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The Middle East to Asia (6):
Asia - General Resources & International Issues

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Index: Asia & Middle East - Race/Ethnic Minority Issues: U.S., Canada, Europe,  New Zealand & AustraliaLatin America / Africa - Homosexuality:  Biological  or  Learned ? Public School Issues - Transgender / Tranvestite / Transsexual - Lesbian  &  Bisexual Women - Homo-Negativity / Phobia - Identity Formation  &  Coming Out - Counseling  &  Therapy - Professional Education  - Bisexuality - Religion   &  Spirituality - Male  Youth Prostitution - HIV-AIDS - Gay & Bisexual Male Suicide Problems - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction  -  - GLBT  History - Community Attributes  &  Problems -Couples / Families / Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence - The Elderly

The Middle East to Asia:
Asia: General Resources / International Issues

Full Text Papers!  - - AsiaPacifiQueer 3
Sexualities, Genders, And Rights in Asia: An International Conference of Asian Queer Studies
Bangkok, Thailand, July 8-10, 2005
Closing date for submitting paper and panel proposals: October 31, 2004

Section Index

Part 6 (This Page) - General Asian Resources --- International Issues & Resources.

Part 1 - Middle East to Central Asia: Central Asia: - Middle East / Eastern Mediterranean Region: - Iran -- Israel -- Palestine -- Lebanon -- Jordan -- Saudi Arabia -- Kuwait -- Iraq -- Bahrain -- Oman -- Yemen -- Syria -- Egypt -- Algeria -- Morocco -- Tunisia -- Turkey -- Cyprus -- Afghanistan -- Kazakhstan -- Kyrgyzstan -- Uzbekistan -- Turkmenistan -- Tajikistan.

Part 2 - South Asia: South Asia - Web Resources - Bibliographies - Books: - India - Films -- Bangladesh -- Nepal -- Sri Lanka -- Pakistan -- Bhutan -- Maldives -- Full Text Papers.

Part 3 - Northeast Asia: - China - History - Films - Web Resources. -- Hong Kong - Films - Web Resources. -- Taiwan  - Films - Web Resources. -- Tibet -- Mongolia -- South Korea - Web Resources. -- Japan - History  - Films - Web Resources - Books -- Full Text Papers.

Part 4 - Southeast Asia: Mekong Region: Vietnam - Web Resources - Books. -- Thailand - Web Resources - Books. -- Cambodia -- Laos -- Full Text Papers.

Part 5 - Southeast Asia (Not Including Mekong Region): Singapore - Web Resources - Books. -- Malaysia - Web Resources - Books. -- Philippines - Web Resources - Books. -- Indonesia -- East Timor -- Burma -- Brunei -- Guam -- Nauru - Full Text Papers.

Amnesty International: Hong Kong: LGBT Group
LGBT Group: Page Header...

The higher you build your barriers
The taller I become
The further you take my rights away
The faster I will run
You can deny me
You can decide to turn your face away
No matter 'cause there's
 Something inside so strong
I know that I can make it
Though you're doing me wrong, so wrong
You thought that my pride was gone... oh no
There's something inside so strong
Something inside so strong"
~~ extracted lyrics of ''Something Inside So Strong'' by Labi Siffre on "So Strong" ~~
© 1998 China Records Ltd.

To "The SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Sexuality Policy Watch (2008): Position Paper on the Language of “Sexual Minorities” and the Politics of Identity.



Homosexuality: A Western Import: "The most visible gay movements and communities are at present found in Western countries. As a result, many people think that homosexuality is a Western import, a bad influence from there. If at all they ponder the question of indigenous homosexuality, they see in their minds transvestites, i.e. cross-dressers. If they think a little harder they may add effeminate males, albeit non-cross-dressing. In the view of the general population, these are the only kinds of indigenous homosexuality within Asian societies, a bad enough disgrace as they are. This popular view is plain wrong. Homosexuality has always been part of Asian culture, it was not imported. It has even been celebrated in poetry and writing, and the predominant part of our history is not the cross-dressing or effeminate variety..." - Homosexuals in Asia press for basic rights. - AIDS, Children, The United Nations & Southeast Asia. - Research and discussion paper: An Overview of TG in Asia. - Huge HIV uptick feared in Asia and Pacific. - Virtual Refuge for Gay Muslims. - Gay Asian American Male: Inter-Racial Dating. - Critical regionalities and the study of gender and sexual diversity in South East and East Asia. - Men Who Have Sex With Men Vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Asia, but Widely Ignored (2005). - Recognition and protection of LGBTIQ rights long overdue: ASEAN LGBT groups (2011): 31 LGBT groups from 8 Southeast Asian countries tell their governments: LGBTs being treated as "criminals" and "second class citizens" is not "acceptable", and the "recognition, promotion, and protection of LGBTIQ rights is long overdue"... The landmark May 2 meeting was organised by Jakarta-based LGBT group Arus Pelangi (Rainbow Stream) and Vietnam-based iSEE, a non-profit organisation that focuses on issues relating to the rights of ethnic minorities and sexual minorities. It was held for delegates to hear the situation and challenges faced by LGBT communities in ASEAN and to call upon civil society and governments to protect LGBTIQ rights. - The gay cultural divide (2002): Just what is gay Asian culture and how different is it from its Western counterpart? Fridae's new writer, Mark Adnum, tackles this cultural issue and offers some theories of his own.

Revolution by Stages (Asia Week) (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link): Things are gradually getting better for Asia's homosexuals - but acceptance is still a long way off.  - Coming Out: Gay and Lesbian Life in East Asia (BBC): "Standing out from the crowd is hard in any country. But what if your sexuality was outlawed and practising it could land you a lengthy jail term? And what if there was no word in your language to describe the very essence of your being? The breadth of gay and lesbian experience in East Asia is incredibly varied. It ranges from Chinese lesbians who call themselves 'female comrades' for want of a better word, to 'Muk nar' or transvestites in Islamic Malaysia." -  "Too Busy Studying and No Time for Sex?" Homosexually Active Male  International Students and Sexual Health: "Most of the students were from Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand and four had undertaken their secondary education in Australia. - The fetishisation of Asian and White. - Coming Out: Gay and Lesbian Life in East Asia.

Spelling It Out: From Alphabet Soup to Sexual Rights. (Alternate Link) - Nation V Gay and Lesbian Event in Phuket: Singapore threw them out; so Asia's largest Gay and Lesbian event decided to set up house in Phuket. Nation V, the fifth annual international Gay and Lesbian party, started today in Phuket, Thailand. This year's gathering includes events at nine venues on the island. Nation V is timed as a precursor to the Gay Pride week in Thailand and the November 13 Gay Pride Parade in Bangkok. - Coming Out in Dialogue: Policies and perceptions of Sexual Minority Groups in Asia & Europe (by the Asia-Europe Foundation: PDF Download). - Gay Asia Tolerance Pays: Special Report Coming Out, Cashing In-Why Gay Rights Make Economic Sense. - New gay guise to hostile Asia (2006): The editor of a new gay and lesbian travel guide to Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia said he hopes the book will foster more acceptance of homosexuality -- which is outlawed in two of the three conservative Southeast Asian nations. The Utopia Guide to Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, launched in late April, is the first such guide for the three countries, Utopia Guides editor John Goss said.

Auntie Teck rendition of lesbian life in Asia: "Huge pressure to marry... In most Asian countries, there are no places where lesbians can meet... The absence of community distorts visibility and identity... Because of the strong visibility of the "butch" type, many women pursue this image in an effort to identify with the invisible community... Butch/femme couples appear to be the norm for lesbians - again with limited visibility it is  hard to know if this is true." - The Asian Transgendered Experience, by Sam Winter: ILGA's 2006 oreconference on trans issues (PDF Download).

Social Rape: Exploration of Implication of Forced Marriage of Lesbians in Asia (Popho E.S. Park-Lee, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Social implication of rape has been vigorously discussed and debated by feminist scholars and activists through out the globe. The boundary between sexual act by consent or by force is yet not clearly understood. What is then the implication of such definition, law or declaration regarding sexual violence on LGBTQ community, especially on female? What about the situation where a woman who seems to be an ordinary heterosexual woman married to a man but in fact she is a lesbian who was forced to marry a man by her own family who could not accept her abnormal‚ sexuality but chose to put her into normal‚ life by force and even by physical violence? Can the sexual act take place between this woman and man be considered as to be by consent? If one sees this crime against her will in the as she was forced to marry him, how will be that committed this crime? My paper will explore this issue employing the concept of human rights and national policy such as law in Asian context from a feminist point of view."

Jackson PA (1996): The Persistence of Gender: From Ancient Indian Pandakas to Modern Thai Gay-Quings. Australian Humanities Review. - Homosexuality in Non-European Cultures. - Social taboos pressure lesbian love: Throughout South Asia, homosexuality has been a taboo subject. There are signs in some areas that gay people are now becoming more open - but that is not always the case. In the latest in a series of articles from the region, Sutapa Mukerjee looks at a problematic lesbian relationship in Allahabad, India. - Articles related to gay, bi, lesbian, transgender Asian/Pacific people. - Lau H (2011). Grounding Conversations on Sexuality and Asian Law. UC Davis Law Review, 44(3): 773-802. PDF Download.

Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade - 2001 - edited by Andrew Grossman (Editor Profile) (PDF Download from Haworth Press): Abstracts for Papers: ‘‘Beautiful Publicity’’: An Introduction to Queer Asian Film. - Japan’s Progressive Sex: Male Homosexuality, National Competition, and the Cinema. - The (Temporary?) Queering of Japanese TV. - Two Japanese Variants of the Absolute Transvestite Film. - Obscenity and Homosexual Depiction in Japan. - The Rise of Homosexuality and the Dawn of Communism in Hong Kong Film: 1993-1998. - Happy Alone? Sad Young Men in East Asian Gay Cinema. - The Cross-Gender Performances of Yam Kim-Fei, or The Queer Factor in Postwar Hong Kong Cantonese. - Farewell My Fantasy. - The Outcasts: A Family Romance. - Homosexual Men (and Lesbian Men) in a Heterosexual Genre: Three Gangster Films from Hong Kong. - Remembered Branches: Towards a Future of Korean Homosexual Film. - Queering Bollywood: Alternative Sexualities in Popular Indian Cinema. - Memories Pierce the Heart: Homoeroticism, Bollywood-Style. - The Changing Image of the Hero in Hindi Films. - Long Life of a Short Film (Full Text). - Transvestites and Transgressions: Panggagaya in Philippine Gay Cinema. -

Gay and Lesbian Asia: Culture, Identity, Community [Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4): PDF Download]: Titles of Papers: Pre-Gay, Post-Queer: Thai Perspectives on Proliferating Gender/Sex Diversity in Asia. - Survival through pluralism: emerging gay communities in the Philippines. - Gay and lesbian couples in Malaysia. - Let them take ecstasy: class and Jakarta lesbians. - Drink, stories, penis, and breasts: lesbian tomboys in Taiwan from the 1960s to the 1990s. - Asian values, family values: film, video, and lesbian and gay identities. - Homosexual rights as human rights in Indonesia and Australia. - Variations on a common theme? Gay and lesbian identity and community in Asia. - Homosexuality and the cultural politics of tongzhi in Chinese societies (Full Text: Word Download). - Becoming a gay activist in contemporary China. - Mapping the vicissitudes of homosexual identities in South Korea. - Tiptoe out of the closet: the before and after of the increasingly visible gay community in Singapore (Full Text). - Culture, sexualities, and identities: men who have sex with men in India (Excerpts, Related Papers). - Gay and Lesbian Asia: Culture, Identity, Community - 2001 - edited by Gerard Sullivan and Peter A. Jackson (Amazon.com Reference).

Young Activists Reflect on Identity, Community, and Diversity Among Asia's MSM... The TREAT Asia Report Interview: One of the greatest challenges to slowing the spread of HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia lies in the rich complexity of MSM communities across the region-and the necessity of tailoring prevention and education messages for each community. Recently, four young MSM from Southeast Asia-AIDS prevention and education advocates-spoke with the TREAT Asia Report about the issues of identity, community, politics, and stigma that they all encounter in the course of their work... Sovannara (Thaiy) Kha (Cambodia): There are many kinds of MSM in Cambodia. In the Khmer language we call them kteuy, like katoey in Thai, but in English we call them MSM Long Hair and MSM Short Hair, which is what Cambodian MSM call themselves. MSM Long Hair can be transgender or transsexual, or neither. When we say MSM, it doesn't matter whether in your heart you prefer men or not. If you sleep with men, we say that you are MSM. But MSM Short Hair do not want to sleep with MSM Long Hair, although if Long Hair pay money, maybe they will go with them. If someone is really gay-not just MSM but preferring men from the heart-most of them will not sleep with MSM Long Hair. I've asked and they say, "If I sleep with MSM Long Hair, why wouldn't I sleep with girls?" In Cambodia, most MSM Short Hair are married and they do not disclose their status... Jack Arayawongchai (Thailand): That's similar to our situation in Thailand. I have a friend who is identified as Long Hair MSM and she has complained to me many times, "Oh, I don't have a boyfriend." And I asked, "Why don't you go find one? There are all those gay men out there." But she said, "No, I am not attracted to gay men, I'm only attracted to straight men." Addy Chen (Myanmar): It is complicated. Jack, how do you identify yourself? You would be considered a Long Hair MSM, right? Jack: Well, I would identify myself as one of the Short Hair. In Thailand, there are MSM who look totally straight and MSM who look "out" a little bit but they still consider themselves Short Hair. Addy: That's why in Myanmar we end up having six categories of MSM, and with all these groups we need different outreach and education approaches...

Rao JVRP (2006). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (PDF Download): The Missing Link in the National Response. Opening speech at Male Sexual Health and HIV in Asia and the Pacific International Consultation: “Risks and Responsibilities,” New Delhi, India, 23rd September 2006: Male to male sex is presently a missing link in national responses to HIV and AIDS in Asia and the Pacific region. Services for MSM are almost non-existent. A 2005 coverage survey of major Asia-Pacific countries estimated that more than 90% of these men and transgendered people did not have any access to targeted prevention programmes. - MAP (2005). Male-Male Sexand HIV/AIDS in Asia. MAP (Monitoring the AIDS Epidemic) Report (PDF Download). The text and graphics of the report are based on AIDS in Asia: Face the Facts, a report issued by the Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic (MAP) Network in 2004, prepared by Elizabeth Pisani and Tim Brown. - Men Who Have Sex With Men Vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Asia, but Widely Ignored. - HIV/AIDS in South & Southeast Asia... Abstracted from Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, May 2006. - Stigma and discrimination still the greatest foes in the AIDS war in Asia (2009): Almost 200 new MSM HIV cases occur each day in Asia – that’s one man (who has sex with another man) becoming infected with HIV every 7.5 minutes. This and other statistics were revealed at the 9th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (ICAAP 9) which closed in Bali, Indonesia last Thursday.

amfAR/AIDS Projects Management Group (2009). Determining Operational Research Priorities to Improve HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care Outcomes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Asia and the Pacific. PDF Download. This paper summarizes a preliminary scoping exercise that was carried out to assist amfAR in setting priorities for operational research to contribute to a better understanding of effective models for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia. It is critical that we develop a clear understanding, country by country and setting by setting, of the forces that drive the HIV epidemic among MSM, so that we can tailor programmes and approaches more precisely. The focus of this understanding needs to be on exactly how we reach different subpopulations of men who have sex with men, with exactly what range of messages and services at a frequency that will ensure long‐term sustained safer behavior and long‐term use of health and community support services. This necessarily involves long‐term partnerships with organizations of MSM and the communities they serve, but also significant attention to reaching MSM who do not gather in communities and do not derive an identity from the sex they have with other men. This paper recognizes that the term ‘men who have sex with men’ and its short‐hand ‘MSM’ is a difficult one that was constructed to take the discussion beyond western gay identified men and open up the possibility for targeting all men who may be at risk for, or living with HIV as a result of their sexual activity with other men. For men who have sex with men, as for most people, there is a significant gap between knowing the risks of HIV or knowing you are HIV‐positive and being in a position to choose to take action to minimize risk or to maintain your health. The challenge for the response to HIV among MSM is to reach MSM with accurate information, support and care from sources they find trustworthy, safe and credible and that they will return to again and again. The goal is to understand these broad constructs well enough to promote health seeking behavior among MSM in Asia and the Pacific with a view to sustaining prevention of HIV in MSM and adequately supporting those living with the virus.

