexuales siendo niños puede ser un factor de riesgo que provoque la prostitución masculina, señala la doctora Margarita Mendoza Burgos, siquiatra infanto juvenil y terapeuta de familia... Precisamente el consumismo, la migración de salvadoreños al exterior, el acceso fácil a la pornografía, la internet y los mensajes abiertos sobre sexo en los medios de comunicación son también factores determinantes para que el comercio sexual haya aumentado en los últimos años en el país. “Los muchachos están recibiendo mensajes consumistas. El país mismo ha entrado en un proceso de liberalización sexual y la información sobre sexo está más a la mano que nunca”, dice la profesional."
Honduras: - Situación de la prostitución homosexual y transgénero en Tegucigalpa (2012, Translation): Crónica del Diario La Tribuna de Honduras, que realiza un panorama sobre la situación por la que atraviesan gays y travestis que se prostituyen en la zona roja de la capital hondureña.
Venezuela: - Crisis
social: la pobreza obliga a niños y jóvenes a vender su
cuerpo para poder subsistir: Se multiplica casos de prostitución
infantil en Venezuela. Se estima que existen entre 40.000 y 50.000
casos en el país... (Translation) "Prostitución masculina también aumenta: La
crisis económica que atraviesa el país también ha
provocado que se incrementen, en los últimos años, los
casos de prostitución masculina en la ciudad capital. En un
estudio realizado por la Prefectura de Caracas, en la Parroquia Santa
Teresa -zona donde se ha recibido la mayor cantidad de denuncias por
los casos de prostitución- se detectó que por cada 40
mujeres que se dedican a esta actividad existen 30 hombres." - La prostitución gay crece en Caracas (2008, Translation):
El año pasado un censo registró a 52 hombres en el circuito de Parque
Cristal y la avenida Solano que ofrecen servicios sexuales. También son
víctimas de la violencial. La mayoría es menor de 25 años y algunos son
adolescentes. Algunos clientes, muchos de ellos "padres de familia"
piden servicios exóticos como el meterse en una urna vestidos de novia.
El Mundo hace una crónica del tema: "A un compañero mío lo mataron. Se
lo llevaron y no apareció más", confiesa Javier, quien se reconoce como
"prostituto". Javier comercia con su cuerpo hace cinco años en la
avenida Francisco Solano, en Caracas. Luis era su compañero, tenía 25
años. Trabajaban juntos en la misma zona y fue asesinado hace un mes.
"Apareció con dos tiros en la cabeza", recuerda Javier. La última vez
que lo vio fue cuando lo recogió un cliente en una camioneta, con dos
hombres a bordo. Tres semanas después encontraron el cadáver.
Dominican Republic: -Final Report for the AIDSCAP Program in the Dominican Republic October 1993 to April 1997 (1998): "ASA found that many self-identified sub-groups existed within the larger MWM population. This included bisexuals, transsexuals, transvestites, and homosexuals. Some of the sub-groups also involved in commercial sex work deemed necessary the development of specific STI/HIV/AIDS strategies for these sub-groups. - Proceso de expansión de la comunidad homosexual en la sociedad dominicana en los últimos 30 años. - Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers (2008, PDF Download). - Prostitución masculina gana terreno en Santo Domingo (2011, Translation).
Homosexuales Que Ejercen la Prostitucion en la Avenida San Vicente de Paul (2009, YouTube, Translation): República Dominicana, este reportaje homosexuales que tienen como modo de supervivencia la prostitucion hacen revelaciones importantes a las camaras. del periodico digital.
Los travestis están llenos de temor ante asesinatos de ocho compañeros (2009, YouTube, Translation): SANTO DOMINGO, República Dominicana.- Expresiones como la de este transexual eran comunes en el Cementerio Cristo Redentor durante el sepelio de Kelly, como se daba a conocer entre sus compañeros travestis el joven Alejandro Correa Pichardo, asesinado la noche del miércoles 25 de noviembre en la avenida Ortega y Gasset... El transexual Rafael del Orbe, conocido en la agrupación Transa como Thalía Armendares ha participado en protestas pacíficas destinadas a hacer valer lo que entiende son los derechos de los homosexuales, travestis, lesbianas y transexuales de la República Dominicana, dice que su mayor preocupación ha sido la impunidad en que se quedan los asesinatos de sus compañeros.
Lack of HIV prevention for male sex workers in the Caribbean adds to growing epidemic
(2007): Male sex tourists, largely from the United States and Europe,
may be fueling an HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, and efforts to
stop the epidemic will be severely hampered unless HIV prevention
dollars are diverted to help male prostitutes, a new study suggests...
Padilla's book "Caribbean Pleasure Industry: Tourism, Sexuality, and
HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic," is the largest known study of male
sex workers in the Caribbean and how their bisexual behavior impacts the
spread of HIV. During the study, Padilla interviewed 298 bisexually
behaving men over the course of three years... "Many men are unemployed
from rural areas, and they immigrate to tourism areas," Padilla says.
"Very few identify themselves as sex workers, and most have other income
from tourism. Because of social stigma, these men often do not
communicate with female partners about their involvement in sex work,"
which means the risk for HIV may be high among women.
et Guadeloupe - L'honneur
des makoumès (1999, Translation): "Alors que l’homosexualité reste largement
interdite dans les Caraïbes, en Martinique et en Guadeloupe, les mentalités
commencent à changer... Depuis trois ans, toujours à proximité
du centre-ville, des prostitués masculins travaillent aux abords
du palais de justice. Fait relativement nouveau, en rapport avec la baisse
généralisée du pouvoir d’achat en Martinique. Les
pédés de l’île préfèrent fermer les yeux
sur un phénomène qu’ils ne voudraient pas voir associé
boys and the sex trade - A tragedy in waiting? (2002) "Within Kingston and
St. Andrew's fancy houses and hotels, and outside along those daytime busy
streets, twilight hides a sombre reality: scores of boys below the age
of 19 years, frolicking with men two or three times their age in exchange
for money... He, however, explained that this activity mainly takes
place in the Kingston and Montego Bay area, but should not be seen as sex
workers in the strict sense. According to him, sex workers are persons
whose main occupation is transactional sex.But regardless of whether they
are sex workers or not, health workers believe the activities of the boys
can cause serious long-term health problems, apart from STIs... "Many are
afraid to stop it - some say they are born this way and some are being
programmed. We try to counsel them, but it all boils down to money," Nurse
Holly Alvaranga of the Glen Vincent Clinic said." - A
night with male prostitutes. - A glimpse inside the lifestyle of a male prostitute. - Jamaican Newspaper Warns of Surge in Male Prostitutes.
Homeless MSMs evicted from Cargill Avenue (2012, evening edition, YouTube): CVM TV again rebroadcast a story of homeless msms and the deplorable
living conditions coupled with the almost sensationalistic narrative of
the alleged commercial sex work the men are involved in. Gay Jamaica
Watch has been following this issue since 2009 when the older
populations of MSMs who were for the most part displaced due to forced
evictions and homo negative issues and their re-displacement by agencies
who on the face of it refused to put in place any serious social
interventions to assist the men to recovery. - Problem of Young Homeless Gay Men in Jamaica
(2012, YouTube): Dionne Jackson Miller on October 3 on TVJ's All Angles
dealt with the issue of the homeless men following the long standing
controversy, the standoff on September 21, 2012 and the public eviction
of the men from Cargill Avenue on August 29th. - Inside Story - Homeless Homosexuals (2012,
YouTube): With the number of homeless gays living on the streets of
Kingston Jamaica increasing Live@7 Special Affairs Correspondent Kaneal
Gayle takes an indepth investigative look at what's causing the increase
and what can be done to help. Hear first hand account of the
experiences of these men, many of whom are forced to sell sex to
Puerto Rico: - Sexual
identity formation and AIDS prevention: an exploratory study of
non-gay-identified Puerto Rican MSM from working class neighborhoods (2006).
Haiti: - Reaching
Out To Bring Young Haitians In: FHI Helps Two Organizations Work With
Youth In High – Risk Settings (2004, PDF
Download): "With support from USAID and FHI, Dr. Boulos is overseeing
a second behavioral surveillance survey of Haiti (the first was conducted
in 2000) to assess the behaviors that put Haitians at risk for HIV. He
explains, “Poverty is so extensive in Haiti that girls go into prostitution
just to bring money home.” He noted that male prostitution – where, typically,
poor, illiterate men sell sex to educated, middle class men–is also common..."
Cuba: - Prostitution and Sex Tourism in Cuba. Cuba in Transition, 11: 356-71. (PDF Download): "Male prostitution is also present in Havana. In Cuba, unlike in other Caribbean islands such as Jamaica,14 gay men dominate male prostitution. Hustlers and other gay men congregate nightly at the corner of the Cine Yara, in Vedado... Gay prostitution is similar to heterosexual prostitution. Hustlers cater mainly to European men, especially Italians. They charge between $30-$50. They see prostitution as a good way to make money, and generally do not prostitute themselves out of desperation or to support a drug or alcohol addiction... Transvestites are common within the gay community. Some transvestites simply dress in women’s clothes at night. Others are transsexuals, who have had operations to change their gender..." - Chamaco, un duro film sobre prostitución masculina, llega a los cines cubanos (2012, Translation). - Cuba Gay Film ‘Chamaco’ Opens (2012): The independent film Chamaco, directed by Juan Carlos Cremata, made it onto Cuban cinema screens on Monday — two years after the completion of its filming — to address the issues of male prostitution, homosexuality and police corruption in Cuba. - Filme sobre prostitución masculina en Cuba llega a la gran pantalla (2012, Translation): Destacó que la cinta, “ambientada en la nocturnidad de La Habana (…) se adentra en el universo gay underground, prostitución masculina y corrupción, consecuencias de la homofobia y crisis económica”. “Con la película estoy defendiendo no solo la lucha contra la homofobia, sino que se puede hacer cine fuera del ICAIC (Instituto Cubano de Cine) y que este puede acogerlo”, dijo Cremata, al precisar que la demora en su estreno “nada tuvo que ver con el tema tratado”, sino con problemas de producción. Asimismo, consideró “importante” que exista un “cine gay hecho en Cuba”, porque “en la medida que las cosas se hablen y se discutan, existen”. - Propuesta para un futuro acercamiento al estudio de la prostitución masculina en Cuba (2005, Translation)
Prostitución masculina: lo que se sabe ¿no se pregunta? (2013, Translation):
Desde principios del siglo XXI el comercio de cuerpos jóvenes
masculinos ha sido más visible y floreciente en Cuba que el jineterismo
femenino. - Aumenta la prostitución masculina en Cuba (2013, Translation). - En Miami documental sobre la prostituciÃ³n homosexual en Cuba (2009, Translation):
La Diosa, un travesti de 23 aÃ±os, confiesa ante las cÃ¡maras que no se
siente prostituido, sino que simplemente ha "luchado para sobrevivir''
en una realidad de carencias permanentes. El testimonio de La Diosa y
otros tres personajes inmersos en el mundo de la prostituciÃ³n
homosexual en La Habana de hoy conforman el documental Luchando (2007),
de la realizadora y profesora estadounidense Noelle Stout, que se
presenta este miÃ©rcoles como parte de la programaciÃ³n del Festival de
Cine Gay y LÃ©sbico de Miami y Fort Lauderdale.
La prostitución masculina en Cuba (2012, Translation):
Por estos días de temporada alta turística, muchos visitantes foráneos
ven a La Habana como la ciudad poblada por machos amables, en la cual se
dan el gusto de darle vacaciones a la conciencia y satisfacer sus mas
profundos deseos reprimidos. Una ciudad donde se pueden negociar, a
precios módicos, las mas bizarras de las fantasías... A través de esta
peligrosa actividad, varones jóvenes, de entre 13 y 25 años en muchos
casos, acceden al glamour y a "una vida mejor", negociando sus cuerpos.
Entre la fauna de esta ciudad los visitantes pueden encontrar de todo,
desde muchachos que se resisten a vestirse de novias, vaqueros de la
noche, machos "sin plumas", seductores de billeteras que intentan salvar
a su familia del precipicio, hasta otros que negocian su sexualidad
utilizando las ventajas del color de su piel. Pues en esta economía de
placeres y estereotipos, el sujeto negro y mestizo es objeto de alta
oferta y demanda.
(in French) on male prostitution in Cuba for tourists - by voyager.com (2005, Translation).
"La prostitution masculine connaît aussi une augmentation notable
au pays. Ce n'est pas une prostitution masculine habituelle, mais plutôt
une façon subtile qu'ont certains hommes de soutirer tout ce qu'ils
peuvent de leurs conquêtes féminines venues de l'étranger." - Premian documental sobre prostitución masculina en Cuba (2004, Translation):
"También el documental de hoy enfoca otra cuestión sobre
la que apenas se habla: la prostitución masculina. Aunque se
sitúa en el contexto y la realidad de Cuba, donde las
situaciones política y social son especiales, 'El
pulóver', trata aspectos que superan ese ámbito
geográfico, entre ellos y principalmente el riesgo de contagio
de Sida. En el debate que se abrirá al final estará
presente el responsable del programa de reducción de
daños con trabajadores masculinos del sexo que lleva a cabo
Network Male Prostitution. - First
Meeting: 11 - 12 December, 1997, Amsterdam. - Reports of European Network Male Prostitution (2001 to 2003). - Lottery
money for rent boy AIDS Project. - From
the European Intervention Projects AIDS Prevention for Prostitutes:
prostitution in Europe Training guide for health and social
workers who deal with (foreign) male prostitutes. [Reference:
Male prostitution in Europe; Training guide for health and social workers
who deal with (foreign) male prostitutes. Available in English, French,
German and Polish Editors: Georg Bröring & Tracey Pierpoint, April
1998 ] - Part
II: Regional Survey of Sex Work Characteristics and Policy Change.
for HEALTH: Developing services for sex workers in Europe. - Male
Prostitution in Europe. (From Full Text Article Listing, Prostitution
in Finland). - ENMP:
European Network Male prostitution N/A (Information supplied by country.
Information). - Les homosexuels croates demandent la légalisation de la prostitution (2004, Translation). - Rent-Boys, Barflies, and Kept Men: Men Involved in Sex with Men for Compensation in Prague (2007). - Le développement de la prostitution masculine en ligne : des « escorts boys » aux « gigolos » (2011, Translation).
Brussa, Licia [European Network for HIV/STI Prevention and Health Promotion among Migrant Sex Workers] (2009).
Sex Work in Europe: A mapping of the prostitution scene in 25 European
countries. Amsterdan, Netherlands: TAMPEP Internation Foundation. PDF Download. Prostitution scene:
This section provides an overview of the prostitution scene, mapping
who is working in the sex industry in Europe on the basis of gender
(female, male, transgender) and origin (migrants, nationals) including
specifications of the regions and countries of origin. It also maps out
the sectors where sex workers work (indoors, outdoors) and what kinds of
conditions these workplaces offer... On average, the mapping
shows that 7% of sex workers in Europe are male. The percentage,
however, greatly varies from country to country. For example, Austria,
Finland, Denmark, Estonia and Lithuania report almost exclusively female
sex workers, while Poland reports that 15% of its sex worker population
is male. Very few projects that work with male sex workers, but these
projects report that the male sex work scene is markedly different.
Based on this information, the percentage of male sex workers reported
here may actually be too conservative. Transgender sex workers are
reported as comprising only 6% of all sex workers in Europe. We believe,
however, that this figure may also under-represent the actual
population of transgender sex workers, and although they are generally
more visible to service providers, the low percentage shown here may be
attributed to the same difficulties we face in calculating statistics
for male sex workers. We also noted that a majority of transgender sex
workers come from Latin American countries. The gender estimations have
changed little since the 2005 mapping, which showed 8% male, 6%
transgender and 86% female sex workers...
Mai N (2007). Errance, Migration and Male Sex Work: on the Socio-culturalSustainability of a Third Space. In: Ossman, S. (Ed.) Places We Share: Migration,Subjectivity, and Global Mobility. Lanham (MD): Lexington Books, pp. 97-120. PDF Download. Since
June 2004, I have been the main research for a project on “Male
prostitution: strategies of survival and risk behavior of errant young
people.” Althoughthe initial idea was to focus on young Moroccan
migrants, after a first series of reconnaissance missions (in Belgium,
France, Greece, Germany, Morocco, the Netherlands, Spain, Tunisia and
Turkey), it became evident that the places and practicesof errant
mobility were shared by many different migrant groups. Romanians,
Algerians,Kurds, Moroccans and Tunisians were the main groups involved
in this form of mobilityand in these strategies of survival. We
broadened the scope of the research to look at themigration experience
of unaccompanied minors and “errant” young people from theBalkans
(Romania and Albania), North Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia)
andTurkey into the European Union (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the
Netherlands andSpain). Prostitution is one of the main strategies of
survival for these young people. Weare trying to look at the cultural,
social, economic and psycho-social determinants of errance which
means both “drifting” from normativity and “wandering” in search of
adventure. Errance is a social practice involving multiple
levels of social, cultural andaffective de-territorialization and social
exclusion. It involves either the impossibility of settling or an
unwillingness to re-territorialize.
Male prostitution within Europe: how to raise awareness for a non-issue? (2002). - Male prostitution in Europe: Training guide for health and social workers who deal with (foreign) male prostitutes (1998). - HIV- and STD- prevention for male prostitutes and male street-kids-how to reach the unreachables - "kiss" - a place for the homeless N/A. - La prostitution masculine africaine en Europe (2005, Translation): "Afrik.com : Y a-t-il un profil type du prostitué africain ? Amély-James Koh Bela : Les plus jeunes ont entre 16 et 20 ans, et sont vieillis sur les papiers lorsqu’ils n’ont pas l’âge légal en France. Mais il existe tous les âges chez les prostitués. J’ai même vu des papas de 55 ans. Souvent, ils sont pères de familles, mais en général, la famille ne sait pas qu’ils se prostituent..."
Chapter 4 - Put Yourself In My Place: The Gay Appropriation of Kylie “Unlikely” Minogue. Boys, Boys, Boys: Kylie Goes Cruising (2000): "Boy bands are the worst offenders; boys who are reared by their industry father figures and coerced into the sordid world of pop prostitution, where gay men are regarded as regular and valued clients and who tip well if their voyeuristic pleasures are pandered to. However whilst gay men are not adverse to ‘pop pederasty’, a satisfactory service does not suffice to be crowned with gay regality... Gay men embrace those who represent embodied conflicts similar to their own and whose oppression explodes into a torrent of sensuality that is sublimated through their sound."
ENMP (1999). The Resource Book [Europe: Male Prostitution]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Network Male Prostitution (ENMP) c/o AMOC/DHV. PDF
Download. Male Prostitution Information given for the following
countries: Austria. - Belgium. - Denmark. - France. - Germany. - Greece.
- Republic of Ireland & Northern Ireland. - Italy. - The
Netherlands. - Norway. - Poland. - Portugal. - Romania. - Spain. -
Switzerland. - The United Kingdom.
ENMP (2002). Manual: Tips, Tricks and Models of Good Practice for Service Providers Considering, Planning or Implementing Services for Male Sex workers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Network Male Prostitution (ENMP) c/o AMOC/DHV. PDF Download. In 1997 the AMOC/DHV Foundation launched the European Network Male Prostitution (ENMP), with partners from 19 different countries, financed by the European Commission and the Dutch Aids Fund. The ENMP started its second phase in November 2000. The network now consists of eighteen different agencies, engaged in the fields of HIV and STI prevention with male sex workers... This Manual is compiled by different members of the ENMP or colleagues of other organisations and networks. The different articles should be seen as models of good practice, which worked well in the country/city/organisation in question. We do not claim that the methods/models described are the only ones, which work. On the contrary, we need to be aware of the specific situation in each country/city/organisation. The social, cultural and political infrastructure of each country will strongly influence what does and does not succeed. However, we hope that the different contributions will be seen as an inspiration and will stimulate the implementation of new ideas and methods.
ENMP (2002). Final Report [Europe: Male Prostitution]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Network Male Prostitution (ENMP) c/o AMOC/DHV. PDF Download. OUR AIMS: Further development of the National, Regional and European Network within the field of male sex work. - Development of a European platform of knowledge and expertise within the field of male sex work. - Development of specific HIV and STI prevention strategies and models of good practice, conforming to the needs and lifestyle of the target group. - Sensitising service providers, policy makers and funders concerning male sex work (at National, Regional and European levels). - Development and support of better access to medical and social services for male sex workers. - Development of specific activities at National, Regional and European levels Development of political statements for service providers and National and European governments. - Development and implementation of ‘model’ projects and activities.
ENMP (2003). Executive Summary [Europe: Male Prostitution]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Network Male Prostitution (ENMP) c/o AMOC/DHV. PDF
Download. The year 2003 has been full of activities and the ENMP
planned and organised lots of different meetings. We realise that the
organisation of trai ning events and conferences made the ENMP more
accessible for other service providers, activists and MSW and helped to
increase the impact of the network. We also received lots of media
attenti on during the Stockholm Hearing and the training in Gijon, which
supported the local projects within their practical work. Pending the
decision of the European Commission, regarding future funding, we
intended to focus on the following issues: • Broad exchange with service
providers, MSW, policy makers, ... • Training for service providers and
MSW • Gathering data (based on the outcomes of the pilot survey) •
Gathering existing and developing new prevention material • Development
and implementation of health promotion projects for MSW • Policy, health
and sex work • Health promotion through the Internet. However,
due to the rejection of our project proposal we are now forced to
concentrate all efforts on finding alternative ways of funding. During
the last ENMP meeting in Lisbon it became obvious that the network
members were not ready to reconcile th emselves to the fact of the
project suspension. Therefore, we will do our best to find alternative
ways of continuation.
Eriksson N, Hallin S, Wikstrom T, Editors (RFSL, 2003). Hidden Stories: Male prostitution in Sweden & Northern Europe: Conference documentation. Stockholm: Swedish Federation for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Rights. PDF Download. This documentation is mainly based on a transcript of the oral presentations given by the speakers and gently edited for readability. In some cases the manuscripts from the speakers have been used. The questions and remarks from the audience is also included to give the reader an impression of the debate the conference generated.
Monheim, Myriam (2006). Destins de la prostitution masculine maghrébine. Agenda Interculturel CBAI, n° 239-240 – Janv./Fév.: 32-36. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page. Translation.
A la lecture d’une pratique d’aide sociale spécifique, cet article
interroge le destin individuel de l’homosexualité masculine, entre mort
sociale, hétérosexualité imposée ou simulée, et prostitution... Nous ne
procéderons pas à une analyse exhaustive de la sexualité dans la culture
maghrébine : sujet bien trop complexe et bien trop vaste pour être
traité ici (1). Il s’agira plutôt de mettre en lumière une lecture
culturelle du vécu et de la conception de l’orientation sexuelle afin de
percevoir toutes les souffrances individuelles. Notons que la société
culturelle et religieuse maghrébine n’a pas l’exclusivité de principes
moraux et de conduites homophobes (2). Les homosexuel(le)s occidentaux
peuvent aussi être aux prises avec une souffrance, une détresse et une
solitude très importantes.
La prostitution en Europe, une activité en constante mutation (2006, Translation):
"L'autre transformation de la prostitution à laquelle l'Europe
doit faire face est la croissance importante de la prostitution
masculine, qui peut atteindre près d'un tiers de la prostitution
totale selon les pays concernés. Or, les législations ont
souvent été établies en ne considérant que
les femmes. C'est le cas de l'Angleterre et le Pays de Galles, ou de la
Grèce. Les lois doivent donc s'adapter à cette nouvelle
réalité. Mais la prostitution masculine reste difficile
à appréhender dans la mesure où peu
d'études lui sont consacrées. Lorsque le thème est
abordé, il l'est le plus souvent du point de vue de la
toxicomanie, alors que la réalité de la prostitution
masculine est beaucoup plus complexe. Le phénomène
concerne à la fois des homosexuels, des transsexuels, des
travestis ou des hétérosexuels (agences d'escorts), la
clientèle étant très largement masculine. Si le
phénomène reste difficile à analyser, c'est aussi
parce que les situations vécues par les hommes sont plus
diverses que celles des femmes. Ils sont beaucoup moins victimes de
violences, à l'exception des travestis et des transsexuels,
recherchés par des hommes hétérosexuels pour leur
- Men for Hire (2005):
It is estimated up to 80,000 men and women are involved in prostitution
in the UK. Some male prostitutes work for female clients but most are
paid for having sex with other men. For the most part, male
prostitution takes place indoors, not on the street and much of the
business results from advertising on the internet. More than one
third of the men selling sex in Britain are from overseas. Dean grew up
in Greece and like many gay men, he came to London to explore his
sexuality..." - Abandoned, vulnerable and exploited: Britain's rent boys (2001): It is a hidden world - but the numbers of boys being forced into prostitution is an untold scandal. - Former MI5 spy - I was a rent boy (2006). - Walking the beat and doing business: Exploring spaces of male sex work and public sex (2012).
I was a male escort (2007):
There is an urban myth that only drug dealers and escorts need two
mobile phones, and I can tell you it's truer than you might think. As an
escort, you learn to love and loathe that second phone in equal
measure: the desire for it to ring because you want the money, followed
by the inevitability of what it means once it does. The last-minute
cancelling and lying to friends and family was something I never
reconciled myself to. I'm not what people expect: I've got a masters
degree, a comfortable and loving family background, and a real job -
broadly speaking, I work in the creative industry, in an area rich in
job satisfaction if not remuneration. No excuse, but that was how I
justified my night-time adventures to myself. It was through my job that
I first came into contact with an escort. I was intrigued - it seemed
so easy and financially rewarding. He worked for an agency that served
some of the richest men in London. Within a month, I was on the books.
I'd kept secret the fact I wasn't comfortable with my sexuality. One
would assume accepting that you are gay would be a prerequisite for such
a career, but I convinced myself otherwise. Denial - I'm quite good at
Prostitution Services : An Exploratory Empirical Analysis (1998): "This study provides an empirical analysis of the market for some male prostitution services in the UK." - The Lifeline Sex Work Survey Report N/A (152 pages) provides background and findings of a national sex worker survey undertaken in 1998. The survey contacted male and female sex workers working in various aspects of the industry both on and off street. - Male Sex Workers in Brighton, Hove & Lewes: an Evaluation of Sexual Health Knowledge & Needs (1997). - The Face (1990): "You played me Piccadilly Palare... "'Palare' is gypsy slang that was adopted by the theatre and in the Seventies I heard it being used by male prostitutes (laughs). They have their own code words for sizing people up and talking among themselves. The song is about male prostitution in Piccadilly. It became a very big thing during the Seventies. Were you ever aware of documentaries like Johnny Go Home? In the North, among most people I know, there was something oddly romantic about the whole thing. It spelt 'freedom'. Catching a coach and spending a day in Piccadilly was extraordinary. It's very glitzy now because Soho's been cleaned up, but then it was quite... powerful."You write a lot about the homosexual experience..." - The song 'Piccadilly Palare' is about male prostitution. - Setting up a support service for male prostitutes in London (1990). - West, D.J., Boys and Sexual Abuse: An English Opinion, in: Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12/1998 (Full Text)
The Cynerians (2013). MAP: Exploring the Lives of Male Sex Workers in Tyne and Wear: Summary Report. PDF Download.
It has been a long held belief in the Tyne and Wear region that there
are no red light districts where the sale of sex could occur. This is in
direct contrast with many other comparable areas or cities around the
UK and is often seen as especially unusual for a city the size of
Newcastle (population 280,000). The apparent lack of a visible sex
market throughout the Tyne and Wear conurbation (North & South
Tyneside, Sunderland, Gateshead and Newcastle - total population 1.1
million) does not mean that the sex industry is not well established; it
has developed mainly off-street and is dominated by the many escort
agencies and independent escorts who rely on the internet for custom.
The current perception is that there are many more women selling sex
than men... As a direct result of the work carried out as part of the
MAP (Male Action Project), it is now clear that there has been a small
scale red light district operating – the difference being that men are
soliciting and not women. Kerb crawling also takes place next to the
main cruising site in Newcastle, identified as a red- light district,
and the same sort of behaviour probably takes place at other sites
throughout the North East.
Hudson P, Rivers I (2002). Men and boys selling sex in the Bradford district. York St John College. Social Inclusion & Diversity: Research into Practice, Paper No. 1: 37, Oct 2002. PDF
Download. Download Page. Abstract Excerpt:
Project C: Men Selling Sex Seven men who sell or have sold sex in the
Bradford area were interviewed by the first author using a structured
interview schedule (see Appendix 3). Responses suggested that: Sex
with young men under the age of 16 is sought by men in the Bradford
area. Men who sell sex on the streets have less control over the
types of sex for which payment is offered than those who are
house/flat/hotel-based. Men who sell sex on the streets face much
more violence than those who sell sex from a house/flat/hotel.
Selling sex on the streets often follows a chance encounter with an
exploitative older man during teenage years. Selling sex from a
house/flat tends to be a deliberate decision by older men.
Recommendations Provision of a local support service responding to
the needs of men and boys who are involved in selling sex.
Commission further research exploring the issues highlighted in the
Wilcox A, Christmann K (2008). Getting paid for sex is my kick: a qualitative study of male sex workers. In: Sex as Crime? Willan Publishing, London, UK, pp. 118-136. PDF Download. Download Page.
It is important to acknowledge that the small size of this exploratory
study of MSWs means that generalisations to the (unknown size of the)
wider population of MSWs cannot reliably be made. Secondly, due to the
way in which participants were recruited (through advertisements for
escorts/massages) all of those interviewed were ‘indoor’ sex workers.
Our research, cannot therefore, shed any light on the experiences of
‘outdoor’ sex workers (commonly known as ‘rent boys’), which other
studies suggest is likely to be very different (e.g. Connell and Hart,
2003). However, we believe that our sample is broadly representative of
the indoor male sex industry in the region. Unlike Judith Connell and
Graham Hart’s (2003) study of MSWs in Edinburgh, for example, our sample
included those who worked mainly with couples and females as well as
those who worked only with males, and also included a transvestite sex
worker... This exploratory study of MSWs has shed new light on this
largely hidden population. The experiences and motivations of the men in
our study contrasted sharply with those both of female sex workers and
‘rent boys’. The indoor sex market represented by our respondents is
relatively stable, self-contained and unproblematic. MSWs were
unconcerned about their involvement in sex work, did not experience
violence (with one exception) and practised safe sex. The decision to
participate in sex work was seen by all to be freely made, and
motivations for involvement were not primarily financial. For most, sex
work was seen as a career like any other, but with the advantages of
flexibility of working practices and variety. Whilst some could imagine
situations (for example meeting the right person) in which they would
wish to leave the profession, most expected to remain in the profession
for some years to come...
Ashford, Chris (2009). Male Sex Work and the Internet Effect: Time to Re-evaluate the Criminal Law? The Journal of Criminal Law, 73: 258–280. PDF Download. PDF
Download. Download Page.
The criminal law relating to sex work was last modified in the Sexual
Offences Act 2003. Three years later in January 2006 the UK government
published a ‘prostitution strategy’ that set out four core aims:
challenge the view that street prostitution is inevitable and here to
stay; achieve an overall reduction in street prostitution; improve the
safety and quality of life of communities affected by prostitution,
including those directly involved in street sex markets, and finally, to
reduce all forms of commercial sexual exploitation. This framework
prima facie failed to take into account both the issue of male sex work
and also the Internet effect upon sex work. This article seeks to
examine the intersection of techno- logy and male for male sex work and
reviews both the criminal law and UK policy framework in that context.
Liberal Democrat embroiled in male prostitution scandal (2006). - Mark Oaten resigns over rent boy claim (2006). - Lib Dems left reeling by Oaten rent boy scandal (2006). - A rent boy's story (2006):
"Mark Oaten isn't the first married man to visit a male prostitute. But
what's it like from the other side? Rent boy Erin Smith tells his
story, while therapist Phillip Hodson explains what drives successful
men to sexual self-destruction... Erin Smith, 24, is one of an
estimated 10,000 gay escorts plying their trade in London. Erin, who is
slim, has dyed blond hair and is around 5ft 10in, works at the top end
of the market, and a night in his company costs between £450 and
£600 with or without sex. His recent client list includes "a
plastic surgeon, a film director, a member of the House of Lords and at
least two well-known journalists".
Work: SW5 is an organisation working with men and transgender people who sell sex:
"The world of male and transgender sex work has changed enormously in
the last five years or more. With things like the advent of mobile
phones and the internet, changes in the laws around the age of consent
for men having sex with men and pornography, the sex industry has
developed rapidly. There seems to be less visibility of sex being sold
and exchanged on the streets in London and more through mobile phone
contact via cafes, bars, adverts in the press and also through the
internet. Less and less clients also seem to identify as street
homeless. They choose instead to stay in a variety of other
environments they considered safer, such as with punters or on floors
and sofas at friends homes or staying up all night in saunas and clubs.
There was a move away from being street homeless to becoming the hidden
homeless. Male and transgender prostitution also seems to have less
taboo surrounding it than it had in the past. A lot more individuals
are making the choice to enter the sex industry rather than simply
having to as a means of survival, or having been coerced. This is also
coupled with a growing demand and support for the recognition of and
rights of sex workers." - Working
Men Project. Working
Men Project N/A: A free, friendly and confidential specialist
health service for men who sell sex or work in the commercial male sex
industry... Since 1994 the Working Men Project has been the only service
that offers tests daily for men who work in the sex industry in London.
It is part of the largest Sexual health clinic in Europe, the Jefferiss
Wing. The Working Men Project aims to provide a quality service for
sexual health promotion and HIV prevention. It is open to any man who
sells sex or works within the commercial male sex and adult
entertainment industries. The project offers expert help in all aspects
of sexual health, including screening and treatment for sexually
transmitted conditions and advice about HIV. The project is for working
men of any sexual orientation, age, ethnicity or spiritual belief.
Bernado's Young Men Project.: A past project. - Survivors UK: Understanding male childhood sexual abuse and rape. Safe in the City: Safe In The City Supporting young male sex workers. Safe in the City has been supporting young male sex workers in Liverpool since 1997. - London Lads. - Considerations for Potential Sex Workers - "From the age of thirteen when I read a magazine article and realized men and boys could also work as prostitutes I wanted to be a Hustler." Legalities, Health Issues, Safety, and Financial aspects presented N/A. - Advice for male youth contemplating sex work, including value of work: "If you are very cute and young you can ask for what you want! from £80 -200 ($100 - 300 ) a session. But you need to be top grade for that." - 11 year olds selling gay sex as rent boys.
national conference took place on male youth prostitution (1999): "At
London's Piccadilly, around fifty male prostitutes gather each night to
sell sex. Many of the men are homeless. Some are drug dependent. Some speak
very poor English. A substantial number are under eighteen years old. A
few are as young as fourteen. "There is no set pattern of how young guys
get into renting," says Tim Franks of the Gay Aids Initiative Project (GAI),
which runs a drop in centre for young men selling sex in Nottingham...