WHO (2009). Health Sector Response ro HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Report of the Consultation. Manila, the Philippines: World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download. In many areas of the Western Pacific Region, the number of HIV cases among MSM has tripled in the past few years. HIV prevalence has reached 2–10% in cities in more than 10 countries, and over 10% in a few. Several promising interventions are under way in the Region, but most are limited in scale. Development and implementation of a response have been impeded by insufficient political commitment, highly prohibitory legal and social environments, limited capacity of implementing partners and service providers, and insufficient resources. In response to the recommendation of a global consultation on “Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender populations” held in Geneva in September 2008, and the requests for action expressed by Member States, the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WHO WPRO) took the lead in organizing the first regional consultation on “Health sector response to HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men” in Hong Kong (China) from 18 to 20 February 2009. The aim of the consultation was to discuss ways of scaling up the health sector response to the emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons (TG) in the Western Pacific Region. The specific objectives were related to the use of strategic information, role of advocacy and promotion of a single comprehensive package of services for MSM and TG. Eighty-five participants from 13 countries attended the Consultation.

van Griensven F, de Lind van Wijngaarden JW (2010). A review of the epidemiology of HIV infection and prevention responses among MSM in Asia. AIDS, 24 Suppl 3:S30-40. PDF Download. Abstract. Data show that HIV infection is now widespread among MSM throughout Asia. With the exception of the Philippines and Timor Leste, all countries for which information is available show epidemics of HIV infection among MSM, particularly in urban areas. Double-digit HIV prevalence among MSM is found in cities in China, Taiwan, India, Myanmar and Thailand. Incidence data, although scarce, confirm the ongoing transmission of HIV among MSM. Reports of new HIV diagnoses in MSM have been increasing in recent years, particularly in the developed economies of East Asia. HIV prevention responses have started in most Asian countries, but while the exact coverage and investment of such responses remain unclear, coverage seems to be far from the 60-80% level needed to have an effect on the HIV epidemic. Both Government and donor investment in prevention programs for MSM remain inadequate, especially when compared with the contribution of male-to-male transmission to the overall burden of the HIV epidemic. Enlarged HIV prevention coverage and increased financial investment are necessary to reduce the spread of HIV infection among MSM in Asia.

UNDP Regional HIV Practice Team and the UNDP Bureau of Development Policy, HIV Group - Human Rights, Gender and Sexual Diversity Team (2010). Punitive Laws, Human Rights and HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in Asia Pacific: High Level Dialogue Report. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional HIV & Development Programme for Asia & the Pacific, UNDP Asia Pacific Regional Centre in Bangkok. PDF Download. Download Page. A significant number of men having sex with men in the Asia Pacific region do not have access to HIV prevention and care services as HIV prevalence has reached alarming levels in many countries. If countries fail to address the legal context of the epidemic, this already critical situation is likely to become worse. The implementation of effective, human rights-based national HIV responses requires governments to consider the effect of laws and law enforcement practices on the health of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons. This warning came as a key finding in the forthcoming report on “Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among MSM and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: An agenda for action”. This report and its key findings were reviewed during the “High Level Dialogue on Punitive laws, Human rights and HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in the Asia Pacific Region” convened by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health (APCOM) and the Center for Comparative and Public Law (CCPL) at the Faculty of Law, The University of Hong Kong. This event coincided with the International Day Against Homophobia – May 17th, 2010. The report’s findings and follow up discussion showed that 19 of 48 countries in the Asia Pacific region criminalize male to male sex, and these laws often taken on the force of vigilantism, often leading to abuse and human rights violations. Even in the absence of criminalization, other provisions of law often violate the rights of MSM and transgender persons along with arbitrary and inappropriate enforcement, thereby obstructing HIV interventions, advocacy and outreach, and service delivery. This very debate was at the heart of the recent landmark ruling by the Delhi High Court that Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code unfairly discriminates against men who have sex with men and consenting adults in general. Over the course of the discussion, the panelists contended how legislation and law enforcement often lags behind national HIV policies, with the result that the reach and effectiveness of programmes for MSM and transgender persons are undermined. This indicates the need for greater coordination between health and justice sectors within government. There has been growing awareness among national policy makers of the need to identify MSM as a key population to be addressed by national HIV programmes. The panelist emphasized that developing strategic partnerships and alliances between affected communities, the legal profession, human rights bodies, parliamentarians and policy makers is critical...

Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among men who have sex with men and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: An agenda for action (2010). Bangkok, Thailand: Regional HIV & Development Programme for Asia & the Pacific, UNDP Asia Pacific Regional Centre. PDF Download. Legal environments, human rights and HIV responses among men who have sex with men and transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: An agenda for action clearly documents how both punitive and protective laws, policies and practices impact comprehensive HIV responses. To support the fi ndings and recommendations, the report maps out recent judicial, legislative and policy developments and community responses at the global, regional and national levels. Together, these findings demonstrate why it is necessary for stakeholders across the spectrum to adopt a rights-based approach to universal access and proactively address policy and legal barriers to effective HIV responses. Finally, the report recommends that each government, development partner and UN agency take bold and eff ective programmatic and policy measures to reach out to communities and individuals at risk, particularly those living with HIV. All is not doom and gloom. Recent progress by the UN system and member states provides momentum to build upon. Globally, the UNAIDS Secretariat and Cosponsors are guided by the Joint Action for Results: UNAIDS Outcome Framework 2009-11, which defines the priorities of work towards the removal of punitive laws, policies and practices, and empower men who have sex with men and transgender people to protect themselves from HIV and, where necessary, fully access antiretroviral therapy. Addressing the specifi c concerns of HIV among men who have sex with men and transgender people is one of the UN family’s key priority areas. In another key development, the recent UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) Resolution 66/10 provides a further platform for national action by member states. The resolution notes the continuing high prevalence of HIV among key affected populations, including men who have sex with men, sex workers and injecting drug users. It calls on governments to acknowledge the extent of the legal and policy barriers that impede progress in developing and implementing eff ective ways of responding to HIV and related risks among them. Increasingly, member states not only in Asia Pacifi c but across the world have been incorporating this platform in national HIV programmes. We are less than five years from 2015. An enabling legal and policy environment is absolutely essential in order to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support and to demonstrate signifi cant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals.

Men who have sex with men and transgender populations: Multi-City Initiative: Bangkok, Jakarta, Chengdu, Manila, Ho Chi Minh City, Yangon: City Scans and Action Planning Meeting, Hong Kong, 7-9 December, 2010 (2011, PDF Download): One of the most important things identified during the reviews of services and activities in the six cities that are a part of this Initiative is that progress in the HIV response among MSM and transgender persons is routinely hampered by the existence of restrictive legal environments and policies, selective enforcement practices and the lack of communication or coordination between local health and law enforcement officials. Collectively these challenges serve as barriers to innovation and hamper scale up of HIV prevention and care efforts. This tells us that the challenge of preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender persons is not just a technical problem but also a political problem. The enabling environment is a critical element of an effective response. In the words of the United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, “effective national programs do not punish people; they protect them”. The MSM and TG Multi-City HIV Initiative has enabled the development of new partnerships and the strengthening of existing ones at the city level, working together to ensure impact and stronger results. To scale up the response we will need to continue to work together with an emphasis on equal partnerships and staying the course. It is also important to remember that programs must be inclusive of communities and those living with HIV. MSM and transgender persons, including those living with HIV, must be involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of programs from start to finish... In response to the alarming growth in HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons (TG) in Asia, a broad coalition of United Nations partners, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and its cooperating agencies, national AIDS programs, city governments and MSM and transgender community-based organizations joined together in a unique partnership called the MSM and TG Multi-City HIV Initiative. The overall goal of the Initiative is to contribute to the scale up of effective, comprehensive and rights-based HIV responses for MSM and transgender persons in the six cities: Bangkok (Thailand), Chengdu (China), Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) (Viet Nam), Jakarta (Indonesia), Manila (Philippines) and Yangon (Myanmar). The focus on these large cities recognizes that it is in urban locations where HIV infection among MSM and transgender persons is concentrated. Implementation of the MSM and TG Multi-City Initiative is made up of five phases:  1. Developing the methodology for the city scans and training of local consultants.  2. Scanning and analyzing the response to HIV in MSM and transgender persons in each of the six cities, with a focus on identifying promising practices and strategies.  3. Synthesizing lessons learned and promising strategies from the city scans.  4. Bringing the six cities together in December 2010 in a regional Action Planning Meeting where each of the cities developed their own action plan, building upon the learning from the scans.  5. Implementing the action plans in 2011. This report provides an outline of the rationale and approach taken by the MSM and TG Multi-City HIV Initiative, including key issues and lessons emerging from the city scans and a summary of the key inputs at the Action Planning Meeting in Hong Kong. Most importantly, the report contains the action plans developed by each of the cities and details of how regional partners will support implementation of these plans.

Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region (2012): A study titled Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region [PDF Download. PDF Download.] was released in Bangkok to mark the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia. According to this research, which was jointly released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Asia Pacific Transgender Network (APTN), transgender persons are among the most socially ostracized in this region and lack fundamental rights, including basic access to health care and social protection schemes. So there is need for concerted action by governments, civil society, development partners and the transgender community itself to design and conduct further research to fill the lack of information about transgender people and their environments. The report seeks to examine literature on laws, regulations, policies and practices that prompt, reinforce, reflect or express stigma and prejudice towards transgender people. It seeks to identify vulnerabilities to HIV and barriers to access or uptake of HIV related healthcare services, and attempts to establish a research agenda aimed at providing the sort of data that will enable a reduction in future risk, as well as better access to treatment, care and support for transgender people living with HIV. According to Dr. Sam Winter from the University of Hong Kong, the author of this report and a noted expert on the challenges of transgender people, “For too long, trans people have been lost in transition. Pushed to the social, economic and legal margins in a majority of countries in this region, trans people often suffer from poor emotional health and well-being. Many find themselves involved in risky behaviours and situations, such as unsafe sex and involvement in sex work. Social exclusion, poverty and HIV infection contribute to what we call a ‘stigma-sickness slope’, a downward spiral that is difficult to reverse. We hope that this report will demonstrate the burning need to address a very human crisis, viewed through the prism of HIV, which has taken a devastating toll on millions of our fellow citizens in our region and beyond”.

Winter, Sam (2012). Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Development Programme, UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Centre. PDF Download. PDF Download. The Asia-Pacific region is home to a large number of trans* people; individuals whose gender identity, and/or expression of their gender, differs from social norms related to their gender of birth.1 Across the region it can be speculated that there are possibly 9-9.5 million trans* people, though existing research is scattered and small-scale, and is largely limited to trans* women.2 Asia-Pacific research, again scattered and small-scale, indicates alarming numbers of trans* women are HIV positive, with prevalence rates as high as 49 percent. There appear to be no data at all on HIV rates among trans* men, an emerging identity group. The number of trans* people of either gender who have died of AIDS, or what proportion they represent of overall AIDS-related deaths, is unknown. The regional HIV epidemic among trans* people is strongly linked to stigma and prejudice. This review, focusing on the literature post-2000, seeks to examine literature on laws, regulations, policies and practices that prompt, reinforce, reflect or express stigma and prejudice towards trans* people. It seeks to identify vulnerabilities to HIV and barriers to access or uptake of HIV related healthcare services, and attempts to establish a research agenda aimed at providing the sort of data that will enable a reduction in future risk, as well as better access to treatment, care and support for trans* people living with HIV...

Wieringa, Saskia E (2011, Editor). Women-Loving-Women in Africa and Asia:  TRANS/SIGN Report of Research Findings. Amsterdam: Den Haag. PDF Download. PDF Download. The call for this research resulted in 27 applications, of which 11 projects were selected, three in Southern Africa, one in Central Asia and seven in other Asian countries... Major themes in the research were female masculinity, the silencing and invisibility of Women-Loving-Women (WLW), and attempts at organizing on the basis of non-normative sexualities. An overriding research theme was violence. More than 300 participants were interviewed in 14 different languages. In the course of this project, one lesbian women’s organization was set up (Surabaya). In Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Central Asia, the focus of the investigation was on organizing WLW. In three countries, Bangladesh, Botswana and Sri Lanka, this was the first research done on lesbian women. The projects in Jakarta and Johannesburg focused on women who in various ways identified as masculine, whereas the Mumbai project focused on the multiple gendered realities of people born female. The researcher in the Pretoria project collected stories of lesbian women who faced mental distress. In September 2010 the final workshop was held in Pretoria. Research results and the methodology used were shared. A three year advocacy plan on the basis of the research findings was drafted.

World Health Organization (2009). Health Sector Response to HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Report of the Consultation, 18–20 February 2009, Hong Kong SAR (China). Manila, the Philippines: World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons (TG) are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. In Asia, MSM are 19 times more likely to acquire HIV infection than adults in the general population, and in China the odds are 45 times. Compared with the better-known epidemics in western countries, the HIV epidemic among MSM in the Asia–Pacific region takes a different path and form, with huge diversity in male sexual identification and behaviour, and different legal environments and societal attitudes towards male sexuality.

World Health Organization (2001). Sex Work in Asia. WH Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download. Male Sex Workers: Analysis of sex work in Asia concentrates on FSW and child prostitution. Female sex workers outnumber MSW in most Asian societies. The failure to address the incidence of men who sell sex – and therefore the failure to meet their health needs - derives from cultural patterns that do not allow the social expression of malemale desire. Homosexual behaviours are commonplace. Frequently these behaviours are non-commercial but they also take the form of commercial encounters that fulfil sexual desires whilst at the same time posing no challenge to heterosexual norms and family structures because of their fleeting and anonymous nature. Many men who sell sex will have a variety of partners – some commercial, some noncommercial, some male and some female. They may not identify themselves as homosexual. Crucially, just as with indirect FSW they will not necessarily see themselves as sex workers. Neither will anyone else. Many will be married and will have non-sex work occupations. In terms of analysing sex work it is important not to apply western categories defining sexual identity to people in non-western cultures10 and to recognise the fact that many of those involved in sex work have overlapping identities. This applies to both workers and clients.

No room for transgender people in HIV funding: In Asia, as in many parts of the world, men who have sex with men often hide their sexual preferences for fear of being harassed by police, ostracised by their families or discriminated against by their communities. But transgender people, who do not identify with the sexuality they were born with - known as "warias" in Indonesia and "hijimas" in parts of India - are less likely to hide their sexual orientation, and face even higher levels of stigma and discrimination than men who have sex with men (MSM). The result, according to presenters at a special session on transgenderism at the 8th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (ICAAP), in Colombo, Sri Lanka, this week, is to push them further underground, making them extremely hard to reach with HIV prevention, care and treatment. They often suffer from depression as a result of rejection by family and friends, which can lead to substance abuse and other risk-taking behaviours, making them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection...

Strategy Report: Strategizing Interventions among MSM in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMR) CDC-GAP/USAID-RDM/FHI-APD Workshop. February/March 2005. Bangkok, Thailand (PDF Download): Fluidity of male-to-male sexuality... In our region, there is a huge variety and fluidity of male-to-male sexual behavior. Behavior seems to be less linked to identity – ‘indigenous’ identity labels are in short supply. Because seen as a behavior, male to male sex seems less linked to guilt / sin than in other areas of the world – easier to interpret it as a game or as release, like drinking alcohol or gambling. This makes the number of ‘MSM’ potentially huge... However in the past years some countries in the GMR have started to collect information on male-to-male sex. After years of programming neglect, this has yielded some unpleasant surprises: high levels of unprotected anal sex (commercial and non-commercial), low use of water-based lubricants, and, as a result, high levels of HIV prevalence: infection rates of 15% were found among MSM in Phnom Penh (Cambodia, 2000); 17% of MSM in Bangkok (Thailand, 2003); 8% of MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam, 2004); 3% of MSM in Beijing (China. 2004). These findings have led to the implementation of pilot interventions in the cities where the research was conducted, but at the same time other possible “hotspots” with significant male-to-male sexual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS have been left unidentified, thus uncovered by appropriate interventions. In none of the GMR countries, strategies and guidelines to scale-up these initial interventions among MSM exist...

Closets Are Not For Us: Views From Five Lesbians: "In China, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people's communities started to emerge after the adoption of a new reform and open-door policy about 20 years ago. More information helped promote diversity in people's lives. Gay bars, lesbigay hotlines, publications, movies and other artistic works begun to appear and lesbigay groups were established. This was the report made by Yanhai Wan before the 4th Asian Lesbian Network Conference held in Manila in December 1998. In Korea, while lesbian groups were rumoured to exist, they were rarely acknowledged, if at all, by the mass media until the 1990s, according to another country report. In Malaysia, economic independence for many lesbians has been the key to attaining their own sexuality, reveals a report by Nadiah Bamadhaj presented during the same conference. In Thailand, a lesbian movement was organised in 1986, while in India, the first organisation of lesbian and bisexual women was formed in Bombay only in 1995..."