Unlike the street corner prostitution of women, young male renting stays
mostly underground, out of the public eye. It is a hidden problem that
few are willing to tackle. Until now... Some lads make a substantial amount
of money from selling sex, so attempting to persuade them to 'exit', or
leave the prostitution scene, is not always successful... A first step
must be to repeal Section 28, which currently stops local authorities from
providing safe spaces for gay teenagers. (Reference: The Dangerous Game,
The Pink Paper, 12 Nov 99 by Gideon Burrows) - Once
a Brethren Boy, An Autobiography by Noel Virtue (Autobiography). (AlternateLink)
"When their son's burgeoning homosexuality became apparent, they responded
by having the fifteen-year-old committed to Kingseat Hospital to be 'cured'
by electric shock treatment. In this compelling autobiography, Noel Virtue
relives these painful years. He describes his escape to Australia, then
to London, where he was free to frequent all-night gay clubs and transvestite
parties, and even indulge in male prostitution." (About the author)
Prostitution Documentary Information from ScotGay Magazine. - Deadly
way to make a living N/A: "Concerns are growing over the increasing
number of male prostitutes taking to the streets of Glasgow." - The
punkest band in rock N/A: ""And the second punkest band in rock," says
Frenzal Rhomb lead singer Jay. Massive! is sitting in a cafe (70 Please
in my Kitchen in Newtown, Sydney) with Rhomb members Jay, Lex and Lindsay
(Nat had to piss off), shortly they head for the US where they are touring
with Less Than Jake and Blink 182. We tried to talk to them about their
new album, their past and life on the road. Um, this is what we got...
Jay: I was born in Glasgow in 1972. I was an orphan until I was about 15
until I met Lex and he sort of fathered me. He was my male role model for
quite a while. Lex: I told him how to grow dreads. Jay: Lex was a male
prostitute until I met him. Once he got the father figure role happening
he gave that away." - Some
items in bibliography: Barrett et al (1997) Child prostitution in Britain:
dilemmas and practical responses. The Children's Society, London; Bloor
M, McKegney N and Bamard M (1990) 'An Ethnographic study of HIV - related
Risk Practices among Glasgow Rent-boys and their clients: report of a pilot
study. MRC Medical Sociology Unit, Glasgow University; Davies, P and Feldman
R (1997) Prostitute men now, in Rethinking Prostitution: Purchasing Sex
in the 1990's edited by Graham Scambler and Annette Scambler: Routledge,
London and New York; Foster C (1991) Male youth prostitution; perspectives,
policy and practice. Social Work Monographs, Norwich (no 100). - Mapping Indoor Male Prostitution in Glasgow (PDF Download N/A). - Men trafficked into Scotland as sex slaves (2010).
Connell J, Hart G (2003). An Overview of Male Sex Work in Edinburgh and Glasgow: The Male Sex Worker Perspective. PDF
Download. The study is presented here as a working report, intended
to inform our understandings of the practicalities of male sex work, its
health consequences and to help us consider means of addressing the
issues it raises. In doing so we have unashamedly adopted the
perspective of the male sex workers themselves, as their voices are so
rarely heard when public discussion of these issues takes place. The aim
of this study is to investigate, through detailed qualitative research,
the health and personal safety of men who work as male prostitutes in
Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland. This report presents the views and
experiences of male sex workers themselves.
The Open Road Project: a service within the NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde area for men of any age who perform sexual acts in exchange for some form of payment. The project is currently based in the LGBT Centre in Bell Street, Glasgow.
Sex Worker: Sex workers workshops by Blonde Pete (PDF Download). - Stigma & Discrimination presentation (PDF Download). - New FifeMen Site. - Scottish Prostitutes Education Project: Promoting health and dignity in prostitution.
Ireland: - Country Report of Ireland compiled for EUROPAP (European Intervention Projects AIDS Prevention for Prostitutes. The Project is part of the 'Europe Against AIDS Programme'). - "The number of men working in the sex industry in Ireland is difficult to estimate. Many drift in and out of prostitution for longer or shorter periods. Though many male prostitutes identify themselves as gay, the majority identify themselves as bisexual or heterosexual." - The Dirty Boys of Dublin: (Warning: Some Nude Pictures.) - "But 'Dirty' also means sex. Why run away from it? As survivors of rape, incest, child prostitution (coppers, priests, counselors - the lot of you!) we have neither innocence nor illusions... In time we hope to expand this site to include all kinds of information and data helpful and necessary to the survival of our brothers still on the street as well as providing a forum for sharing experiences and useful contacts." - Information related to The Dirty Boys of Dublin. - Problem of prostitution now recognised. - Short summary of articles related to male prostitution.(Alternate Link) - Male Prostitution N/A by ENMP N/A. (See: "Manual: Tips, tricks and models of good practice for service providers considering, planning or implementing services for male sex workers" (2002) - a 5 Meg Download: PDF Download.). Mc Gabe, Ian (2005). Male street prostitution in Dublin and San Francisco: A psychocultural analysis. PsyD Thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies. Word Abstract. Word Full Text.
Irish Network Male Prostitution (INMP) launched a very important report
in June. ‘Such A Taboo ’ – an analysis of service need and service provision
for males in prostitution in the Eastern Region of the Republic of Ireland.
(Related Information in PDF
Download of a 2001 Swiss Newsletter at http://www.malesexwork.ch/. See also PDF Download. - Prostitution
and health (2002): "It may be the final taboo. Ireland continues to turn its
back on the existence of male prostitution, a potent combination of homosexuality,
vice, abuse and shame. It is estimated that as many as 600 young men, some
under the age of consent, are working at least part-time as prostitutes,
rent boys, or 'escorts' in Ireland today..." - Rent: The Untold Story of Male Prostitution in Dublin (1999). - Male street prostitution in Dublin: a psychological analysis (2011). - Male Prostitution and Health:
The implications of male prostitution are well known to health workers
who deal with young men who are caught in the trap of selling sex.
Typically, young men who have had a minimal level of education and who
often grew up in care are providing sex for cash to older men, who are
often well educated, well off and married. The common presumption that
men who pay for sex with men are overtly homosexual was exploded in
1993, when the short film 'Boys for Rent' by Liam McGrath was first
broadcast... The young men interviewed in McGrath's film, and in books
like 'Rent' by Evanna Kearins, revealed that the majority of their
clientele are married, successful older men, outwardly heterosexual and
conservative. Unable to express their desires in their 'normal' life,
they exist on a kind of emotional autopilot. When the faking becomes too
much, they succumb to their desires and seek out a male prostitute on
whom they impose their dominant, though secretive, sexuality.
Such a Taboo N /A. "In 1997 the Gay Men’s Health Project carried out the first piece of Irish research that is specific to males in prostitution...: Such a Taboo: An analysis of service needs and service provisionsfor male in prostitution in the eastern region (PDF Download N/A). "In the research carried out by the Gay Men’s Health Project, 27 respondents were asked why they had got involved in paid sex work. Answers varied: for one man, who had started at the age of 13 it was the “idea that someone wanted you, the money came after”. For another respondent it was about “being approved of”. For many it was “for the money” or “the only way on the streets” (1997:17)... None of the respondents shared a common terminology when referring to males in prostitution. Choice of terminology depended on the age of the male and the reasons for involvement in prostitution. The following are a list of the most commonly uses terms for males in prostitution: male prostitutes, sex worker, rent boy, doing rent, working, showing, on the game and a barker...As will be outlined in Chapter Five, there is a huge need for training and education in the area of male prostitution. Very little is known about males in prostitution by society in general or by the service providers who come into contact with them. This can partly be attributed to the lack of research in the area, but it is largely due to the clandestine nature of male prostitution... In the experience of service providers, the stigma surrounding male prostitution has meant that those involved feel they cannot open up to the service providers or to their own peer group... If male prostitution in general is clandestine then underage prostitution is even more so. The primary reason is the stigma within the peer group, which has meant that underage boys are even less likely to disclose than their overage counterparts. “ ... it is looked down on in the peer group so there is a risk of being ostracised by the rest of the group if they find out.
Notes on Irish Male Prostitution ("Male prostitution study shows link with drugs...," Irish Times, 30 July 1997). - Male prostitution study shows link with drugs: "Four (15 per cent) of the boys surveyed were introduced to prostitution when aged 13, but most were in the 14 to19 age bracket." - Secret gay lives of Irish married men: (2000) "Married men who have tried to hide their homosexuality make up the majority of the clientele of Dublin's male prostitutes, estimated to number as many as 600. Kathryn Holmquist meets the author of a new study of this invisible subculture... Rent: the Secret World of Male Prostitution in Dublin by Evanna Kearins, is published by Marino today." - Ireland: Facts on Prostitution: "The market for younger "rent boys" is the greatest and offers higher financial rewards (Outreach worker, David Sleator, "Drug abuse leads to sex and violence in Phoenix Park," Irish Times, 12 April 1997)." - Stigma of male prostitution hampers health aid (2001): The stigma surrounding male prostitution and the nature of Irish laws governing this area, have only served to push the practice further underground, according to a new report. The stigma has also discouraged agencies to develop specific services in the field, it adds. 'Such a taboo' is an analysis of service needs and provision for males in prostitution in the Eastern region. Commissioned by the Irish Network Male Prostitution (INMP), the report is supported by the Gay Men's Health project, which was established in 1992 to tackle the needs of gay and bisexual men..
Secret World of Male Prostitution in Dublin - 1999 - by Evanna
Kearins, MA in Journalism 1999) - Commentary:
"There is anecdotal evidence that suggests that a number of TGs are sex
workers in one of the categories, whether for financial reasons or otherwise.
The Gay Mens Health project carried out surveys in 1996 and 1999 into gay
sex workers and the results of a similar investigation was published as
a degree thesis in 1999 for Dublin City University by Evanna Kearins entitled
The Secret World of Male Prostitution in Dublin. These surveys, to which
an extremely tiny number responded, concluded that sex workers were divided
into two groups on educational and class lines, "on-street sex workers"
who appeared to come from the uneducated lower classes and "off-street
sex workers ie masseurs, escorts etc" who appeared to belong to a higher
social class and were more educated."
- Qui sont les "escort boys"? (2011, Translation):
Ils sont étudiants ou même salariés, vendent leur corps par besoin
d'argent, mais pas seulement. Enquête sur un commerce du sexe qui, loin
du trottoir et des lieux gays, prospère grâce à Internet... Chez ces
garçons blasés qu'on croirait tout droit sortis d'un roman de Bret
Easton Ellis, certains ont moins choisi que d'autres. Martin, par
exemple, mis à la porte de chez lui à 16 ans par des parents qui
n'admettaient pas ses préférences homosexuelles. "Je devais payer un
loyer de 300 euros tous les mois, à peine ce que me rapportait n'importe
quel petit boulot, raconte-t-il. Dans le milieu gay, on me disait que
j'étais mignon, que je pourrais gagner jusqu'à 500 euros par jour. Entre
ça et la galère, ma décision a été vite prise." Pour ce garçon à la
chevelure ébouriffée et au visage cerné, vendre ses faveurs est devenu
une routine. "Je refuse rarement les clients, sauf quand ils sont trop
gros", avoue-t-il, en souriant. A 19 ans, Martin se rêve maintenant en
Bel-Ami plutôt qu'en Boule de suif: "Grâce à cet argent, j'ai pu
reprendre mes études de lettres. Je finirai sans doute par faire autre
chose. J'aimerais devenir journaliste, même si cela devait me rapporter
beaucoup moins." Et pour cause: les "bons mois", ses revenus peuvent
grimper jusqu'à 5 000 euros, net bien sûr. - Enquête sur les escort boys
(2009): Nécessité économique, vrai choix professionnel ou
divertissement occasionnel, la prostitution masculine a trouvé avec
internet un nouveau territoire... Mais le plus couru de tous est
gayromeo.com. Il comporte plusieurs sections, d’abord sans prostitution,
de la rencontre soft au pur plan cul, puis, si l’on n’a pas trouvé son
bonheur gratuitement, la section payante. Là, des garçons aux pseudos
sibyllins (Sexytbm20cm, Atomik Boy, Baptisport, Seb4youmassage) parlent
chiffres sans complexe. Quand on a “21 cm épais” dans le pantalon, on
peut bien exiger “150 euros l’heure”.
Escort Boy – Qui sont-ils ? La prostitution masculine s’installe sur la toile (2012, Translation):
Qui sont-ils ? Nous sommes loin du stéréotype des jeunes mecs paumés
sans emploi qui vendent leurs charmes pour manger à leur faim ou pour se
payer leur dose de « blanche ». Ici nous trouvons autant d’étudiants
que de cadres supérieurs ou encore de salariés. Ils ont une moyenne
d’âge de 18 à 30 ans et ils le font tous par plaisir c’est-à-dire sans
pression de proxénète, ils sont indépendants. Ils ne sont pas forcément
homo, certains affichent leur bisexualité et d’autres ne tolèrent la
compagnie des hommes que dans le cadre de cette activité. Ils ont choisi
de devenir escort boy pour atteindre un niveau de vie financier qui
aurait été inaccessible avec leur salaire de base. Ils aiment porter les
dernières fringues de créateurs, ils veulent offrir une tournée à leurs
amis dans le club le plus prisé de la région, ils aiment voyager et
dépenser sans compter.
Doubles vies: Enquête sur la prostitution masculine homosexuelle - 2010 - de Hervé Latapie (Amazon) (Translation). - Prostitution masculine, ce qu'en disent les clients (2010, Translation):
Hervé Latapie, patron du Tango, le dancing « boîte à frissons » du
Marais parisien, partage dans son ouvrage « Doubles vies » son analyse
et ses observations sur le monde de la prostitution masculine
homosexuelle, et notamment des témoignages de clients, les grands
absents des débats sur la prostitution. Interview. - Un réseau de prostitution masculine sur Internet démantelé à Paris
(2010, Translation): Un réseau de prostitution masculine sur Internet a été démantelé à Paris, a-t-on appris mardi auprès de la préfecture de police de Paris. Cinq hommes ont été mis en examen pour "proxénétisme aggravé" et écroués dans le cadre de cette enquête conduite par la Brigade de répression du proxénétisme (BRP) de Paris... - Sans Domicile Fixe: Errances Homos (2007, Translation): Rupture familiale après un coming-out, il n’en faut pas plus pour que de jeunes homos se retrouvent à la rue. Là commence la galère, les nuits sans dormir, la prostitution occasionnelle pour certains. Homos et SDF, une association méconnue mais pourtant bien réelle. Témoignages en France et en Belgique.
Gare du Nord, des mineurs se prostituent en plein jour (2012, Translation):
Il est 18 heures, sur l’esplanade de la gare du Nord. Dans les remous
de la foule qui s’engouffre et s’extrait par vagues de la station de
RER, impossible de repérer, si on n’y prête attention, le manège malsain
qui s’opère pourtant sous nos yeux. Des hommes grisonnants font les
cent pas, tandis que des adolescents, manifestement roms, déambulent ou
les aguichent discrètement, appuyés contre un réverbère. Un échange de
regards. Un gamin s’approche de l’un des vieux. La négociation est
rapide. Le garçon disparaît dans la gare, suivi de son client à quelques
mètres. Ce n’est même pas discret. Si la gare du Nord a toujours été un
haut lieu de la prostitution masculine, le phénomène pédophile a
explosé voilà deux ans. L’association Hors la rue, très investie dans la
défense des mineurs roumains, en a identifié 44 en 2009, dont quatre
âgés entre 9 et 12 ans. « Cette prostitution-là n’a rien à voir avec les
réseaux de traite des êtres humains, elle a à voir avec la misère,
constate, indigné, Olivier Peyroux, le vice-président d’Hors la rue. Du
fait de leur statut particulier, les Roumains et les Bulgares n’ont
accès ni à la formation professionnelle ni à l’emploi. Ils ont le choix
entre le vol, la mendicité et la prostitution. Cette dernière leur
semble moins risquée, moins dégradante et plus rentable. »
Dossier - Introduction: Les Garçons de Plaisir (PDF Download):
Contre Gîte et Couvert: Ce bar où une partie des garçons viennent
négocier un peu de leur beauté. - Escort-Boys: La Tendance
Glamour? La révolution Internet a ouvert de nouveaux champs au sexe
tarifé. Paris serait la ville qui compte le plus d’escort-boys après New
York et Los Angeles. - La prostitution masculine est peu médiatisée et
assez peu étudiée. Contrairement à la prostitution féminine. - Garçon de
Passe et de Passage: On ne glande pas sur le trottoir, on se bat pour
soi, pour approvisionner le quotidien. - Les Hommes du Bois de Boulogne:
Quand parlent les garçons de la nuit. « Ce n’est parce que je me
prostitue que je suis un objet. Je suis une personne à part entière.» -
Journal d'un Prostitué:
Ils me respectent, me traitent comme un objet fragile, sont embêtés
d’avoir à payer, un peu soumis. C’est moi qui mène la danse. « Je ne me
vis pas comme homosexuel. J’arrive à avoir des copines de temps à autre,
même si mon job m’empêche toute relation durable. » -
Country Report of France (2000). Information given about male prostitution in Paris with reference to HIV prevention efforts. - Phénomène prostitution: Quelles approches? (1999, Translation). - Prostitution et travail sexuel : le client (2001, Translation): "Annoncer comme le propose Alain Lipietz que «Certes plus de 30% des personnes prostituées en France sont des hommes, mais, comme le remarque Daniel Welzer-Lang, "ces hommes sont utilisés comme des femmes". - Le Mouvement du Nid est une association de soutien aux personnes prostituées. Nous agissons également au niveau de la prévention auprès des personnes en danger de prostitution: Témoignage d'Alexandre, prostitué de 26 ans à Paris (2001, Translation). - Panorama de la Prostitution Actuelle (2000, Translation): "La prostitution masculine est en forte augmentation, elle atteint même 30 % à Paris et dans les grandes agglomérations." - Destins de l'homosexualité masculine maghrébine: entre unions 'imposées', prostitution et mort sociale? (2002, Translation).
et identité sexuelle : la prévention face à la personne (2002, Translation):
"Le public que nous accueillons est majoritairement composé de jeunes
hommes adultes (principalement entre 18 et 25 ans) mais nous rencontrons
sur ce site également de jeunes mineurs. Notons que depuis maintenant
un an, une cinquantaine de roumains âgés de 11 à 17
ans sont arrivés simultanément et se prostituent sur ce site...
La prostitution masculine bien sûr a de multiples liens avec la question
de l'identité sexuelle: Souvent ceux d'entre eux qui ont revendiqué
leur identité homosexuelle ont connu le rejet, d'autres se sont
exilés de peur d'avoir à la révéler. Ces jeunes
sont emprisonnés dans un double silence : le leur et celui de leur
entourage qui souhaite ignorer ou taire ce malaise. Ils ne voient comme
horizon que la fuite pour exister. Bien sûr cette situation a souvent
des conséquences désastreuses sur l'estime de soi et donc
potentiellement sur la prévention. Parmi les jeunes rencontrés,
beaucoup se déclarent bisexuels (peut-être parfois pour estomper
la culpabilité qu'ils éprouvent), ou encore hétérosexuels
déclarant ne fréquenter les hommes que pour l'argent qu'ils
Prostitution Racolages sur les boulevards (2002, Translation):
Aux abords de la gare du Nord, de jeunes hommes sont assis, bouteille
de vin à la main. Le regard hagard, ils échangent
quelques paroles. Contrairement à ce que l’on pourrait croire,
ce ne sont pas des SDF. Le petit regard en coin qu’ils jettent à
chaque voiture qui passe devant eux les trahit. Ils sont très
jeunes, parfois adolescents. Ils viennent de l’Est, de Roumanie pour la
plupart, pour se prostituer. La prostitution masculine est en
progression (presque un tiers des prostitués sont des hommes)
et, sur les trottoirs parisiens, ils sont plusieurs centaines,
transsexuels, travestis ou pas..." - La consommation de drogues dans le milieu de la prostitution masculine (2004):
L'étude a été réalisée en 2002,
à Marseille et à Paris, auprès de 128
garçons et 124 transgenres à partir d'un certain nombre
d'entretiens approfondis et surtout de questionnaires portant sur les
caractéristiques sociodémographiques..." (Download Page (Translation): PDF Download). - La prostitution masculine s'est transformée (2004, Translation).
- Conseguenze della crisi: a Firenze prostituzione maschile in aumento
(2013, Translation): Complice la crisi, sono tantissimi i giovani dai
20 ai 30 anni che si prostituiscono in Toscana e soprattutto a Firenze.
Stamp Toscana ha intervistato un escort italo brasiliano che si confessa
e racconta tutti i retroscena della prostituzione “man to man”. - Prostituzione maschile: lupi e agnelli? (2009, Translation):
Quando si parla di prostituzione generalmente si tende a pensare a
quella femminile. Ma come si sa esista anche quella maschile, i gigolò
che vanno con donne giovani e meno giovani. E accanto a queste
tipologie, esiste anche la prostituzione gay, dove ragazzi generalmente
piacenti cercano clienti generosi con cui passare qualche ora,
possibilmente ben ricompensati. A Milano, per esempio, sono note alcune
zone e vie dove è facile, passando in macchina, vedere ragazzi (alcuni
anche giovani, troppo giovani), che, (poco) vestiti, camminano per le
vie, guardando chi passa in quelle zone e cercando di abbordare e di
essere abbordati. Non è più un mistero e ormai scandalizza ben poche
persone. Purtroppo è la realtà: ci sono quelli che lo fanno per strada e
quelli che lo praticano al “sicuro” nelle loro abitazioni, scegliendo
anche, nei casi migliori, a chi concedersi.
Fiorente Prostituzione Maschile Alle Porte Di Ciampino (2013, Translation):
E’un fenomeno decisamente meno sentito e conosciuto quello della
prostituzione maschile; eppure c’è e sembra anche essere ben avviato.
Alle porte di Ciampino, su Via delle Capanne di Marino, la strada che
dall’Appia collega a Santa Maria delle Mole per intenderci, proprio
all’angolo con l’Appia Antica, si snoda un luogo di adescamento e
incontro tra omosessuali. Una prostituzione tutta al maschile con una
clientela costituita prettamente da uomini. Lungo il viale della
secolare strada romana, a pochi metri dall’accesso su strada,
principalmente all’ora di pranzo e al crepuscolo, prende forma la
vetrina di uomini pronti ad allietare le fantasie di quanti fanno tappa
in quel luogo. L’ora della pausa pranzo e quella della chiusura degli
uffici sono difatti quelle prese maggiormente d’assalto per quanti, con
famiglia a casa, hanno necessità di intrattenere questi rapporti in modo
da non squilibrare la loro routine quotidiana; per non destare
sospetti. La Polizia locale di Ciampino, nell’ambito del piano di
vigilanza e sicurezza sul territorio, attua controlli in bicicletta e a
piedi in quell’ area di competenza comunale, che va dal Sepolcro Monte
di Terra al Fosso delle Cornacchiole. Ai lati della caratteristica
strada di sampietrini si sviluppa un fitto canneto e la rete che
delimita il viale presenta su quel lato due aperture che consentono
l’accesso a una sorta di “albergo a cielo aperto”. Un corridoietto, tra
canne fittissime e piante orticanti, conduce a tre distinte “camere”
dove un’abbondante immondizia costituita da profilattici, fazzoletti e
bottigliette vuote, indica chiaramente l’attività che vi si svolge.
Proseguendo per poche decine di metri sull’Appia Antica si può anche
ammirare un sepolcro secolare che conserva parzialmente intatta la sua
struttura originaria e che è stato trasformato in una “suite imperiale”,
che incornicia in un ambiente tanto suggestivo quanto abbandonato a se
stesso, gli incontri tra uomini.- Napoli, cresce la prostituzione tra i ragazzi (2010, Translation):
La prostituzione maschile minorile a Napoli è un fenomeno in crescita.
Lo rivela una ricerca condotta dalla cooperativa sociale Dedalus che,
grazie al progetto Io, realizzato con il comune di Napoli, ha seguito
per un anno (2009) 300 ragazzi (dai 16 ai 24 anni) che “vendono” il
proprio corpo per poche migliaia di euro. La zona di maggior
concentramento è l’area nordorientale della città, in particolare piazza
Garibaldi e Corso Meridionale. Il progetto realizza mediazione
culturale, educazione sanitaria e riduzione del danno, accesso ai
centri di accoglienza a bassa soglia; tutela legale e accompagnamento
alla regolarizzazione, in qualche caso i ragazzi vengono anche inseriti
in percorsi formativi o di lavoro. Nel progetto sono coinvolti
mediatori culturali, operatori sociali, operatori di strada, consulenti
In Italy: Murder Among The Ruins By Michelangelo Signorile:
- (1998, Part 1) "He came to Rome with a job lined up working for the city, but
it fell through within weeks of his arrival. He met some young friends,
other boys, who introduced him to hustling. They meet men at parks like
the Monte Caprino or Villa Borghese, or in gay nightclubs that cater to
hustlers and their johns, such as Incognito 2000." Investigating
hustler related murders. - Condom use with clients and private partners among transvestites in Italy (1990). - Country Report Italy. - An Increase in Prostitution Among Romanian Minors in Rome (PDF Download):
Girls are not the only ones affected by prostitution. While it is
evident that Romanian girls are sexually exploited whether they are
approached once in Italy or trafficked from Romania, the situation of
boys is slightly different. There was no evidence of real trafficking among boys but it seems quite clear that once these minors enter Italy they ask for help from those who already know how to survive and make money. Romanian boys, aged from 16 to 18 years old, generally wait for their clients in the heart of Rome. “Unless you know that, it is not easy to notice them; they are well-dressed and standing in one of the main squares of Rome in the evening. They stare at the cars, trying to see if they recognize their usual customers. They hope to get some money, a hot meal, or even a place to sleep for the night.” - Reggio Emilia: blitz contro la prostituzione maschile (2006, Translation).
Roma di notte (2005, Translation).
Un giro di ragazzi rumeni, italiani e curdi che si prostituiscono
saltuariamente e raramente diventano professionisti. E' il mondo che
abbiamo incontrato accompagnando il furgoncino della Lila che fa
prevenzione dell’Aids e delle Mts fra i “lavoratori del sesso” ... Un
giro di ragazzi rumeni, italiani e curdi, spesso minorenni, che si
prostituiscono saltuariamente e per periodi brevi e raramente diventano
professionisti.... È un progetto voluto e finanziato dal
comune di Roma e rivolto a donne, uomini e trans che si prostituiscono
in strada, la finalità è la riduzione del danno,
cioè evitare o almeno controllare le malattie a trasmissione
sessuale, prima fra tutte per pericolosità, l’aids...
Portugal: - Prostituição Masculina em Portugal (2008, Translation): Com o advento da Internet e a sua comercialização, os sites e chat rooms gay, como GayDar (Elford et al., 2004), têm geralmente uma secção, a dos perfis, onde os prostitutos colocam o seu perfil, juntamente com o acompanhante, oferecendo os seus serviços de «massagens». Contudo, se tende a substituir os bares como nova arena erótica (Brown, Maycock & Burns, 2005; Ross, 2005), a Internet ainda não mostrou todo o seu potencial no domínio da prostituição masculina, pelo menos em Portugal, e até mesmo na Holanda esse negócio online é mais lucrativo no âmbito da prostituição feminina. Os clientes de prostitutos masculinos parecem não ficar satisfeitos com o erotismo e o nudismo online, exigindo encontros offline, realizados geralmente em hotéis. - Instituições ignoram prostituição masculina (2008, Translation).
Prostituição masculina em Lisboa (Translation): "Um “rapaz, 26 anos, atraente, sexy e discreto“, como ele mesmo se descreve em anúncios de jornais, diz que o mercado da prostituição masculina em Lisboa, ao contrário do que se imagina, é "muito compensador". Vindo do Brasil, Salvador, há 4 anos, começou por trabalhar como empregado de mesa, mas 6 meses depois, após ter recebido uma proposta muito generosa de “um senhor, percebeu que poderia ganhar muito mais dinheiro sem ter de se esforçar tanto e ainda “ter prazer“. E afirma que já ganhou muito dinheiro com o negócio do sexo... O dono de uma agência de acompanhantes com quem falei por telefone, contou-me que cerca de 98% dos clientes são do sexo masculino, a maioria de classe "média alta." Ainda segundo este, muitos dos prostitutos que entram na profissão dizem pretender ter relações exclusivamente com mulheres, mas devido à escassa procura por parte destas, acabam aceitando também as ofertas de clientes masculinos... Para os donos das agências a única coisa que parece importar é o dinheiro. Se o aspirante a prostituto, é minimamente atraente, e tem vontade de trabalhar já está empregado. Em alguns casos, mesmo sendo menor de idade. Ainda segundo o meu entrevistado, “nas agências são comuns os pedidos de clientes querendo rapazes com menos de 15 anos, principalmente por parte de turistas estrangeiros, dispostos a pagar muito caro por um encontro com um ou vários adolescentes ao mesmo tempo... Os preços do prazer variam entre 15 a 30 euros, no caso dos prostitutos de rua, com os quais é possível regatear, os 50 a 100 euros no caso dos massagistas, e 150 a 300 euros, no caso dos que trabalham por conta própria ou através de agencias... "
Pereira, Henrique (2008). Homens que vendem sexo em Portugal. Paper presented at the VI Congresso Portugues De Sociologia. PDF Download. Translation.
Em Portugal, a visibilidade da prostituição masculina é muito reduzida.
Em primeiro lugar, sabe-se que existem determinantes que modelam a
entrada e a permanência na venda de sexo, nomeadamente a
toxicodependência, o abuso sexual, as questões da identidade sexual e a
natureza das práticas sexuais com os clientes. Este tipo de oferta
sexual existe em dois grandes locais no nosso país: os Classificados de
jornal e da Internet; e as ruas (principalmente nas grandes cidades);
Assim, e com o objectivo de conhecer melhor esta realidade em Portugal, e
por razões de facilidade de acesso aos trabalhadores sexuais,
desenvolveu-se um estudo junto dos homens que oferecem o seus serviços
através da Internet. Neste sentido, foram tratados os conteúdos dos
anúncios de 72 homens trabalhadores sexuais. Este estudo apresenta-se
apenas como uma primeira abordagem ao estudo dos trabalhadores sexuais
em Portugal e assume-se como um ponto de partida para investigações mais
aprofundadas, nomeadamente aos seguintes níveis: a exploração da
qualidade das relações interpessoais, a psicopatologia, a exclusão
social, a discriminação e a falta de suporte social, a dinâmica
psico-sócio-económica da carreira dos trabalhadores sexuais masculinos,
as práticas sexuais e a exposição ao risco de infecção por DST’s, a
toxicodependência, etc.... A maioria dos homens oferece serviços
de acompanhamento e interacção sexual em apartamentos próprios e fazem
deslocações a hotéis e residências. Relativamente ao sexo dos clientes, a
maior parte dos homens (47,22%) diz oferecer serviços sexuais quer a
homens, quer a mulheres, quer a casais. Já 25% deles diz oferecer
serviços sexuais exclusivamente a outros homens. 13,89% revela oferecer
serviços sexuais apenas a mulheres e a casais, enquanto que 5,55% diz
oferecer esses serviços a homens e a mulheres. Finalmente, 4,17% diz
oferecer serviços sexuais exclusivamente a mulheres e outros 4,17% a
homens e casais.
- La prostitución masculina se triplica en tiempos de crisis (2010, Translation):
Ricardo tiene 26 años, es colombiano, lleva cuatro años en España y no
tiene papeles. Compagina la prostitución con otro trabajo. «Es igual de
duro que el que limpia cañerías, que le da asco lo que hace pero tiene
que dejar al cliente contento», dice. «No trabajo en la calle, me
publicito en periódicos y en páginas de internet», explica. Para
Ricardo, la calle es más peligrosa y sórdida que las saunas y bares de
alterne. «Puedo ganar de 2.000 a 3.000 euros al mes, pagarme mis
caprichos y ahorrar. Seguiré dedicándome a esto hasta que el cuerpo me
lo permita», concluyó. - Sexual Behaviors in Male Sex Workers in Spain: Modulating Factors (2013). - Detenido el dueño de un bar de Málaga por prostituir menores (2009, Translation). - Madrid luchará por primera vez contra la prostitución masculina (2013, Translation). - La prostitución masculina es rutina durante las noches de Barcelona (2012, Translation). - La soledad y la prostitución masculina, protagonistas de 'Chapero' (2013, Translation):
Chapero, que se representa en la sala madrileña Azarte, desenmascara con
un estilo cotidiano y sincero tabúes como la prostitución masculina,
que rara vez se ha puesto sobre un escenario. La obra narra la historia
de Nico, un chico de apenas 19 años, que en su afán irremediable de
encontrarse a sí mismo huye de su propia familia. En un encuentro
cargado de confesiones, recuerdos y sexo con un desconocido encontrará
parte de las respuestas que busca. - Prostitución Masculina (2010, Translation):
Esta entrada recibe el nombre de prostitución masculina. En el vídeo
aparecen reflejadas las historias personales de cuatro hombres, y más
concretamente, Ángel, David, Miguel y Rodrigo. Antes de nada me gustaría
aclarar que he escogido este vídeo de entre otros muchos por dos
motivos. El contenido del vídeo acoge las historias de cuatro hombres
que ejercen la prostitución libremente. Además, el vídeo tiene como
finalidad potenciar el uso del preservativo, por tanto el fin educativo
también se halla presente dentro de él.
Sexual History of a Sample of Male Sex Workers in Spain (2006): Some commonly-held ideas about sex workers, such as earlier commencement of sexual relations, were not confirmed by our study. Nonetheless, we found evidence of a significant presence of sexual violence and sexual abuse in the sexual history of these young men. - Un centenar de hombres ejercen la prostitución en Gipuzkoa (2006, Translation): El perfil de los hombres que se prostituyen también es variado. "Los homosexuales que tienen asumida su condición son la mayoría en este negocio -añade Lasheras-, aunque también hay hombres bisexuales y heterosexuales, a quienes más les cuesta admitir que ejercen la prostitución con otros hombres y les cuesta más venir a solicitar nuestros servicios". Sólo un 10 por ciento de los gigolós guipuzcoanos son autóctonos y llevan su ocupación de forma "más escondida que los de fuera". El resto, el 90 por ciento, son extranjeros, la mayoría procedentes de Brasil y Colombia. "Tienen entre 23 y 35 años. - Prevención del SIDA y apoyo social en la Prostitución Masculina (2006, Translation).- Prostitución homosexual: Sexo a plena luz del día en una playa de Sitges (2005, Translation): Los vecinos de la zona de Aiguadolç de la cala Balmins denuncian que a las doce del mediodía se puede ver a “una pareja gay practicando penetraciones o felaciones en las hamacas de la playa” nudista mixta, a pesar de la teórica vigilancia de la Policía Local. - Prostitución masculina: Un 98 por ciento de la demanda es homosexual (2005, Translation): Aumentan los servicios sexuales entre hombres en la calle, debido en gran parte al aumento de inmigración ilegal, y en el caso de Barcelona en pisos y saunas, por la promoción que se hace de la capital catalana en Europa como “paraíso” gay... La prostitución masculina tiene una demanda exclusivamente gay, según un estudio realizado por Ámbit Prevenció, una organización que trabaja en la prevención de enfermedades derivadas del ejercicio de esta profesión en Barcelona. Aunque los servicios sexuales masculinos tienden a dejar la calle y a hacerse más “elitistas”, se detecta un aumento de esta actividad marginal callejera debido en gran parte al aumento de inmigrantes sin documentación, mientras proliferan pisos y saunas donde se practican estos servicios. Barcelona se sitúa en primera línea de la prostitución homosexual por la promoción que se hace en el extranjero de la capital catalana como “paraíso” gay.