Conspicuous by their absence: Men who have sex with men – the missing piece in national responses to AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (PDF Download): "In the first two articles in this edition of Pukaar, we look at the significant donor, government and non-government agencies policy issues that are having a dramatic impact on MSM, HIV, risks and vulnerabilities. The increasing HIV burden being placed on MSM across many countries in Asia and the Pacific, arise from stigma, discrimination, social exclusion and denial, not only by local people, but also by governments, the private sector, bilateral and multilateral donors, along with international and national non-government agencies. As a consequence, there is an enormous under-investment in tackling HIV among MSM across the region, along with a extremely low coverage of appropriate HIV prevention, care, support and treatment services. Fine words are often spoken by all these stakeholders, but as the saying goes "the proof in the pudding is in the eating". What exists at "ground zero" is a terrible indictment of all concerned..." - Percent of active MSM who are married or report recent sex with women, various [Asian Cities &] countries (PPT Page). - TREAT Asia Will Coordinate MSM Interventions Network in Asia.

Taboos and denial in government responses:  The most striking fact about HIV/AIDS is that it continues to spread even when the means of prevention are well known and do not demand costly technology to implement. This article argues that the fundamental barriers to effective prevention are social and cultural, and that many authorities place more emphasis on preserving traditional norms and social arrangements than on saving lives. The case is argued with particular reference to the impact of globalization on sexual behaviours, and the attempts by conservatives to deny existing behaviours and vulnerabilities. Current debates around abstinence, homosexuality and harm minimization are discussed to demonstrate the deeply political nature of HIV prevention.

First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2005): Papers available for download. - The 2005 Conference Abstracts: Many of these possible papers were either not presented or not made avaible as full text papers (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Titles for abstracts of these paper: related to Asia Region: - Encountering Babylon: Pursuing Beauty & Sexual Justice at a Globalized Gay Sauna (Gary Atkins, Seattle University): "Today in Southeast Asia, one such bathhouse stands out in its reputation as a place of contact and communication among gay Asian men from throughout the region, as well as among Euro-American men. This journalistic paper examines the history and role within Southeast Asia of what has become one of the world’s best known gay bathhouses, Babylon...." - The Wedding Banquet Effect: Gay = Modern in Asian Cinema? (Chris Berry, Goldsmiths College). - Online Publication: The Experience of Intersections (Carolyn Brewer, Murdoch University). - Rice Sticking Together: Desire and the Cinematic Representation of Caucasian-Chinese Relationships (Kenneth Chan, Nanyang Technological University). - Globalizing Gay Culture in Virtual Space: the Case of the Virtualized Gay Identity (Nikos Lexis Dacanay, University of the Philippines). - Education on LGBT Issues in a Global Context: Opportunities in Asia (Peter Dankmeijer, Empowerment Lifestyle Services). - Towards Cross-Regional Dialogue: Perspectives from the Americas (Carlos Decena, Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies). - Faking Gender: Violence and Baseness from 1970s Lesbian Pulp to 1990s Queer Gothic Fiction’ (Naifei Ding, Jen-Peng Liu & Amie Parry, National Central University, National T’sing Hua University). - Probing Pink Porn: The perceived value of sexual content for homosexual and heterosexual audiences (Andrea Goh, Melissa Say, Gerald Tan, Frederick Tong, Nanyang Technological University).  - Comparative Female Masculinities (Judith Halberstam, University of Southern California). - Reconsidering the Rice Queen (Dredge Byung’chu Kang, Emory University). - Social Rape: Exploration of Implication of Forced Marriage of Lesbians in Asia (Popho E.S. Park-Lee, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia). - Sexing the Cinematic Space: Films from Hong Kong, China and Taiwan (Sean Metzger, Duke University). - Queer Spectacles: Beyond the Legal Codification of Asian Homosexuality (Chandan Reddy, University of Washington). - When Sex Happens: Sexual Rights and Transnational Activism (Stephan Sastrawidjaja, International Gay & Lesbian Human Rights Commision). - Implementation of International Human Rights Standards on Sexuality within Domestic Courts in Asia-Pacific Countries (Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Chuo University). - The Pink Dollar: Limits of Gay Tourism Marketing (Daniel Tsang, University of California). - No More Déjà Vu: Western Nostalgia Meets Eastern Queerness (Huso Yi, Korean Sexual-Minority Culture & Rights Center). - Uniquely Positioned?: Lived Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Asian Muslims in Britain (Andrew Kam-Tuck Yip, Nottingham Trent University). - Governing (Diasporic Asian) Sexuality: Same-Sex Migration in Australia (Audrey Yue, University of Melbourne). - The Crossroads of Asian and Western Non-heterosexual Identity Construction (Voon Chin Phua, Gettysburg College).

An International Conference of Queer Asian Studies Convened by the AsiaPacifiQueer Network At the University of Technology, Sydney, City Campus, Sydney, Australia On the 22 & 23 February, 2007. - Second International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2007). - Confirmed Paper to be Presented (PDF Download).  - First Report on Conference: Word Download. Related Reports / Newsletters. - Sexualities and the National Body in Asia: an Interdisciplinary Symposium (2007): This symposium, sponsored by the Asian and Asian Diaspora Studies working group, explores the broad range of sexualities and gendered expression in Asia and Asian Diasporas. Topics to be explored will range from "third sex" cultural politics; Gay activism in Xi'an,China; South Asian queer weddings in transnational perspective; and representations of violent women in India; and the politics and poetics of gay Japanese literature. - Gender & Sexuality: Performance and Representations in Asia (Conference, Singapore, 2012).

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Asian Images). - Asian/Pacific lesbian/bisexual related films. - Images of Asian males. - Queer Asian/Pacific related films. - Amazon.com's Gay Asian Films. - Asian Dykes Take to Celluloid: An interview with an organizer of the upcoming First Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival to be held in Taiwan. - A collection of works by gay Asian filmmakers.

Asian GLBTQ Film Articles: - Tsunami of New Queer Cinema from Asia. -  At an annual gathering of global queer film festival organizers, Asian gay and lesbian film festival programmers highlighted the challenges they faced.  - GLBTQ: Asian Film. - Lesbian and Gay Films Expand Boundaries of Asian Cinema. - Everything in Between: Queer Asians in time and space. - "Beautiful publicity": an introduction to queer Asian film. - Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade (PDF Download). - Queer Film in East Asia. - Focus on Asia at Sydney Film Festival. - Cross-Cultural Images of Queers in Film. - Thinking Queer in Asian Cinema. - What is the “Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival”? - Asian Dykes Take to Celluloid: An interview with an organizer of the upcoming First Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival to be held in Taiwan...

INTERSECTIONS (Journal): Gender, History & Culture in the Asian Context: Intersections is a refereed electronic journal conceived as an interactive forum for new research and teaching in the area of Gender Studies in the Asian region. It stems from Murdoch University's School of Asian Studies and was originally published with the financial assistance of the Division of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education. - Selected Bibliography from issues 1-16 collated by  Carolyn Brewer and Ian Henderson:  This bibliography is a work in progress and contains references that are cited in articles in Intersections. - Transgenderism and gender pluralism in southeast asia since early modern times. Commentary.

The International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) Newsletter 29: Asian Homosexualities (PDF Downloads):   Asians of the Same Intent. - Restless Longing. - Kamingu Auto: Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Japan. - Gay vs. ‘Kathoey’: Homosexual Identities in Thailand. - The Legacy of the Crocodile: Critical Debates over Taiwanese Lesbian Fiction. - Now You See It, Now You Don’t: Homosexual Culture in Indonesia. - Birthday in Beijing: Women Tongzhi Organizing in 1990s’ China. -  Homosexuality in India: Past and Present. - The Remaking of a Cambodian-American Drag Queen. - New Park: Gay Literature in Taiwan. - Who’s That Girl? -. Filtered Voices. -  Queer Mongolians: Is Isolation their Destiny?

Resource Links: - The Complete Guide to Gay Thailand & Gay Asia. - Asian / Pacific Gays & Friends Links. - Asia Views.  - Floating Lotus Resources and Links of Interest. - GayRice.com. -  Utopia's Asian Resources. - Southeast Asia Web's Gay and Lesbian Resources Page. - Utopia's Asian lesbian Resources. - The New Lesbian Asia Web Ring. - FilipinoLinks.com's GLBTQ Links. - Researchers in gender identity and transgender in Asia. - Thirteen General Statements about TG in Asia. - Asian AIDS/HIV Information Archive at Utopia. - Asian AIDS/HIV Articles/Reports. - Gay Asia News & Reports.- Asian Gay Travels.

Asians & Friends Denver: We are a celebration of Asian culture, food and friendship by serving as a social-support organization for GLBT Asians and friends... Coming Out: Acceptance and Support... Coming Out: Resources for GLBT Burmese, families and friends... for GLBT Cambodians, families and friends...for GLBT Chinese, families and friends... for GLBT Hmong and families and friends... for GLBT Indian, families and friends... for GLBT Indonesian, families and friends... for GLBT Japanese, families and friends... for GLBT Koreans, families and friends... for GLBT Malaysians, families and friends... for GLBT Mongolian and families and friends... for GLBT Muslims, families and friends... for GLBT Nepal families and friends... for GLBT Filipinos, families and friends... for GLBT Singapore families and friends... for GLBT Sri Lankan families and friends... for GLBT Timor families and friends... for GLBT Vietnamese and families and friends.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Oceania: - Australia. - Cook Islands. - Fed. States of Micronesia. - Fiji. - French Polynesia. - Johnston Island. - Kiribati. - Nauru. - New Caledonia. - New Caledonia. - New Zealand. - Niue. - Norfolk Island. - Northern Mariana Islands. - Palau. - Papua New Guinea. - Pitcairn. - Samoa. - Solomon Islands. - Tokelau. - Tonga. - Tuvalu. - Vanuatu. - Wallis and Futuna Islands.

Resource Links (Not Updated): - Asian Pacific Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Resources.  - Gay, bi, lesbian, transgender A/P youth resources.- Queer Asian Pacific resources. - Queer Asian/Pacific Web Resources. - Southeast Asia Web's Gay and Lesbian Resources Page

Gay Asia (Global Gayz) - The Eastgarden

QRD - Gayscape - Pridelinks. - Rainbow Query: Asian-Pacific. - Open Directory.

Resources - News: - Gay News & Gossip from Thailand and Around Asia. - Asian News Items from Long Yang Club, Toronto.: 2007. 2006. 2005. 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996.  - Fridae Magazine: Asia's Gay + Lesbian Network. - GayRice.com: . 

Resources - Bibliographies: - Floating Lotus Books and Bua Luang Books Bookstore N/A (Archive Link). - Bibliography of Asian TG Studies. - GLBTQ Asian Anthologies. - Anthologies of Gay Fiction. - East Asia's Gay and Lesbian Life Revealed in Three New Travel Books

Resources - Books: - Ohio State University Library's GLB  Book list (China, Japan, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and other Asia and Pacific countries.) - Gay Asian Literature: Non Fiction. - Gay Asian Literature: Anthologies. - Gay Asian Literature. - Gay/Lesbian SA Literature. - Books by and for South Asian women. - Asian Gay Books-1 & Asian Gay Books-2. - Asian homosexuality bibliography. - GLBTQ Asian Books. - Books related to gay, bi, lesbian, transgender Asian/Pacific people. - Amazon: Asian GLBT Books.

Books: - Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China, by Bret Hinsch (University of California Press 1990). (Excerpts) - The Rainbow Connection: The internet & the Singapore gay community by Ng King Kang, 1999. - Sex, Longing & Not Belonging: A Gay Muslim's Quest for Love & Meaning - 1997 - by Badruddin Khan (Amazon.com Reference). - Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade - 2001 - edited by Andrew Grossman (PDF Download from Haworth Press). - New book: Gay Chinese history. - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (7 Sample Pages) (Review: PDF Download) (Table of Contents). Contains: "‘The emergence of gay identities in Southeast Asia" (P. 137-156) "Dennis Altman, from Australia, and reknown for his groundbreaking book Homosexual: oppression and liberation in 1971, explores the emergence of gay identities in Southeast Asia."  - Gay and Lesbian Asia: Culture, Identity, Community - 2001 - edited by Gerard Sullivan and Peter A. Jackson (Amazon.com Reference). - Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia - 2003 - edited by Chris Berry, Fran Martin and Audrey Yue (Review) (Review: HTML, PDF) (Amazon). - Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times - 2007 - by Michael Peletz. - A Lotus of Another Color: An Unfolding of the South Asian Gay and Lesbian Experience - 1993 - edited by Rakesh Ratti. - Same-sex Cultures and Sexualities: An Anthropological Reader - 2004 - edited by Jennifer Robertson (Review).  - AsiaPacifiQueer: rethinking genders and sexualities - 2008 - editd by Fran Martin, Peter Jackson, Mark McLelland (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Lesbians in East Asia: Diversity, Identities, and Resistance - 2007 - edited by Diana Khor (Editor), Saori Kamano (Related Abstracts) (Related Papers, Full Text) (Amazon).

East Asia’s Gay and Lesbian Life Revealed in Three New Travel Books (2012): Expanded and Updated Guidebooks Explore Modern Gay Attractions in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Expanded and Updated Guidebooks Explore Modern Gay Attractions in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan... Utopia Guide to Japan (2nd Edition): the Gay and Lesbian Scene in 27 Cities Including Tokyo, Kyoto, and Nagoya. - Utopia Guide to Taiwan (2nd Edition): the Gay and Lesbian Scene in 12 Cities Including Taipei, Kaohsiung and Tainan. - Utopia Guide to South Korea (2nd Edition): the Gay and Lesbian Scene in 7 Cities Including Seoul, Pusan, Taegu and Taejon.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies / Reports (and/or Abstracts):

Dubel I, Hielkema A, Eds. (2008). Urgency Required: Gay and Lesbian Rights are Human Rights. [This book is an expanded English version of Urgentie Geboden (in Dutch), ISBN 978-90-6665-967-4, that also appeared as Issue 33 / 34 (June 2008) of the Journal for Humanistics].  PDF Download. Part 4: Asia: Challenging the Anti Sodomy Law in India: Story of a Continuing Struggle - Arvind Narrain. - - Self-portrait. Being Queer in India - Pramada Menon. - - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 8 April 2008. Police Raid of Hivos Partner Labrys - Ireen Dubel. - - Following the Rainbow. MSM, HIV and Social Justice in South Asia - Shivananda Khan. - - Self-portrait. Struggling for Equality and Fairness for LGBTIQ People in Indonesia - Dédé Oetomo. - - Saying the ‘L’ Word - Maggie Tiojakin. - - The Struggle of the Tongzhi. Homosexuality in China and the Position of Chinese ‘Comrades’ - Ties van de Werff. - - The Voice of a Lesbian from Hong Kong - Franco Yuen Ki LAI. - - Saving Gays from Iran: The IRanian Queer Railroad (IRQR) - André Hielkema. - -What is it to be a Palestinian Lesbian? - Rauda Morcos

Altman, Dennis (2004). Sexuality and Globalization. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 1(1): 63–68. Abstract. PDF Download.

Altman, Dennis (2003). Queer Centres and Peripheries. Larry Kramer Lecture, Yale & Princeton Universities, September. PDF Download.

amfAR (2006). MSM and HIV/AIDS Risk in Asia: What Is Fueling the Epidemic Among MSM and How Can It Be Stopped?  TREATAsia (Therapeutics Research - Education - AIDS Training) & anfAR (amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research).  PDF Download PDF Download.

Bark-Yi PES (2000). Social Rape: Exploration of the Implication of Forced/Coerced Marriage of Lesbian in Asia. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference of Queer Study in Bangkok, Thailand.  PDF Download.

Bulbeck C (2001). Western feminisms through Asian eyes: reading English-speaking feminisms from the perspective of the 'other'. Paper presented to The Future of Gender: a one-day research workshop Convened by Delys Bird and Jane Long Gender and Cultures programme, UWA. Full Text.

Dartnell, Michael (2009). Globalization as Sexual Practice – Sexual Orientation, Postcolonialism, and Global Civil Society. Working Paper. PDF Download.

Doussantousse S, Anh N, Tooke L (2002). Synopsis of Men engaged in having sex with men in Viet Nam - a Hanoi snapshot. Part 1. Part 2.