49 charged in boy prostitution case (1997). - Spanish child prostitution trial ends (1998, BBC): The trial attracted nationwide attention, not only for the large number of people involved, but because some of the defendants were well-known television celebrities. These included a popular comedian, as well as several leading figures in the establishment, including a former juvenile court judge. - Risk of HIV infection among male sex workers in Spain (2005): Because of the high risk of HIV infection, male sex workers should be the target of specific preventive activities. Preventive and healthcare strategies that are culturally adapted to migrants are required. - Prostitución Masculina en Málaga (2003, Translation): Un total de 82 hombres ejerce la prostitución en Málaga, debido a la inmigración y la droga, según un estudio. - Country Report of Spain N/A: "It is also important to point out that, with the exception of Médicos del Mundo, none of the programmes will deal with drug users or with male pro stitutes, despite the fact that drug use is one of the major problems in prostitution. " - La policía dice ahora que no hostiga a los "chaperos" de Legazpi, sino que les protege (2000, Translation): Un oficial ordenó por escrito a los agentes "evitar" la prostitución masculina en la zona. - Health Ministry finances a programme for male prostitutes in Malaga (2007).
La prostitución de ellos: más oculta, menos esclava (2010, Translation):
La reciente redada contra una red que supuestamente explotaba a 80
chicos brasileños en casas de alterne ha puesto cara a una realidad que
suele estar escondida: la de la prostitución masculina. Según la versión
de la policía, los chicos brasileños llegaban a España engañados con la
promesa de un trabajo como bailarines, y para que aguantaran las
jornadas laborales (tenían que estar disponibles las 24 horas al día)
les daban cocaína, Viagra y poppers (un vasodilatador). Hay 14
detenidos. Tan oculta está la prostitución masculina que si se pregunta
al Ministerio de Igualdad, que impulsa desde su creación trabajos sobre
la prostitución, la respuesta es que ellos no tienen nada al respecto,
que es un fenómeno muy marginal y, sobre todo, con un factor que,
claramente, le diferencia de la prostitución femenina: entre los
chaperos (un término que alguno de ellos reivindica con la misma energía
con que otros lo rechazan) no suele haber explotación. Desde una
perspectiva de género, dicen en el Gobierno, las relaciones que estos
establecen con sus clientes masculinos (las clientas son minoría y,
además, se dedican a una prostitución de lujo, lejos de cualquier
sordidez aparente) son más de igual a igual, sin la violencia -explícita
o implícita- que se da muchas veces en las relaciones de los hombres
con las prostitutas. - Espanha desbarata rede de prostituição masculina de brasileiros (2010, Translation):
Segundo a polícia, a rede, formada em sua maioria por brasileiros,
atraía outras pessoas do país com passagens de avião e promessas de
trabalho na Europa. Ao chegar à Espanha, eles eram obrigados a se
prostituir para pagar dívidas que chegavam a 4 mil euros (cerca de R$
8,9 mil). Os homens eram distribuídos por diferentes casas de encontros
pelo país e precisavam estar disponíveis para programas 24 horas por
La prostitución masculina abandona las calles de Madrid (2010, Translation):
El tema de la prostitución es siempre un tema polémico. Pero no por
ocultarlo el problema desaparece. De ahí que creo que son especialmente
importantes iniciativas como la de la Fundación Triángulo, que ha
realizado un estudio sobre el estado de la prostitución masculina en
Madrid. Y entre las conclusiones que podrían extraerse de dicho estudio,
una de las más llamativas es que la prostitución masculina madrileña ha
abandonado las calles del barrio de Chueca para concentrarse en pisos y
sobre todo, en internet... Según el estudio, la prostitución masculina
en la calle tuvo su momento álgido en los años 80, y se ubicaba en
determinados puntos situados entre la Puerta del Sol y Recoletos,
teniendo Chueca como su zona central. En esta zona trabajaban sobre todo
ciudadanos españoles que recurrían a prostituirse para conseguir dinero
con la que poder comprar drogas. Pero con la liberación sexual y con la
normalidad, llegaron los locales de copas y los cuartos oscuros que
hicieron que una buena parte de estos trabajadores del sexo dejaran la
calle, reduciéndose su presencia a zonas como la calle Almirante o el
entorno de la Puerta del Sol, una zona en la que se concentraban los
trabajadores del sexo con un nivel socio económico más bajo. - La prostitución gay masculina deja definitivamente las calles madrileñas y se concentra en pisos e Internet
(2010, Translation):La prostitución homosexual masculina ha abandonado en los últimos años los reductos establecidos en algunas calles del madrileño barrio de Chueca y se ha concentrado en pisos y, especialmente, en espacios virtuales de Internet. - Existe la prostitución masculina (2012, Translation): Y tanto que existe. Mucho más silenciosa que la femenina, mucho más reducida. Pero quien dude de la existencia de los prostitutos está en un error. Y el número crece día a día. Losanuncios de contactos en los periódicos se amplían, intentando copar otro sector del público masculino, aquellos que prefieren recurrir a los servicios de un hombre. El mito del gigoló o del chico de compañía de poderosas y acaudaladas mujeres se cae por su propio peso: la mayoría de los prostitutos se dedican casi en exclusividad a su mismo sexo. Aquellas mujeres que, muy ocasionalmente, se convierten en clientas suelen rondar los treinta y pico años y ostentar un poder adquisitivo medio-alto. Según la Fundación Triángulo, el perfil de un profesional en España es el de un inmigrante joven, latinoamericano o magrebí, entre 19 y 25 años, que ejerce la prostitución para tener unos ingresos estables a la espera de un trabajo al uso. También existen profesionales españoles, evidentemente, aunque el número ha descendido considerablemente en los últimos años. Sin embargo, el hecho de que los hombres que ejercen la prostitución sean mucho menos visibles que las mujeres,dificulta un censo exacto.
Rosado IZ, et al. (2006). Trabajadores masculinos del sexo: aproximación a la prostitución masculina en Madrid. PDF Download. Translation.
A menudo cuando se habla de prostitución asalta a la mente la imagen
estereotipada de la trabajadora sexual de calle o club, en las noticias,
en el arte, en los debates sobre el trabajo sexual se ha venido
abordando el tema centrado exclusivamente en las prostitutas. Es cierto,
que un amplio sector del trabajo sexual está formado por mujeres pero
dentro del mismo existe una diversidad que debe ser reconocida. Es el
único modo de contemplar una realidad poliédrica, como es sin duda la
prostitución y, de paso, evitar una mirada sesgada susceptible de
manipulaciones. Los Trabajadores Masculinos del Sexo (TMS) son quizá uno
de los colectivos más invisibles y desconocidos dentro de la
prostitución en España, esta característica pudimos comprobarla en la
primera fase de este estudio debido a la escasez de literatura en
castellano que versara sobre el tema. Este hecho al contrario de lo que
cabría pensar resultó motivador para el equipo de investigación ya que
reforzaba la necesidad de investigar en el colectivo y contribuir a la
edición de material técnico. Nuestro objetivo no ha perseguido mostrar
una verdad absoluta, pues valoramos como imposible semejante misión,
sino realizar una aproximación al ámbito de la prostitución masculina y a
un grupo de trabajadores sexuales en la ciudad de Madrid. Las
conclusiones de este estudio nos permitirán implementar mejoras en el
programa de atención a TMS que promuevan desarrollar nuevas acciones
dirigidas a la prevención del VIH/sida y otras ITS en este colectivo.
Belza MJ (2005). Risk of HIV infection among male sex workers in Spain. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 81: 85-88. PDF Download. In this study we analysed all male sex workers who visited HIV testing clinics in 19 Spanish cities between 2000 and 2002. The information was obtained during examination by means of a brief questionnaire. For repeating testers, only the last confirmed result was taken into account. 418 male sex workers were included in the analysis; 58% visited these clinics for the first time and 42% were repeating testers. 67% were of foreign origin, mostly from Latin America (91%). 96% had had sex with men, 18% were transvestites or transsexuals, and 3.3% had used injected drugs. HIV prevalence was 12.2% (95% CI, 9.3 to 15.8%), and rose to 16.9% among first time testers. No differences in HIV prevalence were found between injecting drug users, transvestites/transsexuals, and men from foreign countries.
Prevención del SIDA y apoyo social en la Prostitución Masculina (2006, Translation):
Proyecto de ámbito nacional financiado por Ministerio de Sanidad
y Comunidad de Madrid y realizado por Fundación
Triángulo. - La Policía desmantela en Badajoz la primera red de prostitución masculina (2006, Translation). - Desarticulada la primera red de prostitución masculina detectada en la región (2006, Translation). - Sanidad financia en Málaga un programa piloto con hombres que se prostituyen (2007, Translation):
"El trabajo de campo realizado por la asociación Ojalá ha
permitido establecer contacto con 120 chaperos que ejercen en la
capital y en Torremolinos Más del 80% son inmigrantes y la
mayoría manda dinero a sus esposas e hijos." - Prostitución masculina en las Islas (2006, Translation):
El perfil de los trabajadores masculinos del sexo en Tenerife es el de
un varón español, que ejerce en un piso privado o a
domicilio y no está explotado. - Decide-T
comienza a desarrollar un programa de prevención de VIH/SIDA en
prostitución masculina y transexualidad en Alicante (2006, Translation): La
Asociación Decide-T de lesbianas, gays, transexuales y
bisexuales de Alicante desarrolla, en colaboración con la
Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gays, Bisexuales y Transexuales
(FELGT), un programa de reducción de daños y
prevención de VIH/SIDA enfocado al mundo de la
prostitución. Este programa está subvencionado por el
Ministerio de Sanidad. - Polícia desmantelou rede de prostituição masculina na Espanha (2006, Translation):
"Em uma operação em setembro, batizada de Amazônia,
a polícia espanhola desmantelou a primeira quadrilha acusada de
explorar a prostituição masculina de heterossexuais no
país..." - Three from four transsexuals that are prostitute in Spain are Latin American (2007).
USUARIOS DE PROSTITUCIÓN MASCULINA: En 2003, la Asociación Stop sida y la Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida realizaron un estudio, el "cuidate.info", con el objeto de recoger información relativa a las conductas sexuales de hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres que permitiera mejorar los abordajes y los mensajes preventivos a utilizar en ediciones posteriores de la campaña "Cuídate"13 . Se presentan algunos datos relativos a 71 hombres que pagaron por los servicios sexuales que les prestaron otros hombres. Características sociodemográficas El 8,4% (71) de los participantes en el proyecto cuidate.info refirieron haber pagado para mantener relaciones sexuales con otros hombres. De ellos, el 94,3% era residente en España: el 38,6% en Barcelona, el 21,4% en Madrid, el 15,7% en Valencia y el 18,6% en otras provincias. El 17,1% tenía un país de origen distinto a España. El 38,6% vive solo y el 55,1% refiere haber completado estudios universitarios.
82 hombres ejercen prostitución en Málaga (2003, Translation):
La Red Europea de Prostitución advierte de que jóvenes
trabajadores sexuales vienen a Málaga en época estival
para ejercer este trabajo... El 89 por ciento de los trabajadores
sexuales masculinos en la provincia son chaperos y el uno por ciento
gigolós. Por otro lado, el ocho por ciento son transexuales y el
dos por ciento travestis, según dicho estudio. Las edades van de
los 18 a los 30 años, en un 52 por ciento; menores de 20
años, en un 26 por ciento; y más de 31 años, en un
22 por ciento. Además, el 55 por ciento procede de
España, un 19 por ciento de países de América del
Sur, un 18 por ciento de Africa, sobre todo Marruecos, y un ocho por
ciento es de países de Europa del Este...
Belgium / Belgique: - A Bruxelles, les hommes se prostituent aussi (2010, Translation):
C'est une réalité peu connue à Bruxelles : celle des hommes qui se
prostituent. Ils sont environ 500 dans le cas, essentiellement dans le
centre-ville. Ces hommes ont entre 18 et 45 ans, et sont surtout
originaires d'ici, des pays de l'Est, et de l'Afrique du Nord. - Alias-bru.be : mieux connaître la problématique de la prostitution masculine à Bruxelles (2010, Translation): L’asbl ALIAS
a été créée en mai 2009 en vue de relancer un projet spécialisé de
prévention, de réduction des risques et d’accompagnement
psycho-médico-social adapté aux hommes exerçant la prostitution à
Bruxelles. En effet, depuis janvier 2009, plus aucun service de première
ligne ne prenait en compte spécifiquement la problématique et les
besoins des prostitués masculins dans la capitale alors qu’on estime que
près de 500 hommes y sont actifs, plus particulièrement en soirée dans
les ruelles et les bars au centre ville. Leurs conditions de vie
induisent des prises de risque, en particulier en matière d’IST/sida, et
les laissent souvent sans ressources pour y faire face, vu notamment le
poids des discriminations liées à l’activité mais également à
l’homosexualité, à l’immigration, etc. - ALIAS: Dans la Presse ( 2008-09, Translation). - Info-SexWork (Translation): Male Sex Workers.
L’invisible prostitution masculine (2012, Translation): van Erps, Noémie (2012). L’invisible prostitution masculine. PDF Download. Translation. Le public prostitué est très hétérogène et diffère fortement selon les lieux de prostitution. La plupart des hommes prostitués à Bruxelles sont d’origine maghrébine (40%) et d’Europe de l’Est (40%), tandis que ceux travaillant à Liège sont majoritairement d’origine belge2. Le profil des prostitués actifs sur le net est quant à lui peu connu en raison de l’anonymat que le virtuel permet et des différents pseudonymes utilisés par un même individu. Le public qui s’adresse aux prostitués est principalement un public masculin (contrairement à ce que l’imaginaire collectif laisse supposer). La prostitution masculine est donc généralement associée à l’homosexualité. Les quartiers concernés par la prostitution masculine sont majoritairement situés en périphérie des quartiers homosexuels. La clientèle féminine est quasiment inexistante (sauf cas très rares) dans le cadre de la prostitution masculine.
Prostitution masculine de rue: Ne plus se voiler la face (2009, Actualité: Le Journal du médecin, Translation):
Depuis le début de l’année, il n’existe plus de projet
psycho-médico-social destiné spécifiquement aux hommes prostitués à
Bruxelles. Or ce segment de la population est très vulnérable et mal
informé à tous le niveaux. Avec deux asbl partenaires, Diogènes et
Ex-Aequo, des travailleurs sociaux d’Alias continuent néanmoins
d’assurer une présence discrète en rue dans les lieux de racolage. - Beaucoup d'hommes louent leur corps: Selon la nouvelle ASBL Alias, ils seraient 500 à se prostituer à Bruxelles (2009, Translation):
On estime à 500 le nombre d'hommes qui se prostituent à Bruxelles. Sur
base du dernier rapport de l'ASBL Adzon, ces hommes sont majoritairement
de jeunes adultes. 41 % de ceux rencontrés par le personnel de l'ASBL
sont d'origine maghrébine, une grande partie (40 %) sont originaires
d'Europe de l'Est et principalement de Bulgarie. Enfin, 14 % des jeunes
rencontrés étaient belges. "Il n'y a pas un profil mais bien des
parcours de vie multiples de ces jeunes qui se prostituent. Certains le
font pour des raisons économiques. C'est là un moyen de récolter non pas
facilement, mais rapidement de l'argent. Ceux-là ne sont pas forcément
homosexuels mais vendent leur corps, souvent pour aider leur famille
restée au pays. D'autres sont homosexuels et trouvent dans la
prostitution une raison pour justifier justement cette homosexualité.
D'autres ont atterri à la rue de par leur parcours, le milieu précaire
d'où ils viennent,...", nous précise la psychologue, Myriam Monheim.
Sans Domicile Fixe: Errances Homos (2007, Translation):
Rupture familiale après un coming-out, il n’en faut pas plus pour que
de jeunes homos se retrouvent à la rue. Là commence la galère, les nuits
sans dormir, la prostitution occasionnelle pour certains. Homos et SDF,
une association méconnue mais pourtant bien réelle. Témoignages en
France et en Belgique.
Leuridan E, Wouters K, Stalpaert M, Van Damme P (2005). Male sex workers in Antwerp, Belgium: a descriptive study. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 16(11): 744-748. Abstract. PDF Download.
Prevalence of STI is concordant with published data on MSW; this
population clearly requests and deserves particular attention and
approach. There is an important difference in sociodemographic and
behavioural characteristics between MSW working in the red light
district and those working on the street. Health promotion should be
tailored to the different subpopulations and outreach appears to be a
Boysproject (History): une organisation sociale Anversoise au profit de garçons et d’hommes travaillant dans la prostitution. - Male Prostitution by ENMP. - Belgium Network: Male Prostitution (To 2007). - AMOC-DHV Report (1999): "Sex workers can be devided in different categories. Socially there are three levels. At the highest there are the so-called escort-services. Good looking and intelligent boys are available for exquise parties. A second level includes the add-workers. Through adds in different kinds of newspapers clients are sollicitated. At the lowest level we find the street (parks, parkings, Shop Galleries) and bar prostitutes. On streetcorners and in bars clients can make their choice... ADZON is the only organisation that works specificly with male prostitutes. In addition to the outreach-workat the places where the youngsters sollicit their clients, ADZON disposes of a drop-in center where the youngsters can meet each other or the the social worker." - Rencontre d'organismes belges actifs dans le milieu de la prostitution masculine N/A. - Country Report Belgium. -
De Place Fontainas A Gare Centrale,Quelques Centaines De Jeunes Gens Se Prostituent Argent Si Vite Gagne Et Si Vite Depense (1994, Translation):
La prostitution masculine n'est pas un phénomène nouveau. En tout cas
quand elle s'adresse aux hommes. Entre les deux guerres, le poète
américain Wystan Hugh Auden est venu à Bruxelles. Dans ses écrits, il
parle des beaux adolescents de la capitale qu'il payait 50 F la passe.
Alors que les études sur la prostitution féminine hier et aujourd'hui
abondent, il n'y en a pas sur la prostitution masculine. Quelques
témoignages, c'est tout. Et un mémoire de criminologie de J.-P. Lenoir
en 1971: «La Prostitution des mineurs dans le milieu homosexuel». Dans
son enquête menée en mai 1971, son auteur avait remarqué les jeunes en
attente du client entre la Bourse et la place De Brouckere, dans le
quartier des Riches-Claires et, vers minuit, au bois de la Cambre...
C'est difficile à chiffrer, admet Peter Sioen. À Adzon, nous avons des
contacts avec 223 jeunes. Un nombre auquel il faut sans doute ajouter
quelques dizaines de jeunes qu'Adzon ne touche pas, plus les prostitués
qui travaillent par petites annonces. Cinq cents en tout? La police les
connaît, ces prostitués. Elle fait parfois des contrôles de routine,
quand on a signalé un adolescent en fugue. Ou des descentes dans le
quartier quand un client se fait agresser. Bien sûr, les garçons sont
répertoriés, estime Françoise Nicaise. Mais jusqu'à quel point? En tous
cas, ils sont reconnus comme tels par les policiers. Si bien que
certains qui quittent la rue s'entendent apostropher: Alors, on ne fait
plus la pute? ...
Gabiam K, Piechowski C (2011). Les prostitutions masculines à Bruxelles. Les Cahiers de la Fonderie, 44: 66-71. PDF Download. Translation. La prostitution masculine est aussi ancienne que la prostitution féminine. Entre fantasmes et réalités comment situer cette prostitution masculine à Bruxelles de nos jours ? Nous avons interviewé des acteurs de terrain à savoir Alias asbl, association bruxelloise de travail de rue dans le milieu de la prostitution masculine; SOS Jeunes, intervenant dans l’aide aux mineurs; Genres Pluriels, association destinée aux genres fluides, trans’ et intersexes. Nos nombreux questionnements ont abouti sur de riches échanges notamment avec les intervenants sociaux de Merhaba asbl, association par et pour des LGBTQI2 originaires du Maghreb, du Moyen-Orient et de Turquie. L’article proposé part donc d’une synthèse des enquêtes menées auprès de ces divers acteurs du terrain bruxellois. Nous avons limité le champ si vaste d’un tel sujet à trois axes : les acteurs, les modes d’entrée et les lieux de prostitution masculine à Bruxelles...
Deligne C, Van Criekingen KGM, et Jean-Michel Decroly J-M (2006). Les territoires de l’homosexualité à Bruxelles: visibles et invisibles. Cahiers de géographie du Québec, 50(140): septembre: 135-150. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page. Translation.
Brussels has recently seen the emergence of a Gay Village in an area of
the inner city known as the Saint-Jacques district. Based on empirical
studies, this article investigates the nature of this new kind of space,
increasingly common in Western cities, for homosociability. It also
tries to position the phenomenon within a wider geography of homosexual
territory on a city-wide scale. The study highlights the contrast
between a concentration of visible marks of homosexual presence in the
inner city (such as bars and associations), particularly in the
Saint-Jacques district, and a wider spatial diffusion of more
heterogeneous and less visible types of homosexual territory in urban
- Mannelijk sekswerk: dubbel gestigmatiseerd (2007, Translation):
"Waar vrouwelijke prostituees al met een scheef oog worden bekeken,
zitten mannelijke hoeren helemaal in het verdomhoekje.De heteroseksuele
mainstream zet homoseksuelen graag weg als seksueel pervers, maar ook
de gay scène houdt er vreemde ideeën over hen op na.
Mannelijke sekswerkers hebben verschillend strategieën om met die
dubbele stigmatisering om te gaan." - Homodok's "Prostitution"
Report (1997): "Working with boys in the prostitution was also in 1997
a fixed component of the work of AMOC/DHV. In that streetwork plays an
important role, inasmuch as most contacts are made in the street... Every
night boys come to these bars to tender sexual services to, usually much
older, homosexual men... The majority of boys in bar- and street-prostitution
are foreigners. Many of them come from Western Europe but since 1990 there
are also a lot of Eastern European boys, especially from countries like
Rumania, Czechia or Poland."
Sex Workers. - Male
Prostitution N/A. - Prostitutie en Gezondheidscentrum: Male Sex Workers:
Since 2009, the P&G 292 offers consults with nurses and social
workers for men. This allows you to be tested for STD/HIV, receive
hepatitis A&B vaccinations, and gather information and advice about
your (sexual) health. But you can also call on prostitution social
services, for: ...
van den Hoek JA, van Haastrecht HJ, Coutinho RA (1991). Homosexual prostitution among male drug users and its risk for HIV infection. Genitourinary Medicine, 67(4): 303-306. Abstract. PDF Download.
Of the 449 study participants, 88 (20%) reported a history of
prostitution; no differences were found between intravenous and
non-intravenous drug users. Younger age, West German nationality, and
having had private homosexual sex contacts, were independent predictors
of a history of prostitution. Independent predictors of HIV infection
were (1) longer residency in Amsterdam; (2) having had predominantly
homosexual private sex contacts; (3) longer duration of intravenous drug
use; and (4) frequent needle sharing. No evidence was found to suggest
that male prostitution in itself contributed to the risk of HIV
van Gelder, Paul (2005). Hoe jongens in de prostitutie
beginnen. PDF Download. Translation. (Artikel geschreven op verzoek van het Informatiepunt Jeugprostitutie,
TransAct, Utrecht. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op hoofdstuk 4, paragraaf
3, in: Paul van Gelder, Kwetsbaar, kleurig en schaduwrijk. Jongens met
prostitutiecontacten: een verschijnsel in meervoud. Amsterdam:
Thela-Thesis, 1998.) Hoe beginnen jongens met zo’n beladen bezigheid,
zeker als ze weinig ophebben met mannenseks? In de literatuur, de media
en de politiek dringt deze vraag zich regelmatig op de voorgrond om dan
weer te verdwijnen in de schemering.1 In het antwoord broeit de
verdachtmaking tegen ploertige heren die zich beijveren om naïeve
jongetjes het circuit in te lokken. Zijn jongens beneden de 18 jaar dan
worden ze veel te vanzelfsprekend voor slachtoffer gehouden. Afgaande op
de steekproef van een uitgebreid veldonderzoek dat in de jaren 1995 -
1998 naar jongens in de prostitutie werd uitgevoerd in Rotterdam, Den
Haag en, in mindere mate, Amsterdam is de dominante visie op beneden
18-jarige jongens met prostitutiecontacten te vooringenomen. In dit
artikel zullen we bovendien zien, dat beginnende jongens niet te vangen
zijn met een simpel waarom, waar en wanneer.
Cheng L, de Die L, de Kroon E (2012?). Just Business? The Unknown World of Male Prostitution in the Netherlands. Full Text.
The vibrant Red Light District in Amsterdam is one of the most
important, but also one of the most controversial tourist attractions in
the Netherlands. On all but two small streets, women sell their bodies
for sex. In the Barndesteeg and the Bloedstraat, one can find
transgender or transsexual prostitutes. Men are nowhere to be found
behind windows. Instead, they operate in parks, gay bars, gay clubs,
chat rooms and illegal brothels. Male prostitution is hardly discussed
in the Netherlands, but it is out there – in every province, region and
city. It is therefore important to raise awareness about the existence
of these boys and men. During our quest to paint a picture of male
prostitution in the country, we were often surprised by the helpfulness
of the community even while being shocked about some of the details of
the business. Male prostitution is characterized by three major taboos.
First, receiving money for sex is not generally accepted (from either
male or female clients). Second, homosexuality is still stigmatized. And
third, men are not “supposed” to be the victims of prostitution or
sexual abuse, which often leads to their not seeking professional help
when they need it (Repetur, 2011). Telephone calls, emails, face-to-face
interviews, and visits to gay bars and dating sites such as bullchat.nl
provided us with the information for this report. Here, we will discuss
two cases which represent the extreme ends of the spectrum for male
prostitution in the Netherlands. On websites like bullchat.nl,
gayromeo.com, gay4chat.nl, one can easily find men who want to have a
“paydate”. The majority of this group work voluntarily, and are not
solely dependent on income from these practices. It is very easy to get a
paydate through one of these websites. Chapter 2 will elaborate more
about the phenomenon of paydates and chat rooms. Unfortunately, illegal
brothels also exist. Little is known about these private houses, where
predominantly foreign boys are forced to work as prostitutes.
Chapter 3 will describe how the Utrecht police deal with male
trafficking and illegal prostitution. We have found that the majority of
male prostitution is voluntary. Most of these sex workers are not
dependent upon the money that they earn by performing sexual acts. Even
those forced to work in illegal brothels began on a voluntary basis. One
of our most valuable findings was is that the internet plays an
important structural role in the broadening the range of male
prostitution in the Netherlands. Chapter 4 summarizes its crucial
impact. Whereas a small group of men offer their services in (gay) bars
and clubs, the vast majority seek customers through the internet,
including men who work in illegal brothels...
Our new production is "The Prostitution Plays". Four strong short plays
performed consecutively in three hours of powerful, shocking theatre. Film
Shows: "The plays explore the lives of young Eastern European men living
and working illegally as prostitutes in Amsterdam. Set in the public spaces
of a male brothel, a street bar, an hotel suite and Amsterdam's Central
Station, young men of four different Eastern European cultures give us
an insight into their experiences of life in "freedom city". Czech, Polish,
Romanian and Russian, each have their own history, and each their own responses
to the realities that face them here." - Aputheatre
(Wikipedia): In 1998 Aputheatre’s two founders, John Roman Baker and
Rod Evan moved to Amsterdam, where a creative relationship was
established with COC Nederland, a Dutch organization for LGBT men and
women. The company initially developed four strong plays which
explored the sub-culture of prostitution among young East European men
living in Amsterdam. 'The Prostitution Plays' together with a later
production omophobia have charted the evolution and demise of male
street prostitution in Amsterdam that has occurred at the beginning of
the 21st Century. - The Prostitution Plays - 2008 - by John Roman Baker.
van Veen MG, Götz HM, van Leeuwen PA, Prins M, van de Laar MJ (2010). HIV and sexual risk behavior among commercial sex workers in the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual behavior, 39(3): 714-723. Abstract. PDF Download. In 2002-2005, a cross-sectional study to assess the potential for HIV transmission was carried out among 557 female and male-to-female transgender commercial sex workers (CSW) in three cities in the Netherlands. Female CSW (F-CSW), drug-using female CSW (DU), and transgender sex workers were recruited in street-based and establishment-based sites. An anonymous questionnaire was administrated by interviewers and a saliva sample was collected for HIV antibody testing. The overall HIV prevalence was 5.7% (31/547; 10 samples were excluded because of "intermediate" test results). HIV was more prevalent among transgender (18.8%, 13/69) and DU (13.6%, 12/88) sex workers than among F-CSW (1.5%, 6/390). Of the HIV positive CSW, 74% were unaware of their infection. Consistent condom use with clients was 81%. Regular condom failure with clients was reported by 39%. In multivariate analyses, transgender sex workers (OR = 22.9), drug-using CSW who ever injected drugs (OR = 31.1), African (OR = 19.0), and South European ethnicity (OR = 7.2) were independently associated with HIV. Condom failure (PRR = 2.0), anal sex (PRR = 2.1), and drug use (PRR = 3.8) were associated with inconsistent condom use with clients. There is a potential risk for further spread of HIV, through clients and (private) partners of sex workers, to the general population. Targeted health promotion activities are indicated for transgender sex workers and drug-using female CSW; active HIV testing must be continued.
/ La Suisse - ASS : La prévention dans le contexte de la prostitution masculine (2009, Translation): Même
si la prostitution masculine est légale depuis la révision en 1992 des
dispositions du Code pénal en matière d’atteinte à l’intégrité sexuelle,
elle demeure l’un des grands tabous de notre société. Son existence est
pourtant une réalité : des hommes proposent leurs services sexuels dans
des lieux de rencontre, bars, clubs ou saunas, publient des annonces et
passent de plus en plus souvent par le truchement d’Internet... Tous
les hommes s’adonnant à la prostitution ne connaissent pas forcément les
problèmes évoqués ci-dessus. Un grand nombre d’entre eux travaillent de
manière très professionnelle, n’en souffrent pas et passent inaperçus
dans la société en dehors du cadre de leur activité. Toutes les grandes
villes suisses connaissent un milieu de la prostitution masculine, dont
chacun a ses spécificités en matière de taille, composition et
stabilité... Les objectifs centraux du projet sont de favoriser un
comportement de prévention en ce qui concerne le VIH/sida et d’autres
maladies sexuellement transmissibles. - Une nouvelle prostitution masculine itinérante (2012, Translation):
Les travailleurs sociaux zurichois notent l'arrivée, par vagues, de
garçons d'Europe de l'Est. L'activité clandestine de ces derniers est
particulièrement difficile à suivre au niveau sanitaire. «Auparavant,
c’étaient des hommes jeunes qui venaient seuls d’Amérique du Sud ou
d’Asie et qui proposaient leurs services sur la scène homosexuelle. A
présent, nous remarquons de plus en plus que des groupes importants
surtout d’Europe de l’Est. Ils restent deux semaines à Zurich et se
déplacent dans une autre ville», explique Benedikt Zahno, du Groupe sida
Zurich, au «Tages-Anzeiger». Les travailleurs sociaux s’inquiètent de
ce nouveau phénomène. Ils n’ont ni le temps ni les moyens d’instaurer un
rapport de confiance avec ces nouveaux travailleurs du sexe afin de
remplir leur mission de prévention.
Le monde pas très rose de la prostitution au masculin (2012, Translation):
Un essai examine les relations entre les escorts et leurs clients, en
marge de la scène gay de Zurich. Un milieu dont on parle peu, mais qui
n'est pas exempt de détresse, de honte et de haine de soi, raconte
l'auteur... Un monde caché et complexe, échappant aux regards du grand
public: il en va ainsi de la prostitution masculine dans le milieu
gay... Le travail d’Olivier Demont se singularise par l’intérêt qu’il
porte aux clients, dont les biographies sont souvent marquées par une
«double vie» ou coming-out tardif. Dans une interview à la «NZZ am
Sonntag», il cite le cas d’un peintre en bâtiment de 58 ans, marié et
père de famille, visiteur régulier d’un sauna de Zurich officieusement
spécialisé dans la prostitution. «Il ne veut rien avoir à faire avec la
scène gay, dont il parle avec mépris, explique le journaliste... Malgré
tout, les rapports prostitué-client sont loin d’être uniformes. «Bien
des clients développent vis-à-vis de l’escort le fantasme qu’ils peuvent
le sauver, parfois il se voient aussi comme une sorte de père, raconte
Olivier Demont... L’impression que la prostitution masculine est une
activité relativement peu problématique par rapport à la prostitution
féminine est trompeuse, note Olivier Demont. Le proxénétisme et
l’exploitation seraient monnaie courante. Les Brésiliens, notamment,
seraient soumis à la location de chambres à prix d’or. Des jeunes
hétérosexuels venus d’Europe de l’Est pour se prostituer forment une
population encore plus précaire. «Ils trouvent les Suisses gentils, mais
parfois ils éprouvent aussi de la haine – contre leurs clients, contre
eux-mêmes, contre tout.
Männer kaufen - Unterwegs mit Strichern und Kunden in Zürich: Ein Porträt- und Reportagenbuch - 2012 - by Oliver Demont, Walter Pfeiffer (Translation) (Review: Le monde pas très rose de la prostitution au masculin (Translation):
Un monde caché et complexe, échappant aux regards du grand public: il
en va ainsi de la prostitution masculine dans le milieu gay. Le
journaliste alémanique Olivier Demont a consacré à cette «sous-culture»
un essai qui vient de sortir en Suisse. Il s’est intéressé à Zurich,
qu’il qualifie de «hot-spot» pour cette activité, attirant des
travailleurs du sexe de toute l’Europe et d’Amérique latine, du Brésil,
surtout. D’après des estimations, ils sont 700 hommes à proposer leurs
prestations, principalement dans les saunas de la ville et via internet. - Suisse : la face cachée de la prostitution masculine (2012, Translation).
Une nouvelle prostitution masculine itinérante (2012, Translation):
Les travailleurs sociaux zurichois notent l’arrivée, par vagues, de
garçons d’Europe de l’Est. L’activité clandestine de ces derniers est
particulièrement difficile à suivre au niveau sanitaire. «Auparavant,
c’étaient des hommes jeunes qui venaient seuls d’Amérique du Sud ou
d’Asie et qui proposaient leurs services sur la scène homosexuelle. A
présent, nous remarquons de plus en plus que des groupes importants
surtout d’Europe de l’Est. Ils restent deux semaines à Zurich et se
déplacent dans une autre ville», explique Benedikt Zahno, du Groupe sida
Zurich, au «Tages-Anzeiger». Les travailleurs sociaux s’inquiètent de
ce nouveau phénomène. Ils n’ont ni le temps ni les moyens d’instaurer un
rapport de confiance avec ces nouveaux travailleurs du sexe afin de
remplir leur mission de prévention. - La prostitution masculine en augmentation à Genève (2011, Translation):
Le nombre de prostitués masculins augmente dans le canton. L’an passé,
l’association locale de défense des travailleurs et travailleuses du
sexe, Aspasie, est effectivement entrée en contact avec près de 200
nouvelles personnes pratiquant cette activité. Un chiffre deux fois plus
important qu’en 2009. Mesurer l’ampleur du phénomène reste néanmoins
difficile: le milieu de la prostitution masculine est moins visible que
celui des femmes. L’an passé, les travailleurs sociaux de l’association
ont rencontré des travailleurs du sexe masculin à près de 500 reprises.
Au total, ils sont entrés en contact avec 189 nouveaux prostitués,
contre 94 seulement l’année précédente. «Cet accroissement est dû à une
nette augmentation du nombre de nouvelles personnes actives dans la
prostitution masculine sur le territoire genevois mais aussi en Europe»,
précise le dernier rapport annuel d’Aspasie.
N/A: (1998, This is a downloading file)
- "Le projet Herrmann existe déjà depuis plus d'un
an dans la métropole alémanique. Zurich rassemble en ses murs
près de lamoitié de la prostitution masculine de Suisse,
soit entre 800 et1200 hommes. (Zurich has about half of the male prostitutes,
at about one thousand.) - Report N/A
- "Sex workers can be put in different categories. Socially we distingish
three levels: · Home working boys and boys working in escort-services
· Boys working in clubs (brothels) · Boys working in
gay bars, discos and saunas · Boys working on the street."
- Evaluation Summary: MSW: Male Sex Workers (2000, PDF Download):
The project "Male Sex Workers" (MSW) is aimed at male prostitutes with
male clients. It aims to encourage male prostitutes to adopt safer sex
practices in order to avoid sexually transmitted diseases The project is
managed by the Swiss Aids Federation under contract with the Swiss
Federal Office of Public Health. The project is now in operation in 4
major cities in Switzerland; Basle, Berne and Zurich since 1996 and in
Geneva since 1999. At a local level, the project is organised by private
organisations working under contract with the Swiss Aids Federation
which, in turn, co-ordinates the overall project at a national level.
Activities are mainly street-work-based, providing information,
counselling and support. Zurich has also set up a meeting point with
de prévention contre le sida, le projet Herrmann aide les prostitués.
Entretien avec Herbie Ammann, son responsable (2001, Translation): De plus en plus de prostitués masculins choisissent d’exercer leur profession. Comment ce phénomène s’est-il développé? La
société a progressivement toléré la prostitution, d’abord féminine,
puis masculine. Qui est de plus en plus considérée non seulement comme
un service mais un travail à part entière. Le phénomène des sex workers
s’est développé dans la plupart des grandes cités, sauf peut-être en
Suède, où la prostitution est aujourd’hui totalement illégale... - Projekt
"Male Sex Work" (To 2007): Information for sex workers (PDF Download): "Male Sex Work" (MSW) s'adresse
aux hommes qui pratiquent la prostitution homosexuelle." - Male
Prostitution. - Male Sex Work (2003, Alternate Link, Translation):
"Dazu gehört das nationale Projekt "Male Sex Work”. Es richtet
sich an männliche Sexarbeiter und deren soziales Umfeld (Kunden,
Partner, Partnerinnen). Das Projekt MSW ist in den Städten Basel,
Genf, Luzern und Zürich aktiv. Die Aids-Hilfe Schweiz arbeitet
dabei mit lokalen Partnerorganisationen zusammen."
Le service Male Sex Work (Genève), projet de l’association Aspasie (Genève), réalisé avec le soutien de l’Aide Suisse contre le Sida. Malesexwork est une antenne d'information et de soutien pour les travailleurs du sexe masculins. Le service Male Sex Work Genève est un projet de l’association Aspasie réalisé avec le soutien de l’OFSP.
et fier de l’être: "Garagistes, étudiants, des hommes
choisissent délibérément d’entrer dans la prostitution.
Rencontre avec ces travailleurs du sexe qui considèrent leur corps
comme une petite entreprise... Cette image comme figée dans le temps
reflète une part majoritaire de la prostitution masculine. Pourtant
depuis quelques années la scène du sexe tarifé vit
une révolution. Dans les grandes villes de Suisse et d’Europe, des
hommes engagés dans la vie active choisissent délibérément
de quitter leur métier pour entrer dans la prostitution. - Evaluation Male Sex Work MSW.
- Helping Berlin's Male Prostitutes One Night at a Time
(2007): In Berlin, as in most major cities, boys and young men from as
young as 14-years old work the curbs, sex cinemas and gay bars of the
German capital. The fact that the rent boys of Berlin barely register on
most people's radars led to the creation of an association in 1992 to
help those in prostitution. The employees of "Sub/Way" visit the
districts of Berlin where the boys work and supply them with condoms and
advice on how to be safe on the streets. Once a week, the Sub/Way team
loads their van up with condoms, lubricants, sexual health pamphlets,
instant soups and hot chocolate before entering the dark underbelly of
the German capital... Some 80 percent of male prostitutes in Berlin are
not native Germans, most coming from Bulgaria and Romania, and Sergio
Prinalski, the Sub/Way translator, helps the social workers to interact
with these boys. - Vi racconto la vita da prostituto (2013, Translation): In Germania le storie di chi fa la vita per fuggire alla povertà.
Interview With 'Rent Boys' Director: 'Every Person Has Value, No Matter What They Do' (2011): Following its premiere at the recent Berlinale, "Rent Boys" will be released in Germany. The documentary about male prostitutes in Berlin reveals old structures of discrimination in Europe. Director Rosa von Praunheim spoke to SPIEGEL ONLINE about the importance of narrating the young men's stories without resorting to cliché... "Rent Boys," or "Die Jungs vom Bahnhof Zoo," tells the story of five young male prostitutes in Berlin and shows how the streets of the German capital have changed over the last three decades. The documentary by director Rosa von Praunheim was well received when it premiered at the 2011 Berlin International Film Festival, which has long been committed to showcasing the best of queer film. Some of the men are gay, some straight. Three are Roma, two are German, but the only real common denominator is that they grew up in disadvantaged circumstances -- and wound up working the neighborhood around Berlin's Zoo Station, long the main focal point for male prostitution in the city...
Germany Legalized Prostitution in 2002 – Has it Helped?
(2011): Germany legalized, decriminalized and regulated prostitution in
2002, and since then, it has remained a highly controversial topic. The
new documentary by German director Rosa von Praunheim, Rent Boys, (Die
Jungs vom Bahnhof Zoo), explores the lives of five male sex workers
working in and around Berlin’s Zoo Station. It aims to bring to light
the brutal realities of a “profession” that many fall into, often at an
early age. The film’s release gives us a good opportunity to examine how
and why Germany legalized prostitution — and whether or not it’s
benefiting society. Critics of the prostitution law feared that it would
only increased human trafficking, drawing sex-trafficking rings from
Africa and Eastern Europe. According to German police, however, the
number of cases of human trafficking reported in Germany actually
decreased from 1235 cases in 2003 to 710 in 2009.
Support and assistance to male sex workers – the example of the BASIS-Projekt (Hamburg) (2005, Word Download):
What is important is that in this group of male prostitutes, there are
also many socially disadvantaged persons with a multitude of social
problems, who at the same time operate in a field that is the subject of
stigma at various levels (prostitution and homosexuality), and who are
therefore in need of a help programme specifically designed for their
needs. The project started out as an agency that provided counselling
and drop-ins and outreach work in the male sex worker zone. In
1990 and 1992, due to the great demand for night shelters, the project
facilities were extended in the form of two night shelters for male sex
workers. The three work areas in the BASIS-Projekt – Outreach Work,
Drop-ins, and Night Shelters – are expanding in scope and are closely
integrated with each other. In the meantime, nine social workers have
joined the project.
Sexual conduct and sexual identity in clients of male sex workers (1992). - Reaching Out: Male and Female Sex Workers - Durban, 10 July 2000 N/A: "Recent research has indicated that lower or working class men who have sex with men are three times more likely to be HIV positive than middle or upper class men. This proved a starting point for Bochow’s presentation of risk exposure and risk management strategies among gay male sex workers in Germany. From interviews with both call boys and hustlers, the author was able to replicate the findings of others: that the differences found in regard to HIV and safer sex practices were similar in these two groups as in a groups of lower and upper middle class gay men." - Pieper, R., Identity Management in Adolescent Male Prostitution in West Germany, from International Review of Modern Sociology, Vol. 9, July-December 1979, pp. 239-59. - Country Report Germany. - Male Prostitution N/A.
promotion for male sex workers: results from an evaluation of the five
projects in Germany for male prostitutes (2000): "The average age of clients
receiving services is 21; over 80% are from lower-class or working-class
families; 52% have not completed schooling; at least 38% are homeless;
only 53% are gay-identified; and 10-20% (in one city 80%) are HIV positive.
An estimated 40% of clients are non-Germans, most from Eastern Europe."
National Report on HIV and Sex Work: Germany (2007). PDF Download.
Transgender and male sex workers: Only around 4% of those working in
the sex industry are male, and only 3% transgender. Among male sex
workers, 75% are migrants, mainly from Central and Eastern European
countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia).
They work mainly in bars and clubs. Among transgender sex workers, 85%
are migrants, mainly from Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) and
from Latin America (Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru). Most of them work in
apartments and brothels, but some also work in bars. Asians work
increasingly in massage parlours.
Gille, Christoph (2007). Romanians and Bulgarians in Male Street Sex Work in German Cities: A comparison between their perceptions of living conditions in the countries of origin and in Germany as an example for a broader European migratory pattern. Master's Dissertation, Comparative European Social Studies, Metropolitan University London. PDF Download. PDF Download. This thesis explores migratory patterns of Bulgarian and Romanian men who travel from their countries of origin to Germany and earn money in male sex work. The social organizations for male street sex workers in five German cities encounter annually around 1300 Bulgarians and Romanians in male sex work scenes, the group accounts for 55% of their entire clients. Further sources indicate that this group of migrants can be found in other parts of Western Europe as well. Therefore, and due to the highly flexible traveling behavior of the men themselves, the examined pattern is not limited to Germany, but described as a broader European phenomenon. On the basis of ten semi-structured interviews with Bulgarians and Romanians in two German cities, the author compares the men’s perceptions of their living conditions in the countries of origin and in Germany to find out about basic motives and benefits concerning their migration. Three main motives to migrate appear: the escape from severe poverty, the search for ‘a little bit big money’ and the flight from a homophobic background.
Castañeda H (2013). Structural vulnerability and access to medical care among migrant street-basedmale sex workers in Germany. Social Science & Medicine, 84: 94-101. Abstract. PDF Download.
This article discusses health concerns of migrant street-based male sex
workers (SMSW) in Germany, a population that remains underexplored by
health and social scientists. It is based on five months of ethnographic
research in 2011/2012, including 46 semi-structured interviews with
physicians, social workers, health department staff, and SMSW from
Romania and Bulgaria. This is supplemented with annual reports by
organizations providing assistance to this population in eight cities.
The article contributes, first, an analysis of the increase in migrant
SMSW as a response to economic opportunities (freedom of movement across
European Union borders) and constraints (transitional measures
restricting access to the labor market). It seeks to move beyond the
myopic association between sex work and HIV to contextualize health
risks as resultant of macro-level processes associated with migration.
Second, the article contributes a summary of primary health concerns for
this population. Especially troubling is their lack of access to
regular medical services, reflecting a socio-legal position that often
resembles that of unauthorized migrants rather than European Union
Angels But Angels
is a documentary about male prostitution in Prague (1994). - GayWatch:
Film - Not Angels But Angels (2004, Translation). - PopcornQ
Movies. - Rent boys: Sex workers living on society's edge (2004, Alternate Link):
"Kevin began prostitution at 16 while still in school. His first client
was a family member of his teacher. Prague's main train station
Prague's main train station He quit three years ago because he couldn't
get enough clients. He looked too old to compete with the more
sought-after teenagers. And since he is Roma, he says prospective
clients feared him because of negative Gypsy stereotypes. They thought
he intended to rob them... etr started late compared the other male
prostitutes. Mr. Sumegh says the average age at Project Opportunity is
17. The prostitutes there say some boys start as young as 11... " - HIV/AIDS in the Czech Republic (Word Download):
"Male prostitutes are most often young (17 years old on average).
The triggering factors leading to prostitution are likely to be
financial difficulties and rejection from one’s family.
Prostitution can appear as an easy short-term solution for a young man
seeking to emancipate himself – but many find it hard to stop.
While the vast majority are Czech citizens, the number of foreigners
(Slovaks, Ukrainians and Hungarians) is increasing constantly and many
originate from the Roma community." - Rent-Boys, Barflies, and Kept Men: Men Involved in Sex with Men for Compensation in Prague (2007).
Bisexual identity and psychological distress in a sample of Czech male sex workers
(2014): This study examined a sample of male sex workers (N=40) on a
range of demographic, sexual, and psychological variables using a
quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The results indicate that
working as a prostitute per se has little impact on the psychological
functioning of these young men, but only in the case where they identify
as either heterosexual or homosexual. However, for those who identify
themselves as bisexual, they suffer significantly more emotional
distress, engage in more hypersexual and risky sexual behavior, and more
frequently have problems with drugs and alcohol. Homosexuals are
engaging in orientation congruent sexual behavior, and heterosexuals in
economically validated behavior, but for bisexuals, it seems that
working as a male prostitute makes the process of developing a sexual
identity more complex and distressing.
- From OutUK (2008): "Male prostitution is prevalent in Hungarian gay
places, but not really professional." - Male
Prostitution in Budapest Hungary: Hustlers, Clients (1999). - Gay Hungary - It's Not Easy to Understand
(1999): Male prostitution is prevalent in Hungarian gay places, but not
really professional. While young Hungarians do expect to make a profit
from selling their favors, they often do not perceive themselves as
hustlers, per se. Homelessness and a lack of self-protection concerning
HIV are the reasons why the AIDS Foundation Ovegylet set up an outreach
project to help Hungarian and Rumanian boys involved in prostitution.
But that project, named "Bad Boys," is having problems raising money for
a shelter that would provide independent quarters for sleeping,
showering, washing and other necessary services for these street boys,
most of whom are, in fact gay. The Bad Boys project is distributing
condoms and lubricants and doing whatever else they can.
risk behavior among male sex workers in Budapest, Hungary (XIV International
AIDS Conference, 2002): "A total of 469 men who have sex with men surveyed
in Budapest gay community venues in 2001... We analyzed separately the
sub-sample of 80 males who exchanged sex for money.... High-risk behavioral
practices were common, about 40% of men engaged in unprotected anal intercourse
at least once in the past three months. With respect to the past year,
41% said that they had female partners."
Romania: - TV Executive and Dozens Others Arrested in Romanian Male Prostitution Row (2011): Almost 30 persons, among which a German citizen and a TV executive from Bucharest have been taken into custody on Thursday, in connection with a male luxury prostitution ring. Zender Klaus, a German national living in Romania for 11 years, is accused of organising the encounters between gay men and male prostitutes – meetings attended, among others, by a journalist and a football player. Prosecutors claim that young men and boys would be brought to a villa in Snagov, close to Bucharest, to entertain other gay men in all-out orgies. These parties would take place on week-ends, mostly, fact confirmed by several neighbours who claim to have seen lots of men coming and going from the house.
Orphans (1996): Although she does not like to speak of it, Alina,
like many other boys and girls, became a prostitute at the station. Some
of the children around the Gara du Nord are as young as eight or nine
when they begin having sex for payment. One pimp for young boys is
Marian, nicknamed Blondie, a tall, fair-haired, 22-year-old male
prostitute who lives on cardboard in a bathroom stall in the station's
public toilet. Both Romanians and foreigners buy his services, he says.
"Some like the 13- to 16-year-olds," he says. "Others like the 18- to
20-year-olds. I hang around with the [younger] kids." The men, he says,
pay them the equivalent of $1.50 to $3. Alina is paid about the same.
"If I am hungry, what to do?" she says in English.
- An Interview
with Zbigniew Halat (1992): "Young boys of 10 or 12 hang around outside buses
from Germany offering sex for very little money." - Male sex work in Polland
(2008): Men sell sex to men in parks (Szczecin,Warsaw), streets (
Warsaw ), saunas (Warsaw, Poznan), public toilets, brothels (Gdansk,
Sopot, Gdynia,Warsaw) which offer commercial male sex to women and men,
railway stations where the supply increases before arrival of
international trains. Other places for selling sex are gay restaurants,
discos (dark rooms) and erotic cinemas. Customers, who prefer a more
anonymous and private setting react on adds in several newsapapers and
magazines. - Male
Prostitution by ENMP.
Sweden: - Sweden:
ILGA Eruroletter - "According to press reports Swedish parliament
recently passed a law (re-) criminalizing (homo-)sexual relations against
payment (punishing those who pay for (homo-)sexual contacts)." - Swedish
cleric caught having sex with a male prostitute. - Male
Prostitution by ENMP. - Les jeunes Suédois plus portés sur la prostitution masculine (2012, Translation): On a beaucoup de mal à comprendre pourquoi les jeunes garçons sont plus nombreux que les jeunes filles. - Nine Cops and a Male Prostitute Caught Pants Down (2009).
Report: "Male sex- workers
offer sex to men on the street, parks, in railway stations, bars, massage
parlours, but also through telephone sex lines, through advertisments in
newspapers or through escort services. Male prostitutes offer sex to women
in cafeterias, in stores, bars and restaurants, through advertising or
through escort services."
prostitution in Latvia (2001): "The Men’s Health Association, working on HIV
and AIDS-related projects surveyed and interviewed approximately 800 men
who provide sexual services for money un a three year period between 1998
and 2000... Both service providers and clients, in around 70 per cent of
the cases, engage in heterosexual behaviour in their everyday live (Dr.
Arturs Vavere, Antons Mozalevskis, 2000)... Men who provide services to
men. This is a much larger and more varied group of prostitutes... The
lowest level is made up of minors at the age 13-16... Young men for whom
prostitution is work – these are men who are usually between 17 and 24
years old... “Sunday prostitutes” are young men aged 16-22... Those
who are looking for sponsors [19-22 years old] – young men who are trying
to improve their living conditions by finding and making use of permanent
clients... The highest level of prostitution – elite prostitutes... “Little
tricksters” makeup specific category – these are young men ages 14-17 who
seek out wealthy and more or less well-known men. They purposefully seek
to engage the men in sexual activities, then blackmailing them..."
Estonia: - Male Prostitution
(Must Scroll): Male prostitution in Estonia is quite more hidden and
taboo issue in mass media and society. It is no estimation how much
young men work in sex business, even work in abroad. In Estonia it is
mostly concentrated in capital and can be divided on four main parts...
Lithuania: Tereskinas, Arturas (2011). Sexuality, Social Marginalization and Wounded Masculinity: A Male Sex Worker’s Case. Kultura Ir Visuomene: Socialiniu Tyrimu Zurnalas, 2(2): 37.54. Download Page. PDF Download.
The paper is based on an extensive semi-structured interview with a
27-year old male escort. The interview demonstrates that the Lithuanian
sex worker both confirms and deconstructs the traditional male sexual
script of erotic adventures (Gagnon and Simon 1973, 1984). On the one
hand, he plays an active role both in sexual and non-sexual encounters
and tries to look and act like a real man aspiring to the institutional
gender script of hegemonic masculinity. On the other hand, he minimizes
the risk in dealing with clients by not engaging in an unsafe sex,
declining unwanted sexual practices and rejecting drugs. Besides
pleasant memories of his generously paying clients who bolstered his
sense of self, the escort is susceptible to societal condemnation,
stigma, and self-doubt because he clearly considers his work as a
conscious deviation from sexual and gender norms. Othering himself, the
respondent expresses a subjective feeling of hopelessness and
powerlessness that makes him miserable. Both powerlessness and the lack
of imaginable future create a sense of his wounded and injured
Republic of Georgia: - Secrecy and risk among MSM in Tbilisi, Georgia (2009): Many
participants reported engaging in some form of sex trading. Sex
trading among MSM was reported to be common, particularly among
economically disadvantaged men, many of whom come to Tbilisi in search
of work:.. Two focus groups with six men each and 18 individual in-depth
interviews were conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. The
study participants described a Georgian culture that is largely
intolerant of sexual contact between men. In describing the various
forms of discrimination and violence that they would face should their
sexual identities be discovered, the MSM in this sample described a
variety of behaviors that they and other Georgian MSM undertake to
conceal their sexual behavior. Many of these could put these men and
their partners at risk for HIV.
- HIV risk behavior and risk-related characteristics of young Russian men
who exchange sex for money or valuables from other men. Kelly JA, Amirkhanian
YA, McAuliffe TL, Dyatlov RV, Granskaya J, Borodkina OI, Kukharsky AA,
Kozlov AP. Aid Education and Prevention, 13(2):175-88 (Abstract). - HIV risk behavior and risk-related characteristics of young Russian men who exchange sex for money or valuables from other men (2001). - Predictors
of HIV risk behavior among Russian men who have sex with men: an emerging
epidemic (2001). - Russia military to investigate alleged male prostitution of conscript soldiers (2007). - Russian soldiers 'used for sex' (2007). - Sex Slavery And Male Prostitution Plaguing Russian Army (2007, Alternate Link). - Sex Slavery And Male Prostitution Plaguing Russian Army (2009). - 'In different situations, in different ways': male sex work in St. Petersburg, Russia (2013).
Baral S, Kizub D, Masenior NF, Peryskina A, Stachowiak J, Stibich M, Moguilny V, Beyrer C (2010). Male
sex workers in Moscow, Russia: a pilot study of demographics, substance
use patterns, and prevalence of HIV-1 and sexually transmitted
infections. AIDS Care, 22(1): 112-118. Abstract. PDF Download.
The Russian federation has been undergoing a concentrated epidemic of
HIV-1 with high rates of infection among injecting drug users. Less is
known about the relative risk and contribution to the country's HIV
epidemic by other at-risk populations including sex workers and men who
have sex with men. The goals of this project were to explore demographic
characteristics, substance use patterns, and estimate the prevalence of
sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high-risk behaviors among
male sex workers (MSW) in Moscow and to assess the feasibility of
prospective cohort recruitment and retention among this population.
Research design was a longitudinal study of 50 men with a six-month
follow-up period. Participants were recruited through venue-based and
snowball sampling methods. Results revealed an HIV prevalence at
baseline of 16%; one MSW seroconverted during the follow-up period,
yielding an incidence estimate of 4.8/100PY (95%CI 0.0-11.2).
Twenty-four percentage were diagnosed with at least one STI: 12% had
syphilis; 8% had Human Papilloma Virus (HPV); and 4% had Herpes Simplex
Virus (HSV)-2. Three (6%) of the study participants had evidence of
previous Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) exposure at baseline. Retention rates
were poor with higher retention significantly associated with older men
(OR: 13.1, 95% CI 3.3-52.5). This was the first study to evaluate
baseline demographics, substance use patterns, and prevalence of
infectious disease among MSW in Moscow. Identification and recruitment
of this population appears to be feasible, but retention a challenge.
While the sample size in the current study was small, the results also
suggested that this is a population at considerable high risk for HIV.
MSW in Moscow may be an important at-risk population in the Russian HIV
epidemic and further research is urgently required to address their
needs and explore prevention strategies.
Maksimov AM, Holmogorova AB (2011). Social and Psychological Aspects of the Phenomenon of Male Prostitution in the Modern Culture. Cultural-Historical Psychology, 1: 80-89. Abstract:
The article presents results of the psychological study of men who have
commercial sex with men (MSM CSW). This paper investigates traumatic
experiences, personality pathology, life histories and parental images
of MSM CSW. The sample consisted of 36 MSM CSW from Russia and developed
Western countries. Age of participants ranged from 14 to 20 years.
Objectives of the study: general review of the study group based on the
examples of Russian and Western respondents, composition of the
phenomenological and clinical portraits of the typical representative of
this group. Methods used in the study: qualitative semi-structured
interviews and a questionnaire on dysfunctional beliefs in the
borderline personality disorder. Results: about 65 % of respondents
suffer from the borderline personality disorder and all of the
respondents have severe traumatic histories; 80 % of the participants
report facts of physical or sexual violence in childhood or adolescence.
The specifics of parental images of MSM's were shown in the study.
to the edge: Trannies in Turkey: Gays, transsexuals are on the fringe of
the Muslim nation, working only as prostitutes: "About 3,000 transvestites
and transsexuals are thought to live in Istanbul. Most are prostitutes
who ply their trade on the back streets of Beyoglu, the city's honky-tonk
nightclub district, or along one of the major highways leading out of the
city... Homosexuality, deeply problematic in most Islamic cultures, also
has enjoyed a special niche in Turkey.Cwltikci, or "pretty young boys,"
were prized in the harems of the Ottoman sultans... For most of Turkey's
transvestites and transsexuals, the only way to earn a living is through
prostitution. Their clients are generally closet gays who find that the
most convenient way to have a sexual encounter with another man is to pick
up a transvestite. "If they are caught, they can say, 'I made a mistake,
bye-bye.' Or, 'I was drunk, I didn't know, bye-bye,'" Kilic said."
Nocturnal queers: Rent boys’ masculinity in Istanbul (2010): Recently, ‘rent boys’ have become increasingly visible in the queer social spaces of Istanbul. They come from impoverished areas of the city and engage in compensated sex with other men. In this article, I examine how these heterosexually identified rent boys assemble and perform exaggerated masculinity in order to negotiate the tensions between their local socially excluded environments and an burgeoning western-style gay culture while they conduct their ‘risky’ sexual interactions with other men. Exaggerated masculinity repairs and masks the subverting effects of compensated sex for rent boys’ heterosexual subjectivities and makes them closer to the hegemonic ideals of masculinity. Through intense participant observation and 20 recorded interviews with rent boys and their clients, this study demonstrates how rent boys perform an assiduous self-governance through symbols and implicit meanings vis-à-vis different and contradictory class positions, gender identities, and sexual acts.
Greece: - Male Prostitution Trial Begins in Athens (2001). - Male Prostitution by ENMP.
NORTH AFRICA / MIDDLE EAST
/ Maroc: - Témoignages sur la prostitution masculine au Maroc (2011, Translation):
Ce phénomène urbain appelé aussi "business du sexe" prend de plus en
plus d’envergure, et il se vit en toute liberté chaque jour à Casablanca
et dans d’autres villes du Maroc, comme Marrakech, Tanger, Essaouira ou
Agadir... - Les hommes prostitués sortent de l'ombre à Casablanca (2012, Translation): Selon une enquête parue sur le site d'Afrik.com, les hommes
prostitués n’hésiteraient plus à s’afficher de plus en plus dans les rues de
Casablanca à la recherche de clients potentiels. - Maroc : immersion dans le monde des hommes prostitués (2012, Translation) - Prostitution masculine: Les travailleurs du sexe (2007, Translation, Alternate Link):
Un reportage de "La Gazette du Maroc" au sujet de la prostitution
masculine au Maroc... Ce qu’il faut savoir aussi, que pour les hommes,
il y a deux types de travail, celui qui cache un problème d’ordre
psychologique : le type est homosexuel et pour justifier son acte, il le
fait pour l’argent, genre : « je ne suis pas homo, je le fais que pour
l’argent ». Ce sont là, des jeunes qui peuvent s’en sortir facilement.
Mais il y a aussi ceux qui le prennent pour un véritable métier. Les
jeunes louent des appartements comme c’est le cas à Marrakech où le
phénomène est répandu, ils quittent leurs familles par peur, par rejet,
parce qu’ils ont été menacés par les leurs et travaillent de façon
régulière. - Prostitution au Maroc (Translation).
Prostitution masculine: Les travailleurs du sexe (2007, Translation, Alternate Link):
urbain qui prend de plus en plus d’envergure,
la prostitution au masculin se vit en toute liberté chaque jour
à Casablanca et dans d’autres villes du Maroc, comme Marrakech,
Tanger, Essaouira ou Agadir...Jeunes adolescents, moins jeunes,
homosexuels convaincus ou candidats hétérosexuels aguerris au tapin
nocturne sur quelques artères des grandes villes, ils fréquentent aussi
les boîtes de nuit, des cabarets, des bars et des hôtels où ils ont
leurs entrées. Dans ce milieu, la violence sous toutes ses formes est
monnaie courante. Coups, blessures, agressions, abus sexuels, viols,
proxénétisme primaire, vengeance… C’est le lot quotidien d’une partie de
la jeunesse marocaine livrée à elle-même et à l’insouciance et au
je-m’en-foutisme. De plus en plus, le phénomène de la prostitution masculine s’intensifie au Maroc. Reaching
Out: Male and Female Sex Workers - Durban, 10 July 2000 N/A: "In a study
of 172 men interviewed in the parks, cafes and squares of Morocco, Boushaba
found that male sex workers lacked knowledge about HIV and AIDS. As with
the Russian Federation study, this sample indicated that they lived in
an environment of economic instability. This was one of the reasons why
they were unable to negotiate prevention methods. The Moroccan men in this
sample were highly likely to have recently engaged in anal sex (97%), and
were equally as likely to report knowledge of condoms. However, only 57%
reported that they used condoms only occasionally or never at all." - Outreach-Based
Prevention in Morocco Among Men Involved in Prostitution: "Prostitution
is principally an urban phenomenon, more visible in the large cities frequented
by tourists. However, it would be erroneous to view male prostitution as
being solely associated with tourism. There is indeed a form of prostitution
among Moroccans themselves which is also important, existing on the margin
of that for tourists. This phenomenon is known to exist even in smaller
cities, although to a lesser extent."
Prévention de proximité auprès des hommes impliqués dans des rapports de prostitution au Maroc (2000, Translation): "La sexualité entre hommes se place plus dans une problématique de «genre» plutôt que dans une problématique «d’identité sexuelle» telle qu’elle est conçue en occident. Une personne ayant des relations sexuelles avec des personnes du même sexe ne se définira pas pour autant comme homosexuelle; elle est «active» ou «passive», et c’est cela qui définit son identité. Ceci dit, il n’existe, du moins à notre connaissance, aucun concept qui désigne l’hétérosexualité ou la bisexualité dans l’arabe marocain." - Le SIDA et les homosexuels au Maroc (2001, Translation): "En l’absence de visibilité d’un milieu "gay" à l’image occidentale, disposant de ses propres lieux de rencontre, l’ALCS a décidé d’approcher le milieu de la prostitution masculine qui constitue la face la plus visible du vécu de l’homosexualité au Maroc. Les premiers contacts dans ce milieu, ont révélé que bien que clandestin, le phénomène de la prostitution masculine semble assez répandu."
Monheim, Myriam (2006). Destins de la prostitution masculine maghrébine. Agenda Interculturel CBAI, n° 239-240 – Janv./Fév.: 32-36. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page. Translation. A la lecture d’une pratique d’aide sociale spécifique, cet article interroge le destin individuel de l’homosexualité masculine, entre mort sociale, hétérosexualité imposée ou simulée, et prostitution... Nous ne procéderons pas à une analyse exhaustive de la sexualité dans la culture maghrébine : sujet bien trop complexe et bien trop vaste pour être traité ici (1). Il s’agira plutôt de mettre en lumière une lecture culturelle du vécu et de la conception de l’orientation sexuelle afin de percevoir toutes les souffrances individuelles. Notons que la société culturelle et religieuse maghrébine n’a pas l’exclusivité de principes moraux et de conduites homophobes (2). Les homosexuel(le)s occidentaux peuvent aussi être aux prises avec une souffrance, une détresse et une solitude très importantes.
Bousfiha S, Fdail M, Abdelhadi M, Owens C (2006). The Perception of Male Prostitution in Morocco. PDF
Download N/A. PDF Download. The
paper focused on male prostitutes dealing with male customers, since
they are the most numerous. Masculine sex work is not always hidden, but
the phenomenon is a taboo subject. It may be related to the Moroccan
context which is strongly masculine, an aspect which puts a veil on male
prostitution. In addition, the society is Muslim and highly attached to
its religious values and principles, which hinder free speech about
homosexuality. Data is scarce concerning this phenomenon because it is
kept concealed by those who benefit from it.
Destins de l’homosexualité masculine maghrébine (2004, Translation):
A la lecture d’une pratique d’aide sociale spécifique, cet article
interroge le destin individuel de l’homosexualité masculine, entre mort
sociale, hétérosexualité imposée ou simulée, et prostitution.
Tunesia: - Bezness: les conduites sexuelles et préventives parmi les travailleurs du sexe en Tunisie: "Dans de nombreux pays, y compris la Tunisie, le tourisme sexuel a entraîné l'émergence d'une nouvelle catégorie de travailleurs du sexe, les prostitués masculins (dragueurs, gigolos ou play-boys professionnels) qui agissent comme partenaires sexuels pour des visiteurs de sexe féminin ou masculin qui cherchent des expériences érotiques."
Egypt: - Hamada, Souad (2008). Men selling sex in Cairo and Alexandria: perspectives on male sex work and AIDS in Egypt. Master's Dissertation, The American University in Cairo. PDF Download Page.
A qualitative approach was used to study the etiology of male sex work
in Egypt and report on issues related to sexual identity,
sociodemographic characteristics, and work and HIV contexts of male sex
workers. Seven male sex workers aged between 17 and 37 were interviewed
in Cairo and Alexandria... In this study, sex workers mainly
identified themselves following the "feminine vs. masculine" pattern
where sexuality is defined according to the domination by or reception
of the penis in the sex act. Only one identified himself as 'gay'.
Different modalities of sex work were reported ranging between street
sex work and arrangement of sex through friends and regular clients by
mobile phones. However, most informants refused to consider sex work an
occupation and preferred to call it a "source of income".
Israel: Young Male Street Workers: Life Histories and Current Experiences (2005) . - The midnight cowboys of Tel Aviv
(2011): They come to Tel Aviv from all over the country − teens and
young men who were thrown out of their homes because they’re gay; in the
area around the old central bus station, they turn to prostitution to
survive... “There’s a lot of concealment on the part of men who
work in prostitution,” says Uri Eick, coordinator of the LGBT (lesbian,
gay, bisexual, transgender) division at the Health Ministry’s Levinsky
Clinic by the new central bus station, which focuses on the diagnosis
and treatment of sexual diseases. “Male prostitution is not out in the
open. You have to look carefully to identify them.” The shame attached
to prostitution is greater among men... “A lot of the clients are
married men and men who are still in the closet, and just like the male
prostitutes, they hide it and are ashamed of it.” ... “I make a lot of
money, but it all goes to pay off debts and to get by and to help my
parents,” says Jamil. “No one really manages to save money from
prostitution, and everyone wants to stop, but they can’t. After you get
used to this kind of money, how are you going to manage on just 3,000
shekels a month?” ... On their computer they have a farewell clip made
for a friend who committed suicide a few months ago. Pictures of the
handsome youth appear on the screen accompanied by music in the
background. “He was gay and his family didn’t accept it,” they say. “He
started working in prostitution and hated it. It depressed him and made
him commit suicide.” Michael’s expression turns gloomy. “I have suicidal
thoughts,” he says. “Sometimes I feel like my head is exploding with
them.” "We’ll commit suicide together, God willing,” Jamil teases him,
gives him a kiss and asks him to turn off the computer. “None of us is
really happy,” Jamil says.
‘You can do it from your sofa’: The increasing popularity of the internet as a working site amongst male sex workers in Melbourne (2013): The article also highlights the seemingly large numbers of men using dating websites who are casually propositioned online and may consent to such proposals, suggesting further research is required to ascertain the characteristics and experiences of those involved in informal sex work activity.
Sex Worker Outreach Project: "SWOP focuses on safety, dignity, diversity and the changing needs of sex industry workers, to foster an environment which enables and affirms individual choices and occupational rights."
AIDS Council of South Australia
Inc: The South Australian Sex Industry Network (SIN) is a program area of
the AIDS Council of South Australia and is funded as a health
promotion project that aims to support the current high standards of
sexual health among South Australian sex workers. - Out
of a group of 13 gay street kids who, by an early age, were being passed
around by abusive men, only 3 survived to the age of about 30 - most by
violent suicides, OD's, and AIDS (1997). - Exploring the Interpersonal Relationships in Street-Based Male Sex Work: Results from an Australian Qualitative Study (2007). - "Sex
Work' section in Gay and homosexually active Aboriginal men in Sydney:
Sex Practices (1996).