Doussantousse S, Keovongchith B (2005). Male Sexual Health: Kathoeys in the Lao PDR, South East Asia – Exploring a Gender Minority. Paper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.

Dowsett G (2003). Some Considerations on Sexuality and Gender in the Context of AIDS. Reproductive Health Matters, 11(22): 21–29. PDF Download.

Dowsett G, Grierson J, McNally S (2006). A Review of Knowledge About the Sexual Networks and Behaviours of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Asia. ARCSHS: Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, Melbourne. PDF Download

Engebretsen E (2005). Lesbian Identity and Community Projects in Beijing: Notes from the Field on Studying and Theorising Same-Sex Cultures in the Age of GlobalizationPaper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.

Erni JN (2005). Queer Pop Asia: Toward a Hybrid Regionalist Imaginary. Paper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.

Futures C (2007). Spending on HIV prevention programmes for MSM in the Asia-Pacific region: do resource levels match estimated needsPukaar: the journal of Naz Foundation International, 58: 8-9. PDF Download.

HIV/AIDS Coordination and School Health Unit UNESCO Bangkok (Draft, 2005). Review of the socio-cultural research on HIV/AIDS in the greater Mekong subregion.  PDF Download.

Holmes MM (2004). Locating Third Sexes. Transformation, 8. Full Text.

Jacques L (2005). Queering the Culture: How Does the Gay Discourse Change if We Take Cross Cultural Communication Seriously? Paper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.

Jenkins C (2004). Male Sexuality, Diversity and Culture: Implications for HIV Prevention and Care. PDF Download.

Jenkins C (2006). Male sexuality and HIV: The case of male-to-male sex. A background paper produced for Risks and Responsibilities: Male Sexual Health and HIV in Asia and the Pacific International Consultation held in New Delhi, India 23-26 September 2006 [PDF Download]. Cover terminology problems and summarized the recent research, inluding some MSM history.  PDF Download PDF Download. Download Page- The Delhi Declaration of Collaboration.

Muntarbhorn V (2005). Sexualities, Genders and Rights: Implications for the Asian Region. Keynote address at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page

Sanders D (2006). Health And Rights: Human Rights And Intervention Programs For Males Who Have Sex With Males In Southeast Asia And East AsiaPDF Download. Download Page.

Sander D (2005). Flying the rainbow flag in Asia. Paper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.

Tan C (2004). Signaling Towards a Gay Future: SiGNeL and the Singaporean Gay CommunityFull Text.

UNAIDS (2007). Conspicuous by their absence: Men who have sex with men – the missing piece in national responses to AIDS in Asia and the Pacific. Pukaar: the journal of Naz Foundation International, 58: 1-7. PDF Download.

van Griensven F, de Lind van Wijngaarden JW (2010). A review of the epidemiology of HIV infection and prevention responses among MSM in Asia. AIDS, 24 Suppl 3:S30-40. PDF Download. Abstract.

Vitiello  (2002). Asians of the Same Intent. IIAS Newsletter, 29, November. PDF Download. Download Page.

WHO (2009). Health Sector Response ro HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Report of the Consultation. Manila, the Philippines: World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download.

Wilson A (2006). Queering Asia. Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context, Issue 14. Full Text.

Wilson A (2005). Intra-Asian Circuits and the Problem of Global Queer. Paper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page.  

Winder R (2006). HIV and Men who have Sex with Men in Asia and the Pacific. UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. PDF Download.

Winter, Sam (2012). Lost in Transition: Transgender People, Rights and HIV Vulnerability in the Asia-Pacific Region. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Development Programme, UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Centre. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Woodcock, Shannon (2004)Globalization of LGBT Identities: Containment Masquerading as Salvation or Why Lesbians Have Less Fun. In Gender and the (Post) 'East'/'West' Divide. Edited by: Frunza Michaela, Theodora-Eliza Vacarescu. Cluj-Napoca and Bucharest, Limes. PDF Download.

World Health Organization (2009). Health Sector Response to HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Report of the Consultation, 18–20 February 2009, Hong Kong SAR (China). Manila, the Philippines: World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download.

World Health Organization (2001). Sex Work in Asia. WH Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download.

Yamamoto T, Itoh S (Wds., 2006). Fighting a Rising Tide The Response to AIDS in East Asia.  Japan Center for International Exchange and Friends of the Global Fund: Overview. Australia. Cambodia. China. Indonesia. Japan. Republic of Korea. Lao PDR. Malaysia. Philippines. Taiwan. Thailand. Vietnam. Download Page. Chinese Version.


On Global Queering by Dennis Altman (with responses to article). - Sex, Politics, and Political Economy (by Dennis Altman, Selections from previous writings). - Global Gaze?Global Gays by Dennis Altman (1997). - Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities. - Globalizing queer? AIDS, homophobia and the politics of sexual identity in India (2007). - Heteropatriarchy: Globalisation, the Institution of Heterosexuality and Lesbians. Keynote Address, International Feminist Summit, Townsville, Australia. - Sexuality and Globalization. - Homosexuality in Non-European Cultures. - Queer Globalization Conference Stages Conversation Between Postcolonial and Queer Studies. - Globalizing Sex. - Glocalqueering in New Asia: The Politics of Performing Gay in Singapore: Called "global queering" by some theorists, this neoliberal model of free market transmission, by which an emancipatory and often glamorized Western gay culture is transforming the rest of the world, presumes a primarily North American and secondarily European standard constituting what we think of as "'modern' homosexuality."^1 In every modern capitalist society, then, global queer boys are perceived to come out with a universal gay identity that both distinguishes and sets them free within a transnational Gay Pride world. While such a performative trope is gaining prominence, one has to ask whether such identitarian paradigms of global queering are applicable--or even should be applied--to global cities like Singapore... - Session 118: Mass Media, Globalization, and Asian Sexualities.

Same-sex sexualities and the globalization of human rights discourse (McGill Law Journal: PDF Download. - Sexual Orientation, Human Rights and Global Politics (PDF Download).- From global discourse to local action: the makings of a sexual rights movement? - Queer Global Education: Finding Me, Finding You (PDF Download) (Abstract). - Where Having Sex is a Crime: Criminalization and Decriminalization of Homosexual Acts (2003). - Gay Law: Emancipation And Emasculation. - 'In the Tropics There Is No Sin': Sexuality and Gay-Lesbian Movements in the Third World. - Breaking a Lance for Equal Treatment of Queer People (PDF Download). - Human rights and sexual orientation in international law (PDF Download. Word Download). - ‘We Do’? International perspectives on equality, legality and same-sex relationships (PDF Download). - ‘Yogyakarta Principles’ a Milestone for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: Experts Set Out Global Standards for Sexual Rights and Gender Equality (PDF Download). - Sexual Minorities and the Law: A World Survey: Updated July 2006 (Word Download). - "Gay rights" for "gay whites"?: Race, sexual identity, and equal protection discourse..;. by Darren Lenard Hutchinson. Cornell Law Review, 85(5), July 2000 (Excerpts) . - "Queer" As A Tool Of Colonial Oppression: The Case Of Israel/Palestine. - Globalizing Homophobia (2003, 2008). - More countries accepting homosexuality: study (2011).

Kaoma, Kapya (2009). Globalizing the Culture Wars: U.S. Conservatives, African Churches, and Homophobia. Political Research Associates. PDF Download. - Rev. Dr. Kapya Kaoma's Presentation at at the International AIDS Conference, Vienna, 2010: Globalizing the Culture Wars (PPT as PDF). - Rev. Dr. Kapya Kaoma's 2009 Panel Discussion Presentation at at the United Nations: Opposing Grave Human Rights Violations on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. - Sexual orientation and gender identity panel discussion at UNHQ (2009). - Panel Discussion on “Opposing grave Human Rights Violations on the basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity” (2009): Links given to discussion in Englisg and Spanish. - The Anti-Gay Highway: New Report Details Mutually Beneficial Relationship Between US Evangelicals and African Antigay Clergy (2009). - Could Rick Warren be the man to stop pending anti-gay legislation in Uganda? 2009): That’s the hope of Rev. Kapya Kaoma, an Episcopalian Priest from Zambia, the author of a new report from Political Research Associates, which traces a wave of homophobia on the African continent to the efforts of conservative evangelical pastors in the US. In a conference call with members of the media today, Kaoma declared that, “The US culture wars are being exported to Africa. They’re having an impact not just in the US, but also amongst African Christians.” - Globalizing the Culture Wars: The United Nations Battle Over Sexual Rights (2010). - As Eye See It : Globalizing the Culture Wars: US Conservatives, African Churches and Homophobia (2010).

Jackson, Peter A (2009). Capitalism and Global Queering: National Markets, Parallels among Sexual Cultures, and Multiple Queer ModernitiesPDF Download. In 1992 Ken Plummer wrote, “The gay and lesbian movements house identities, politics, cultures, markets, and intellectual programs which nowadays quite simply know no national boundaries. Homosexualities have become globalized.” Dennis Altman has labeled this phenomenon “global queering” and in a 1997 article, “Global Gaze/Global Gays,” observed, “What strikes me is that within a given country, whether Indonesia or the United States, Thailand or Italy, the range of constructions of homosexuality is growing.” At the cusp of the new century, Peter Drucker noted that despite different societies’ distinctive gender and sexual cultures, their divergent relationships to the world economy, and their unique political contexts, the late twentieth century nonetheless still saw the emergence of “identifiable common elements of lesbian/gay identity in one country after another.” More recently, Arnaldo Cruz-Malavé and Martin Manalansan have stated, “Queerness is now global. Whether in advertising, film, performance art, the Internet, or the political discourses of human rights in emerging democracies, images of queer sexualities and cultures now circulate around the globe.” These observations have raised the question of what has produced similar gender and sex outcomes in diverse social, political, and cultural settings...

Sutton, Tyler H (2007). The Emergence of a Male Global Gay Identity: A Contentious and Contemporary Movement. Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology, 15(1): 50-58. PDF Download. Previous anthropological studies have emphasized the extensive variation in homosexual identity formation among different cultures. However, contemporary research and evidence points to the emergence of a male global gay identity that is bridging countless cultural barriers. I intend to argue in the following article that the intensification of the essentialism versus constructionist debate, the growth of mass media, and the development of international gay movements, have each contributed to the solidification of a contentious male global gay identity. The examination of these social and cultural factors reveals a significant trend for homosexual identity formation intricately woven into the complexity of globalization.

Jackson, Peter A (2009). Capitalism and Global Queering National Markets, Parallels Among Sexual Cultures, and Multiple Queer Modernities. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 15(3): 357-395. Abstract. PDF Download.

Queer Globalizations: Citizenship and the Afterlife of Colonialism - 2002 - edited by Arnaldo Cruz-Malave, Martin Manalansan (Google Books) (See: "Syncretic Religion and Dissident Sexualities" by Roberto Strongman, pp. 176-192.

Global Queering and Global Queer Theory: Thai [Trans]genders and [Homo]sexualities in World History (2009): This study draws on recent research on Asia to revisit theories of global queering : the international proliferation of gay, lesbian, and transgender identities. Common misunderstandings about global queering are countered and accounts that describe new non-Western queer identities as radiating from the West are challenged. Globalising capitalism is not leading to an Americanising homogenization of world sexual cultures. Rather, transnational commonalities and cross-cultural differences are emerging together as equally salient effects of the spread of market economies. Studies of Thai queer history confirm the importance of the market but also reveal the strength of local agency in the emergence of new queer identities. Understanding the proliferation of queer identities beyond the West requires a reassessment of Western queer theory. A hybridised method drawing on Foucault, Trumbach, and D ’Emilio is proposed as a starting point for a transnational history of global queering.

O’Flaherty M, Fisher J (2008). Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and International Human Rights Law: Contextualising the Yogyakarta Principles. Human Rights Law Review 8(2): 207-248 (PDF Download).  Interestingly, while many States have yet to embrace the responsibilities set out in the Yogyakarta Principles, there are early indications that municipal authorities and national human rights institutions may be more ready to engage. For instance, in South Africa, where government representatives declined to attend a conference on Gender, Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, the Speaker of the Johannesburg Municipal Council chose that event to express criticism of a ‘collective amnesia’ in public life concerning the constitutional prohibition of discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation and to commend the Yogyakarta Principles. He called on conference participants to ensure that ‘both the Constitution and the Yogyakarta Principles become accepted by all members of our increasingly diverse communities in Johannesburg and internationally’... The Yogyakarta Principles appear to pass the crucial tests of being relevant to the actual situation of affected communities and being a faithful and coherent reflection of the existing international legal standards. It is not then surprising to consider the impact the Principles have already had, albeit dissemination is only beginning and will require the sustained attention from a global collaboration of lawyers, academics and activists. Equally, and as the Principles themselves attest, they are an imperfect workçset in a moment of time and reliant on the limited available information and understanding. As such, the Principles should be understood as a work-in-progress that must countenance an ongoing and frank consideration of how they might be improved and adjusted. In this way, the Yogyakarta Principles are most likely to contribute to the realisation of their own promise of ‘a different future where all people born free and equal in dignity and rights can fulfil that precious birthright’

Corboz, Julienne (2009). Globalisation and Transnational Sexualities. Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society (ARCSHS). PDF Download. The literature in the field of critical sexuality studies published between the years 2000 and 2006 reveals an increasing preoccupation with the theme of globalisation. Although major topics of interest vary according to the authors in question and their disciplinary backgrounds, definitions of contemporary globalisation invariably refer to the rapidly increasing movement of people (through migration, tourism and trafficking), capital, information, and ideologies around the world. Sexuality can no longer be analysed or understood without taking into account the effects of these global flows. They are deeply implicated in any analysis of HIV/AIDS (Altman 2001; Binnie 2004; Schoepf 2001), the social, cultural, economic and political regulation of sexuality (Altman 2001; Altman 2004; Kim-Puri 2005), prostitution and sex trafficking (Long 2004; Parker et al. 2004; Piper 2005), space, place and queer mobility (Binnie 2004; Collins 2005; Puar 2001; Puar 2002), and citizenship and sexual rights discourses (Bell and Binnie 2000; Bell and Binnie 2004; Binnie 2004; Corrêa and Parker 2004; Parker et al. 2004; Plummer 2003; Stychin 2001). These broader themes, however, are associated with various complex issues that cannot be understood through the lens of globalisation alone and must be explored in their own right and reviewed separately. In this review, we will focus on the most popular theme encountered in the critical sexuality literature: the role that globalisation has played in the construction of sexual identities.

Coelho, Tony (2009). When the Global and the Local Collide: Gay Identity in Brazil and South Africa According to Parker and Reid. Amsterdam Social Science, 1(2): 6-23. PDF Download. PDF Download.- Summary &  Download Page: This article examines the works of Richard Parker and Graeme Reid who both set out to explore the emerging gay communities in non-western societies. In an era of globalisation, western conceptions of a gay identity are spread throughout the world creating what some might refer to as a global gay identity (Altman 2001). However, Parker, whose research is based in Brazil, and Reid, South Africa, reveal the importance of the local in interpreting samesex behaviour. The local and the global intermingle in these societies creating a gay community of its own, while undermining the notion of a global gay identity. The following key themes presented in both these works are compared in order to understand the complex interplay between the local and global in interpreting what it means to be gay cross-culturally: (1) The economic and political developments that have allowed for the influx of modern ideas from abroad and the growth of gay communities, (2) The categorisation of men who have sex with men through unique terminology and their meanings, (3) The gay spaces which have permitted sexual expression, and (4) The assertion of a modern gay identity by local advocacy groups.

Implementation of International Human Rights Standards on Sexuality within Domestic Courts in Asia-Pacific Countries (Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Chuo University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "The purpose of this paper is to overview the human rights of LGBTQ from international human rights law perspective and to show the way to fulfil the international human rights standards of LGBTQ in Asian-Pacific countries. Firstly, the author demonstrates what kind of international human rights norms are guaranteed in international plane. Since the creation of UN, human rights have become a matter of international concern. Although no treaties, except for Treaty of Amsterdam, contains sexual orientation or gender identity so far, some international courts and quasi-judicial organizations interpret that international human rights law encompass the human rights of LGBTQ. This paper analyzes the judgments, views and resolutions on LGBTQ which had been made by UN family and other international organizations, e.g., the Human Rights Commission under the ICCPR, the UN Commission and Sub-Commission on Human Rights and the European Courts of Human Rights. Thereafter, the author examines the implementation of these human rights within national plane. It is not efficient enough just to show the recent evolution of international human rights standard of LGBTQ. As provided in Vienna Declaration on Human Rights, the obligation to fulfil all human rights and fundamental freedoms are primarily imposed on national level. To make the international human rights standards of LGBTQ into reality in Asia-Pacific countries, this paper shows a model assertion in Japanese courts for instance, based upon the general theory of relationship between international and national law together with the legal characteristic of international human rights norm." - Constructing the Personal Narratives of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Asylum Claimants (2009).

Filiano bA, Garcia J (2004, Updating Authors). International Working Group On Sexuality and Social Policy: Annotated Bibliography on Sexual Rights Working Document. PDF Download.  The Annotated Bibliography on Sexual Rights is an ongoing project of the International Working Group in Sexuality and Social Policy (IWGSSP). This version of the bibliography is not exhaustive, but is rather a work in progress, and will continue to be updated every six months. All annotations are written in English, and where available, original abstracts are included in addition to the IWGSSP annotation. - The International Working Group on Sexuality and Social Policy.

Altman, Dennis (2004). Sexuality and Globalization. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1(1): 63-68. PDF Download. Globalization has an impact on all aspects of life, including the construction, regulation and imagination of sexuality and gender. This paper aims to suggest some of the ways in which this impact is occurring, primarily in the developing world, with some emphasis on questions of HIV, sexual identity, and human and sexual rights. In issues of sexuality, as in other spheres, globalization increases inequalities, acting both as a liberatory and an oppressive influence... Defenders of globalization claim that it is ensuring an increase in individual freedoms and affluence. An analysis of whether such an increase is apparent at the level of sexuality and gender is a significant test of these claims, and a reminder that massive social change almost always has both victors and casualties. It also reminds us that globalization does not necessarily mean homogenization. To end where I began: in Thailand, as in most Asian countries, one can find men who identify as “gay,” and there are numerous venues in Bangkok which are immediately recognizable as part of a global gay world. At the same time many other Thai men identity as kathoey, a particular sort of effeminate man who approximates, but is not the same as a “nelly queen,” as depicted in the very successful Thai film Iron Ladies. Globalization means greater diversity within as well as between nations, but it certainly does not eliminate cultural differences.

Khng, Russell Heng Hiang (2004). Gay Citizens and the Singaporean State: Global Forces, Local Agencies, and Activism in an Asian Polity. In: Documentations, Papers and Reports of the Heinrich Böll Foundation, No. 7: Asian Modernity – Globalization Processes and Their Cultural and Political Location. Documentation of a workshop of the Heinrich Böll Foundation, held on July 6th 2004 in Berlin. Published by the Heinrich Böll Foundation. PP. 69-79. PDF Download. This paper on gay activism in Singapore addresses a larger theme of globalization and examines the premise that globalization leads to an oppressive homogeneity around the world, as the many critics of globalization have charged. Researchers writing on gay issues have engaged the question of globalization in a similar vein. They center their analysis on a distinctive homosexual culture with many common features of lifestyle and consumption that appears to be spreading around the world from its sources in Western metropolitan centers. They call this “global queering.” However, while acknowledging that some form of global queering is taking place, queer study literature is rather circumspect about extreme claims that this will lead to a homogeneous gay culture around the world regardless of local traditions and realities. For example, the works of Denis Altman (Altman 1995, 1996) on Asia, and Peter Jackson (Jackson 2001) on Thailand, and Chou Wah-Shan (Chou 2001) on gay communities in the Chinese-speaking world argue for a need to look below the surface mimicry in order to understand the local context. This paper on the Singaporean situation adds a few more empirical examples to the cautionary refrain...

Peter Tatchell: Apology and Correction (2009): Raw Nerve Books wishes to make an unreserved apology to the human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell and to the LGBT human rights organisation OutRage!, regarding untrue allegations published in the book, Out of Place: Interrogating Silences in Queerness/Raciality, edited by Adi Kuntsman & Esperanza Miyake (Raw Nerve Books, 2008). These untrue allegations appeared in the chapter „Gay Imperialism: Gender and Sexuality Discourse in the 'War on Terror' by Jin Haritaworn, Tamsila Tauqir and Esra Erdem... The condemnation of Mr Tatchell and OutRage! by a number of African LGBT activists in 2007 was signed by people who did not know Mr Tatchell and OutRage! and who had never had any connection with them. They were therefore not making an informed judgement based on their personal experience. The letter of condemnation resulted from untrue gossip spread by one person who was waging a sectarian political vendetta. All of the African LGBT activists who have worked with Mr Tatchell and OutRage! refused to sign it. We accept that Peter Tatchell was one of the first LGBT campaigners to reject a western-centred approach to LGBT human rights and, from the early 1970s, to campaign for LGBT human rights universally and internationally, not just in Britain. He has worked in solidarity with many LGBT activists in the global south, acting to support, empower and publicise their freedom struggles, including J-Flag in Jamaica, GALZ in Zimbabwe, Iraqi LGBT in Iraq, Blue Diamond Society in Nepal, OLGA and GLOW in South Africa, the Persian Gay and Lesbian Organisation, Iranian Queer Rights Organisation and Iranian Queer Railroad in Iran, to name just a few.

Thoreson, Ryan Richard (2009). Queering Human Rights: The Yogyakarta Principles and the Norm That Dare Not Speak Its Name. Journal of Human Rights, 8(4): 323- 339. PDF Download. Over the past twenty years, regional and international efforts to secure formal protections for sexual minorities in the human rights framework have met with limited success. The prospects of these campaigns changed significantly in November 2006, when a group of activists, intellectuals, and policymakers met in Yogyakarta, Indonesia to draft a document that would outline the rights that sexual minorities enjoy as human persons under the protection of international law. Since then, activists and policymakers in local, national, and international forums have consistently invoked the Yogyakarta Principles as an authoritative document on the rights of sexual minorities worldwide, despite the fact that the document itself is not legally binding for any state or governing body. In this paper, I explore the entrenchment of sexual minorities as an at-risk group protected by human rights and the importance of the Yogyakarta Principles in advancing this “norm that dare not speak its name” on the global stage.

Fried, ST, Kowalski-Morton S (2008)Sex and the global fund: how sex workers, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender people, and men who have sex with men are benefiting from the global fund, or not. Health and Human Rights Journal, 10(1): 1-10. PDF Download.

Shaw, Drew (2007). Sexual Dis(orientation), Globalization, and the Spartacus Guide to International Travel. PDF Download.  PDF Download. The world is now a ‘global village’, to coin Marshall
McLuhan’s term. We live in an age of mass migration, rapid telecommunications and inter-cultural exchange. It is common these days to cross borders speedily. Whereas international travel was once the preserve of the wealthy or at least the middle classes, this is no longer the case – in Europe at least. As Briand Bedford, Chief Editor of the Spartacus International Gay Guide says: "We live in an exciting world! Discounted airfares in many countries make travel both affordable and easy. The expansion of the European Union opens doors to discovery in countries which were difficult to visit just a few years  ago. The gay scene in many of these countries is in its early stages, making it all the more interesting." The question I pursue in this paper is: What does it mean to be gay in a globalized world? I’ll begin by relating a personal experience...

Narayan, P (2006). Somewhere Over the Rainbow... International Human Rights Protections for Sexual Minorities in the New Millennium. Boston University International Law Journal, 24, Part 2: 313-348. PDF Download.

Hekma, Gert (2010). The World Minimized, The Homosexual Maximised? PDF Download. In a global world, the homosexual community is faced with various conflicting tendencies. The most important of these are the emergence of homosexual life and movement in all corners of the globe, and the growing activities of puritan organisations that embitter the life of sexual minorities. An important question concerning homosexual rights is, who are these gays that claim their place under the sun and what rights are they fighting for? I will discuss these four themes of movement and anti-movement, of identities and rights... Globalization of the Homosexual Movement...

The End of Queer (as we knew it): Globalization and the making of a gay-friendly South Africa. - Re-Orienting Desire: The Gay International and the Arab World.(Alternate Link- Localizing Desire: Globalization and the Brazilian Lesbian, Gay and Transgendered Movement- Borfer/Line Sex: Queer postcolonialities, or how race matters outside the United states (PDF Download). - The Queer Stopover: How Queer Travels in the Language Classroom (PDF Download). - Ottosson, Daniel (2010). State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults. The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. PDF Download.Oliver Phillips (2005). A Brief Introduction to the Relationship between Sexuality and Rights. Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. PDF Download.

Learning the Power of Sexuality [Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 10(1),  2002]: PDF Download. - Same-sex Unions: The Globalization of an Idea: PDF Download. - Global Queer Tastes: Performance in Inter-Asian and Inter-African Perspectives.(Related Information: PDF Download). - Masculinity and nationalism: gender and sexuality in the making of nations (PDF Download). - Critical regionalities and the study of gender and sexual diversity in South East and East Asia. - Contemporary Colonialism - A View from the East: Colonialism often implies "finished project" in contemporary world where the colonized has gained illusionary freedom in the discourses of "post-colonialism."   In fact, colonialism has never finished.   It continues to exist as a cultural phenomenon.   A Japanese cultural studies scholar, Kumagome Takeshi, claimed in his article 'Japanese Colonial Memory and Modernity: Successive Layers of Violence' that even there is no colonized, there are always colonizers (2001: 207-258).   Even the era moved to a post-colonial phase, the hegemonic power of the West stays as strong as in colonialism era.   Post-colonial discourses may be in danger of neutralizing historical inequalities... 

Culture and Women's Sexualities (2000, Abstract): Anthropological studies of women's same-sex relations in non-Western societies provide an important source for theorizing women's sexuality because they allow us to go beyond a narrow focus on Western cultures and concepts. Looking at studies from groups other than the dominant societies of Europe and America, I explore the diversity of women's sexualities and the sociocultural factors that produce sexual beliefs and practices. This article argues that sexual practices take their meaning from particular cultures and their beliefs about the self and the world. Cultural systems of gender, in particular, construct different sexual beliefs and practices for men and women. I conclude the article by suggesting some broad patterns at work in the production of women's sexualities across cultures.

Drucker, Peter (1996). ‘In the Tropics There Is No Sin’: Sexuality and Gay-Lesbian Movements in the Third World. New Left Review, I/218, July-August. PDF Download.  Today gay–lesbian movements exist in at least fifty-two countries, including many countries of the Third World. Every Latin American country except Panama and Paraguay now has an organized gay–lesbian movement, many of them active since the mid-1980s. In Asia, gay–lesbian movements are known to exist in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong and South Korea; in Africa, in Egypt, Ghana, Liberia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Almost all push on despite a broad range of difficulties, from a serious shortage of funds or even office space to a complete lack of legal status.39 These movements are not imitating Western fashion, for the sexualities on which they are based are often distinctive to the Third World. They are defending existing Third World communities against their rulers, and expressing the human needs of people who are deeply rooted in their own cultures and societies. At the same time they are, just as much as Europeans and North Americans, caught up in global economic and social developments...

At Home in a World of Strangers. Towards a Comparison of Gay Urban Cultures: - Towards a global gay culture?. - Cultural Construction(s) of Same Sex Sexual Relations (Northern Arizona University Women's Studies 394: PDF Download) - Global Gayz: Index of Stories. - InterPride: Global Pride Calendars of World GLBT Pride Events. - Gay and Lesbian Asia: Culture, Identity, Community. - Lesbian and Gay Films Expand Boundaries of Asian Cinema. - GLBT in the non-European World. - It's what you do: most of the men who have sex with men in the South probably don't identify themselves as `gay' or `bisexual': The story from the South is different. In sub-Saharan Africa, India and China, the majority of HIV/AIDS cases have been among heterosexuals and intravenous drug-users or through contaminated blood. This, together with the World Health Organization's emphasis on `the global epidemic', has effectively obscured the route of transmission of HIV through men who have sex with men. Such a response has also been convenient for countries which, on legal, religious or social grounds, deny the existence of such relationships; in this many Southern governments have been complicit. Western `politics of identity', where to be lesbian, gay or bisexual is a major determinant in the lives of individuals, is incomprehensible to many other societies. Other roles are often so much more central than sexual orientation -- people are Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. They are mother, daughter, wife, father, husband, son... Among the majority in Africa, India and China, men who have sex with men exist to an extent that is largely unknown. But despite the urgency of dealing with HIV / AIDS, it is important not to oversexualize relationships between men in the South -- affection, tenderness, friendship have great subtlety in societies where homoeroticism and homo-affectivity have never been called `homosexual'. Also, the majority of male-male sexual relationships do not involve anal intercourse...

Cruising Geography: a queer glance at geography's orientation by Glen S. Elder  (Department of Geography, University of Vermont) - Homosexuality and Human Cultural Evolution. - The Evolution of Homosexuality.- The Etiology of Homosexuality (and divorce and ...) - What Ever Happened to Ritual Homosexuality? The Incitement of Modern Sexual Subjects in Melanesia and Elsewhere (Word 97 Download N/A, Author's Home Page):  What Ever Happened to Ritualized Homosexuality? Annual Review of Sex Research 14:137-159. - An example of another form of male homosexuality that may soon be destroyed because it is at odds with recently invented/created western 'gay' concepts: Suck My Nation: Masculinity, Ethnicity and the Politics of (Homo)sex (Abstract, Full Text, PDF Download). Deceivers at work? ... Get over the colonialization thing. Globalization isn't about being dominated by the American bogeyman - it's about being modern.  Does "modern" mean being like Western Europeans, Americans, Canadians, and Australians? - The Civilized Homosexual: Travel Talk and the Project of Gay Identity. - Making Queer for the United States of Empire.

A Dangerous Knowing: Sexuality, Pedagogy and Popular Culture - 2000 - edited by Debbie Epstein, James T. Sears. -  Book Description: "As educators and theorists cross borders to think critically about sexualities and breakdown disciplinary and conventional boundaries, we are beginning to teach, think, and theorise about sexuality from various cultural, educational, and theoretical perspectives. A Dangerous Knowing assembles leading scholars and educational practitioners to pen analytic and/or descriptive essays that contextualise, problematise, or describe teaching sexualities, with a particular focus on Anglophone traditions. While there has been considered and rightful challenge of this tradition as variously incarnated across time and cultures (e.g., Euro-Americanism, Westernism, Capitalism, Eurocentrism, Modernism), its hegemony in moulding sexual discourse and mapping sexual boundaries is unquestioned... Here "pedagogy" is defined in its broadest sense to include not only formal education but the socialising influences of the mass media, technology, peers, and family. The "Master Narrative" embodies the Western and Northern European experience: its symbols and meanings, behaviours and artifacts, language and texts..." - An explosion of Thai identities: global queering and re-imagining queer theory: By mapping the proliferation of Thai gender/sex categories from the 1960s to the 1980s, the paper shows that Thai homoeroticisms are not converging towards Western models and points to the cultural limits of Foucauldian-modelled histories of sexuality. In particular, it demonstrates the inability of Foucauldian history of sexuality, and queer theoretical approaches drawing on Foucault, to account for shifts in Thai discourses in which gender and sexuality do not exist as distinct categories...

Queer Existence under Global Governance: Or, Is Global Governance Bad for Asian Queers: "The talk will center upon two major points: (1) the emerging global hegemony of morality that has quantum-leaped its assault on queer representations and queer interaction by bringing into place new legislations and litigations against them, as well as mobilizing and transforming conservative vigilance into an active surveillance network against any non-normaive sexuality; (2) the construction of child protection as a universal imperative that in actuality works both to re-enforce heterosexual monogamy and to debunk cultural diversity as inherently confusing and thus harmful for children. While global governance, as its proponents claim, may signal the weakening of state power and domination in certain national contexts; global governance, envisioned as a benign network of collaboration among the various segments of civil society, has more often than not instigated a new form of power and surveillance which has proven to be especially inimical to queers. And it is in relation to this new global development that Asian queer theory and queer activism must reconfigure their scope and engagement...."

El Menyawi H (2006). Activism from the closet: gay rights strategising in Egypt. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 7.  PDF Download. Abstract: Recently the Egyptian Government has been systematically attacking gays by putting them on trial, detaining and torturing them. The author suspects that there are two reasons behind the Government’s attacks of gay men: firstly, as a strategy to divert attention from its failure to address the declining economic situation in Egypt, and secondly, to increase the perception that it takes the Islamic faith seriously. The latter is particularly important to the Egyptian Government as it owes its increasing popularity largely to the Muslim Brotherhood. By attacking gays, the Egyptian State successfully distracted the public’s attention from its woes, while also shoring up the State’s Islamic credentials. The author also considers mistakes made when engaging in gay rights activism before his ultimate exile from Egypt. The author, who used the language of gay identity and of ‘coming out of the closet’ as part of his activism, examines the problems associated with such language. In particular, the author points out that by deploying the language of gay identity, he played into the hands of the Egyptian State, which then successfully appropriated the same language to distract the Egyptian public from its own problems. The author considers the problems with his activism to be his engaging in a ‘Stonewall’ model of gay rights in which one openly comes out of the closet and declares one is gay. The author concludes by considering a new form of activism that is not open, but hidden, which he calls ‘activism from the closet’. The hope behind the article is to allow LBGTQ groups to express their sexuality, as well as engage in activism, while reducing potential threats directed at them.