Male Sex Workers in Three Australian Cities: Socio-Demographic and Sex Work Characteristics (2001, PDF Download): This article describes the socio-demographic and sex work characteristics of sex workers in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. A total of 185 male sex workers completed the questionnaire component of the study. The results of this study serve to debunk many of the myths surrounding the popular view of the male sex worker (MSW). The respondents in this study were on average 27 years old, and the majority had completed secondary education, with 30% having gained some form of tertiary qualification. Interestingly, those MSWs who had not completed secondary education were mostly street workers and were generally aged under 25 years. The majority of sex workers lived in rented accommodation, with only 6% reporting to be homeless. Half of all respondents identified as being "gay," 31% as "bisexual" and 5.5% as "straight." More than half of the respondents were in a permanent relationship. Only 7.3% of this group reported using heroin daily, although the majority consumed alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and ecstasy. The majority of sex workers had been in the profession for less than six months, although some had been working in the industry for more than ten years. Most of the sex workers reported having taken an HIV test and a preference to offer safer sex. The article highlights ways in which the work context of MSW can be better understood and supported by education and public policy programs. - A profile of the clients of male sex workers in three Australian cities (1999).
Marsden: passing parade of names N/A: "Those sitting in the public gallery over the 136 days this matter has been running have heard a passing parade of names in connection with under-age sexual activities revolving around Costello's, a nightclub open in the '70s and early '80s where men went to pick up young boys for sex... Others named have included Mr Tony Shenkwin, Mr Joe (Josie) Westwood, solicitor Mr Trevor Beasley and the late Mr Tony Bevan. Yesterday, former journalist Mr Simon Davies was said to have been involved in a shelter for homeless children which he would use to procure young boys. And also getting a mention yesterday was Karl Malden, the American actor famed for TV's Streets of San Francisco and his later ads for American Express where he urges the viewer: "Don't leave home without it."
Many male prostitutes mature and educated, study shows (1999): "The University of New England study was based on the sexual encounters of 192 male prostitutes with 1,700 clients in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane." - Community Policing and On-Street Prostitution in the Kings Cross Police Patrol (PDF Download): The transsexuals prostituting themselves on-street in the Kings Cross Police Patrol area are usually aged around thirty¾considerably older than their female counterparts... The majority of adult male street prostitutes are younger than their female counterparts and their age range is between 18 and 26..." - Transsexual prostitution in New Zealand: Predominance of persons of Maori extraction (1984).
Project supports male sex workers (1999). "The goal of the new service is to provide male sex workers with the same resources currently available to female prostitutes working in the area. This means access to counselling and legal services and to health, safety, employment and educational advice." - SCARLET MEN: by male sex workers, for male sex workers.
Panel on Prostitution (PDF
Download N/A): Submission
by the West Australian Branch of the Australian Association of Social Workers
May 1990 - "Even though male prostitution may appear to be less frequent
in this State, it may merely be 'invisible' because it has not been subject
to nearly the same degree of control as applied to female prostitution
in this State: Acott & Hewett (1987)."
Ings, Welby (2003). Light
mannered men: a historical overview of male prostitution in New Zealand
[changes in the argot and nature of male prostituion in New Zealand:
Presentation at the “Going all the way” - an event to reflect on New
Zealand’s decriminalisation of prostitution in 2003, Wellington, New
Zealand. PPT Download. Download Page. Based on interviews and oral history
recordings of 50 men whose employment in the sex trade, or use of male
sex workers has spanned 85 years.
Ings, Welby (2011). Docker, Poofter, Rorter & Privates: A Historical Overview of Male Prostitution in New Zealand. PDF
Download. References: Ings, W. (2010) Trolling the Beat to
Working the Soob: changes in the language of the male sex worker in New
Zealand. International Journal of Lexicography. Vol. 23, (1) pp. 55-82. -
Ings, W. (due for publication Jan. 2012). Changes in Rent: a historical
metamorphosis of the New Zealand male prostitute. Women's History
Review. Routledge. UK.
Berg R, Bates J, Harcourt C (2011). South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Health Region Gap Analysis: 'At Risk' Sex Workers Report. Sydney, Australia: The HIV/AIDS & Related Programs Unit, South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra Health Region. PDF Download. Male Sex Workers:
Male sex workers make up a considerably smaller proportion of sex
workers overall than do females, and relatively few studies or sets of
data are available for this population. In the last century public
health concerns related to sex work concentrated almost exclusively on
health outcomes within the female dominated brothel-based industry but
in a recent national study published in 2010 one in six gay men reported
ever having been paid for sex and for 4.3%, this had occurred within
the last year. The population of male sex workers clearly overlaps the
priority population of ‘Gay and homosexually active men’ however some
male sex workers have exclusively female partners... Transgender sex workers:
Research has found that almost half of male to female transgender
people have done sex work and most of those who have worked from the
street, partly because change of gender can make earlier forms of
employment much more difficult to get. They experience highlevels of
discrimination and hostility in many contexts and this can become a
barrier toaccessing health services... While transgender sex workers are
more likely than female or male to do street-based sex work, a few do
work in brothels, which can be safer, and a few work privately. On the
night observed, most of the street-based workers using the safe house
were transgender... Transgender sex workers have specific sexual health
information needs and many have complex needs. Community based service
providers working with clients suggested that sexual health services
should take a more holistic approach to the health and wellbeing of
clients and be accessible at more convenient times. They also need to
feel safe from the curiosity and potential hostility of other service
clients... Male Sex Workers: Men who do sex work are a small
population, but one that tends to be at higher risk for HIV/STIs and
tends not to be in touch with sex worker organisations or sexual health
clinics. A few male sex workers serve female clients (and their issues
and information needs are different), but most male sex workers are men
who have sex with men. Sydney has had a tradition of male street-based
sex work at “the Wall” / Green Park in Darlinghurst, but very few men
still work from the street. A small number now work in a few brothels,
but the majority who identify as sex workers are private workers who get
their clients by advertising in gay or local newspapers and/or the
internet. Research has found that one in six Sydney gay men has at some
time accepted payment for sex91, which suggests that many more MSM do
sex work opportunistically, without necessarily identifying as sex
workers. These opportunities occur at sex on premises venues (SOPV) and
on gay social networking sites like Gaydar.com. While those who identify
as sex workers and are in contact with sex worker organisations and/or
gay community organisations are more likely to have safe practices that
protect them from HIV/STIs than other than other MSM with many partners,
those who accept payment as part of a pattern of sexual adventuring are
probably less likely to stick with safe practices.
Commercial Sex Between Men: A Prospective Diary-Based Study N/A (Full Text. Abstract / First Page) - by Victor Minichiello (Journal of Sex Research, May 2000): "The data reported in this study were collected using a diary which male sex workers (MSWs) completed after each commercial sexual encounter with a male client over a 2-week period... The instrument was developed after consultations with three sex workers' organisations: the Sex Workers Outreach Project (SWOP) in Sydney... The total number of sex workers who completed the diary over the 2-week period was 186.."
Beyer, a transsexual and male prostitute who shucked off her past to become Mayor of Carterton is now aspiring to become Wairarapa’s MP (1999). - Men sex workers and other men who have sex with men: how do their HIV risks compare in New Zealand? (2001) "We do find the sex workers to be different, however, in their being less likely to engage in safe sex practices. We provide an explanation for why this has not lead to their having a higher rate of seropositivity." - The Sex Industry in New Zealand: A Literature Review (2005). - New Zealand’s National Plan Of Action Against The Commercial Sexual Exploitation Of Children. (PDF Download). NZ: Child Prostitution in New Zealand (2002, PDF Download): "Of the 194 child prostitutes in the ECPAT NZ survey, 10% were 12 years old or under, 15% were 13 years old, 20% were 14 years old and 30% were 15 years old (Saphira, 2001). It was not known at what age they had started sex work. At least 21% were recorded as male but it is unclear whether some were transgender."
Young people more vulnerable to problems (Feb. 25, 2001): "In Fiji the number of young gay male prostitutes has also increased in recent years. Peter Sipeli, an activist with the Sexual Minorities Group in Suva, says that many boys who are rejected by their families turn to prostitution to survive. "Many young boys face total rejection from their families because of their sexuality. Their young age and their lack of life skills pushes them into prostitution," he said."
- Reaching out to Shanghai's sex workers: Leyi
(2010): Leyi reaches out mainly to Shanghai’s male sex workers, who
aren't as visible as their female counterparts. “We just want to create a
better environment for sex workers,” says Zheng. “They’re still people,
they have rights.” For those who might argue that an organization to
help those in an illegal profession do their work safely makes no sense,
Zheng answers, “Any industry exists because it answers a need. This is
the same.” ... While Leyi started out as an organization providing
services for the male sex worker population and transvestite sex
workers, in 2008 they responded to the requests of female prostitutes
and expanded to providing services for transvestites and female sex
workers as well. They steer clear of the 'hair salons' though, often a
front for brothel workers, focusing on those vulnerable solo female sex
workers who frequent parks and work the streets. “Almost no one is
paying attention to them,” Zheng says, “so they need our help.” - Comparative study of behavioral features of men sex workers with homosexual and bisexual orientations (2010). - China’s Male Prostitutes (2009): In his short video “China’s Male Prostitutes,” [Alternate Link]
Tom Bannigan interviews two male prostitutes and Tong Ge from the
Beijing Gender Health Education Institute in an exploration of the male
sex industry in China, From Current TV. - Transgression: Guangxi police surprised by cross-dressing prostitutes
(2012): Police in Nanning, the regional capital of Guangxi in southern
China, on Jan. 7 arrested 14 male prostitutes posing as women in the
city's Chaoyang marketplace. Authorities had been receiving complaints
about prostitution, gambling and robberies in the marketplace from
residents from last November. Almost 70 police officers raided the
marketplace on Jan. 7, finding many prostitutes with long hair and slim
figures soliciting on the street.
How Much Are China’s Male Prostitutes ‘Selling Smiles’ For?
(2010): There’s no material difference between what male sex workers
like Jo-Vanni Roman in the United States do, versus their counterparts
in China. But there, in cities like Shanghai, the vast network of “money
boys” is operated by fly-by-night websites and mobile phone numbers,
where out-call “massages” are offered for about USD$73 for a “quickie”
or $88 for the whole night. It’s a business of “selling smiles,” as it’s
known, and involves workers moving from one crowded house to another,
to keep clientele from viewing the offerings as stale. At least one pimp
claims to take only about $15 per service rendered, a decent fee
compared to America’s small businessmen. In a good month, prostitution
will earn a worker around $300 — about twice the national average for
all Chinese workers.
How Much Are China’s Male Prostitutes ‘Selling Smiles’ For? (2010): There’s no material difference between what male sex workers like Jo-Vanni Roman in the United States do, versus their counterparts in China. But there, in cities like Shanghai, the vast network of “money boys” is operated by fly-by-night websites and mobile phone numbers, where out-call “massages” are offered for about USD$73 for a “quickie” or $88 for the whole night. It’s a business of “selling smiles,” as it’s known, and involves workers moving from one crowded house to another, to keep clientele from viewing the offerings as stale. At least one pimp claims to take only about $15 per service rendered, a decent fee compared to America’s small businessmen. In a good month, prostitution will earn a worker around $300 — about twice the national average for all Chinese workers. - Gay life of a male prostitute (2010): He found office work boring so despite his well-to-do family background on the mainland, Daniel took up the sex trade. Ming Yeung reports. When Daniel, 33, decided to explore the gay world in 2000, he never thought he would eventually enter the oldest profession of mankind - prostitution. The medium-built and sun-tanned young man from Anhui province asked to be identified only by his first name and declined any photos, but he spoke candidly about his life as a sex worker, offering a rare glimpse into a common subculture that is being overlooked in modern society. Daniel claimed he was not sensitive to his sexual orientation when he was a boy. Driven by curiosity, he sought out gay photos online back in 1998, back when Internet access was still new to him. Soon he found some friends with similar taste. After about two years of nine-to-five office work in Shanghai, Daniel was bored. He decided to try a more exciting life. He uploaded his photograph to a compensated-dating website. His first customer soon appeared. It wasn't very glamorous. He was paid 1,000 yuan, a fair amount at that time. In 2006, Daniel arrived in Hong Kong seeking to ply his trade. He had already chatted with some potential customers on instant messaging services before setting out. Daniel arrives periodically on a 7-day permit. He attends up to five clients charging HK$600-800 each time. Daniel is pleased that he can earn a living in Hong Kong without a working visa. He works from hotel rooms. Sometimes he takes his customers to his hostel, where he pays HK$150 a day... Most male sex workers (MSWs), like Daniel, have chosen their vocation voluntarily. "I think men turn to prostitution for many reasons. But as far as I know, no one has done this against their will or owing to their financial backgrounds," Daniel said. "Some of them do it because they want to make more money, though." ...
Sexual Work and Its Public Policies in China (1997). - Hustling in China as reported in the 1983/89 book, Crystal Boys, which also supplies information about the world-wide phenomenon of boy-loving "sugar daddies". (Some Related Information) - Process and Development of Becoming Male Sex Workers in Chiang Mai Province (1998): "The sample group, 10 male sex workers working in gay bars in Chiang Mai Province, was purposively selected. The data were collected by participant observations, informal interviews and group discussions... the starting point of entering the sex worker profession was the youngsters' acceptance of the violation of social rules about sex... Since their sexual behaviors violated the social rules about sex of the main society, the youngsters had to learn to adapt to their new way of living. They learned to follow the rules and adapt to the culture of their "new" social group although their rules and culture were different from those of the main society. The youngsters learned to adapt themselves to the "new" culture through interactions with those with similar careers." - Hazards of male prostitution (2003). - Bar owner jailed 8 years for gay prostitution (2004).
Cai WD, Zhao J, Zhao JK, Raymond HF, Feng YJ, Liu J, McFarland W, Gan YX, Yang ZR, Zhang Y, Tan JG, Wang XR, He ML, Cheng JQ, Chen L (2010). HIV prevalence and related risk factors among male sex workers in Shenzhen, China: results from a time-location sampling survey. Sexually transmitted Infections, 6(8): e23431. Abstract. PDF Download. In total, 394 MSW were recruited for the survey. The prevalence of HIV and syphilis among these workers was 5.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Only a quarter of the MSW self-identified as homosexual. More than 70% had sex with both men and women. HIV-related knowledge levels were high regardless of HIV serostatus. Consistent condom use was low (37.1%) and varied by type of sexual partner. Factors including more non-commercial male partners, working in small home-based family clubs, being drunk before sexual intercourse, having a history of HIV tests, syphilis infection and a short period of residence in Shenzhen were associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. High-risk sexual practices were common among MSW regardless of their high level of HIV awareness. The working venues were associated with HIV infection and a recent test for HIV was a potential predictor of HIV infection. The time-location sampling method was found to be an appropriate way of recruiting MSW for this study, especially those without fixed working places.
Not a Juicy Story: Identity Management of Chinese Male Sex Workers (Travis Shiu Ki Kong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "This article contributes to both men's studies and the sociology of work by examining how male identity is reconciled in the context of commercial sex work, based on ethnographic research on Chinese male sex workers. Inspired by a post-structuralist turn in theories on gender and sexuality (i.e., queer theory), I argue that male sex work can be seen as a platform for male sex workers to experience polymorphous sexual desires and permit them to destabilize relatively fixed and mutually exclusive identities (e.g., men/women or heterosexual/homosexual) that are constantly held in check. A male sex worker fashions a work persona that navigates between the living embodiment of the client's fantasies, governed by a temporary contract set in monetary terms, and his own gender and sexual identities, confined under the constructs of (hegemonic) masculinity and (compulsory) heterosexuality, and resolves any conflicts that might arise from it. Male sex work should be seen as a contested and negotiated arena of power, and the male sex worker as a strategic identity that is subject to the interplay among personal biographies, culture and power." - Meng X, Anderson AF, Wang L, Li Z, Guo W, Lee Z, Jin H, Cai Y (2010). An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, PR China. AIDS Research and Therapy, 7: 17. PDF Download. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.
Ecumenical Pre-Conference: Faith in Action – Keeping the Promise - Plenary - Marginalized Groups and the Response to HIV (Word Download N/A):
"The prevention work has also been extended to male sex workers – in
China they are named as “Money Boys”. We pick up some relationship with
brothel owners so that we gain entry into the establishment to run the
prevention programme. Our peer educators are mobilised to distribute
materials, condoms and lubricants to the male sex workers. As I said
before, our effort has also been extended to female sex workers.
Similar to our work among MSM and also male sex workers we solicited
support from brothel owners and we trained up some peer educators to
help deliver the preventive education as well as the materials
including condoms. With all these years of continued effort among these
two socially marginalised communities, the CDC has successfully
established a very good and trustful relationship with them. Doctors of
the CDC are taken as friends – they have been invited to join the ping
pong or the basketball competition of the MSM groups. Our trained
female sex workers will initiate conversation with male sex workers and
refer them to the CDC for professional assistance."
‘Money boys’ become currency of pimps
(2005): Bing Bing is at the centre of the Dalian money boy world,
connecting hundreds of clients with more than 30 “children” on his
books. He says he keeps six of the best prostitutes as long-term
contractors, while the rest rotate through different pimps in town or
between different cities. This is a practice called “full-mooning”.
Insiders say up to 80 per cent of the money boys are not homosexuals but
poor young men prostituting themselves simply to make money. And there
is great demand for their services... A source from Shenyang says
Guangdong panderers sometimes go to the northeast to help meet demand
there. But he says that a new trend is that of southern pimps flying in
“well-trained, excellent” money boys directly from northeast China when
“the trade is too brisk” in Guangdong. “There is already a
well-developed employment market and professional agents for
prostitutes,” he said. Bing Bing said he did not keep tabs on the
whereabouts of the “full-mooned” boys. Rather than operating under the
guise of a sauna, massage parlour or karaoke bar, Bing Bing runs his
business by maintaining five apartments which also serve as workplaces
for the prostitutes... “My customers are from all walks of life,
including officials, police, university professors and businessmen. Some
only hire my ‘children’ because they trust me,” Bing Bing said with
pride. Mu Yang, head of the grassroots gay organisation Dalian Rainbow,
said customers tended to go directly through pimps such as Bing Bing to
hide their identities. Mr Mu said the clients feared being blackmailed
or threatened by the money boys if they hired them themselves.
Jeffreys, Elaine (2007). Querying Queer Theory: Debating Male-Male Prostitution in the Chinese Media. Critical Asian Studies, 39(1): 151-175. PDF Download. This article examines media publicity surrounding the case of Li Ning—a 34-year-old native of Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, who made legal history in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on 17 October 2004 when he was sentenced to eight years jail and fined 60,000 yuan for organizing male-male prostitution services in a recreational business enterprise. Reportedly the first conviction of its kind, the case proved to be controversial for three reasons. First, it prompted legal debate over the nature of China’s recent shift to a “rule of law” and associated conceptions of due legal process and individual and sexual rights. Second, it intimated that homosocial prostitution—male-male prostitution in which neither participant may self-identify as homosexual—is an integral but frequently neglected component of China’s burgeoning, albeit banned, sex industry. Finally, it raised questions regarding the perceived appropriate parameters of same-sex sexual conduct in a country facing rapidly increasing rates of HIV/AIDS infection. An examination of media coverage of these concerns suggests that accusations of official homophobia in the PRC are overstated: they elide the specificity of debates on homosexuality in present-day China due to their overarching concern withWestern understandings of sexuality as constitutive of selfhood and (rightful) sociopolitical identity.
Kong TS (2008). Risk factors affecting condom use among male sex workers who serve men in China: a qualitative study. Sexually Transmitted infection, 84(6): 444-8. Abstract. PDF Download. Between 2004 and 2005, 30 MSW were interviewed (Beijing n = 14; Shanghai n = 16). The MSW in this study were mainly single, young, homosexual, rural migrants with secondary education. None practised safer sex in their home towns. Until they migrated to big cities and entered the sex industry, they did not develop safer sex practices. They reported high condom use at work, but more than half of them (n = 17) had not been tested for HIV. Four factors, derived from the interviews and correlated to their rural background, sexual orientation and sex work identity, put MSW at risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI): incorrect AIDS knowledge; economic hardship; homosexual orientation and over-trusting in sexual relationships. MSW, a distinctive but often neglected group in both studies and sentinel surveillance among the MSM population in China, deserve special attention. There is not only potential for HIV/STI infection among the MSM population but also for infecting the general public. Education and prevention programmes should take their three major interlocking identities: rural migrant, sex worker and homosexual into consideration in social, cultural and economic contexts in China.
Ting, Ming-hao (2009). The study on the male to male sex workers in Shanghai China. Master's Dissertation, College of Commerce, National Chengchi University. Download Page.
After interviewing with the 15 MB, the author has learned more from
examining the circumstances of male-to-male sex workers (sex or sexual)
who are willing to engage in the male-to-male sex trade and also willing
to held a traditional marriage, from the three perspectives of their
sexual orientation, economic status and overall social environment. (A)
From the sexual orientation point of view. Among the male-to-male sex
workers (sex or sexual) in this study with the exception of one
participant who was a heterosexual, the majority of the participants in
this interview were all homosexuals staying in the closet. And many of
the MBs in the countryside share common formative sexual experiences
with other boys, such as sleeping together and masturbation…etc. In the
more densely populated countryside where living conditions are
relatively poor, it is quite common to see many boys sleeping together
in one room, thereby increasing the opportunity for the boys to develop
intimate contact. Therefore in light of their formative experiences, the
ways they grew up actually contributed to these MB’s acceptance of the
male-to-male sex trade. (B) From the economics point of view. All of the
research subjects had indicated that the main reason for becoming an MB
was to make money. Money became the focal point of these MB’s
lifestyles because they had grown up in very poor rural areas and
suffered from the pressures of an impoverished environment and unfair
society. For recently-graduated students from the rural areas, the
education which they have received at great expense is still not
comparable with those students graduated from the city. Moreover, China
is a social-networking or so-called “guanxi” in Chinese. Rural families
often find absolutely no connections to help them find jobs. As a
result, graduation spells unemployment. And consequently under great
economic pressures, many rural youths go to Shanghai in search of their
fortunes. However as they run into brick walls and run out of resources,
selling their bodies becomes an easy way to increasing their wealth and
a means of survival. (C) From the social environment point of view.
Chinese people have stepped away from communism due to the development
of capitalism. The emergence of the commodity economy society enables
people to pursue a material life and leave virtues of contented living
Tao X, Gai R, Zhang N, Zheng W, Zhang X, Xu A, Li S (2010). HIV infection and mental health of "money boys": a pilot study in Shandong Province, China. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 41(2): 358-68. Abstract. PDF Download. A pilot study was conducted in eight cities of Shandong Province, China to examine the seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis infection, and the mental health of "money boys" who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of the HIV-positive among money boys was 5.1%. Factors associated with the infection were having sex with women in the past 6 months (p < 0.05) and suffering STD-like symptoms (p < 0.01). The prevalence of syphilis was 10.2%. There were 77.2% participants engaged in such an occupation for economic survival. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among money boys was 46.6% and 68.1%, respectively. Heterosexual money boys were more likely to suffer from such mental symptoms. This study revealed the urgent need for interventions for HIV/AIDS control, together with mental counseling, targeting this vulnerable population.
Book casts light on hidden world of male sex workers (2007). - The Other Side of the Coin: Male Prostitution in Chiang Mai (2006).
Hong Kong: - More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry (2009). - Gay life of a male prostitute (2010): When Daniel, 33, decided to explore the gay world in 2000, he never thought he would eventually enter the oldest profession of mankind - prostitution. The medium-built and sun-tanned young man from Anhui province asked to be identified only by his first name and declined any photos, but he spoke candidly about his life as a sex worker, offering a rare glimpse into a common subculture that is being overlooked in modern society.- Interview with Ray Lam, Project Officer of Midnight Blue— a Male Sex Workers Mutual Support Network in Hong Kong (2010): In this interview, project officer Ray Lam, from the male sex worker support network/organization Midnight Blue, tells about the struggles of the male sex workers to achieve a better working environment for themselves. For the workers, breaking free of social pressures dictating how ‘men should be’ and of self-limiting definitions is an important pre-condition to their successful work as well as successful organizing and collective action.
Kong, Travis SK (2009). More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry. Deviant Behavior, 30(8): 715-745. Abstract. PDF Download.
Situated in the masculinity and deviance literature, this article
examines a “deviant” masculinity, that of the male sex worker, and
presents the ways men who engage in sex work cope with the job. Based on
in-depth interviews of Chinese male sex workers (n = 18) in the Hong
Kong sex industry, I argue that the stigma management techniques these
men employ are simultaneously gender strategies they use to accomplish
masculinity. It is through this process that they negotiate a masculine
identity within the hierarchy of masculinities in order to become
“respectable” and “responsible” Chinese men. - HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong
(2012): Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong
and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from
mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to
measure important work environment variables that might affect the
likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A
cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and
convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local
non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%,
54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral,
anal and vaginal sex, respectively.
Japan: - Growing male prostitution in Japan gets serious analysis on this documentary N/A. - Gay sex worker traffickers arrested: Police yesterday arrested a group of traffickers who allegedly recruited Korean men and transgenders and illegally transported them to Japan to work in the sex industry there...
- Briefing Note on Sexualities, Masculinities, Identities, Risks and Vulnerabilities in Bagladesh
(2010): Livelihood: Again, a large number of Kothis and almost all
Hijras are denied equal opportunities to earn their livelihood. This
also forces some kothis to leave home as they cease to be ‘productive’
because their feminization brings shame and ‘loss of honors’ to the
family. Lack of equal opportunity to earn livelihood forces some of the
Kothis and Hijras to become part/full time sex workers. However,
‘self-identified gays’ are rarely denied equal opportunity to earn their
livelihood. They face discrimination from colleagues and management if
they express their ‘sexuality’ or if colleagues ‘get to know’ about it.
Sawar S, Karmaker UK (2008). Assessment of Vulnerability of Boys: A Situation Analysis on Prostitution of Boys. Ghoramara, Balgladesh: Association for Community Development – ACD. Word Download. Download Page.
In the country, the issue of sexual abuse and exploitation of children,
especially commercial sexual exploitation of children is disclosed as
committing violence only on girls and women. But the extent and
diversity of sexual abuse and exploitation on boys are overlooked
seriously. A situational analysis on the prostitution of boys in
Bangladesh, conducted by ECPAT International and INCIDIN Bangladesh in
2004, indicated that young boys living on the street, migrant boys and
boys working as child labourers are especially vulnerable to sexual
exploitation. The research notes that the issues of male to male sex and
the taboos surrounding it have led to silence and indifference towards
sexual crimes against boys. The study also reveals that for many men
their first sexual experience with another male was forced. The same
study estimated that the average age of entry into prostitution was
around 12 years old, with many boys having been sexually exploited at a
much younger age, some as early as 8 years old (ECPAT, 2006, p-13). But
the study was conducted covering the areas of the two divisional cities
named Dhaka and Chittagong. The empirical and programmatic evidences
have revealed that the prostitution of boys is organized in a network
with separate languages within them in all spheres of the
country... Conceptual Framework of the Study: The study is a
situation analysis on the prostitution of boys assessing the
vulnerability of boys who are exposed to sexual abuse and sex selling
objects and targeted by exploiters. It has also focussed on exploitation
of boys committed solely by homosexual men in Kothi-Panthi framework.
It is clear that the issue of the prostitution of boys is a serious one
that has yet received the adequate attention by the government and
Prostitution (1999): Many
of Bangladesh's street children engage in prostitution and one-third of
the prostitutes are boys... - Bangladesh:
Revealing an Underworld Network: Male prostitution in Ramna
(1996): The Star however wanted to investigate a lesser known ring of
male prostitutes who have made Ramna one of their head-quarters...
Lahiry and Faraaz claimed that men of all social classes engage in
sexual encounters with one another at Ramna. From "bureaucrats to
university students and from truckdrivers to respectable officers
frequent Ramna to buy sex from the male prostitutes." Faraaz and Lahiry
informed the Star that every evening between 8 and 10 p.m. are the peak
hours of male prostitution in Ramna. Aside from the hijras there are
also transvestites (men dressed up as women) who operate in a different
space in the Park from the female sex-workers. There is an underlying
agreement between the two groups not to infringe upon each other's
space, activities or clients.
Perverted Sexuality, Physicians Panicky - Male Sex Workers and HIV Prevention (Dilruba Karim) (1999): "A good number from among these sex workers came to us for medical advice. On interrogation they informed that they were involved in regular practice of prostitution in various apartments and hotels. Most of these male sex workers are adolescents and youths... We have noticed many rootless children and teen aged boys in the city parks who are being used as sex workers... The newspaper report then continues with the case study of two male sex worker brothers who are deaf and dumb and are in their mid twenties." - Male sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Risk reduction through effective intervention (2001).
Bangladesh's gay prostitutes take a step out of the closet (2003): "But male sex workers are worried less about court action than about physical attacks. Many of the prostitutes are quickly singled out for being effeminate. Milan, 20, said he left home when his family learned of his orientation. After renting his first house on his own he was forced to move out when the owners also discovered his lifestyle. "My family did not accept my way of life as they noticed I was feminine and so I started prostitution to feed myself. What else could I do?" he asked. Milan said he has been beaten publicly -- and that the assailants would secretly come to him later for sex..."
forced to face sex taboos (Bangladesh, Arshad Mahmud). Sept. 21,
1999 South China Morning Post: South Asia Today: "It is not difficult to
find male "sex workers" in the city. Each evening they can be seen loitering
at busy intersections and parks that are well-known pick-up points... Incidence
began its work three years ago after conducting a study that revealed young
boys, mostly poor and homeless, were being increasingly used as sex workers."
Shadow Citizens: "In the Dhaka University dorms, cases of young
boys being kept as "regulars" are well known. Male prostitutes are available
in most towns. And in rural areas, homosexuality is generally considered
something that young people do for fun and some elders may do in secret."
Ali AKMM, Sarkar R (2006). The Boys and the Bullies: A Situational Analysis Report on Prostitution of Boys in Bangladesh. Ratchathewi, Bangkok: ECPAT International in collaboration with INCIDIN Bangladesh. PDF Download.
As these studies demonstrate, prostitution of boys in general is not a
new phenomenon. It has existed and been manifested in different ways for
a long time. In fact, the sexual exploitation of boys thrives in many
countries, taking place in locales such as streets, markets, bus
terminals, hotels, restaurants, religious places, etc. Thus these
studies in essence demonstrate and confirm that a large number of boys
living and or working on the street are victims of sexual exploitation
and they indicate that this phenomenon remains largely unreported,
under-reported or misreported... The legal framework at present does
little to provide any protection to the sexually exploited boys based on
the provisions of CRC (Article: 1, 4, 12, 13, 17, 19, 34 and 39),
rather it puts them at risk of being prosecuted under the sodomy act, if
they seek justice regarding sexual exploitation, at the court of law.
Surveillance Surveys (BSS) Bangladesh 1998 and 2000 (2001): "...60 percent
of hijra sex workers and 16 percent of male sex workers had been forced
into sex by police or street thugs the previous year... Among the 21 percent
of rickshaw pullers reporting anal intercourse in the past week, only 17
percent used condoms. A high proportion of the bisexual activity among
truckers took place with hijras who themselves report extremely low condom
use. Anal intercourse as a risk factor is not confined to male-to-male
sex; 46 percent of Dhala’s female street sex workers and 39 percent of
the brothel sex workers also report anal intercourse the previous week...
Male sex workers appear to be improving their levels of safer sex in response
to prevention programs." - Male sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Risk reduction through effective intervention (PDF Download):
In the first qualitative study, 316 MSM were recruited through personal
networks of 6 trained interviewers associated with a community-based
organization in Dhaka (the Bandhu Social Welfare Society, hereafter
called Bandhu). Of these, 47%, or 147 were MSWs, defined as currently
selling sex for cash. Gift exchanges were not considered commercial
unless cash was also involved as a mode of making a living... The
second study, which was the first wave of BSS, consisted of a
convenience sample of 407 MSM in Dhaka, of whom 207 were current MSWs
(defined as selling sex for cash within the past week). This was
obtained at 43 locations around the city during May, 1998. Most men
were interviewed at or near cruising sites (public locations at which
men can find potential sexual partners), such as parks and shrines..."
- The boy zone (2010, Alternate Link):
From gigolos to strippers, nautch dancers to maalishwalas, male
prostitution is becoming alarmingly common. However, it’s still a
phenomenon that’s pretty much swept under the carpet. - Male sex workers: are we ignoring a risk group in Mumbai, India? (2009):
The MSWs have high-risk behaviors, low consistent condom use, and high
STI/HIV infections. These groups should be the focus of intensive public
health interventions aimed at reduction of risky sexual practices, and
STI/HIV prevention and care. - Male professionals double as sex workers for extra income (2009). - Male sex workers in Mumbai to get training in vocational courses (2009). - Male sex workers in India (2009, PhotoPhilantropy).
- Understanding Male Sex Workers & Men That Have Sex With Men In India (Video). - On Becoming a Male Sex Worker in Mysore: Sexual Subjectivity, “Empowerment,” and Community-Based HIV Prevention Research (2009).
Secret sex workers: Inside the world of Mumbai’s exploited male masseurs
(2013): Estimates suggest 80% of Mumbai’s male masseurs come from
rural Mathura in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Historically, Mathura was a center for 'Akhadas' (wrestling schools). In
these all male environments massage is used in the schools to relax
muscle pain after strenuous practice. They live taboo lives — earning
rupees for rubdowns and often selling their own flesh for the right
price. Meet the male masseurs of Mumbai... But frightening the
boys doesn’t always dissuade them. He said his group is trying to use
the guarantee of a respectable job as a way to lure them away from the
massage trade. They have been able to help 159 boys get training
in other vocations, including automobile repair, plumbing and electrical
work. That’s in addition to the counseling and sex education regularly
provided to them. (Such outreach is unusual in a country where public
discussions of sexuality and prostitution are rare.) By empowering
them, the workers can gain something that means more than money.
“Dignity in life,” Thakur said, “which is the fundamental right of any
human being.” - Male Prostitution
(2013): In the safe anonymity and license of cities, boys walk the
whole plank of sexual offices – from plying as gigolos, escorts,
strippers, nautch dancers and call boys, but according to Samabhavana,
children and minors, especially those from impoverished rural
backgrounds, are most visible as ‘maalishwalas’. Their migration into
the city is seasonal, staying here through the festival calendar, and
returning home to meet the onset of farming. To their folk back home,
their sons’ occupations are ‘bare-concealed’ secrets. In the city, the
boys’ clients are tabled as men who have sex with men (including men who
don’t identify as gay); sugar mummies and daddies;wives of male clients
and visitors (businesspeople and tourists). “Many closet homosexuals in
conjugal situations employ masseurs for sexual gratification,” says
Jasmir. His non-profit outfit not only furnishes legal and medical
advocacy, but attempts to relocate the boys to safer environments of
work and living.