Parker R, Petchesky R, Sember R, Eds. (2007-2008). Sex Politics: Reports From the Front Lines. e-book Download Page. PDF Download PageContents: Sexual Rights Policies across Countries and Cultures: Conceptual Frameworks and Minefields. - - Brazil - Sexual Politics and Sexual Rights in Brazil: A Case Study. - - Egypt - Sexuality Politics in Egypt. - - India - Culture, Politics, and Discourses on Sexuality: A History of Resistance to the Anti-Sodomy Law in India. - - Peru - Sexual and Reproductive Rights Policies in Peru: Unveiling False Paradoxes. - - Poland - The Struggle for Abortion Rights in Poland. - - South Africa - Constitutional Authority and its Limitations: The Politics of Sexuality in South Africa. - - Turkey - How Adultery Almost Derailed Turkey’s Aspiration to Join the European Union. - - Vietnam - From Family Planning to HIV/AIDS in Vietnam: Shifting Priorities, Remaining Gaps. - - United Nations - Negotiating Sexual Rights and Sexual Orientation at the UN. - - World Bank - Looking for Sex in All the Wrong Places: The Silencing of Sexuality in the World Bank’s Public Discourse. - - Contested Bodies: The Local and Global Politics of Sex and Reproduction.

Blame game's repercussions: "I might be able to shrug off all this finger-pointing, not matter how outlandish, were the consequences not so dire. But across the globe, gays remain the eternal outsiders, enemy of the family, the nation and God. This characterization of homosexuality represents a disturbing fantasy of who homosexuals are, but has nothing to do with actual lesbians and gay men. Unfortunately, the fantasy makes it easier to deny gays the right to marry, raise children, or walk down the street without being assaulted. The fantasy has a life of its own, bolstered by politicians, preachers and thugs, all of whom attack gay people with impunity. And when gays anywhere are blamed, gays everywhere are held accountable. I can't help but wonder: Who benefits from this illusion about what homosexuals are? How does it serve the world to continually denigrate gay people? And what will it take to stop it?

What it means to be gay - homosexuality and HIV in India: - Does homosexuality vary around the world? Do different patterns of homosexual behaviour demand new approaches to HIV prevention? ... Many gay men in the West define themselves by their sexuality: you are either gay or straight. But the situation in India is more complex. There are several patterns of homosexual behaviour. The standard model of collective action against HIV is impractical here. While homosexuality in India is taboo and covert, it is not uncommon for men to have sex with men. They do not necessarily consider themselves to be homosexual... Policy-makers engaged in the fight against AIDS in the developing world should not assume that the Western version of homosexuality is relevant. - The Myth of the Heterosexual - 2001 - by Holt N Parker.

Binswanger, Hans (2005). Combating the epidemics of Violence and AIDS among men having sex with men in the developing World. PDF Download. In OECD countries and in Latin America, the HIV/AIDS epidemic among men having sex with men (MSM) has been recognized as the most important, or one of the most important compartments of the AIDS epidemic. In low income countries it is generally assumed that anal sex in general, and sex between men in particular is infrequent, and is at best a minor contributor to the epidemic. In many low income countries, sexual relationships among members of the same sex are still illegal and/or assumed to be an import from the high income countries. Therefore violence against sexual minorities, including by the forces of law and order, take place in an environment of impunity and usually remain unreported. A significant body of research has started to undermine these assumptions and document the twin epidemics of violence and AIDS among men having sex with men (MSM) in low income countries...

amFAR AIDS Research Issue Brief (2010). MSM and the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Assessing PEPFAR and Looking Forward. PDF Download. In spite of these unparalleled resource commitments and the substantial progress that has been made in low- and middleincome countries, HIV/AIDS-related services remain out of reach for the vast majority of men who have sex with men (MSM). In almost all regions, MSM have significantly higher rates of HIV infection than the general adult population - in low- and middle-income countries they are 19 times more likely to be infected with HIV. Yet only one in 10 MSM worldwide has access to lifesaving HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services. Stigma and discrimination have fueled the neglect of MSM and other vulnerable populations, including injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and transgender individuals. The inclination of governments and donor agencies to favor general population strategies over targeted interventions - even when the epidemic is concentrated within vulnerable groups - has exacerbated the severity of the epidemic among MSM. A global wave of homophobic rhetoric and violence is further undermining efforts to combat high rates of HIV/AIDS among MSM. Many countries criminalize and persecute men who are perceived to be homosexual, making it dangerous for them to access healthcare and HIV services. A recent report by the United Nations Development Programme revealed that more than 90% of MSM in the Asia-Pacific region do not have access to HIV prevention and care because of discriminatory laws. Even in settings where same-sex sexual behavior is not prohibited by law, MSM are still subject to harassment and violence.

Perspectives on males who have sex with males in Bangladesh and India (PDF Download): In the field of developing HIV/AIDS prevention strategies, discussions on heterosexuality, bisexuality and homosexuality, "straight" or "gay", appear to form clear cut distinctions in terms of sexual behaviours which are often conflated with sexual identities (11). The lesbian and gay "movement" has been globalised (12) while in India several gay and lesbian groups have been established... Within these groups, formed more often than not by those from the English speaking middle classes, Western terms are used almost exclusively, and the context of discussions relate to Western understandings of gay identities, gay rights, gay lifestyles. You may hear a term such as hamjinsi or samlingi (14) but these are contemporary transliterations of the word homosexual. You may also hear the phrase "he is a gay" or "he has gay sex" or "he likes homosex", but these refer to sexual acts more than a sense of personal identity.Who is gay in an Indian context? What is a gay? Who is a homosexual? In a recent survey amongst truck drivers in North Pakistan, some 72% admitted they had sex with other males, whilst 76% stated they had sex with female sex workers (15) . Are these 72% gay? Homosexual? There is sufficient anecdotal evidence to indicate that in the other countries of the sub-continent similar levels of male to male sexual behaviours exist as a part of a broader sexual repertoire. Are these males bisexuals? Do the use of these terms carry the same meaning and significance as they do say in New York, London, Sydney? In the context of developing and delivering sexual health services for males who have sex with other males, the questions become extremely relevant, for any answers given will determine the shape and content of the delivery of such services. In working with sexual health issues in India and listening to the polemics of UNAIDS representatives, international donor agencies, the Indian medical profession, and many Western and Indian gay men, the often unthought through assumption is that same-gender sexual behaviours must mean the person is a homosexual, or gay, while male to female sexual behaviour must mean that the person is a heterosexual. In this construct, procreative "heterosexuality" is seen as normative and "normal", the rest is perverse and foreign. However these constructs seem to have very little contemporary or historical validity in India (and even to some extent in the West). This reductionist ideology is a recent invention from the 19th century which has consequently acted to reduce the rich diversity of alternate sexualities (16). Closer analysis of these debates seems to me to indicate a confusion between sexual behaviours, genders, self-identity formation, and cross-cultural validity, and within such confusion there may well be elements of neocolonialism, racism and Western imperialism (17).

Western lenses on male same-sex relationality in Pashtun Afghanistan (PDF Download): "Relations between adolescent males and adult men in Pashtun culture is a mode of relationality that falls outside both the Eurocentrism and heteronormativity of the traditional kinship studies model... Thus, it is not surprising that these anthropological studies of Pashtun culture do not include any references to male same-sex sexual relationships, or of any male same-sex relationality outside of the traditional family model. The Pakistani anthropologist Sarah Safdar has written one of the few English-language works on the topic of kinship in Pashtun society, which was published in 1997. Her extensive discussion of kinship and marriage in Pashtun culture contains no references to homosexuality or any male same-sex relationality other than blood kinship... David Halperin’s genealogical approach to the history of male same-sex sexual desire can be applied to cross-cultural analysis of relational modes such as male same-sex sexual relationality in Pashtun Afghanistan to give a more nuanced view than that of either Euro-American news media or anthropological accounts... He shows how this modern concept of homosexuality unconsciously restricts contemporary Euro-American inquiries into same-sex sexuality and denies the many forms of relationality and sexual desire that have existed in other historical moments... This inquiry shows that existing Western lenses on male same-sex relationality in Pashtun Afghanistan to be inadequate and problematic, and that drawing from queer genealogical strategies in conjunction with reconfigurations of kinship studies can provide a framework to analyze these relationships... Likewise, new kinship studies could provide anthropological accounts of male same-sex sexuality in Pashtun culture that could also help to destabilize the hegemony of Euro-American sexual categories, but that would also require new studies of kinship in Afghanistan. Without any new research or field work on the topic of male same-sex sexuality in Pashtun Afghanistan, it seems extremely difficult to understand or think about this mode of relationality and compare it with Euro-American modern homosexuality and Western prehomosexual categories." - Afghanistan: Nightmare Future: "If the United Nations, puppet of the neoliberal governments, succeeds in reshaping Afghanistan, its indigenous form of homosexuality will be wiped out, destroyed with the same brutality which marked the destruction of the great mosques by troops of the British empire 120 years ago."

Of Queer Import(s): Sexualities, Genders and Rights in Asia. - Introduction: Of Queer Import(s): Inspired by the tension that inheres in statements such as Indonesian gay rights activist Dédé Oetomo's assertion, 'I'm gay when I'm speaking English... Do queer identities, communities and cultures transcend the East/West divide? Or is this divide politically useful for local resistance to the globalisation of queer identities... The concept of queer has itself been a linguistically and culturally elitist concept to many non-English speaking tongzhi in the city... Although language issues were addressed by and were clearly a significant concern of the Bangkok conference organisers, their acceptance of English as a regional lingua franca was such that, while the organisers saw the need to outline the language policy, they saw no need to justify the choice of English as the official language... What the experience at the Bangkok conference suggests is not the need to find a lingua franca other than English for Asian Queer Studies. Instead, if we are to create a field that truly seeks to unite scholars as well as activists under an 'Asian queer' banner, what is called for is a far greater sensitivity, among native speakers and non-native speakers alike, to practical measures that can be taken on the ground to facilitate actual inter-Asian, inter-cultural, indeed, inter-queer communication... In the nascent field of Asian Queer Studies, it remains to be seen, however, the extent to which, in trans- and inter-Asian contexts, English will ultimately function to limit or liberate discourse on Asian queer lives...  - Queering Asia: This essay proposes to analyse queer life in Asia by focusing on the Asian region itself, asking how queerness is constituted by conditions and flows within the geopolitically constructed region of Asia. This proposal is at once simple and complicated. Simply, it suggests that a focus on the region (understood in a post-Orientalist and transnational way) provides an overlooked counterweight to Eurocentric, Western hegemonic frames for gay, lesbian, transgender or queer worlds in Asia...

The Magic Begins to Fade, Ponorogo, Indonesia:  Homosexuality is a delicate topic in conservative, Islamic Indonesia. But until recently that wasn't the case in Ponorogo, a small town east of Yogyakarta. One of the more prestigious occupations in the area has traditionally been that of warok, a man believed to have mystical powers who stages ritual dances in order to bring good fortune to the community. His dancers were once attractive boys aged 10 to 16. The warok himself maintained his mystical powers by sleeping with the boys, who had their own title: gemblak. But the warok of Ponorogo are becoming a thing of the past. As modern times bring a new openness to gays in Indonesia's big cities, they have almost shut down one of the country's longest-running homosexual traditions. Warok still live and work in Ponorogo, but they're not encouraged to live with gemblak anymore. Girls have replaced boys in the ritual dances, which themselves have evolved from meaningful rites into gaudy exhibitions for visiting tourists... - Reog Ponorogo Spirituality, Sexuality, and Power in a Javanese Performance Tradition.

Modern gay men in Indonesia learn to live alongside traditional concepts of homosexuality (Archive Link): We started by publishing a newsletter. Clearly the name Lambda Indonesia has the connotations of Stonewall, Gay Liberation and all that. I was then in upstate New York in Cornell, where I came out and I was influenced by all the gay liberation literature at the time. I was part of a campus gay group and so my concepts were very Western. From the very beginning I was criticised by gay, Western Indonesianists and by a professor of Anthropology in Surabaya I met around that time. These people asked, 'Why the Western model?'. They argued that in many parts of Indonesia, men have always had relationships with men - not only just casual sex but relationships - and there has never been a problem, so why set up something like this?'... We started looking around and quickly found that especially in those days, the early 80s, there was a clear distinction between the men who were homo and gay (the term 'gay' was starting to be used in Indonesia by then) and waria/ banci ('transgendered people'? - some of them have had operations, some are transvestites). Particularly around 1981, the men in the homo communities said that they only liked to sleep with laki-laki asli (real men/ macho men/ genuine men). If a homo slept with another homo then the two men would be considered 'lesbian'. People did it, but it wasn't acceptable! In Surabaya where I live the homo community at that time was gathering at nights (especially on Thursday and Saturday nights) in a school yard. And around the corner would be the banci or the waria... Nevertheless, in Southeast Asia in general, the old tolerance is still there. There is no queer bashing although there is police extortion. The police might round up about 25 people, have sex with them in the police station and that's significant and then ask for money. I'm not saying the police are always the penetrators, the police can be penetrated, the army guys can be penetrated, and they ask to be penetrated sometimes...

The Wedding Banquet Effect: Gay = Modern in Asian Cinema? (Chris Berry, Goldsmiths College) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "The global box office success of The Wedding Banquet has inspired a host of follow-up films, and it has been claimed as the founding film for the trend known as Queer or Gay Asian Cinema. Examples of films in The Wedding Banquet mode include the recent Rainbow from Thailand and Arisan from Indonesia, as well as the earlier Broken Branches from Korea and various Japanese films including Okoge and Twinkle. It has not escaped the attention of critics that not only do these films display upper middle class lifestyles but also that they represent a post-Stonewall Euro-American model of gay identity. This takes the argument one step further by noting that these two tropes are combined to produce a more distinctive rhetorical effect in the context of East and Southeast Asian metropolitan participation in globalized modernity. A post-Stonewall gay identity does not just occupy the same social and textual space as globalized modernity in these films but also actually signifies the ability to accept a post-Stonewall gay identity on the part of others and sustain a gay lifestyle on the part of the protagonists signifies the attainment of the globalized modernity so desired by the ruling classes and their adherents in metropolitan East and Southeast Asia. Ironically, this confirms the derogatory stereotypes displayed in commercial mass cinema, at the same time as it may be a powerful rhetorical tool for placing leverage upon the ruling classes."

Playing in the Dark: Korean "Gay" Men and "Gay" Korean Bathhouses (Song Pae Cho, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Gay experience and urban modernity are uniquely intertwined, with the latter providing the staging ground for sexual experimentation and openness in ways that permit a kind of emergent gay democracy. Within the urban setting, gay men have had the opportunity to meet other men and create social practices and institutions that constitute the “gay experience.” Among these varied practices has been the practice of “public” sex, queering the often marginalized and abjected spaces of urban settings such as deserted lots, parks, and public bathrooms into a stage for sexual encounters and connections between men. Even though the mainstream gay and lesbian movement in South Korea has often disparaged these spaces in favour of more “formal” rights and markers of “gay citizenship,” in this paper, I argue that it is, in fact, the “wild” and “unregulated” spaces that often exist only provisionally and both within as well as outside the field of gay commodification, that we can see the practices of gay democracy and public gay society-making. Using ethnography from “gay” bathhouses in Seoul, Korea, I argue that these spaces where queer desire sometimes takes us by surprise can open ourselves up to the pleasure of inter-class and inter-generational contact as well as the possibility of imagining other forms of sociality. However, they can also reveal the limits of Western notions of “gay identity,” and “gay community.”

Globalizing Gay Culture in Virtual Space: the Case of the Virtualized Gay Identity (Nikos Lexis Dacanay, University of the Philippines) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "My paper is about the virtualization of the everyday experience of the city and how the expression of gay identity is implicated in the setup. I want to understand the complex relationships between the influence of the global phenomenon of virtual space to the internationalization of gay identity and the re-modification of the concept of such an identity in the local understanding of sexuality. There has been much talk about the internationalization of American-modeled gay lifestyle and this would presume to indicate a globalization of modern gay identitiy. My argument is that the operations of sex and gender in Thailand and Philippine societies may be different from Western societies. The concept of gay identity is redefined when we observe how homosexuals in both Thailand and the Philippines live their lives in the seemingly virtualized gay spaces that in the cities. I will look at gay identity and its complexities in the age of virtual spaces. How has virtual space affected Thai and Filipino homosexuals' ways of living a gay lifestyle? What are the ways by which gay-identified men define their sex/gender against the backdrop of the globalization of the virtual, the incipient internationalization of Western-modeled gay culture, and the particularistic histories of local sex/gender order? My emphasis is the concept of global gay identity as a product of international gay spaces in the Philippines and Thailand, and how this identity is being renegotiated when Filipino and Thai homosexuals regard their local and traditional understanding of gender and sexuality.

Naming Themselves or Being Named?: Articulation of Indigenous Queer Politics of Modern Japan (Katsuhiko Suganuma, University of Melbourne) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Drawing upon the notion of ‘global queering’, developed by Dennis Altaman in recent years, there have been a growing number of studies published in English on the development of lesbian and gay identity politics in non-western societies. In the Japanese context, it has been claimed that the modes of gay and lesbian identity and activism started to rise in the 1980s due in large part to the application of Anglo-American discourses of sexuality politics to the Japanese context by a certain western scholars and Japanese political groups. This observation unfortunately has played into residual orientalist notions of western ‘advancement’ versus the orient’s ‘lack’ in terms of paradigms of sexual liberation. This conceptualization of sexual identity politics of Japan is problematic in both the sense that those western scholars and Japanese gay and lesbian organizations have overlooked indigenously evolved modes of queer activism developed by several influential queer figures and publications prior to the 1980s, and that they have generally not undertaken a critical analysis of an applicability of the western discourses of gender/sexuality to the Japanese context. Problematizing the ways in which a cultural specificity of Japanese queer discourse has been ‘digested’ into a ‘global’ queer paradigm, this paper will attempt to re-articulate an indigenous discourse of Japanese sexuality politics since the post war period to the present day specifically looking at the paradigm shifts of queer discourse in relation to the influence of cultural imports from the West, most saliently the Anglo-American sphere."

Provincializing Queer: Thai Sexuality in an Asian Context (Ara Wilson, Ohio State University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Debates about ‘queer’ sexualities in Asia focus on their relation to Western formulations of erotic identities: are they an expression of a Westernized global gay identity? Underlying these questions is an assumption that the West as the center of sexual modernity in Asia, a perspective that postcolonial scholarship has criticized. This paper repositions queer sexuality in Thailand by decentering (not denying) the influence of the global north and by arguing for greater attention to sexual flows within Asia. Drawing on fieldwork, secondary literature, and activist materials, I trace regional flows of people, culture, and politics that inform sexual expression in Bangkok. For example, I show how NGO, business, and social networks of ‘lesbians’ across urban Southeast Asia inform the experiences of women who love women or tom and dee in Bangkok. Criticizing an import-export vision of sexual globalization, this paper maps geography of sexual alternatives that provincializes the West."

Global Sexualities (Course,Jeffery P. Dennis): This course will explore the globalization of Western models of sexual identity, especially homoerotic (gay, lesbian, and bisexual) identities.  After examining traditional ways in which same-sex desire is institutionalized (most frequently through frequently age- or gender-stratified models), we will discuss three “waves” of globalization: 1) between 1870 and 1970, a medico-legal model of normative  heterosexuality/abnormal homosexuality suppressed, displaced, or re-interpreted traditional articulations of same-sex desire in societies around the world; 2) between 1950 and 1990, a new normative, essentialist model of the “gay male” and the “lesbian” spread through activism, tourism, and the activities of an increasingly cosmopolitan gay middle class; and 3) since 1990, a non-essentialist “queer” model of transgressive sexuality. This theoretical framework is, of course, extremely tentative and open to debate... raditional urban cultures in China, Japan, and Korea recognized, institutionalized, and even romanticized same-sex desire. However, in the wake of colonialism, China’s traditional models of same-sex desire have been almost entirely supplanted by the early 20th century Western model of shameful abnormality... Traditional third genders, sacred prostitutes, bayot, and others, co-exist in the states of Southeast Asia and their diaspora communities abroad with severe anti-gay agendas.  Even Thailand,   is often praised as a mecca for Western gay tourists and Western gay identities, continues to marginalize same-sex desire through hegemonic Buddhist and medical discourses... The Middle East has a strong tradition of romanticized homoerotic tradition and perhaps the first organized gay subcultures has mostly vanished from the contemporary   Middle East. Indeed, during the 19th and early 20th century, Westerners frequently used the age- or gender-stratified homoerotic identities in the Middle East and North Africa to escape from the homophobic discourses of Europe and America. However, the incursion of Western gay/lesbian models of community organizing has  been met with homophobic disdain by both political authorities and, oddly,  some of the resident gay and lesbian people... Although geographically and culturally close to the United States, Mexico has been surprisingly resistant to the American gay/lesbian model...  

Speaking in queer tongues: Globalization and gay language - 2004 - ediyed by William Leap and Tom Boellstorff. Review: In Speaking in queer tongues: Globalization and gay language, William Leap and Tom Boellstorff have assembled a collection of ten essays examining global and local interchanges of ‘same-sex desires, subjectivities, and communities’ (p. 4) through the lens of language. Globalization in general, and global queering in particular, are often portrayed as Western-driven phenomena. However, as Leap and Boellstorff discuss, transnational movements of language and identity built upon same-sex desire are not unidirectional, from the so-called Western center to the periphery, but take physical and ideational shape according to the various contexts in which individuals and groups conceive and perform being gay and lesbian... - Review: Individuals select from a range of available terminology, both local and international and in so doing create hybridised creoles which reflect local concerns and understandings as much as they reduplicate characteristically Anglo-Saxon categories and lifestyles. This is particularly clear in the case in Thailand which has long been a focal point of international sex tourism and consequently has been targeted by international AIDS agencies. Peter Jackson notes how the superficial borrowing of certain Anglophone terminologies (such as 'lesbian' and 'gay') has done little to alter fundamental Thai understandings of erotic categories which continue to be understood in terms of gender as opposed to sex. He notes a single term—phet—is used to translate the English terms 'sex', 'gender' and 'sexuality' and that 'no clear distinction is made among these notions in popular understandings' (p. 208). Hence, 'notions of masculine or feminine gender identity are not clearly differentiated from sexuality in the contemporary English sense of an identity based on erotic preference for partners of either the same or opposite sex' (p. 208). So, even though a term like 'gay' may be incorporated phonetically unchanged into Thai, 'its location within the context of Thai erotic culture means that it does not have precisely the same sense as in western sexual cultures' (p. 224). - Globalisation as hybridisation. - Surprising Senegal: France meets Africa in this land of music and mysticism: (Alternate Link): " The Long Road to Gay Identity."

The Crossroads of Asian and Western Non-heterosexual Identity Construction (Voon Chin Phua, Gettysburg College) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Asian indigenous and foreign (Western) constructions of non-heterosexual identities are not independent of each other. These constructions are constantly challenged and shaped by each other through discourse and interactions. Exposure to cultural representations and interactions with people from different countries facilitate exchanges between Asian heteronormative and Western (Americanocentric) discourses. Researchers generally focus on the power of the media in this role. However, what is less discussed is the impact of the movement of people migration (including tourism) on the construction of non-heterosexual identities. In this paper, I will discuss how migration, directly and indirectly, affects how people construct their sexual identities. I will examine this issue from both Western and Asian perspectives. The two main case countries I will use are the USA and Singapore. However, I will also allude to other Asian countries including Taiwan and Thailand, and I will use data from the Internet, in-depth interviews and participant observation. The analysis shows that a person’s sexual identity is constructed using a myriad of perceived and self-assigned set of characteristics that include both behavior and conceptual. This set of characteristics that constitutes one’s identity is fluid. They are constantly being contested and changes as people interact with one another. Different sexual and gender hierarchies and meanings clash and change as the East and West come face-to-face. The implication of this study is that the context of identity discourse may be localized but the effects of globalization cannot be ignored."

The Kingdom in the Closet: (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) Sodomy is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, but gay life flourishes there. Why it is “easier to be gay than straight” in a society where everyone, homosexual and otherwise, lives in the closet... “It’s a lot easier to be gay than straight here,” he had said. “If you go out with a girl, people will start to ask her questions. But if I have a date upstairs and my family is downstairs, they won’t even come up.” ... "They’re quite shameless about it." Talal, a Syrian who moved to Riyadh in 2000, calls the Saudi capital a "gay heaven." This is surprising enough. But what seems more startling, at least from a Western perspective, is that some of the men having sex with other men don’t consider themselves gay. For many Saudis, the fact that a man has sex with another man has little to do with "gayness." The act may fulfill a desire or a need, but it doesn’t constitute an identity. Nor does it strip a man of his masculinity, as long as he is in the "top," or active, role. This attitude gives Saudi men who engage in homosexual behavior a degree of freedom. But as a more Westernized notion of gayness -- a notion that stresses orientation over acts -- takes hold in the country, will this delicate balance survive? ... When Yasser hit puberty, he grew attracted to his male cousins. Like many gay and lesbian teenagers everywhere, he felt isolated. "I used to have the feeling that I was the queerest in the country," he recalled. "But then I went to high school and discovered there are others like me. Then I find out, it’s a whole society." ,,, In Saudi Arabia, "It’s easier to be a lesbian [than a heterosexual]. There’s an overwhelming number of people who turn to lesbianism," Yasmin said, adding that the number of men in the kingdom who turn to gay sex is even greater. "They’re not really homosexual," she said. "They’re like cell mates in prison." ,,, What is ‘gay’? In The History of Sexuality, a multivolume work published in the 1970s and ’80s, Michel Foucault proposed his famous thesis that Western academic, medical, and political discourse of the 18th and 19th centuries had produced the idea of the homosexual as a deviant type: In Western society, homosexuality changed from being a behavior (what you do) to an identity (who you are). In the Middle East, however, homosexual behavior remained just that -- an act, not an orientation. That is not to say that Middle Eastern men who had sex with other men were freely tolerated. But they were not automatically labeled deviant. The taxonomy revolved around the roles of top and bottom, with little stigma attaching to the top. "‘Sexuality’ is distinguished not between ‘homosexual’ and ‘heterosexual’ but between taking pleasure and submitting to someone (being used for pleasure),"...A magazine editor in Jeddah told me that many boys in Mecca, where he grew up, have sexual relations with men, but they don’t see themselves as gay. Abubaker Bagader, a human-rights activist based in Jeddah, explained that homosexuality can be viewed as a phase. "Homosexuality is considered something one might pass by," he said. "It’s to be understood as a stage of life, particularly at youth." This view of sexual behavior, in combination with the strict segregation of the sexes, serves to foster homosexual acts, shifting the stigma onto bottoms and allowing older men to excuse their younger behavior -- their time as bottoms -- as mere youthful transgressions...

Veil of Separation, Veils of Identity: But it prompts the question: why do homosexuals exist in societies where a separation of sexes doesn't necessarily apply? Moreover, does such a separation predicate the effect of genuine homosexual desires? And then, are these so-called "homosexuals" homosexuals in the sense that we in the West have defined it? Or are they individuals forced to fulfill a natural desire in the only way they can? Maybe homosexuals [or men who engage in sex with other men] in countries like Saudi Arabia are not necessarily "in the closet" but actually free from having to identify themselves. And rather, we [both homosexuals and heterosexuals in the West] are trapped in a closet of our own, a closet of monosexuality where we veil ourselves with endless layers attempting to define and label sexualities that we eventually [like with everything] ship and market around the world [the international gay?!?]. - Gay By Choice? The Science of Sexual Identity: If science proves sexual orientation is more fluid than we've been led to believe, can homosexuality still be a protected right?

Amantanyula:  I was reading the Swaziland 'What's On' and there was a revue of the book called (Emajaha Ekuluseni) meaning, 'boys in the field looking after the cattle'. And the subject of sexuality came up. It was the "amantanyula" or, boy's doing each other while looking after the cattle that grabbed me the most. The question is, as amantanyula is an African word and sodomy a western one, are they different things? My understanding is that amantanyula means sodomy. I may be wrong but many Africans do not have a problem with amantanyula but would have a problem with sodomy... Talking about freedom of sexuality, we are not talking constitutionally, but culturally. Is it African to be gay or not? The book takes a very African point of view. Most of the young Swazi boys in the book grew up in the late 1980s and slept with other boys, and yet would still regard themselves as African. African boys who happen to take it up the ass as a boy. But we all grow up in a different way, in a different Africa. Isn't that so? In some African countries, culture includes same sex behaviour but not gay identity or a gay community as like in western culture. Back in 1986-1987, until late1990 in a small village in South Africa called KwaNgwane, which is very nearby to Swaziland, you could find the same amantanyula practise. And inside Swaziland boys who looked after the cattle in the forest would have sexual intercourse with each other. This was only for boys over the age of 16 to prove their "man-hood" before they slept with any woman. It was okay that both parents and the community would know about it and they would be happy that their boy is becoming a man. Though they never understood, what they were promoting was homosexuality, they respected it as traditional behaviour and they praised it and loved it - so much that some never stopped. "Some boys passed into manhood and got married but now and then they still need some man's wood to remain pure men," say's Mr Bhokondvo Nkosi, a Maths teacher of Emagogeni high school. "The difference before the western influence is that it was ok to practice this type's of sexuality and now most African parents are considering it as "homosexuality" as it is labelled and therefore it is regarded as a silly influence from the civilised countries and as a western disease." ... I spoke to a guy on the net on www.africaonline.co.za and he was expressing himself very proudly saying that he would rather continue sleeping with boys in the forest, than to be called names like faggot, homosexual or bisexual. He went on saying that to him being called gay is very silly and he hates the categorising that we as people put ourselves through. And he went on by saying that asking him about his sexual orientation, is like asking him how big his dick is; and who does he sleeps with, and how he does it in bed?

MSM: A New way of imposing sexual inequity! (Sharful Khan, Social and Behavioural Sciences Unit, Public Health Sciences Division, ICDDRB, Dhaka, Bangladesh) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "A popular term 'MSM' has been used by many scholars to name those males having sex with males but do not necessarily identify themselves as 'gay' or 'homosexual.' This paper attempts to dissect the concept of categorizing people based on their sexual practices and describes the consequences of such categorization. Method: A survey was conducted with 300 males having sex with males in a city of Bangladesh to explore their sexual practices and other related concerns. In addition, a focused qualitative approach was also adopted to understand men's perception of their sexual practices and identity issues. None of the males having sex with males named themselves as 'MSM', nor they liked the terminology. Only 20 percent of interviewed men were aware about the term MSM and most of them were annoyed and confused with this special taxonomy. In-depth interviews with informants and key-informants revealed impacts of imposing this terminology in diverse ways. They expressed their concerns and experiences of stigmatization due this labelling by 'outsiders'. The term MSM has created confusion, incongruity and complexities in terms of working with males having sex with males and to reach their sexual partners for STIs/HIV interventions as well. Categorizing people based on their sexual practices is a new way of imperialism to further stigmatize and discriminate a person that essentially obliterates the scope of enhancing human dignity, rights and equality of people irrespective of sexual practices or preferences."

Achmat, Zackie (2010). LGBTI Freedom and Equality in Africa: a Different South African Perspective. Newsletter: International AIDS Society (PDF, Must Scroll). In theory, we are equal as gay men. We can have sex without any fear of prosecution. The constitution and a myriad of laws guarantee us equal access to social services, employment benefits, fostering, adoption, marriage, divorce and inheritance. We can also serve in the South African National Defence Force and enjoy gay culture and freedom of expression. However, that young, Black gay man’s only rights include sex with a partner of his choice and to openly associate with LGBTI people. These rights are vital, but real equality is a chimera. Equality, privacy and freedom are privileges enjoyed by middle- and upper-class people, including gay men of all races. LGBTI people both consciously and unconsciously lay claim to their rights as human beings and they locate these rights as global citizens. These rights to freedom and equality correctly inspire and activate people everywhere. However, the uncritical adoption of the American, Australian and European rights–based strategies focused on the lobbying of parliaments, litigation and visibility through the media has led to an impasse. A rightsbased movement that looks only to parliaments and the courts must fail, since they are largely captured by corporations and the urban, middle- and upper-class elites...