Gays, male prostitutes under police scanner (2004): Police have swooped down on dozens of male prostitutes and transsexuals catering to affluent gays in Delhi while probing the grisly murder of two young men that shocked the capital. - KABP study of male sex workers and masseurs in Mumbai Metro-India (XIV International AIDS Conference, 2002): "A total of 120 MSW`s were interviewed... Ever been forced to have sex with a man: 87% frequently forced. Conclusions: need to adopt safe sex practices, trained in condom negotiations skills. To develop a model for continuum of care for MSW and malishwalas who are HIV positive." - Reducing risk of STI/HIV among Male Sex Workers (MSW) and their clients and high risk males on and around truckstops in Mumbai (2002). - Male sex workers in Mumbai-Epidemiological and clinical study (PPT Download). - India (Self-) Imposed Marginalities: Geographies of Commercially and Sexually Exploited Male Children in Bangalore, India N/A (Word 97 Download, or access for download at Index Page N/A) - by Chandran Vinay and Balachandra Chandra Shekhar, The Indian Institute of Geographical Studies). - Out Of The Shadows (1997): Shunned by many, male prostitutes turn vocal and cry for acceptance.
of sexual coercion among street boys in Bangalore, India (2003, PDF
Download): "Older boys, 15 years and above, often force or entice younger
boys, some as young as 6 years old, to have anal sex. Younger boys are
afraid and upset when they are “forced”, but do not see how they can avoid
the older boys. The older boys threaten to beat them or ostracize them.
In many cases the younger boys are dependent on the older boys for protection.
Older boys also entice younger boys with money, food or empty bottles that
can be sold. They may also take them to a movie or give them “solution”.
Street boys hesitated to express fear, and some said that over time they
had become used to the idea of being forced. In one narrative, a 12 year-old
boy described how he is no longer afraid when boys “force” him. In his
own words:..." - Research by Samabhavana Society: K.A.B.P. 2001 - Study on male sex workers and massuers in Mumbai Metro (PDF Download
N/A). - 2003 - Sexual behavior of male sex workers & Masseurs with
their male/female clients/partners in Mumbai, Maharashtra (PDF Download N/A).. - 2005 - General survey of literature on the media construction of male sex work & masseurs in India (PDF Download N/A).
Male Sex Work in Chennai (2003: PPT Download):
"Since the male sex workers of low socioeconomic status could be
accessed more easily than those in middle and upper socioeconomic
status, this presentation mainly depicts the male sex workers of lower
socioeconomic status and especially those who identify as ‘Kothi’...
Clients of male sex workers: Almost all the clients of MSW belonging to
lower socioeconomic status are males. These male clients may be
upper/middle class gay men or men who have sex with men (with out any
identity). Rarely, MSW might be picked up by a couple (husband and
wife) to have sex with both. The male clients of MSW come from
different backgrounds – unskilled laborers, skilled (drivers, etc.),
professionals (doctors, engineers, etc.), celebrities of film industry,
etc... MSW usually says that they can able to separate ‘sex work’ from
their private lives. However many do not deny that they do ‘enjoy’
having sex with their commercial male partners too. Some MSW have
mentioned that if a client is good-looking and attractive, they might
‘charge’ lesser [lesser money] or even don’t ‘charge’ so that they
don’t loose that ‘client’... Wives/female partners of MSW: Many MSW
ultimately get married to a female and might continue with male sex
work either part-time or full-time. Female partners of MSW often do not
know that their husbands/lovers also have sex with males... All types
of sexual practices are practiced by MSW. Common: Oral sex and
masturbation. However, significant proportion also have anal sex
(receptive /insertive)... "
Mackay (2001). Sexual Health Of Males In South Asia Who Have Sex With
Other Males: Results of Situational Assessments in Four Cities in
India and Bangladesh (PDF Download): "A large number of the khotis, on average 40% across
the four cities, reported selling sex as a consequence of poverty. A smaller
proportion described themselves as a “male sex worker”. Frequency of sexual
transactions ranged from once per week to ten clients in one day. Khotis
reported that receptive anal sex was the most common request, although
they were occasionally asked to penetrate the client... Though not studied
in the assessments there were anecdotal reports of middle class “gay” sex
workers. They were described as seeking greater consumer purchasing power
and retaining a masculine identity. Of the 200 respondents in each city
62 reported being paid for sex in Hyderabad, 60 in Bangalore, 72 in Pondicherry
and 56 in Sylhet. The number of paid sex acts by all of these males in
the previous month totalled 10,493. The average number of paid sex acts
in the previous month per respondent who was paid for sex was approximately
40 in Hyderabad, 20 in Bangalore, 17 in Pondicherry and 106 in Sylhet.
Around 52%-54% of these acts in each city involved receptive anal sex.
Condom usage in the most recent 5 paid sex acts was reported as “never”
by 40% in Hyderabad, 34% in Bangalore, 92% in Pondicherry and 52% in Sylhet.
It was reported as “all times” by 12% in Hyderabad, 27% in Bangalore, 1%
in Pondicherry and 9% in Sylhet.
Lahiri A, Kar S (2007). Dancing Boys: Traditional Prostitution of Young Males in India.
Situational Assessment Report on Adolescents and Young Boys Vulnerable
to Forced Migration, Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation In India. PDF
Download. In India adolescents and young gender variant boys, male
with feminine demeanor that is effeminate males/ males with feminine
gender construction are victims of social stigma and gross human rights
violations, and as a result face serious barriers to joining mainstream
occupations. This has led to a situation where, in the absence of any
other alternative, many join the “hijra” (eunuch) community and undergo
illegal, secret and crude castration operations at great risk to their
lives. Anecdotal evidence puts the number of deaths due to castration at
50% of those operated upon by Dai, quacks and “surgeons” with
questionable credentials. In alternative they join the troop as a Luanda
dancer- the traditional dancing boys and migrate to Bihar and Uttar
Pradesh and in the name of dancing in the rituals forced into
prostitution and face brutal violence. Their livelihood option as Hijra
or as folk entertainers put them at grave risk of physical assaults and
violence, sometimes leading to death, sexual harassment, sexual abuse
and rape, other hate crimes and increasingly now, risk of HIV infection.
In spite of traditionally accepted but marginal social space from
ancient times and a visible presence during festivals, celebrations and
public ceremonies, this boys have never been recognized as a vulnerable
and at risk population with special needs with regard to basic rights of
survival, development and protection as laid out in the United nations
convention on the rights of the child (UNCRC).
Thappa DM, et al. (2008). Homosexuality in India. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases & AIDS, 29: 59-62. Abstract & Download. PDF Download.
According to Ashok Row-Kavi, a self-acclaimed homosexual activist, the
number of exclusively or predominantly homosexual men in India may be
over 50 million. A vast majority of them are married and living with
their wives. A culturally identifiable group known by the Urdu term
"hijra" lives in most parts of India and are known to depend, at least
partly, for their livelihood on working as male prostitutes. Most hijras
are castrated males and dress as females. In addition to a large
section of the hijra community, there are many full-time or part-time
male prostitutes in India. Some of them live in red-light areas of
metropolitan cities; many seek male clients by offering massage services
in parks, beaches, hotels, and houses. Male prostitution is
increasingly visible in India. In Delhi there are as many as twenty
"agencies" offering "handsome masseurs" in the classifieds of the
newspapers (Hindustan Times).
sex horror: Boys trained for sex trade. (Alternate link: Boys
trained for sex trade - 2002, Must scroll) "In a dimly lit room of a sleazy
hotel in Hikkaduwa a group of boys, the eldest not more than 14, wait patiently
for their names to be called. The children have come to the hotel mostly
of their own accord... So, sex between male and male is no big deal for
the local populace, and what's even more interesting is that it rakes in
huge sums of money..." - Sun-Surf-Sex
Tourism (1997): "However, the most injurious among the ill-effects of tourism
is the explosion of child prostitution. It is estimated there are over
5000 child prostitutes in Sri Lanka today, most of them boys in the 7 to
16 age group." - Sri
Lanka fishermen hooked on prostitution, people smuggling (Must
Scroll, 2001, Alternate Link). - by Amal Jayasinghe, Colombo. "I am of the view
that boy prostitution is associated with the decline of the coastal fishing
economy and the failure of the local economy to offer alternative
sources of cash income comparable to what was earned before. "Male prostitution
is an activity that brings this kind of income," the minister said at a
recent seminar here. - Male
prostitution due to fall in fishing economy (2001). - 40,000 child prostitutes in Sri Lanka, says Child Rights Group (2006). - Dance Ponnaya, Dance! Police Abuses Against Transgender Sex Workers in Sri Lanka (2010).
This bedtime story will wake you up!
(2008): I know we’re only halfway through 2008, but I’m prepared to bet
that Jake Oorloff’s A Bedtime Story is probably the most stunningly
original drama you will see on stage this year... Our normal lives? On a
normal day in Sri Lankan there are, according to informed sources, more
than 40,000 children working as prostitutes. The majority are boys who
engage in homosexual and heterosexual sex with foreign tourists. Sri
Lanka is, like Thailand and Cambodia, a well established sex-tourism
destination. A Bedtime Story chronicles the life of Kasun, a child
prostitute, as seen through the eyes of four individuals: his father,
his mother, his teacher and his classmate.The narrators in turn take
time to establish their own personal context before exploring their
relationship with Kasun. A poor uneducated father, with no permanent
job, labouring hard to earn what little he can for his caring wife and
their quickly growing family. A loving mother, striving to feed and look
after her three children and support her hard working husband, as they
are forced from one town to the next in search of work. Then the father
receives an unexpected offer from an acquaintance to earn a little extra
money for the family. All Kasun has to do was to play with some
foreigners who like children but have none of their own. Kasun returns
from his first day at work with the money that was promised, but also
with explanations and descriptions that a father cannot bear to hear.
Yet the die is so quickly cast. Kasun’s money provides respite for the
family’s daily financial struggles and he returns to play with his
foreign friends, again, and again, and again...
Sri Lanka's Beach Boys: Soft Targets for HIV (2004): "Ask Priyanga, a boy from Balapitiya, a beach resort 90 km south of Colombo and one of Sri Lanka's tourist hot-spots. Since dropping out of school a year ago, he has been providing 'services' of sexual nature to older male tourists in the area to support his family... Children, young males providing commercial sexual services to local and foreign paedophiles have been considered one of Sri Lanka's major high risk groups. Despite the low prevalence of HIV in the island's population, NGOs warn that the country is sitting on a potential time bomb... But the same industry is often blamed for the prolific growth in boy sex workers on the beaches. Estimates of the numbers vary. The government's figure of 30,000 child prostitutes is disputed by many of the reputed NGOs working with the "beach boys," as they are popularly called. They charge that the numbers are exaggerated. "We believe that a more realistic figure would be less than 10,000... Some social workers are of the opinion that many of these children should not be treated as victims, since they go willingly and earn money from the encounters. A detailed research on health needs of sexually exploited children in Sri Lanka by PEACE and SIDA (Swedish International Development Agency) states: "The twenty children (interviewed) did not show signs of anger and hostility…..the researches felt that they were seasoned, thick-skinned with greed for monetary gains.. Contracting STD or AIDS did not bother them nor was it a matter to be given serious thought."
stray dogs - An empowerment programme in Sri Lanka (2000): "The sex workers
are very much concerned with their personal empowerment. I was informed
by the male sex workers who attended a workshop organised by Companions
on a Journey (a project aimed at gays in Sri Lanka) of their concern of
their own future. They raised the issue of being rejected by their clients
for a younger sex worker or for one with ‘a better personality’. They insist
on alternative skills development training to achieve personal empowerment.
I hope and believe that this strategy will be addressed in all projects
targeting sex workers. As a lot of economically underprivileged members
of the gay community in Sri Lanka earn their living as male sex workers,
we must pay attention to their needs whilst designing programmes and include
them in programme designing as well as programme implementation processes."
Pakistan: - Male sex workers play Russian roulette with HIV (2007): Shujaat
plies his trade well. As dusk falls on the Pir Wadhai bus
station in the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi, the slender 19-year-old
gauges disembarking passengers for that 'look' - a responsive glance or
wink suggesting a desire for more than just a quick bus ride home. "Here
you can find all sorts; mostly truckers, soldiers, day labourers,
and of course married men," he said, leaning against the wall. "I always
find someone," the now veteran male sex worker (MSW) boasted. - Male
sex worker in Pakistan (Video). - Unmet needs: Sex workers in Pakistan have limited access to TB-HIV Treatment
(2010): But NGO statistics reveal that over 14,000 male sex workers
live in Karachi alone. Most of them belong to the Pukhtoon community... - La prostitución masculina en Pakistán (2010, Translation):
La gente piensa que a medida que nuestro país es islámica por lo tanto,
estos problemas no existen aquí, pero la realidad es lo contrario. De
acuerdo a Lahore nama (2008) la prevalencia exacta de las trabajadoras
del sexo masculino en Lahore es desconocida, pero sobre la base de las
conclusiones de los organismos internacionales en el año 2002 su número
ascendía a alrededor de 38.000. La pregunta que surge ahora es ¿por qué
es frecuente? ¿Cuáles son las fuerzas motrices? La respuesta es bastante
alarmante. la prostitución masculina tiene su origen en el abuso sexual
infantil. Citado por Roschbeth Ewald "el comienzo de la adicción al
sexo suelen ser arrancada de raíz en la adolescencia o la niñez. Se
encontró que el 60% de los adictos sexuales fueron abusados por
alguien en su infancia". Por otra parte, de acuerdo con el sultán Jabbar
un psicólogo "Después de los niños son abusados un par de veces que
se vuelven adictos a ella". Por lo general son dejados a merced de su
destino, cuando los miembros de su familia echarlos después de conocer
acerca de su adicción. - The descriptive epidemiology of male sex workers in Pakistan: a biological and behavioural examination
(2011): Low levels of education, high volume of sex acts and suboptimal
condom use makes for a potentially volatile situation. Information
provided by this study can play an important role in designing effective
prevention programmes, particularly in capturing heterogeneity in sex
work between cities, and as evidence is accumulating that a shift in
epidemic phase, as well as affected populations is occurring in
Male prostitution, a hidden shame: See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil
(2009): “Every time they used me, I got Rs 10 to 20 as a reward,” the
fair-skinned boy revealed. At the age of 13, he was addicted to
homosexuality. Consequently, an innocent schoolboy had turned into a
male prostitute. He was beautiful and people started hiring his services
for the whole night since then he knew what his price was. He could not
pass a day without having sex with some male. At the age of 17, his
parents threw him out of house as soon as they found out about his
addiction. He took shelter with a male pimp. He was happy with the
knowledge that he is not only getting sexual satisfaction but also money
for it. Going back home was never an option but now he will not do so
even if given the choice. “I am satisfied with my present profession,”
the youngster adds. He is not ashamed of what he does and is perfectly
comfortable with the thought of working as a male prostitute in the long
run. All the male prostitutes at Jahangir Park mostly wear skin-tight
shirts and pants. They are clean-shaven and all of them have a feminine
touch to their voices and actions. One can find any kind of male
prostitute in the area depending on the choice. Their prices range from
Rs 50 to 1000, depending on their age and skin colour. The
male-prostitutes mostly belong to the underdeveloped areas of Karachi
like Banaras, Metroville and Ittehad Colony. The customers can be as
young as 23 years of age or as old as 65. Half of the customers, Riaz
claims are married. Most these youngsters are kicked out by their
parents and share quarters with each other or are living with pimps.
They provide services at night. “Before going off with a customer, we
inject opium which heightens our instincts and the pleasure,” claims
Riaz, with a smile just turning the corners of his mouth. Meanwhile a
person winks to Riaz and he walks towards him. Psychologists opine that
having homosexual sex with males is addictive. “After boys are abused a
few times they get addicted to it,” says Sultan Jabbar, a psychologist,
who is doing a research on gays for the last ten years... But this
leaves the eunuchs with little other choice but to beg on the streets
for pennies, and many end up as prostitutes. In Muslim Pakistan, where
sexual relations outside marriage are taboo and homosexuality is
illegal, eunuchs are also treated as sex objects and often become the
victims of violent assault. "Every eunuch does prostitution", said
Reshma, 22, who sells sex for 200 rupees (2.50 dollars) a time...
Lahore: Marginalised male sex workers vulnerable to HIV/AIDS
(2006): Under the illuminated Minar-e-Pakistan, the towering monument
that marks the birth of the country, Pervaiz Din lays out the
accessories of his trade. The tiny bottles of massage oil and aromatic
colognes tinkle cheerfully as he pulls them out of a cloth bag and sets
them out on a tray. Through much of the balmy September night, Pervaiz
will await customers who seek a soothing roadside massage, a head rub –
or something more. “Some nights I get lucky. I get two or even three
‘good customers’ and I return home happy,” Pervaiz tells IRIN. The
‘good’ customers he refers to are men who seek sex and will pay less
than US $8 or so for a few hours with Pervaiz. They also pay for the
room usually rented out in a cheap, ‘bazaar’ hotel, although some take
him to the rooms or apartments in which they live. “I have some
‘regulars’ who drop by several times a month. They really enjoy my
services,” Pervaiz said... - Male Children & Homosexual Prostitutes in Pakistan (2012, YouTube). - The Other Side of Childhood: A Research on Mal Child Prostitution at a Bus Stand in Pakistan (2004). - Pakistan's eunuchs face life of prostitution (2010): "Lots of bad guys go to eunuchs and rape them for satisfaction, for fun, they burn them with cigarettes," ...
Marginalised male sex workers vulnerable to HIV/AIDS (2006, Alternate Link):
Pervaiz is one of the hundreds of male sex workers (MSWs) in Lahore,
the teeming capital of the Punjab province, and with a population of 8
million Pakistan’s second largest city after Karachi. Beneath its lush
trees, and the domes and minarets of the Mughal buildings scattered
across its older parts, scores of MSWs operate. Although the precise
number of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lahore is unknown,
according to the Pakistan National AIDS Programme, on the basis of
findings by international agencies in 2002, they number around 38,000.
This number includes male transsexuals or 'hijras', who live in large
family groups and have devised their own, unique system of leadership,
inter-marriage and complex rituals, and a significant number of
masseurs, like Pervaiz, who can be found in many parts of Lahore and
other major cities, congregating at selected spots as dusk falls each
Health-Pakistan: Taboos Still Hamper AIDS Programme (2001): Some 93 percent of those quizzed for the survey knew that unprotected sex was the reason for HIV transmission, but believed that it was the sex workers and not themselves, who were at risk. However, many truck drivers are known to engage in homosexual activity with young boys who travel with them as helpers, say health activists. Despite official denials, newspapers often report that male inmates of prisons too engage in such behaviour. According to independent surveys, 85 percent of sexually active prisoners reported not using condoms. Many of these prisoners are also addicted to injectable drugs, sharing syringes and needles. Male homosexuality in Pakistan is mainly associated with the Islamic nation's most conservative region - the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) bordering Afghanistan, where rich, elderly men are known to keep young boys for sexual pleasure."
Enhanced HIV/AIDS Program: Social Assessment and Mapping of Men Who Have
Sex With Men (MSM) in Lahore, Pakistan. By Shivananda Khan and Tahir
Khilji (Naz Foundation International, 2002) (Full Report for The World
Bank, Pakistan, Word
97 Download N/A- Short Report for The World Bank, Pakistan, Word
97 Download N/A) (PDF Download) (Related: PDF Download): "These networks of differing MSM contexts may at times
inter-penetrate, where individuals may shift along differing networks,
but usually they are mutually exclusive. In other words there are complex
dynamics and diffusion in relation to male to male sex in Lahore. The most
visible of these networks are those involving zenanas and hijras
because of their public performative role which is a part of their self-identification,
and those of malishias as male sex workers alongside their massage trade
because of their occupational visibility. It was this visibility and ready
accessibility that contoured the Social Assessment Study in Lahore in terms
of which dynamic of MSM were interviewed. It should therefore be clearly
recognised that this Assessment does not tell the whole story of male to
male sex in Lahore. Male to male sex work is a significant factor in Lahore.
A broad range of frameworks exist here. Hijras, zenanas,
and other males, will sell sex because of poverty and unemployment. Without
a welfare system, and with significant levels of unemployment or low level
incomes, male sex work can be a way out in terms of supporting the self
and family. This is not to imply that males involved in sex work do not
enjoy the sex with other males. Often they will also have a regular partner
- a pukka dost."
Elton, Athena (2013). Afghanistan’s Bacha Baazi Practice and the Normalization of Sexual Violence Against Boys. Draft, Conference Paper. PDF
Download. The practice of male-on-male pedophilic rape of boys in
Afghanistan is a serious lingering social issue that is rarely raised,
discussed or recognized by the Afghan policy discourse. The problem is
further compounded by lack of accurate and detailed information and
knowledge, given the context of social taboo surrounding the subject of
sexuality in Afghan society. To create a greater awareness and broaden
the current understanding of the issue, this paper applies an
interdisciplinary approach to examine the underlying structural factors
perpetuating social discounted male-on-male pedophilic rape and more
specifically the bacha baazi phenomenon... Sexual violence
in the form of trafficking boys for male pedophilic sexual violence
under the innocent name of „boy play‟ or bacha baazi, is
commonplace in Afghanistan. The UN Representative Radhika Coomaraswamy
is quoted as saying: “Very powerful warlords and regional commanders
from all the security forces as well as anti-government forces have
young boys who are taught to dance…in some kind of party situation – and
then they are sexually exploited, sexual abuse of boys. We‟re concerned
because it‟s sort of considered a sense of power and strength how many
you have to parade:i Although it is difficult to accurately account for
the exact numbers of boys being bought and sold, accounts from aid
workers, journalists and military personal, including local Afghans,
claim that the numbers are quite high. According to a popular wedding
photographer, bacha baazi boys are dancing at one out of five
weddings occurring in Kabulii. As Ms. Coomaraswamy stated in February
2011: “so everybody‟s against this practice but it continues with
Situational analysis report on prostitution of boys in Pakistan (Lahore & Peshawar) (2006, PDF
Download. PDF Download):
"The practice of keeping boys for sexual gratification by rich and
influential men, known as "bachabazi," is common although it raises
difficult questions within communities that consider homosexuality a
sexual preference outside social norms... Even though there is
widespread awareness of child sexual exploitation by tourists in many
areas of South Asia, such as the beach town of Goa in India and Negombo
in Sri Lanka, little has been done to study the use of boys for
prostitution amongst local perpetrators in the region... The practice
of hiring prostituted boys thrives in streets, markets, bus terminals,
hotels, restaurants and a variety of other establishments in many
provinces of Pakistan. Research conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh,
Bangalore, India, and northern Punjab in Pakistan has shown that a
large number of prostituted boys in these countries are living on the
street and that most are also engaged in activities such as garbage
scavenging and pick-pocketing. Older men also keep boys for sexual
services in a practice called "bachabazi" that is common to the North
West Frontier Province of Pakistan... On average, 8-15 persons were
invited to all focus group discussions... The ages of child respondents
ranged from 10 years to 17 years... While the sex exploiters of boys
come from all ethnic groups and social classes, most prostituted boys
themselves hail from poor and lower-middle class families... During
focus group discussions, community leaders admitted they were aware
that some men have ‘friendships’ with young boys (bachabazi) and that
it is commonly understood that they have sex. In return, the boys may
be paid money or compensated in kind. The community leaders opined that
it is a wrong and sinful practice but admitted that it is tolerated – a
double standard that they lamented. But the implication seems to be
that while it is disgraceful to be a passive agent (receptive partner)
in a homosexual relationship, it is a matter of male pride and power to
be an active agent (insertive partner). Bachbabazi relationships are
not prostitution by society at large because the boy offers sexual
services to only one man as opposed to any man prepared to pay for the
service perceived as prostitution by society at large because the boy
offers sexual services to only one man as opposed to any man prepared
to pay for the service... "
Research Report No 11: Adolescents and Reproductive Health - A Literature Review (2000) PDF File Download from www.popcouncil.org/: "Male Child Prostitution In Pakistan male prostitutes are believed to be cheaper for clients than female prostitutes. The prime age for male prostitutes is 15-25. (Fayyazuddin et al. 1998) It is likely that even less is known about their working environment and specific problems because the social taboos for boys admitting to sex with male clients are even greater than for girls. Preliminary findings of Sahil’s (1998) own research into male child prostitution in northern Punjab show that the children are usually runaways who are coerced by local hotel owners in urban centers to exchange their bodies in return for board and lodging. This points to the reality that children and adolescents have limited skills to rely on to support themselves, if they need to do so, and that prostitution is often the most practical and lucrative means of providing for themselves. The children surveyed by Sahil allege that police and army soldiers are a significant portion of their clientele. Children as young as age eight were found working as male prostitutes. Although many of these young boys state that they are free to leave whenever they wish, the combination of financial compensation (a child prostitute can bring in up to Rs. 12,000/month) and lack of alternatives usually cause them to stay and eventually grow up into pimps themselves. Another practice, common in the North West Frontier Province but not yet the subject of much formal research, is bachabazi, or older men keeping boys as their sexual partners. A man who wishes such a partner will select a boy, usually fair of skin and in his early teens. He will slaughter a goat in front of the boy’s house to publicly demonstrate his choice. From that point on, the man will be responsible for the education, clothing, and general care of the boy in return for sexual favors. Needless to say the boy himself lacks decisionmaking power in this institutionalized and socially accepted form of sexual abuse. A survey in NWFP found that out of 1,710 adult male respondents in communities throughout the province, about 83 percent said they knew about the practice of bachabazi. Almost half of those who knew about it thought the practice was either common or very common. Similarly, almost 81 percent of the respondents said they knew that some boys in their own communities sell sex for money. The places from which boys could be procured for sexual services included hotels, schools, workplaces, markets, bus stations, and video shops. The study concluded that there was a high prevalence of male sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation of children in NWFP and that social norms such as bachabazi helped to perpetuate the widely tolerated practice of adults keeping young boys for sexual services. (NGO Coalition on Child Rights 1998)"
Save The Children Sweden (2005). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A situational analysis of Pakistan (PDF
"Child sexual exploitation at shrines - Massage boys - Boys with
alternate sexual identities - Nomad children - Children in the
transport industry - Bachabazi - Children trafficked for camel
jockeying - Children in deep-sea fishing..."
Nepal: - Children and Women of Nepal: A Situation Analysis 1996: "In Nepal, prostitution is a domestic- business, and tourist-related prostitution is of minimal significance at this time. Male prostitution exists in Nepal, but is also of minimal significance at this time." - Male sex workers and poverty (2006): "A study was conducted in five random semi-urban sites in Nepal where BDS has held HIV/STIS intervention 408 msw aged 15-48 years working in disco/brothels/street were targeted... Average age was 23 years... In most cases, it is at the insistence of the client that unprocted sex takes place... Absolute dependence of sex workers on the income derived from the clients increased their risk of getting infected with HIV therefore BDS developed economic development programs for msws where they were trained on various income generating skills and a few of them were assisted. - Condom Use among Commercial Male Sex Workers in Kathmandu, Nepal (2010).
Gurung S, Pacheun O, Powwattana A (2010). Condom Use among Commercial Male Sex Workers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Asia Journal of Public Health, 1(2): 31-35. PDF
Download. The descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to examine
factors associated with condom use among the commercial male sex workers
(CMSWs)... Sample included 131 CMSW aged 19-54 years living in
Kathmandu, Nepal selected by purposive sampling. The duration of data
collection was from 1st February to 29th February 2008.. The
proportion of workers who always used a condom with the clients was
69.5%. Almost all (91.5%) were well-versed about HIV/AIDS and modes of
transmission. Only 14.6% were at a good level of prevention and
of Runaway Boys in Sex Service: "The thesis of "Boy Prostitution: a
study of runaway boys in sex service", purposes to study causes and
factors that make runaway boys get involved in sex services, to earn
about their ways of life in order to make clear what really happens to
them and the physical, mental and behavioral effects are then analized,
aiming to find out the proper solutions. The study particularly focuses
on boy prostitutes by selecting 10 under 18 year-old boys who have been
in sex service at least for six months and have not been engaged by
homosexual clubs. The researcher collected the information by spending
most of the time both days and nights for 12 months in close contact.
The outcome of the study covering Silom Road and Lumpini Park indicated
that becoming boy prostitutes resulted from their own as they have to
struggle for the survival in the outside world where money is the most
important factor when facing money shortage problem, earning money by
having sex with anyone who will pay for it is the solution.
Additionally, sex service is a way to fulfill their natural sexual
desire. The further reasons are the homosexual customers' demand,
social background and up bringing. Boy prostitutes cannot be clearly
identified by their physical appearance, but can be found in the
assumed sex service areas. Most 12-18 year-old boy prostitutes are good
looking usually wearing in dark apparels..." - Male Sex Workers Need Support Too (2007):
Hailing from central Suphanburi province, he used to work in a gay bar
in the Thai capital, but prefers his current work at a massage parlour
that caters exclusively to gay men. "In a gay bar, the transactions are
far more explicit. Customers either come to watch the shows or to avail
themselves of commercial sex services," he said.
Male Prostitution in Chiang Mai (2006):
"It's not difficult to understand how young boys from poor families get
drawn into selling sex", says Pad Thepsai, drop-in manager of Mplus, a
non-profit organisation that provides health and information services to
men who have sex with men (MSM) - homosexuals, transgender people and
male sex workers. "Many boys come here from their villages in the hope
of being able to send money back home to their families. Some of them
are hill tribe, others are from Isaan and many are from Burma, where
people are treated like animals - especially the ethnic minorities like
the Shan or Karen." ... The fact that much of the city's male sex trade
is concentrated in gay-friendly venues does not mean that all visitors
and/or paying customers are gay men - or even men, for that matter.
Several of the boys I met at the bars said they sold sex to all kinds
and during my visits to the clubs I was offered sex by both heterosexual
and homosexual workers who said they sold sex across the gender
barrier. Aung puts the division of customers at his go-go club around
80% gay men to 20% women. "But there are also others that come to the
bars - bisexual men, or married men that are mostly straight but like
something different. And twice I have been with couples who wanted me to
have sex with both of them." - Heartbreaking Portraits of Boy Prostitutes in Thailand Paint a Picture of Innocence Lost (2013).
Jackson, Peter A (2009). Capitalism and Global Queering National Markets, Parallels Among Sexual Cultures, and Multiple Queer Modernities. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 15(3): 357-395. PDF Download.
Sections: Male Sex Work in
Twentieth-Century Bangkok... Press Exposé of Male Prostitution in 1930s
Bangkok... A World War II – Era Kathoey Sex Worker... Sex Work in 1970s
Thaïlande: La vie pas si rêvée des homosexuels thaïlandais (2011, Translation):
« La société thaïlandaise est ouverte
d’esprit. » « L’homosexualité y
est monnaie courante et acceptée par la population. »
tableau idyllique, la communauté homosexuelle subit aussi
discriminations et stigmatisations... « Belle nuit pour partir en
chasse. » Par ces quelques mots, ce touriste australien
résume le point
de vue de certains homosexuels occidentaux qui viennent en
c’est le paradis des gays. Un cliché du sexe facile. Avec
Otoko, Silom est un peu la scène gay internationale de la ville.
cette image, beaucoup la regrettent. Comme Simon et son compagnon
Michael. Ce couple d’Allemands ne supporte pas l’attitude de ces
étrangers « irrespectueux » qui ne cherchent pas
à comprendre « les
sentiments et la vie des homosexuels thaïlandais » et se
bornent à agir «
comme dans un marché aux bestiaux »... Selon lui, ces
travailleurs du sexe l’acceptent comme un job plus
rémunérateur que nombre de secteurs d’activité.
« Beaucoup quittent leur ferme à la campagne pour cela. Car
la prostitution est mieux acceptée en ville. Et la
communauté gay de Bangkok est plus éduquée que
celle des campagnes. » La Thaïlande ne serait donc pas un
paradis des gays ? « Parce que les Occidentaux, mais aussi de plus
en plus les Singapouriens, Taïwanais et Hongkongais viennent ici
dépenser leur argent, ils sont accueillis à bras ouverts.
Cela entretient cette image. Mais on accepte moins bien
l’homosexualité des Thaïlandais », estime Jim Elder.
Il existe une toute autre société qui se retrouve dans les
centaines de bars et de saunas de la capitale à Lam Sali,
Kamphaeng Phet et Pradiphat, notamment. Car les homosexuels
thaïlandais, dans leur grande majorité, n’aiment pas Silom.
« Pour la simple et bonne raison qu’ils ne veulent pas être
assimilés à la prostitution et aux « money boys
». S’ils viennent, c’est qu’ils aiment bien rencontrer les
Occidentaux », explique le patron du Richard’s Pub. Beaucoup
d’homosexuels travaillent dans la banque, l’hôtellerie et la
restauration, « où leur sexualité ne pose pas de
problème ». Mais dans le secteur des affaires, notamment
chez les Thaïlandais d’origine chinoise, la situation est plus
compliquée. « Dans la haute société, beaucoup
se marient pour brouiller les pistes », ajoute Jim Elder.
Toledo CA, Varangrat A, Wimolsate W, Chemnasiri T, Phanuphak P, Kalayil EJ, McNicholl J, Karuchit S, Kengkarnrua K, van Griensven F (2010). Examining HIV infection among male sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand: a comparison of participants recruited at entertainment and street venues. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(4): 299-311. Abstract. PDF Download. HIV prevalence and associated factors were examined among male sex workers (MSWs, N = 414) in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional venue-day-time sampling was used to collect data in entertainment and street venues. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to identify HIV risk factors. HIV prevalence was 18.8% overall, but differences were found between MSW recruited in entertainment and street venues. Significant relationships were found between several demographic, behavioral, exposure to HIV prevention, and other characteristics, and recruitment location. In multivariate analyses, being sexually attracted to men was significantly associated with HIV infection among both groups of sex workers. In addition, among street-based sex workers, not having had sex with a woman in the past 3 months, having ever had a sexually transmitted disease symptom, and not having a friend to talk to about personal problems were significantly associated with HIV infection.
Nemoto T, Iwamoto M, Perngparn U, Areesantichai C, Kamitani E, Sakata M (2012). HIV-related risk behaviors among kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand. AIDS Care, 24(2): 210-219. Abstract. PDF Download.
Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and
HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok,
Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants
reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one
participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past
12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged
in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past 6 months. Almost all
participants reported alcohol use, as well as having had sex with
customers under the influence of alcohol. The prevalence of marijuana
and ecstasy use in the past 12 months was high (32% and 36%,
respectively); as was for ketamine (20%) and non-injecting
methamphetamine (yaba) use (10%). A multiple regression analysis showed
that the participants who were post-operative status, had used illicit
drugs, or had been abused by their father and brothers were less likely
to use condoms for anal sex with customers. Three quarters of the
participants sent money to their families and 35% of the participants
expressed their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when customers offer
extra money. The qualitative interviews revealed that many identified
as girl or kathoey in early age and had been exposed to transphobia and
violence from father and brothers. Some reported support for gender
transition from their mothers. More than half of the participants
currently had difficulties in living as kathoey, such as challenges in
job market and relationship with family members. Family obligation for
sending money and the Buddhist concept of karma were discussed in
relation to risk behaviors among KSWs. The study provided implications
for facilitating HIV testing and developing future HIV prevention
intervention programs for KSWs in Thailand.
on male sex workers. "On the other hand, the commercial sex scene in
Thailand, both straight and gay, is very visible in some areas, particularly
around the famous (infamous?) Patpong area... Many workers in commercial
venues are not gay, but this should not be a complete surprise. The level
of service varies considerably from person to person and venue to venue.
If you have any specific preferences, these should be discussed before
agreeing to take a person off from a venue to ensure satisfaction. I personally
do not think it is reasonable to force a worker to do anything he does
not want to do, even if you are a paying customer." - (Related Information
from a study is available as PDF
Download (Alternate Link) of "AIDS knowledge, condom beliefs and sexual behaviour among
male sex workers and male tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia": "The remaining
studies most relevant to Indonesia come from Thailand. A study was
conducted in 1988 of male sex workers in three areas of Thailand: Bangkok,
Hat Yai, and Chiang Mai (Muangman et al. 1988). "In these areas, workers
meet clients through gay bars, bath houses, and public locations. Most
workers were in their twenties and the mean incomes were low for the urban
areas. Most workers had some formal schooling with the lowest levels
in Hat Yai..." - The
Influence Of Thai Buddhism on Prostitution. - Male Sex Workers Face HIV Risks, but Get Less Attention (2002). - Mplus, a Community for Gay, Transgender, and Male Sex Workers in Chiang Mai, Thailand. - Life Styles and Health Behavior of Male Prostitutes in Patong Area. Master's Dissertation (1994).
A Boy’s Journey to Sex Work
(2007): Eak, a male escort, still appreciates what he gained inside the
monastery. He learned the Thai language and started to read Buddhist
scriptures, but most of all, he found shelter and refuge from two more
familiar companions: fear and death. In fact, 10 years ago, before he
fled across the border and became a monk, his hill village in the
troubled Shan states of north-east Burma had already been forcibly
evacuated, reducing his home to a makeshift tent in the jungle. “Since
my childhood, I have little taste of freedom and happiness,” he says,
gazing into a swarm of dirty scooters on the sun-bleached boulevard. He
can still remember how as a small boy, he saw the killing and rape of
his fellow villagers by Burmese soldiers. Local resistance groups in the
Shan states were fighting for self-determination... Like many others in
the Shan states, Eak’s parents rely on the cash he sends home from
Thailand. Eak told them he is working in a restaurant. He last visited
them three years ago -- as a shaven-headed monk, reunited with his
family for the first and only time in 10 years. Eak’s girlfriend, also
of Tai Yai ethnic origin, knows only too well that he is not waiting on
tables. They met in Chiang Mai and, according to Eak, she feels all
right about his occupation as long as he protects himself. “I remember
to use a condom almost every time I have sex with clients,” he says. How
often is “almost every time”? Nine out of ten, he says, and smiles. The
male sex workers of Chiang Mai have an HIV infection rate of 11.4
percent, according to a 2005 survey. Nearly half are of Tai Yai origin
and come from the Shan states. The Shan are in high demand for their
unique physical features. Of the more than 30 boys at Eak’s club, about
80 percent, are Tai Yai...
Male Sex Workers Need Support Too (2007): But whether they get into the sex trade by choice or learn to accept it, these men need to be given priority in programmes that educate them on how to reduce risks of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), health experts and activists say... For instance, Phensiri Srichan, head of the AIDS and Venereal Disease Control Agency of the Public Health Office in Udon Thani, says the agency only recently included men in their programmes. Previously, it focused mostly on a large number of female sex workers, in this north-eastern Thai province. After a study showed a high incidence of HIV due to unprotected sex, the agency revised its policies and started including male commercial sex workers in its target groups. Most of them are Thais, but Phensiri says there are likely to be some also from nearby Laos. The men receive advice on how to protect themselves from infection, and are given condoms and information on where they could go for blood tests and other health needs. Still, the agency's health programme focuses only on commercial sex workers in gay bars, but not freelancers. Because freelance sex workers -- those who may accept commercial sex transactions in addition to other work like waiting on tables -- are not easy for health workers to reach, they often remain largely ignorant of safer sex practices and can inadvertently transmit HIV and other diseases. "It's hard to get to these groups. We’re trying our best although our office is only in its initial stages," Phensiri explains... The other groups that are often left out of support schemes are members of ethnic minority groups and migrants. This happens in places like Chiang Mai, according to Montien Phromlatthisorn, who is manager of MPlus, a non-government group working with the gay community and male sex workers.
Suwatcharapinun, Sant (2005). Spaces
of Male Prostitution: Tactics, Performativity and Gay Identities in
Streets, Go-Go Bars and Magazines in Contemporary Bangkok, Thailand. PhD. Dissertation, University of London. PDF Download. Download Page.
This research explores the spatial practices of male prostitutes
meeting gay male clients in various urban environments in Bangkok,
Thailand. The research focuses on the male prostitutes’ spatial
practices in three meeting places: the streets around Saranrom park, the
gay go-go bars in Surawong’s Boys’ Town, and the representations of
space in local gay newsletters. Examining the male prostitutes’ spatial
practices through ‘tactics’, this research suggests that male
prostitutes use the meeting places differently as ways of responding to
the ‘strategies’ of gay male clients. This research also suggests that
the tactics of male prostitutes can be examined by exploring the
relationship between spatial practices and subjectivities. By exploring
how specific performative acts constitute male prostitutes’
subjectivities, this research suggests that male prostitutes ‘perform’
Bar Work in a Foreign Tongue: Just how do local sex workers communicate with foreign customers across a language barrier? (1998) - The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among male sex workers in northern Thailand (1997). - Research in Progress: A Night Out with the Boys: The discursive and sexual practices surrounding bar-based male sex work in Bangkok, Thailand. Dissertation completed in 2000. A related paper by the author, Graeme Storer: Performing Sexual Identity: Naming and Resisting 'Gayness' in Modern Thailand (1999). - Ignorance is not bliss in Pattaya: A look at prostitution off the South Pattaya pier: "Male prostitution is very common in Pattaya. This is engaged in by drug addicts, some sociopath types who will do anything for money and young men who are ‘professional’ prostitutes. Male prostitutes tend to have ‘regular’ clients and the number of young men selling their bodies for money is as numerous at the pier as young women. An interesting phenomenon is that male prostitutes are ‘adopted’ and taken overseas by clients more often than their female counterparts." - Burmese male sex workers in Thailand face stigma and AIDS risks (2006). - An overseas example of "lighter is better": the implications of colorism among male sex workers in Thailand (2007).
Out of the frying pan into the sleaze: Migrant Male Sex Workers N/A (Bangkok Post, Dec. 16, 2001, Alternate link): Hundreds, possibly thousands of young Burmese men are finding they've got nowhere else to go but Thailand's tough and sordid sex trade... "Seven years later, at the age of 23, Myint Tha's innocence has long since fled. He now spends most nights at a gay bar in the tourist destination of Chiang Mai - 300 kilometers from Thakhilek. He survives from week to week by having sex with older men... She adds that many Burmese boys go into prostitution... The initial introduction into the world of sex for hire for many male prostitutes is from their friends. They hear that they can earn extra money if they go to bed with gay people - Thais or foreigners... One boy said that his clients are mostly foreigners - from Japan, Hong Kong, China or the West. ``I try to save and send money home to my family They think I work in a factory... Many of the Burmese sex workers are as young as 13 or 14, well below the legal age for working in a place of entertainment in Thailand. They routinely tell customers they are over 18. "The bar owners tell us to say so. We don't have any ID cards like Thai people - so how can they (police or customers) know our real age?" said one. Most of the youths aren't even aware of the laws against paedophilia... Amidst the blasting heavy metal music and the changing colour of the smoke in the flashing lights, a boy sips his drink and tells the reporter in a loud and bright voice his hopes for the future: "Even though I have gone to bed with so many men......I still want to have a girlfriend. I want to marry ..... to have my own family - a wife and children.""
gay after classes - Necessity forcing male students to sell bodies (Bangkok) (1999): "I know many university colleagues who are from poor families
and from the country who are working in this field. I think everyone is
satisfied with the easy money," Phakphum said confidently. He said many
male university students were turning to prostitution, most of them working
in gay bars on Silom, Suriwong, Pradiphat and Sukhumvit roads. Others worked
as "street boys" at Saranrom park, Sanam Luang and Lumpini park. - The
gay scene: Thai boys (2000). - Police
disrupt gay orgy in sauna, two held: Hundred foreigners necking with boys (2000).
Boys Will Be Toys (2001): "Inside a gay bar on Suriwong Road, young men walk the floor, their erect penises illuminated by torches for all to see. For an extra Bt100, customers are permitted to touch... This journey into the seedier side of our society was part of a research project entitled: "Male Prostitution' in which Nalinee spent three months, often disguised as a Philippine tourist, collecting information and gaining first hand experience of the conditions in this 'profession'. Her findings turned out to be a lot different from what she expected." - Male prostitution booms in Thailand (2002). - Thai Male Sex Worker Study - An Analysis (2003).
the special - 1999
Issue of The Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services - on Thailand:
gender and Sexuality in Modern Thailand: Masculinity and Male-Male Sex
Behaviours. - The
Friends Thou Hast: Support Systems for Male Commercial Sex Workers in Pattaya,
Thailand. - Between
Money, Morality and Masculinity: Bar-Based Male Sex Work in Chiang Mai.
Philippines - Trabajo sexual masculino en filipinas (2008, Translation): Del artículo de Michael Tan, "En la cuerda floja. Riesgos sexuales y trabajo sexual masculino en Filipinas" [2003, Reference]. Hay seis categorías de trabajadores sexuales masculinos: ... - Struggling
With Contradictions (2001): "His regular source of income comes from stagings
of toro, the local lingo for anal or vaginal sexual intercourse performed
in public... Elmer, who takes the receptor role, is one of the district's
best-known performers... One prominent homosexual man has even suggested
that "low-class gays should be rounded up for testing since they're the
only ones who sleep with foreigners." The owner of a male brothel accepts
only long-term expatriates as clients on the assumption that they are "clean."
Even many call boys have begun to shun foreigners who used to be their
favoured clients... Many young people, especially boys from middle-class
families, resort to occasional sex work when pressured by their peers to
prove, ironically enough, their manhood, or to provide money for the group.
Hernandez LI, Imperial RH (2009). Men-who-have-Sex-with-other-Males
(MSM) in the Philippines – Identities, Sexualities and Social
Mobilities: A Formative Assessment of HIV and AIDS Vulnerabilities. Acta Medica Philippina, 43(3): 26-36. PDF Download. Download Page. Lalakeng-lalake: Male sex workers who are men,
masculine in dress also in manner and speech. With regard to sex he is
exclusively and strictly insertor in vaginal or anal or the fellatee in
oral intercourse. The biological sex of the partner is female. - Lalake: Male sex workers who are men,
masculine in dress also in manners and speech but who can have sexual
activities with both gay men and women clients. They are insertor in
vaginal or anal or the fellatee in oral intercourse. - Bahid/Pa-men: Male sex workers who dress masculine
and are (heterosexual) straight-acting. In sexual acts, he is more of an
insertor, less of a receiver. The biological sex of the partner varies
but the preference is for male partners. - Silahista: Male sex workers who swing both ways.
They can be straight-acting at one time and effeminate in another time
depending on their clients. In sexual acts, they are less insertor and
more receiver. The biological sex of the partner is not important. - Bading/Bakla: Male sex workers who are gay and work
exclusive for gay men clients (mostly foreigners) and who prefer to be
fellators in oral intercourse and receiver in anal intercourse. The
biological sex of the partner is strictly male. - Pa-girl: Male
sex workers who dress and speak like women and prefer to be the
fellators in oral intercourse and receiver in anal intercourse. They
inject estrogen to their bodies to possess feminine characteristics and
behaviors. The biological sex of the partner is strictly male.
In the Shadows: Men who have sex with men (2000, Word rtf Download):
The needs of MSMs, as expressed during the small consultation we had,
are diverse and not limited to HIV/AIDs, but following the focus of the
current research on HIV and development, we see too that HIV risk among
MSMs relate back, ultimately, to a broader social context.
Addressing that context is important if we are to reduce risks for
HIV/AIDS... 3) Call boys/service boys. These are men who will have
sex with men in exchange for money or other material rewards.
Most self-identify as heterosexual and often have families. 4)
“Lalake”. These are men who self-identify as heterosexual, or
occasionally, as bisexuals, and have sex with other men without monetary
or material favors. Many have families. This includes
adolescents and young adults who have sex with men simply for sexual
pleasure because of difficulties of accessing females for sex.
However, there are also older men, including married ones, who continue
to prefer having sex with men, usually the more visible bakla, but do
not self-identify as homosexual.
When sex work isn't `work': Hospitality, gay life, and the production of desiring labor (2007):
This interview-based research explores the lived experiences of gay
hosts who `work' in a gentrifying urban tourist district in the City of
Manila, the Philippines. My analysis complicates research on sex work by
highlighting the changing forms of sexual labor in a transnational and
`gay' urban neighborhood, which is shaped by state initiatives on
sustainable tourism and international gay travel. In place of treating
hospitality as `work', I draw on the concept of emotional labor to
understand hospitality as an expression of `gay' and local identities
and as a celebration of desire and place. I propose that studies of
sexual labor in urban spaces struggling with development must contend
with expressions of desire rather than treating sexuality as a commodity
exchanged in global tourism.
En la cuerda floja. Riesgos sexuales y trabajo sexual masculino en Filipinas (2007, Translation):
Es difícil determinar cuándo comenzó el trabajo sexual masculino
formalizado en las Filipinas. La documentación sobre el trabajo sexual
femenino se remonta al período español (Tanetal. 1990; Camagay 1995),
pero la, porque no existe documentación. Es probable que sea bastante
reciente. Sin embargo, las entrevistas con viejos gays informaron sobre
burdeles masculinos existentes en los ghettos de Manila en los años
1960s, que parecen haber sido sustituidos por las salas de masajes, que
empezaron a proliferar en los 1970s. Ofrecen habitaciones con aire
acondicionado, una cama con colchón, lociones para masajes, condones y
lubricantes. Curiosamente, los «bares gays» son el otro tipo de locales
que se convirtieron en el lugar para ejercer el trabajo sexual
masculino. El término «gay» se hizo de dominio público en los años
1970s, importado obviamente de Occidente. Jóvenes de la clase alta
filipina, muchos de los cuales habían estudiado en los Estados Unidos,
hablaban ya sobre el hecho de ser «gay». Ser gay traía consigo
connotaciones de liberación, que incluían una reorientación de sus
preferencias sexuales. El trabajo sexual formalizado, es una transacción
de servicios, que implica remuneraciones fijas y una interacción social
limitada al intercambio de dinero por servicios, que son muy diferentes
de los encuentros de los bakla con «hombres de verdad». En este último
acuerdo hallamos el intercambio de regalos basado en una forma de
reciprocidad, y el «hombre de verdad» da sexo a cambio de dinero u otros
beneficios económicos, pero sin estructuras remunerativas fijas.
first-world man met third-world boy (1999): "I made it clear I wasn't thinking of engaging his services.
His evident disappointment was purely professional. We talked for half
an hour. I gave him 200 pesos. Impulsively, I asked if he would like to
meet outside. He said: "The owner will not allow it." A punter had to pay
the bar if he wanted to take a boy off. I said: "It's an arrangement between
us. It isn't business." Hesitantly, he agreed. - `Easy Money in Male Prostitution’: an imperialist Apocalypse Now in the Philippines (PDF
Download). - Male prostitution for reel
(2006, Manila): "For some reasons, Pinoy filmmakers have stopped doing movies
about bar girls and female prostitution. Not that there are no more
girlie bars and prostitution dens in the Philippine archipelago. It’s
just that our filmmakers seem bent on making us pay attention on male
Hernandez LI (2004). Sexualities, Identities and Bodies: Reducing the Vulnerability of HIV/AIDS Among Male Sex Workers in the Philippines. Review of Women`s Studies, 14(1): 1133-184. Download Page.
The purpose of this study was to explore the pagkatao of male sex
workers in the Philippines and the ways sexual orientation, sex work and
bodies are created, influenced, and modified based on the mindsets of
the informants in the study (loob) and the nature of the discourse and
practices that are manifested (labas). This study pointed to the fact
that pagkatao of the male sex workers is socially constructed and is
shaped by social, political, and economic influences, and modified
throughout life. The loob (inside) and labas (outside) Filipino model
aided in ascertaining the cultural meanings of sexuality that the
participants in the study have structured in their minds and how these
find utility in both oral and verbal languages that participants use.
Analysis of the informants' oral narratives obtained during the
interviews produced the overarching themes of sexual meanings, sexual
relationships, perceptions on sex work, sexual and personal
self-identification, and bodies. The multiplicity of sex workers' social
sexual networks and the range of sexual practices they engage in make
it difficult to ascertain their pagkatao; there are marked incongruences
between the social constructions of male sexuality and the realities of
these men's sexual experiences.
Hernandez, Laufred I (2002). Sexualities, Identities and Bodies: The Framing of Pagkatao Among Establishment-based Male Sex Workers in the Philippines. Master's Dissertation, Medical Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Universiteit van Amsterdam. PDF
Download. Download Page.
Becoming a sex worker was a conscious decision. The majority of the
male sex workers interviewed for this study revealed that their peers
and cousins were the ones who introduced them to this job. Even though
they knew what a “sex worker” did in a club, the sex workers saw their
work as “easy money”. The fastest way to get money was entertaining and
providing sexual services not only to gay men but also to female
clients. The study also showed that they gave services both men and
women. Sexual pleasure was their trade. For them, nothing was morally
wrong in what they were doing because they opined that they were not
robbing their clients of money but were giving pleasure to them. This
mindset brought us to examine their sexual orientation. The study
revealed that the majority of these sex workers had sexual encounters
with their girlfriends, and later with homosexuals. Thus, their sexual
experience with both sexes gave them an advantage in becoming sex
Salialam Jr. AP (2007). Risk Behaviors of Male Commerccial Sex Workers in Zamboanga City [Philippines]. Master's in Public Health Dissertation, Zamboanga University. PDF
Download. The foregoing data, particularly those that directly
pertain to unsafe sex practices or risky behaviors clearly indicate that
the great majority of the MCSWs in Zamboanga City are at high risk of
acquiring and transmitting STI-HIV/AIDS. Recommendations set in this
study involve interventional programs, monitoring and surveillance and
Indonesia: - Ford K, Wirawan DN, Fajans P (1993). AIDS knowledge, condom beliefs and sexual behaviour among male sex workers and male tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia (PDF Download - PDF Download):
" Most of the workers first had sex with a man when they were in their
teens: 35 per cent at age 14 or less, 40 per cent at age 15-16, and 25
per cent at 16 or more. Forty-five per cent of the workers were paid
for their first sex with a man. Fifty-nine per cent have had sex with a
woman. Respondents had worked for an average of 3.1 years with a range
of two months to nine years. Thirty per cent of respondents had worked
as CSWs only in Bali, 60 per cent had worked in Jakarta or Surabaya and
ten per cent had worked in Batam or Malaysia. The workers generally
return to their home village for holidays (85%), and some (35%) are
usually sexually active on these visits. Many of those men interviewed
identify themselves as gay, although some are primarily heterosexual in
orientation..." - HIV,
syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex
workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia (2004). - Bali Foundation Calls For Increased Testing To Curb HIV Among Male Sex Workers (2008).
NGO: Male sex workers at high risk of spreading STIs
(2008): Hundred of "cats", a local term for bisexual male sex
workers in Bali, pose a high risk of spreading HIV/AIDS and other
sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and must have themselves checked
to prevent a further outbreak, a foundation says. As many as 360 cats
have received education on HIV/AIDS and STIs as of 2006, according to
spokespersons from HIV/AIDS focused Gaya Dewata Foundation (YGD), but
their unchecked number remains a high risk for the spread of STIs. "They
are a high risk in respect to HIV infections and other STIs because
they switch partners between both men and women," said Vivi, the
director of YGD. The sex workers further increase the risk of
transmitting HIV and other STIs because the group tends to move around a
lot. "They are very mobile, although they still belong to the same
network. They do this to make it hard for customers to identify their
profiles, which makes it easier for them to find new customers," said
Gino, who pioneered the YGD's outreach program in 2006. Cats, a word
also used to describe those who are prone to HIV and STDs, differ from
MSM (men who have sex with men), because the group provides sex services
to male and female customers.
Pisani E, Girault P, Gultom M, Sukartini N, Kumalawati J, Jazan S, Donegan E (2004). HIV,
syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex
workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(6): 536-540. PDF Download. HIV
prevalence was 22% among transgender sex workers, 3.6% among male sex
workers, and 2.5% among self recognised MSM, and syphilis prevalence was
19.3%, 2.0% and 1.1% respectively. 59.3% of transgender sex workers and
64.8% of male sex workers reported recent unprotected anal intercourse
with clients, and 53.1% of other MSM reported unprotected anal sex with
male partners. Some 54.4% of male sex workers and 18.3% of other MSM
reported female partners in the preceding year... HIV has reached
substantial levels among transgender sex workers, and is not negligible
in other MSM groups. Risk behaviour is high in all subpopulations, and
bisexual behaviour is common, meaning the threat of a wider epidemic is
substantial. Prevention programmes targeting male-male sex are needed to
reduce this threat.
Ford K, Wirawan DN, Fajans P (1993). AIDS knowledge, condom beliefs and sexual behaviour among male sex workers and male tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia. Health Transition Review, 3(2): 191-204. PDF Download. PDF Download. PDF Download.
The data indicate that there is a very active community of male sex
workers and male clients in Bali that is at risk of AIDS infection.
Multiple sexual partners, unprotected anal intercourse, and frequent
experience with STDs put both workers and clients at risk. Workers had
limited knowledge of AIDS and STDs, although clients were mainly well
informed... From May to July, 1991, a convenience sample of 20 male
commercial sex workers (CSWs) and 19 of their tourist clients were
recruited at places where CSWs work including beaches, street areas,
bars, or discotheques. Friendship networks of CSWs were also used to
recruit sex workers into the sample. Clients were recruited for the
study either by meeting them at CSWs’ work sites or at bars or
discotheques where CSWs recruit clients.
A Community Developing Effective HIV/AIDS Programmes for Transsexuals Working
as Sex Workers: The Malaysian Example N/A (1996, Alternate Link, Must Scroll, Alternate Link). - Rivalry
among transvestites triggers arrests (1999): "Six foreign transvestite prostitutes
plying their trade in the northern state of Penang have been detained Thursday
by authorities for working illegally in Malaysia..." - Women
in Mens' Bodies - Basic Rights! (2001, Alternate Link) "A government-funded study in 1997
revealed that there were more than 20,000 transsexuals in the country and
that more than 60 percent of them were involved in prostitution."
Facts About Malaysia’s Male Sex Workers
(2011): Mak Nyah or Pondan is the Malay term for transvestites or
cross-dressers. Society frowns upon them, even though these people have
their own reasons for leading lives as the opposite gender. This article
delves into the life of ‘Atuk’, a HIV positive transvestite who has
been through many hardships – sexual abuse, drug addiction, prostitution
– but has now turned over a new leaf to help those in the same
predicament... Almost everyone wants to know who these male sex workers
are. From his own experience and outreach work, Atuk noted that male sex
workers were mostly Malays. He also learned that some male sex workers
around Kuala Lumpur come from as far as Sabah, Sarawak, Thailand and
China. Atuk has also observed that many male sex workers in the city
hail from Kelantan. He recalled the unfortunate story of two brothers in
the trade who are from Kelantan. "The elder one was infected with HIV
first, and the younger one contracted HIV later, after both brothers
shared the same needle to inject drugs," he said.When Atuk first got to
know them, the elder one was 15 and the younger one 14. "That is the
reality and worst still, I saw the elder one changing girlfriends,
though he was HIV positive," he added.
Singapore: From Prostitution and Morality (1997): "There was, in late November 1997 a well-reported murder trial of a male prostitute, who was found guilty of killing his brothel-owner. Many gay Singaporeans would have been simultaneously titillated with the details, horrified by the exposure of this underside of gay life, and extremely uncomfortable about the public association of homosexuality with prostitution." - Male Prostitution in Singapore (1997). - Some related legal absurdities (1999).
Homosexual prostitution in Singapore's Little India (Part 1 of 3, YouTube) - Part 2 of 3. Part 3 of 3.
- Gay male sex workers on rise in Vietnam (2012). - Vietnam - Male prostitution on the rise in HCM City
(2012): The number of male sex workers in HCM City has been on
the increase, with an approximate number now around 8,000. Most of the
men work in massage parlours or 'man brothels', while some have even
taken to working outside in parks. A recent national health survey the
found that 40% of admittedly-gay men in Vietnam work in the sex
industry. - Vietnam – Gay male escorts earn least of all sex workers according to Ministry of Labor (2012).
Men who have sex with men in Vietnam - Sexuality & Prostitution (2002, Part 1): (Part 2) "(Synopsis of Men engaged in having sex with men in Viet Nam - a Hanoi snapshot - by S. Doussantousse, Ngoc Anh (researchers) and L. Tooke, (specialist writer and editor) Hanoi, April 2002.): The authors of this paper have conducted fifteen unstructured interviews with individuals, including prostitutes, clients and intermediaries, in Hanoi during recent weeks. All respondents were invited to speak freely in confidence, and did so with minimal prompting... The men selling sex that we contacted in Hanoi were mainly between 18 and 23 years of age, although there was some indication that boys in their low teens could be 'made available' for clients, particularly older foreigners... For the purposes of this paper, we have assumed that the clients of male prostitutes in Hanoi are homosexuals or bisexuals. However, we recognise that in many countries, masculinity is confirmed by marriage and parenthood rather than explicitly heterosexual behaviour. Affection between men, physical contact and sharing beds are socially acceptable and create opportunities for sexual contact as a pleasurable activity rather than an expression of sexuality. It is, therefore possible that some clients pay for sex with men because it is 'safer' (i.e. less likely to attract police attention), less likely to lead to HIV infection or more convenient than using a female prostitute... Around half the sexual encounters appeared to be for masturbation and oral sex. However, penetrative anal sex was commonplace. Typically, the prostitutes we talked to were forthcoming about anal sex with clients, but often emphasised that it was active - they penetrated the client rather than the reverse. However, some of those who had not identified themselves as homo- or bisexual were guarded in their responses when questioned about their experience of being penetrated. Their responses indicated that that they were unwilling to talk about the matter, suggesting that cultural imperatives, perhaps relating to 'face', might be operating. Self-identified homosexual prostitutes, on the other hand, appeared to have no inhibitions when talking about being the passive partner..."
Nguyen, Van Hiep (2011). Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Male Sex Workers In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam - Implications For HIV Prevention. Master's Dissertation, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden. PDF Download. HIV and same-sex among men exist in every society globally. In Vietnam, social stigma and prejudices trigger male sex workers (MSW) at high risk to HIV and STI transmission. Surveys and researches on MSW in Vietnam are rare. MSW is regarded as a bridge to HIV transmission and STI to their partners by their bisexual behavior... The median age of MSW was 25. 51% of MSW were from HCMC and about a half (48.7%) from other provinces. 62.5% reported drinking alcohol, 13.5% reported using ecstasy and 5.5% used heroin. 36% had unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with all partners and 22% had UAI with male client partners. 90% reported they had ever known of STI. 46.5% reported ever had tested for HIV, and three were HIV positive. Older MSW (aged ≥25) had HIV test more than younger MSW (aged15-24), 64% and 35%, respectively. Low salary, family support and earning extra income were showed to be major reasons to be engaged in sex work. Trust to intimate partners, physical smell and negotiation skills affect safe or risky behavior. Most of MSW show good knowledge to0 HIV/STI transmission. Hegemonic masculinity is involved in risky sexual behavior among MSW as well. Special meeting venues or network for MSW were classified in various hierarchies of dichotomous areas: the young-the old, the rich-the poor, the national-the foreign, etc.... MSW in HCMC are a subgroup of MSM who are at very high risk for acquiring HIV and for transmitting it to their male and female partners. New and expanded projects are needed to focus on this high-risk population.
Dinh, Thai Son (2007). Commodification of pleasure: A Study of Male Migrant Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Master's Dissertation, Health Social Science, Mahidol University, Thailand. PDF Download. PDF Download. Abstract. Download Page. Some recent studies show that male sex work in Hanoi is currently
thriving. Along with local men, migrants have become an important source
of supply for this market. These include not only gay men but also
straight men that come to Hanoi from other cities and provinces. A
number of them depend on sex work as their main source of income. The
postmodern perspective on sexuality and narrative analysis method are
used to discover the fluidity of sexual subjectivities and various types
of sexual practices and partnerships that Vietnamese migrant male sex
workers (MSWs) encounter in their every day lives. Nine migrant MSWs and
four key informants are interviewed... The findings of the research
give insights to the business of male sex work, which is notorious for
the vulnerability of migrant lives, poor living conditions, leading them
to the sex work market in Hanoi. Among the sex work life, the fluidity
of sexual subjectivities is shown under the change of sexual and gender
orientation to adapt to issues of “Economics of desire”. Moreover,
selling sex is not only for sex per se but also for love, gratitude,
understanding, and regular financial support. Various types of sexual
practices and partner ships are also found in this research. Male sex
workers report that they experience many types of sexual practices,
safe, unsafe, coercive, consent sex, and especially, porn movies are
preferred to enhance their sexual desire. Clients of MSW are diverse and
include local male, female clients, and male foreigners. It is also
worrying for MSWs because a number of them still lack understanding of
how to protect themselves from HIV and STI risks...
Couch M, Hong KT (2004). Exchanges between Men within the Sexual Economies of Prostitution in Viet Nam. TASA Conference Paper. PDF
Download. Download Page. In-depth
interviews were conducted with 15 men and accounts collected of men,
individually or in groups engaging prostitutes, the kinds of sex
practices engaged in, the range of ways in which men exchange
information about prostitutes, attitudes to prostitutes, and differences
between men, depending on the era of their formative experience. The
analysis suggests that public health prevention is not likely to engage
with men if it takes a social evils approach, as men’s experience is not
set is a moral frame, but in very rich exchanges within a number of
sexual economies. As Viet Nam addresses sex and sexuality as a public
health matter, ways forward need to take account, not only of sex
practices involving prostitutes, but also the context created by
economies of male exchange.
Colby D, Cao NH, Doussantousse S (2004). Men who have sex with men and HIV in Vietnam: a review. AIDS Education and Prevention, 16(1):45-54. PDF Download. PubMed abstract.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam's urban centers are
increasing in numbers and visibility. Although limited to a few surveys,
the available data on MSM in Vietnam show that they are at increased
risk for HIV infection due to high numbers of sexual partners, high
rates of unsafe sex, and inconsistent condom use. There are significant
numbers of male sex workers in Vietnam and these men are also at high
risk for HIV infection. The lack of data on HIV prevalence among MSM and
the fact that the media and public health prevention programs ignore
MSM as a population at risk leads many MSM to mistakenly believe that
their risk for HIV is low. The low perception of risk, combined with
inadequate knowledge, may make MSM less likely to actively protect
themselves from HIV infection. More research is needed on current
behavior and HIV prevalence among MSM and male sex workers in Vietnam.
MSM in Vietnam's larger cities could easily be targeted for prevention
using peer educators to decrease their risk for HIV infection.
World Bank funded Project on Harm Reduction: Management Unit on HIV/AIDS Prevention Projects in Vietnam (Hai Phong Health Department: (PDF Download):
Reaching out MSM at their communities... Number of site visits: 1889,
Number of clients: 778...Tested 207 clients, 55 HIV+, 32 from male sex
workers who were IDUs themself, 15 from male sex workers, from MSM.
Men who have sex with men and HIV in Vietnam: a review (2004):
There are significant numbers of male sex workers in Vietnam and these
men are also at high risk for HIV infection... More research is needed
on current behavior and HIV prevalence among MSM and male sex workers
in Vietnam. MSM in Vietnam's larger cities could easily be targeted for
prevention using peer educators to decrease their risk for HIV
infection. - Synopsis of ‘Men engaged in having sex with men in Viet Nam – a Hanoi snapshot’ (Word Download):
"The paper explores the characteristics and behaviour of male
prostitutes and the situation and circumstances of male homosexuals in
Hanoi in relation to potentially risky sexual activities and exposure
to STDs and HIV/AIDS. It focuses upon the effects of apparent official
indifference towards male prostitution and what appears to be a general
public attitude of detachment towards male homosexuality."
- Girault, Philippe et al (2000). Sexual behaviors, STIs and
HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Famil
Hralth International. PDF
Download. "Using a two-stage time-location cluster sampling technique,
a probability sample of two hundred and six (206) MSM aged 18 years and
older from 16 sites in Phnom Penh, were selected. Inclusion criteria for
recruitment into the study included self-reported male-to-male sex behavior,
inclusive of non-penetrative sex, during the previous 12 months and being
age 18 years or older. Potential participants were approached at the sites
by trained interviewers and then accompanied back to one of the two drop-in
centers, which were established for the purpose of the study... The majority
of MSM surveyed did not identify as gay men but reported homosexual and
bisexual practices • Out of the total sample, 81% (167 men) reported anal
sex with male partners in the 6 months prior to the interview and
61.2 % (125 men) reported having had vaginal sex with female partners.In
the past 6 months 82.8% reported having male partners who paid them to
have sex.;There was a reported high turnover of male partners (mean of
5.2 male partners in the past month)..." "Although it was not the intention
of the sampling strategy, the majority of those included as respondents
in this survey were male sex workers (82.8%), a group of men at very
high risk for HIV and other STIs. The sites identified in the mapping
exercise were locations where men go to meet other men, which may
account for the disproportionate number of men selling sex. Due to
legal and social reasons, MSM who reported being under age 18 were not
recruited for the study. However, a considerable number were identified
during the mapping. Some locations where MSM could be located were not
accessible to the research team such as exclusive entertainment
establishments or telephone networks for commercial sex. The refusal
rate was 37%, and upon inquiry the study team found that a majority of
those men who refused were the clients of male sex workers (MSW).
Hence, the group described in this survey may represent the group of
MSM in Phnom Penh with the highest risk behavior, and may not be
representative of all MSM... " - CAMBODIA: Focus on MSM and the spread of HIV/AIDS (2007). - Cambodia Must Focus On MSM Population To Combat Spread Of HIV, UNAIDS Official Says (2007). - Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia: HIV/AIDS Vulnerability, Stigma, and Discrimination (2004, PDF Download).
Miles G, Davis J (2012). “The Lingha Boys of Siem Reap”: A Baseline Study of Sexually-Exploited Young Men in Siem Reap, Cambodia. PPT Presentation.
Recommendations: Further qualitative research would be useful to better
understand the individual narratives and developments of men in this
industry. Ethnographic research would be useful to better
understand additional markets for male sex work in SE Asia. Free
or low-cost vocational and life skills training programs provided by
NGO’s or local churches would be greatly beneficial for young men
working in this industry.
Guillou, Anne Y (2002). Les enfants des rue et le probleme du SIDA au Cambodge: parcours feminin, parcour masculins.
Jeunesses marginalisées. La revue du GREJEM [Groupe de Recherche et
d’Echanges sur les Jeunesses Marginalisées en Afrique et dans le Monde,
CEA/EHESS], n° 1: 29-41. PDF Download, Translation.
En activité d'appoint et non pas, comme les filles, en activité
principale, certains garçons pratiquent la prostitution occasionnelle.
La moitié des garçons de plus de quinze ans dit compléter ses revenus de
cette façon, tandis que, parmi les quarante-cinq jeunes de moins de
quinze ans, trois seulement le déclarent16. Cette activité sexuelle
commerciale est surtout le fait de garçons qui, vivant en permanence
dans la rue, ont rompu les liens avec leur famille et il semble que le
fait de vivre au sein du foyer familial constitue un important facteur
préventif de l'engagement dans la prostitution. Comment se déroule ce
commerce sexuel ? Il convient d'abord de noter, à cet égard, l'attitude
très différente des garçons, en comparaison de celle des filles. Les
premiers insistent volontiers sur leur liberté de choix, sur le fait
qu'ils n'ont subi aucune pression de quiconque pour accepter des
clients. Il s'agit, disent-ils en substance, d'un choix personnel. Dans
les groupes d'enfants des rues, on observe en effet une certaine
valorisation de la prostitution occasionnelle parce que cela demande une
certaine bravoure — qualité masculine appréciée. Le courage est requis
pour surmonter l'anxiété née de la rencontre avec un inconnu, souvent
étranger, dont on ne connaît pas la langue, dont on ne connaît pas les
attentes. Dans l'enquête, les clients sont, en majorité, des hommes
occidentaux, suivis de Cambodgiens et, moins fréquemment, d'Asiatiques
d'autres nationalités. Les garçons qui refusent ce commerce donnent des
raisons à la fois pragmatiques (“les clients n'aiment pas les enfants
qui respirent de la colle, comme moi”) et, plus rarement, des raisons
morales exprimées en terme de “propreté”. Mais, dans tous les cas, les
préférences sexuelles personnelles des adolescents ne sont pas du tout
déterminantes dans ce choix... Les relations avec ces hommes sont de
durée variable. Les rencontres peuvent avoir lieu avec régularité et
certains adolescents ont même vécu avec un client avant d'être quittés
par lui, lorsqu'il rentrait dans son pays. Cela renforce le sentiment
d'abandon et de méfiance, particulièrement aigu chez les plus fragiles —
ceux qui, manifestement, avaient attendu beaucoup de ce soutien et se
retrouvent de nouveau seuls et à la rue. Mais la plupart n'ont que des
relations limitées au seul rapport sexuel avec leur client et ne
souhaitent pas aller au-delà. Cette prostitution occasionnelle varie de
une ou deux fois par semaine à une ou deux fois par mois. Mais la chute
des prix, causée par l'augmentation de l'offre — car le nombre d'enfants
dans un état de grand dénuement ne cesse d'augmenter — pourrait pousser
les garçons à accroître cette activité.
Worker Education and Advocacy Taskforce (SWEAT: Cape Town, South
Africa):. - Men who have sex with men in South Africa - breaking the silence (2000):
"This study will bring together research undertaken by Triangle project
and other amongst clients of male sex workers, MSM in prisons and their
behavior after incarceration, and sex mapping of male youth in a
township around Capa Town. It shows the pervasiveness of sexual
contacts between men with a wide range of sexual orientations, and
informs efforts to lobby national strategy on prevention and targeted
interventions in a community based model." - Rights Not Rescue: A Report on Female, Trans, and Male Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa.
A Life Story Told in Seven Dream Periods (2005): "Paul A. Winter's new book [The Lingering Scent of a Candle Just Burnt: A Memoir Framed by Seven Dream Periods]
details his own turbulent life through seven recurring dreams. His book
describes his own erratic upbringing and brings forth the awareness of
teen male prostitution in South Africa.
Richter M, Chersich M, Temmerman M, Luchters S (2013). Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and transgender sex workers in South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 103(4): 246-251. PDF
In South Africa, information on sex workers’ characteristics, sexual
behaviour and health needs is limited. Current social, legal and
institutional factors impede a safe working environment for sex workers
and their clients.. Repeat cross-sectional surveys among sex workers
were conducted in Hillbrow, Sandton, Rustenburg and Cape Town in 2010.
Sex workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from
analysis. Unprotected sex was defined as any unprotected penetrative
vaginal or anal sex with last two clients. Trained sex workers
interviewed 1 799 sex workers. Sex work was a full-time profession for
most participants. About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men,
and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. A quarter of
anal sex was unprotected. Unprotected sex was 2.1 times (adjusted odds
ratio (AOR), 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7; p=0.011) more likely in participants
reporting daily or weekly binge drinking than non-binge drinkers. Male
sex workers were 2.9 times (AOR, 95%CI 1.6 - 5.3; p<0.001) more
likely, and transgender people 2.4 times (AOR, 95% CI 1.1 - 4.9;
p=0.021) more likely, than females to have unprotected sex. Sex workers
in Hillbrow, where the only sex work-specific clinic was operational,
were less likely to have unprotected sex than those in other sites. Tailored
sex work interventions should explicitly include male and transgender
sex workers, sex work-specific clinics, focus on the risks of
unprotected anal sex, and include interventions to reduce alcohol harm.
Isaacs G (2011). Male Sex Work Narratives: Implications for Health and Rights: 2011. PDF
Download. Sweat (Sex worker, education, advocacy, and task force)
has initiated a male sex worker’s creative space: within a period of six
months, the group membership has swelled to over 30 participants. With a
spread of Pan African Nationalities, ethnic backgrounds, and diverse
socio-economic profiles, this group participates in matters that
underpin sex work in South Africa: health, sex work as work, male
sexuality, MSM, human rights, and decriminalisation of sex work. [law
reform]. The age-range of this group is between 20 years and 54 years.
The material for this paper is extracted from group sessions, and
preliminary research findings, that have been undertaken by Boyce,
Isaacs and Harper (2011), and which will be presented at the Durban AIDS
conference in June, 2011. The bulk of this presentation, however, is
informed by a group work narratives and conversations of the Cape Town
co-hort. It is descriptive (my descriptions) and exploratory, and cannot
be generalised in terms of quantitative research data.
Boyce P, Isaacs G, et al. (2011). An Exploratory Study of the Social Contexts, Practices and Risks of Men Who Sell Sex in Southern and Eastern Africa. PDF Download. PDF Download. This report presents research conducted on behalf of Oxfam GB with funding from UNDP - an exploratory study of the social contexts, practices and risks of men who sell sex in Southern and Eastern Africa. The research was undertaken by the African Sex Worker Alliance in collaboration with Dr. Paul Boyce (UNDP) and Dr. Gordon Isaacs (SWEAT) as principle investigators... Conclusion: The data presented in this report combine to build-up a complex and nuanced account of the lives and life-worlds of male sex workers in the Southern and Eastern Africa region. A strength of the methodology adopted in the study (both in the formative workshop and in the follow-up activities) was a focus on sex workers' narratives amidst the creation of discursive spaces wherein intimate and personal views of male sex work could be shared. This added analytical depth to explorations of social vulnerability, sexual subjectivity, 'belonging', risk and so forth. The research consciously countered approaches to the study of sex work that focus on the classification of 'types' of sex worker or sex work, or which focus on the categorization and quantification of sexual risk practices. Whilst such research can certainly engender useful information, we were also concerned that in terms of analysis of sexualities and sex work as lived day-to-day practices such studies typically offer only a partial or limited perspective. In basing our research and analysis within first-order accounts of sex workers' lives we have sought to ground the research with a strong, experiential epistemology, which is also personally and emotionally sensitive. Personal developmental milestones [family background], language, vernacular, cultural and tribal affiliations, including inner city and peri-urban influences - and migrant sex work populations -have created mini-sub-cultures that often contain specific mores, codes of behaviour, class divisions and gender rivalry . This anthropological diversity must be addressed -sensitive to the needs, aspirations and participation of all concerned. This in turn can offer important insights into sex workers life experiences in a manner that can offer new and significant pathways for addressing social vulnerability, rights, risks, HIV prevention and health.
Hallett, Liam Wayne (2003). The experience of the male sex-worker : a phenomenological investigation. Master's Dissertaton, Department of Psychology, University of Zululand. Download Page. PDF Download.
Abstract: This phenomenological study explores the experience of male
sex-workers. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge
and understanding of this complex phenomenon and hopefully serve as a
foundation for future research and counselling interventions in this
field. A comprehensive literature review examining the individual and
contextual issues rooted in the world of commercial sex between men is
provided, and forms a firm foundation and backdrop for this study. The
design of this study was qualitative and proceeded from a
phenomenological stance. Data was collected through in-depth,
unstructured interviews with four, white South African men who were
currently working as male prostitutes. The interviews were recorded on
audiotape and transcribed verbatim for each participant. The data was
then categorized, coded and analyzed inter-individually in order to
discover common and contrasting themes and patterns. These were tied
together to form a hypothetical and general description of the
experience of the male sex-worker.
Bousfiha S, Fdaïl M, Mekouar (2006). Male Prostitution in Morocco. PDF Download. PDF Download. The purpose of this project was to determine what Moroccan people think of male prostitution... Surveys were distributed randomly in order to collect people’s perceptions and opinions about the issue. The surveyed population was divided into two sub-samples, thirty AUI students and thirty outsiders. The difference between these two sub-samples helped the team to compare the perceptions of highly educated people with ones of ordinary Moroccans who are statistically less educated than AUI students. The interviews were conducted to provide the team with the physical and psychological and social effects of male prostitution on male sex workers. The results illustrate people’s perceptions and demonstrate that they are quite inaccurate. - The Perception of Male Prostitution in Morocco. - Prostitution masculine : Les travailleurs du sexe (2007, Translation): Un reportage de "La Gazette du Maroc" au sujet de la prostitution masculine au Maroc.
méditerannéens sur le SIDA (1999, Translation, Université d'Eté
Euroméditerranéenne des Homosexualités): "Le contexte
aidant, il n'existe pas de communauté gay à l'occidentale,
assumant sa différence, visible, organisée et disposant de
ces propres lieux de rencontre. Face à cette situation, et après
plusieurs mois de réflexion, l'association a décidé
d'approcher le milieu des prostitués masculins qui semblent constituer
la face la plus visible de l'homosexualité au Maroc... La prostitution
masculine est une réalité principalement urbaine, surtout
à Casablanca, Marrakech, Agadir et Tanger (les villes touristiques,
connues pour cela au niveau local comme international). Dans ces 3 dernières
villes, il existe un véritable tourisme sexuel. D'un point de vue
légal, la prostitution masculine n'existe pas. C'est quelque chose
de très tabou dans la société. Et à propos
du sida, le premier cas connu fut identifié en 1998. Au 31 mars
1999, nous comptons 590 cas. La voie hétérosexuelle représente
le mode de transmission le plus fréquent (63% des cas). Après
vient la prostitution homosexuelle (20% des cas), les contaminations par
intraveineuse suite à l'usage de drogue (8%).
Gambia: - "Both female and male prostitution is widespread in coastal areas, as is drug addiction among the Gambian youth." (Info Sources: 1, 2). - Gambia outlaws male prostitution (2013): The Gambia introduced a raft of new laws Tuesday criminalizing male prostitution, cross-dressing and the singing of abusive songs in public. - Gambia further criminalises LGBT people (2013): In addition to making male prostitution and being irritating in public illegal, the homophobic government of the Gambia has also criminalised men dressing in women’s clothing.
et Abus Sexuels des Enfants en Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre:
Evolution de la situation, progrès accomplis et défis à surmonter depuis
le Congrès de Yokohama (2001) et la Conférence Arabo-Africaine de Rabat
(2004) (2008, PDF Download. Translation.):
En Gambie, une étude réalisée par la CPA, ECPAT Gambie et Terre Des
Hommes, auprès de garçons impliqués dans la prostitution a confirmé que
le tourisme sexuel était le fait d’étrangers (hommes et femmes) dans le
cadre de voyages organisés à des fins de relations sexuelles avec les
jeunes hommes gambiens. Plusieurs « bumsters » (jeunes hommes/ garçons
qui se présentent comme guide), dont certains âgés de moins de 18 ans,
sont également impliqués dans les rapports sexuels ou agissent en tant
que proxénètes... Les garçons sont également victimes de prostitution.
L’exploitation sexuelle des enfants a lieu dans des bars, des maisons
transformées en maisons closes et dans les marchés à la tombée de la
Sénégal: - L’ambiguïté des textes sur la prostitution au Sénégal
(Word Download, Translation): "La prostitution masculine: Elle concerne les hommes
qui ont des rapports avec des hommes. Cette prostitution touche une
tranche d’age entre 14 et 22 ans maximum. C’est pourquoi on dit que le
temps de carrière des prostitués masculins est
très court, car quand ils approchent la trentaine, ils sont
moins recherchés, les clients étant
intéressés par les garçons moins
juvéniles...Il semble que la majorité des jeunes qui
s’adonnent à la prostitution masculine expliquent leur
comportement par l’oisiveté, le manque de formation, le manque
de moyen, le chômage, alors tous les moyens sont bons pour gagner
sa vie... Cependant, par le sentiment d’exclusion ressentie par ceux
qui la pratiquent, la prostitution masculine est vécue de
manière particulièrement forte et sociologiquement moins
connue et moins étudiée. Et pourtant, elle est
aujourd’hui en forte augmentation et cette évolution
mérite une réflexion et une attention particulière
de la part du législateur."
Bougazelli, Jérôme (2005). L’ambiguïté des textes sur la prostitution au Sénégal. PDF Download.
La prostitution masculine Elle concerne les hommes qui ont des rapports
avec des hommes. Cette prostitution touche une tranche d’age entre 14
et 22 ans maximum. C’est pourquoi on dit que le temps de carrière des
prostitués masculins est très court, car quand ils approchent la
trentaine, ils sont moins recherchés, les clients étant intéressés par
les garçons moins juvéniles. Comme des prostituées, ils recherchent le
profit. Ils vivent le multipartenariat sexuel et ont des lieux de
rencontre et fréquentent des clients. C’est ainsi que le vocable « Iby »
est assimilé à la femme et le vocable « Yoss » à l’homme. Les «
Iby » se comportent comme des femmes, la raison c’est qu’ils sont des
homosexuels de nature. Ces « Iby » ne se limitent pas a un seul homme,
ils (elles) vont dans des lieux de rencontre et se vendent comme
prostituées. Les « Yoss » sont bisexuels. Ils font des rapports
sexuels aussi bien avec des femmes qu’avec des hommes et réclament
Cameroun: - Male sex workers in Cameroon face social stigma and poor access to care
(2011): In Cameroon male sex workers have been left out of HIV and Aids
prevention and control programmes and face discrimination in gaining
access to healthcare... Being a male sex worker is like a double curse.
Stigma, violence and detention are widely reported. As a result, male
sex workers operate in secrecy and their male clients are also forced
underground. Some, like Aurélie, dress up as women and work on the
streets. But many keep their masculine appearance. They seek their
clients in snack bars and strip clubs. "Fleur", 32, a sex worker,
says he's bisexual with a preference for men. "Sometimes the police come
to arrest us," he says. "Girls are quickly freed but the treatment of
men is different. The police beat us. They say it is to remove the demon
of homosexuality in us. They make us sleep on the floor in the cells
and only free us after tough negotiations." As he tells his story, tears
spill down his cheeks. "This hatred makes me sad. But I feel worse
because discrimination is felt even in our families and in places such
as schools and hospitals." "When we go to state hospitals, we have
to lie to get treatment," says Cyril, another sex worker. He says
nowadays doctors are less likely to report them to the police but they
ask their receptionists turn them away. "I've had this experience and
many people I know have too," he says. In Cameroon, as in many
African states, the government does not recognise men who have sex with
men as a risk group.
Cameroun - La prostitution masculine se pratique au grand jour (2011, Translation):
Mais les gays qui se prostituent au Cameroun, n’offrent pas leurs
charmes qu’aux hommes. Le Jour indiquent qu’ils satisfont aussi
les plaisirs des femmes, souvent très âgées et délaissées ou de
personnes à la santé fragile. Comme Marie-Ange, devenue paraplégique à
la suite d’une crise cardiaque. Ou encore Albert, épileptique, que ses
copines quittent chaque fois qu’il fait une crise. Alors, pour être sûr
d’avoir du plaisir, il vient le prendre chez les garçons-filles du
«Carrefour j’ai raté ma vie». - Luchando contra el VIH en trabajadores sexuales masculinos y trans en Camerún (2013, Translation):
Sex work is considered illegal in Cameroon. Prostitution and
solicitation are penalized by Article 343 of the Penal Code, providing
prison sentences of six months to five years and fines of 20,000 to
500,000 CFA francs ($39 to $976). Paradoxically, the number of sex
workers is increasing, reaching an estimated total of 20,145 in 2006. In
2004, an estimated 3 percent of men reported having had sex with a sex
worker; among men whose marriage had broken down, the percentage was 6
percent. HIV infection is growing among sex workers: it rose from 26.4
percent in 2004 to 36.7 percent in 2009.
In the Streets of Cameroon, the Voice of a Male Sex Worker
(2012): Even though it is considered the world’s oldest
profession, sex work remains a taboo in Africa, especially when
practiced by men. My name is René. I am 26 years old, and I am a
sex worker. I have been doing this work for about two years. My loyal
clientele is exclusively male. The popular belief in Cameroon is
that all sex workers are heterosexual. The reality is that over 60
percent of us are bisexual. Among male sex workers, you will find
gigolos, married men who occasionally practice the profession to make
ends meet. Unknown to their wives, of course. I work in brothels
and other favorite venues of sex workers in Douala and Yaoundé, but
sometimes, my female colleagues in other cities need my services. This
happens when they have clients who prefer either macho men or
transvestites dressed as women. They also call on me when their clients
demand effeminate men...
Adonis Tchoudja on Fighting HIV among Male and Transgender Sex Workers in Cameroon (2013):
In a place where sex work is illegal and homosexuality is criminalized,
Adonis Tchoudja leads Aids Acodev Cameroon in the fight against HIV
among male and transgender sex workers... My name is Adonis Tchoudja,
and I am president of Aids Acodev Cameroon. Created in 2009 by a group
of young sex workers, Aids Acodev Cameroon was born out of a demand for
HIV services tailored to the needs of male and transgender sex
workers. Aids Acodev Cameroon stands for Aid to Underprivileged
and Vulnerable People in Cameroon (Aides Aux Couches Défavorisées et
Vulnérables au Cameroun in the original French)... I have worked on a
number of projects since taking my position as president of Aids Acodev
Cameroon in 2010. Aids Acodev Cameroon runs an education night patrol
that visits brothels, bars, nightclubs, restaurants, and massage
parlors. We are also active on online dating sites, and we conduct talks
on HIV prevention and care in the homes of sex workers. We also hope to
gain acceptance from Cameroon’s religious community. It has been very
difficult to mobilize and receive adequate funding for Aids Acodev
Cameroon, so support from the ever-prospering religious community in
Cameroon could open many doors for us. We are currently looking for
funds to start a drop-in center for counselors and colleagues of female,
male and transgender sex workers.
Fighting HIV among male/trans sex workers in Cameroon (2013): Male and transgender sex workers: a seldom-recognized reality in Cameroon’s fight against HIV... Do male sex workers face the same problems as female sex workers? In real life, I would say that all sex workers face the same problems. Their work is hidden because Cameroonian law condemns the practice of prostitution. Men’s sex work is doubly forbidden because another law criminalizes homosexual practices. Sex work in Cameroon is a socially stigmatized. Sex workers are subject to much abuse and violence from clients, pimps and even law enforcement. Generally, female prostitution is much more tolerated than male prostitution, which police equate with homosexuality. Could you tell about transgender sex workers? These are usually male transvestites who are forced to live in hiding and hug the walls so they won’t be noticed on the street. During questioning and arrests, punishments often heavier when police realize that they are dealing with a biological male. Even during sex acts, they often need to hide their sex, which is not easy. We have seen many cases that turned sour when sex workers were beaten by their customers. Some are forced to work with the protection of what we call in our jargon “protect boys” — guys who usually wait behind a door so they can intervene whenever sex workers need protection.
Quand la prostitution se fait ... mâle
(2001): Un reportage d’une télévision française, diffusé il y a
quelques semaines, repris par TV5 dans le monde entier, a quelque peu
tempéré l’orgueil de plus d’un Camerounais. Celui-ci met en vedette un
compatriote, homosexuel, ventant tous les avantages (d’équilibre en tout
genre) qu’il tire de sa situation. Nous avons voulu en savoir un peu
plus sur ces hommes de chez nous, qui vivent du commerce de leur chair.
Enquête sur les hommes de joie... "Je suis payé dans ce cabaret
uniquement avec les pourboires que les clients laissent. Il faut bien
que je gagne ma vie. Au début j'ai eu peur de sortir avec un homme qui
proposait de me payer si je satisfaisais ses envies sexuelles, mais pour
ce soir-là seulement, il m'a donné dix mille francs. J'ai cru que je
rêvais et il m' a expliqué qu'il y avait d'autres, comme lui, qui
étaient intéressés par la "marchandise". C'est lui qui m'a montré la
voie et qui m'a permis d'avoir un carnet d'adresses. Je gagne bien ma
vie aujourd'hui, mais je continue à danser ici pour maintenir mon réseau
et rencontrer de nouveaux clients". Quand Ludovic arrive en 1989 de son
village natal, il vient rejoindre son oncle qui lui promet de le
remettre à l'école et de payer ses études. Après quelques mois, ils se
brouillent et son oncle lui demande de débarrasser le plancher. Il
devient plongeur dans le cabaret où il officie aujourd'hui en star de
nuit. S'il n'est pas né avec une cuillère dans la bouche, il a un visage
a faire fortune. Une ossature qui émeut et qu'on a envie de protéger.
Son patron convaincu de lui faire un pont en or, lui propose de devenir
danseur dans son établissement. Le reste va évoluer très rapidement.
Lorsqu'il commence à offrir ses charmes aux hommes, il est convaincu
qu'il est le seul mais ses amants vont le détromper et lui faire très
vite rencontrer certains autres membres du réseau. Chaque jour, les
clients sont à la recherche de nouveaux initiés. Les maquereaux ne
manquent donc pas. A la différence que, dès que vous avez le pied à
l'étrier, ils vous laissent voler tout seul, de corps… en corps.
Ivory Coast: - ‘Yan
Daudu’ and Proud - Same-Sex Bonds Take Many Forms In Africa Today (1999): [In] Abidjan, the capital of the Ivory Coast, two figures in skirts sit
on a concrete block, pulling wigs and scarves and assorted makeup out
of bulky handbags. It is the early evening and they have an hour or so
to get ready before the competition and first customers come. Olivia is
thin and handsome; Tina, more talkative, has a blouse cut so low that
it reveals the shadow between his chest and his padded bra. Business is
not bad, says Tina, despite interminable problems with the police. The
customers, Ivorians and other Africans, pay whatever the market will
bear. Meanwhile, on the other side of the road, hustlers arrive and
wait for customers who prefer their men dressed as men.
Kenya: - Kenya: Inside the Life of Nairobi Male Sex Workers (2011): Mantulli System 25, wears bright makeup and colourful clothing every evening and then heads to work. He struts into an inconspicuous pub near Kirinyaga Road in Nairobi where he orders two beers and waits. This is yet another promising evening. "You see, you people condemn us during the day but at night you are our clients," he says. Mantulli has been a sex worker for eight years now having escaped home at 18 years after his family disowned him. He is Taita, but prefers to use his "business" name to hide his real identity. He is among hundreds of young male sex workers in Nairobi. Social workers say this is a growing underground population only known to its clientele and a few health officials. - Reducing HIV/STI Risk and Improving Treatment for Male Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya N/A. - Kenya: Male sex workers are entitled to their human rights (2009).
Male sex work in Mombasa, Kenya: driven by poverty or identity?
(2008): The stories provided by IDI and FGD participants revealed three
broad contexts through which they first had sex with men including: (1)
relationships with schoolmates or friends in the context of adolescent
development; (2) as youth being lured or coerced by older men, often
described as consensual in exchange for money or gifts; and (3) adopting
male sex work during adulthood as a poverty alleviation strategy. While
most participants were motivated by financial gain, concurrent sexual
motivations varied among MSW... Male sex workers revealed diverse
motivations when describing the reason for practicing sex work. Insight
into how men come to have sex with men may help Kenyan health workers
better understand the social context of male sex work, and inform
appropriate HIV counseling and treatment strategies.
Male Sex Workers In Kenya Face Discrimination From The MSM Community
(2012): I was born in a poor poor poor family in the Central Province, a
very remote place in Kenya. I am born gay – it is my identity. For 11
years now I have been living positive. I wanted people to know that gay
men in Africa can also be positive. I came out openly, so I have
three positives: gay man, sex worker, HIV-positive. I’m the
coordinator of the Kenya Sex Workers Alliance, which is a coalition of
sex worker-led organizations in Kenya. We recognize diversity – male,
female and transgender sex workers. I started activism long before
I joined the Alliance in 2010 – I was an activist with the global
Network of Sex Work Projects. I used to write articles, go to
media, tell people I am a male sex worker. People always think in a
country like Kenya there are only female sex workers. Male sex
workers face discrimination from the MSM community. They never realize
we are gay people, but we identify as male sex workers. They ask us:
“Why do you have to do sex work?” We are excluded from the MSM
community. At the same time, we also face violence from clients for
being gay – they have sex with you, then start shouting at you. “This
man is gay! Beat him up!” Male sex workers have been raped and even had
broken bottles shoved up their anus.
Male sex worker in Kenya with ‘important’ clients (2009): Kenyan male sex workers serve “politicians and religious leaders (2009). - In the shadows too long, one of Kenya’s gay male prostitutes speaks out for change (2009). - Bisexual male sex workers run big risks (2010, Alternate Link): Up to 60 percent of male sex workers in Mombasa also have female sexual
partners, according to a recent study presented at the 17th Conference
on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in San Francisco. - 20 male sex workers to fight HIV in Kenya
(2012): Twenty sex workers will be trained as peer educators so they
can tell other sex workers how to avoid HIV infection. The training,
scheduled for this month, was organized by a Nairobi-based group for
male sex workers, Health Options for Young Men on HIV and AIDS, or
HOYMAS. Funding is from the Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR). “There
is a lot of stigma being gay; add on top being a sex workers and you
face double discrimination,” said one male sex worker.
Many sex workers are married, new report reveals
(2012, Alternate Link): A new survey of commercial sex work in Kenya, the first to
include male sex workers, has revealed that 40 percent of female and
male commercial sex workers are in marriages or stable unions. According
to the survey by the National AIDS and Sexually transmitted infections
Control Programme (NASCOP), the World Bank, Kenya Prisons and Canada's
University of Manitoba, there are an estimated 200,000 commercial sex
workers in Kenya, 15,000 of whom are men. The study, which covered all
the country’s urban areas with the exception of North Eastern Province,
found that Rift Valley and Nairobi provinces had the biggest number of
sex workers. "[A] majority of the male commercial sex workers have sex
with men, and this puts them at greater risk because anal sex, as is
already known, is a catalyst for the spread of HIV, and because of the
stigma involved, many do not seek services like HIV testing," said
Nicholas Muraguri, head of NASCOP.
Geibel S (2012). Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy. FVV in ObGyn, 4(4): 285-294. [PhD. Dissertation Summary]. PDF Download.
The first study was to assess HIV risk among MSM in Nairobi, and the
second study a pre-post intervention study of male sex workers in
Mombasa. The 2004 behavioral survey of 500 men in Mombasa revealed that
MSM were having multiple sexual partners and failed to access
appropriate prevention counseling and care at Kenya clinics. A 2006
capturerecapture enumeration in Mombasa estimated that over 700 male sex
workers were active, after which a pre-intervention baseline survey of
425 male sex workers was conducted. Awareness of unprotected anal sex as
an HIV risk behavior and consistent condom use with clients was low,
and use of oil-based lubricants high. Based on this information, peer
educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counseling skills, and
distribution of condoms and lubricants. To assess impact of the
interventions, a follow-up survey of 442 male sex workers was
implemented in 2008. Exposure to peer educators was significantly
associated with increased consistent condom use, improved HIV knowledge,
and increased use of water-based lubricants. These results have
provided needed information to the Government of Kenya and have informed
HIV prevention interventions.
Male sex workers who have sex with men (MSM-SW): marginalized and high risk population with poor access to STI/HIV health services in Nairobi, Kenya (2010):
A total of 164 MSM-SW have already been enrolled into the cohort,
majority aged between 25 - 35 years with a median of 27 years. 78.7% of
them use alcohol daily while 46.2% reported having had a blackout in
the past 3 months. 29.9% of the men also used Khat and 7.9% used bhang
frequently. Only 28.5% of the MSM -SW reported always using condoms for
insertive and receptive anal intercourse while16.2% reported always
using condoms for vaginal sex. The STIs rates are: Chlamydia at 26.1%,
Gonoccoccal infection at 5% while 1% had Syphilis. 47.6% of the cohort
is HIV infected with 33% those aged 15-19years already carrying the
virus.. - In the life of a Kenyan gay sex worker (2010). - Factors associated with self-reported unprotected anal sex among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.(2008). - Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya (2009). - The impact of peer outreach on HIV knowledge and prevention behaviours of male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya (2012).
The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Kenya (2006): Male prostitutes are readily available on the streets of Nairobi and Mombasa, usually catering to tourists. They are well dressed in order to be able to enter international hotels. Male prostitution serving an African clientele does not seem to exist. The prostitutes themselves are probably bisexual, many having girl friends or wives, and considerthemselves heterosexual. - Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya? (2009).. - Perceived and experienced stigma among male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya (2008).
Daudu’ and Proud - Same-Sex Bonds Take Many Forms In Africa Today
(1999): [In] Nairobi, men come to a bar in a well-known
public building for their "sun-downer"— the drink at the end of the
day. Some are flamboyant, wearing makeup and jewelry. Jack, almost
seven feet tall, is a 23-year-old hairstylist who has been blackmailed
and arrested several times by the police. Others are more discreet,
such as Odongo, 42, a gas station attendant from near the Ugandan
border who left his wife in his hometown and regularly pays for the
company of young men.
Ethiopia: Revelation of Homosexual Life in Ethiopia – Part 1
(2011): We follow Abiye as he moves to Addis Ababa and almost
inevitably sinks into a life of male gay prostitution. He was warmly
welcomed into a sub-culture that is almost impossible to believe exists
in the Addis Ababa we know and live in. The community of male
homosexual prostitutes has its own leaders, code names, protocols and
etiquette. Clients encompass the gamut of society from all rungs of the
economic ladder, religious affiliation and educational background. In
the homosexual world, which Abyie inhabited in his time as a male sex
worker, gender is fluid, no longer a distinguishing characteristic.
Male prostitutes engage in various acts of sex, including orgies, oral
and anal intercourse with paying clients during the night. During the
day they search for romantic partners with whom they pursue monogamous
relationships extending to and including a form of marriage. The
overarching rule is complete and absolute secrecy as clients, and to an
extent even the male prostitutes, have separate lives that can be
irreparably damaged by exposure. Abiye chose to break this rule after
years of shame and guilty when he was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. His
diagnosis accompanied by the similarly tragic fates of his friend’s
made him see the importance of saving others.Below is a short interview
with Abiye and Atelele, one of the leaders in the homosexual prostitute
world... - Revelation of Homosexual Life in Ethiopia – Part 2:
In an interview for the DVD, Ato Seifu Hagos summarized his findings
which is featured in a publication of the Ethiopian Public Health
Association. His research discovered that homosexuals in Addis Ababa
congregate in gay owned bars and cafes as well as designated streets.
He says that homosexuals are not an external entity to our society but
very much a part of it.
Ghana: - Male prostitutes practice openly in Accra (2008, Alternate Link). - Gay for pay:
Most Ghanaians are unaware that gay prostitution exists in the country,
according to several gay community leaders. Homosexuality is considered
"un-African" or a "White man's practice" that was brought to Ghana by
white men or by Ghanaians who lived outside the country and introduced
it to Ghana upon their return... The majority of male partners and
customers of Ghanaian gay men are either Ghanaian or black, according
to a study of gay men in Ghana authored by researcher Dela Attipoe.
Foreigners make up about 37 percent of cases, the majority of whom are
white. - African men a new niche in sex trade - Ghanaians Involved
(2000): "I was so bored with all my partners and the same old scene in
the gay bars around Bangkok. One day after work, I complained about how I
felt to my friends. They then invited me to join a party for which a
friend of mine had ordered an African male escort," Boy said... The sex
workers predominantly come from Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan, and Senegal. Most
live in the Sukhumvit area, particularly around Soi Nana. They enter
the country with a tourist visa and work illegally. The African sex
trade has existed in Thailand since the economic recession, she said.
Zimbabwe: - Gay Prostitution Hits Streets of Harare (2007, Alternate Link).
Nigeria: HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors Among Men Having Sex With Men in Nigeria
(2011): The MSM reported an average of 4.2 male anal sex partners in
the previous six months. Selling sex to other men was reported by 24.4
percent of participants in Lagos and 36 percent in Kano. Sex with a
girlfriend was reported by 49.7 percent of the MSM, and at least 6.5
percent reported paying female sex workers for sex. - Male sex work in Nigeria: a population-based estimate of a hidden and vulnerable population
(2010, Alternate Link): On any given Friday night in Lagos, an estimated 865 (95% CI:
707-1023) men are willing to engage in sex for money or goods with
other men. In Kano on any given Saturday night, 641 (95% CI: 577-705)
men are willing to engage in sex for money or goods with other men. - Nigeria: I Slept With Top Government Officials, Male Prostitute Confesses (2012).
Gay parties and male sex workers in Nigeria (2012):
While male sex workers and other MSM are seriously marginalised and
socially excluded in Nigeria, they secretly organise parties which
provide a source of hope. These parties are always interesting places to
be, where some male sex workers dress like women and refer to
themselves as Beyoncé, Shakira, Rihanna and other divas, while others
freely dance and act like women. At these parties, men feel secure and
comfortable to celebrate and express passions and gratifications about
their sexuality, while they also network and meet new friends, potential
sex partners and clients. There is a cordial relationship between male
sex workers and other MSM at these parties, many referring to each other
as my sister . One sex worker said Gay parties help us forget our
sorrows, depression, HIV and other problems, and we think about our
Male sex workers in Nigeria: Ignoring the ‘oldest profession’
(2010): The Nigerian Government and its representatives have not done
much to acknowledge homosexuality and the lives of MSWs within its
borders. Government representatives refute the idea that women would
search for male sex workers (5) or that heterosexual married men would
solicit services from MSWs. The Government is making no present effort
to deal with this issue. On the other hand, police do approach the
issue, but inappropriately, through raiding brothels, arresting and
beating, even raping and extorting money from MSWs. MSWs are a minority
group whose human rights are ignored, not only in Nigeria but in many
African countries. Instead of getting involved and providing MSWs
educating, training and the necessary skills to do other kinds of work,
authorities opt to beat them down and disregard their rights. Poverty,
limited national access to education and unemployment are the main
reasons for involvement in sex work.
Sexual hazards, life experiences and social circumstances among male sex workers in Nigeria
(2012/2013): .The sexual health and rights needs of male sex workers in
Nigeria remain poorly understood and served. Men who sell sex are at
high risk of discrimination and violation because of laws criminalising
same-sex activity and sex work. This paper examines the experiences,
social circumstances, vulnerabilities and sexual hazards experienced by
male sex workers in Nigeria. In-depth interviews were used to explore
the experiences of six male sex workers who were selected by means of
convenience sampling from among those who came for counselling. Findings
reveal that economic disadvantage drives some men to engage in sex work
and risky sexual behaviour. Subsequently, sex work may put their lives
and health at risk as a result of violation by the police and clients,
including ritual murder. Men's extreme vulnerability points to the need
for appropriate interventions to improve well-being. Sexual health and
rights programmes must identify ways of making male sex workers less
vulnerable to abuse, and devise strategies for protecting their health
and human rights, while empowering them economically to reduce their
dependency on often risky sexual behaviour for livelihoods.
Uganda: - Male prostitute killed Uganda gay activist: police (2011).
- HIV/STI Prevalence and Risk Behavior Among Male Sex Workers Attending
Prevention and Care Services in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (Poster Presentation).
Search Engines & Directories: - Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN
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To Part 2: History of Male Prostitution - Films - Books - General Information - Full Text Articles.