The birth, life and death of gay: In last month’s Another World I pointed out that in many societies, particularly in the developing world, “gay” was not an appropriate term for many men who have sex with men. It is often seen as USAmerican, middle-class, effeminate or transgender or not understood at all. Most communities have their own terminology for men who have sex with men, and I gave the often quoted examples of cachero (Costa Rica), gathoey (Thailand) and panthi (India), each of which refers to a particular group of such men. While the phrase “men who have sex with men” is appropriate, I argued against the use of the acronym MSM on several grounds, in particular the increasing tendency to talk about an MSM identity. (For the full article and responses by readers, click here) .. -  Young Activists Reflect on Identity, Community, and Diversity Among Asia's MSM... The TREAT Asia Report Interview: One of the greatest challenges to slowing the spread of HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia lies in the rich complexity of MSM communities across the region-and the necessity of tailoring prevention and education messages for each community. Recently, four young MSM from Southeast Asia-AIDS prevention and education advocates-spoke with the TREAT Asia Report about the issues of identity, community, politics, and stigma that they all encounter in the course of their work. .

Globalization of LGBT identities: containment masquerading as salvation or why lesbians have less fun (PDF Download) (Download Page): In the last decade, globalization of the same-sex politics and the gay rights movement, has led to the well-funded introduction of western discourses of Lesbian, Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) rights in eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America. In this paper I analyze what happens when western discourses help ‘the East’ uncover their ‘repressed’ sexualities, and more specifically, how lesbian communities are constructed in post-socialist eastern Europe through discourses of the sexual act as political identity. There have always existed communities that identify through same-sex practices in eastern Europe, and these communities have performed their identity in a variety of ways, in a variety of social spaces. I argue that Romanian and Albanian women who desire women have had a detailed, dynamic and beautiful system of strategies for identifying themselves and others, and that the western project of developing LGBT communities attempts to contain this strategic dynamism... It is clear that I speak from within the language I rail against, that I benefit from the contemporary universalisms that say I cannot be discriminated against because of my sexual practices. But these universalisms are creating problematic new limits for ways of being, knowing, and desiring in Romanian and Albanian society where women had created their own spaces before the arrival of western discourses of lesbian identity...

Social construction of male homosexualities in Vietnam: The main objective is to shed light on the Vietnamese homosexual culture between traditions and globalization, given that our Western ethnocentric terminology to describe "homosexuals" in Vietnam lacks precision. Contacts between Vietnamese society and Western cultures have changed not only the patterns of homosexualities, but also the social status of homosexuals. Homosexuals lost their high social status, and faced stigmatization and discrimination all through the twentieth century; this situation was accentuated with the AIDS epidemic...

Queer Studies in the House of Anthropology (PDF Download): This review examines anthropological research on sexuality published in English since 1993, focusing on work addressing lesbian women, gay men, and transgendered persons, as well as on the use of history, linguistics, and geography in such research. Reviewing the emergence of regional literatures, it investigates how questions of globalization and the nation have moved to the forefront of anthropological research on questions of sexuality. The essay asks how questions of intersectionality, inclusion, and difference have shaped the emergence of a queer anthropology or critical anthropology of sexuality, with special reference to the relationship between sexuality and gender... Comparing the growing corpus of ethnographic research on how articulations of globalization and nation shape sexual subjectivities with some recent scholarship on gay/lesbian transnational activism and tourism (Massad 2002 [Alternate Link] [Related Book] [Related Blog], Puar 2002) demonstrates the importance of a critical empiricism. This scholarship has provided important insights into the unequal power relations that, however reconfigured, are still fundamental to the dynamics of globalizing processes. However, in comparison with more ethnographically informed research, such work often presumes that persons outside the West terming themselves lesbian or gay are inauthentic: wealthy, connected to nongovernmental organizations, mobile, and ultimately estranged from their own cultures. These assumptions ignore tenets of postcolonial and queer theory concerning how nonnormative subjectivities entangle with dominant discourses...

Gender Diversity: Crosscultural Variations - 1999 - by Serena Nanda. Review: In sum, Serena Nanda has undertaken an extremely important project, as this is the first book of its kind. That is, even while the number of undergraduate courses dealing with issues of gender and sexuality in cross-cultural contexts continually increases, before now there has never been a single book which collects, compares, and contrasts a broad range of gender variant behaviours in various societies. However, in spite of Nanda's good intentions, I would not recommend Gender Diversity for use in an undergraduate course; the professor would need to spend too much time qualifying its passages. Until a better version of Gender Diversity appears, books such as Nanda's own The Hijras of India, Will Roscoe's The Zuni Man-Woman or Don Kulick's Travesti would make better choices for undergraduate readers.[8] Each of these highly readable books contains enough ethnographic richness and cultural context for readers to develop a truly deeper understanding of gender variant behaviour in an historically situated non-Western culture. - How I Became a Queen in the Empire of Gender (Third Genders, American Aboriginal People. Other cultures). - Two Spirits, Two Cultures: Shifting Navajo Gender Identity. - Directions in gender research in American Indian societies: Two spirits and other categories. - Two-Spirit like identities outside of North America (Must Scroll). - Making the American berdache: Choice or constraint? - Locating Third Sexes: Although Western societies of the twentieth century have ossified a 'common sense' understanding of sex and gender, in which male and female are presumed to be the obvious limit of possibility, there are some contemporary, and even more historical, instances of cultures whose sex/gender systems have not been limited by a dichotomous binary opposition of male and female. - Judith Lorber: "Why, given the variety of sexual behaviors and relationships, do we speak of only two opposite sexes? Why don't transvestites, transsexuals, hermaphrodites, and the institutionalized third genders in some societies affect the conceptualization of two genders and two sexes?" - The Third’: A Hindrance to Diversity? (PDF Download) - Wikipedia: Third Gender.

Western socially constructed sexualities and related beliefs can be very harmful (even deadly) in countries where male homosexuality differs from the most recent western construct(s) (Excerpt From: "The invisible man, an invisible epidemic: Masculinities, homo)sexualities, vulnerabilities, and HIV risk in South Asia" by Shivanada Khan, 2004, Naz Foundation International: PDF Download. Download Page):

"So what do we mean by the now commonly used term “men who have sex with men”? Who are these “men who have sex with men”? And why did NFI begin to use the phrase male-tomale sex, or males who have sex with males instead of the generally accepted “men who have sex with men”? For many donors, governments, and NGOs, the phrase “men who have sex with men” has unfortunately become synonymous with the terms “homosexuals”, or “gay” men, an equation that has no bearing on reality. At the same time, it is often signified within the context of discussions of “vulnerable groups,” or “target groups.” In other words a small group of exclusive “homosexuals” who are isolated from the general population and, therefore, at risk only to itself.

This type of reductionist thinking along with its associated beliefs, make it problematic to be fully aware of the extent of male-to-male sexualities and behaviors along with HIV vulnerability and risk. This faulty thinking is adopted not only by those who are engaged in these behaviors, but the wider general population as well as those decision-makers who are responsible for the investment and management of HIV/AIDS interventions. We see what we want to see, what we have learnt to see, and what we choose to see is often a reflection of our own beliefs and constructs. In our education systems we are taught of a binary, hierarchal and oppositional system of sexuality, gender, and behavior. Thus we have man/woman, heterosexual/homosexual, straight/gay, and white/black. When we look through this prism of either/or, we see an obscured world.

In an attempt to avoid such binary thinking in the field of HIV/AIDS interventions, the term “men who have sex with men” was created as a way to address those who do not identify themselves as gay and their sexual health needs. But in a cross-cultural framework a significant problem has plagued the use of the word “men” in this term, and creates a universal category of MAN that ignores cultural and social constructions of manhood, masculinity and manliness. The key question here would be “What is a MAN?” In South Asian cultures, manhood (and adulthood) is defined more by specific responsibilities, duties and obligations, along with certain behaviors and practices, than by a biological age. Marriage and the production of children (particularly male children) are cornerstones in this socio-cultural definition of manhood.

Another issue that is rarely recognized (except in the negative and moralistic sense of denial) is that adolescence (also a social construct9) and youth (an undefined term) does not preclude sexual activity of all kinds, and such activities may well be consensual. A third concern would be regarding those “men” who do not conform to normative sociocultural definitions of masculinity and are not deemed men by their male sexual partners (and often do not perceive themselves as such) although they are biological males. Finally of course, questions such as what desire is, how desire is constructed, why men have sex, why males have sex with each other, and for that matter with females, are rarely asked. It is often assumed that recreational sex, that is sex for pleasure and discharge, is constrained by reproductive necessity. Questions are rarely asked whether sexual acts arise from opportunity, immediate availability, curiosity, or for “the heck of it” because it is available. Thus the meaning and significance of sex acts become invisible, further compounded when those that specifically desire sex with a person of the same gender do so because they are deemed to be “homosexual” where this is seen as not “normal”.

With these concerns in mind Naz Foundation International (NFI) began to use terms such as “male-to-male sex” and “males who have sex with males.” While this may not appear to be of any great significance in the larger debate it does have an impact upon what we are addressing when we discuss masculinities, sexualities, vulnerable populations, and HIV/AIDS programmatic interventions. It is also central to the discourses that reflect a rights-based approach to sexual orientation and sexual health. South Asian societies tend to be highly male (masculine) dominated societies, where social and public spaces are primarily “owned” by men. However, as homo-social and homoaffectionalist societies, it is possible for socio-cultural barriers on male-to-male sex to be crossed in appropriate spaces and sexualized contexts, i.e. sharing of beds and all male private spaces. Further, significant numbers of males perform gendered roles as feminized males and can be accessed by those deemed as “real men”. The NFI surveys indicate that maleto-male sexual behaviors do exist in South Asian countries at substantial levels.

Most of these male-to-male sexual frameworks do not exist within a socio-sexual context of a heterosexual/homosexual oppositional binary12 and as exclusive categories. Rather, there appears to be an inclusive behavior that involves a substantial level of males operating within a wide variety of categories and/or networks. These frameworks can consist of gendered selfidentities, or a perceived ‘body heat’ leading to a perceived urgent need for semen discharge, perhaps ready and easy accessibility to male sexual partners, along with the social contexts of gender segregation, social policing of females, delayed marriage, and concepts of masculinity and femininity. Along with these frameworks are those with specific sexual identities/orientations that are defined by class and economic purchasing power. What we therefore see is a polymorphous sexual behavior within constructs of gendered/sexual identities and behavior that generate an invisibility of behaviors and risks. In other words we have the invisible male along with a varied range of homosexualities and practices..."

Gosine A (2006). ‘Race’, Culture, Power, Sex, Desire, Love: Writing in ‘Men who have Sex with Men’. IDS Bulletin, 37(5) (Word Download):

Excerpt: "It is important to recognise that only non-white men tend to be described as ‘MSM’. Even when the term is used in the North, ‘MSM’ is usually exclusively attached to non-white bodies. The characterisation of non-white men engaged in homosexual practices as MSM makes particular suggestions about their cognitive abilities, dignity and worth that reveal a troubling adherence to traditional processes of racialisation that reduce non-white peoples to their bodies – and bodily functions – alone... This characterisation is patterned after the historical definition of colonised, non-white peoples as having only bodies and no minds. Representations of ‘MSM’ as selfish and deceptive men who exercise little control over their primal urges are circulated in many other sexual health texts, reproducing racialising colonial narratives about the “natural” proclivities of non-white men, and undermining the complex negotiations that they make in expressing sexual choices...

As a conclusion to this discussion – a discussion that is only being introduced, at this point – I want to briefly call attention to contrasting representations of homosexuality in two popular and internationally circulated American texts that bring into focus how some ideas about ‘race’, power, culture, sex, desire and love are collaboratively articulated in the contemporary articulation of ‘MSM’: J.L. King’s (2004) On The Down Low: The Lives of ‘Straight’ Black Men who Sleep with Men and the celebrated Ang Lee film, Brokeback Mountain (Focus Features). The former reported the author’s experiences with and analysis of heterosexual-identified African-American men who have sex with men. Although they are located in the developed world, the men described in ‘down low’ meet the three criteria said to be shared by all men tagged ‘MSM’ throughout the developing world, despite the different cultural contexts they occupy and sexual rituals they act out:

1. They are defined as “men” because they were born with male sex organs.
2. They express sexualities in ways that run counter to anticipated patriarchal, heterosexist norms.
3. They are non-white.

King’s book became an international bestseller after the author appeared on an episode of Oprah Winfrey’s talk show, and it generated prolonged public debate. Throughout, the tone of discussions was consistent: black men were pathologised and condemned for their “dishonest”, “dangerous” and “irresponsible” behaviour, and positioned as “threatening” to women and the nation. Lee’s box office hit was also about men who were hiding their sexual relationships from their wives, friends and families. But unlike the ‘down low brothers’, Brokeback’s main characters, two married white ranchers named Jack and Innis, were represented as respectable and responsible men who, despite their infidelities, cared deeply for their wives. Jack and Innis were celebrated as romantic heroes, and the multi-award-winning film, a triumphant love story – including by Winfrey, on another episode of her show. That celebration was made possible because, as white men, Jack and Innis were represented as complex humans, able to reflect upon and exercise control over their lives, and whose sexual encounters brought them joy and pleasure, not merely “release” – qualities that are expressed through their inhabitation of white identities, and which would appear to ensure they would not be marked ‘MSM’."

ILGA (1999). 19th ILGA World Conference - Johannesburg: "Building Partnerships For Equality". PDF Download.

Carrillom Héctor  (2004). Sexual Migration, Cross-Cultural Sexual Encounters, and Sexual Health. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 1(3): 58-70. PDF Download.

QRD: Worldwide Queer Info Links. - A Comparative Report on Gay Subcultures in Countries Visited on the Fall 1997 SAS Voyage. - Surina Khan is Leaving IGLHRC after 2+ Years of Leadership.

Lesbigay Special Interest Group of NAFSA: Association of International Educators. - Newsletter articles: Forum Discusses World Views of Homosexuality. - Resources for International Students on Homosexuality: Advising of Gay and Lesbian Students.

The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC) - International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA). - The International Gay & Lesbian Review. - Book Reviews by titles.GLBT historical information (in chapters) from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Oceania. - International Conference on Queerness & Disability Planned (2002).

GLINN International News. - Nationl Gay News. - Wockner News. - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country. - Queer afrol. - theGully.com news & Articles. - Google.com's GLBT News and Media. - Lesbian.com - International News. - Gay Wired: The Global Gay and Lesbian Network. - Gay Today: World.

Richard Isaac's Dierectory. - Auntie Teck's World of Links N/A.(Archive Link) - Queer International Resources. - Crosspoint - Gay & Lesbian Resources. - Gay America: Guide to GLBT International Sites.

Movies TOO Gay is a gay movie site with over 1000 International gay movie reviews.

Dangerous Living - Coming Out in the Developing World - 2003 - Starring: Janeane Garofalo. Director: John Scagliotti. Dangerous Living: a Review: Gay in the Third World:  The sweep of the Dangerous Living is vast, as it explores universal themes in the homosexual experience. In the span of an hour, it transports the viewer to the Middle East, Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The film’s counterpoint is the explosive growth of an open gay culture and identity in the West during the last century. Scagliotti contrast this with the relative invisibility of gay culture in the countries of the developing world, at least judged by western standards, up until the 1990s. - Dangerous Living Primary Interview List (Word Download).

From - Global Gayz: International Reports & Reflections: It's Normal to be Gay: Worldwide Gay Survey. -  Gay Muslims 1998-2007.  - Homosexuality & The Jeweish Tradition. - Homosexuality & Hindyism. - Buddhism and Homosexuality. - Christianity and Homosexuality. - International Gay Reports 2001-07. - The Universe Might Last Forever, Astronomers Say, but Life Might Not.

Resource Links: - Search the QRD. -  Search all GLBT Resource Directories. - Search Google.com  - Sex-Gender and Queer Studies Directory. - Worldwide Organizations. - HomoDok's International Links. - Word-Is-Out Online GLBT Journal. - Amnesty International's Resources: Reports. Films, Videos. - Dossier: Identités, orientations, pratiques sexuelles. - Dossier: Identités, orientations, pratiques sexuelles. - Conservatoire des Archives et des Mémoires Homosexuelles de l'Académie Gay & Lesbienne.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam. - Eastern Europe & Central Asia: - Armenia. - Azerbaijan. - Belarus. - Georgia. - Kazakhstan. - Kyrgyzstan. - Moldova. - Russia. - Tajikistan. - Turkmenistan. - Ukraine. - Uzbekistan. - Middle East & North Africa: - Algeria. - Bahrain. - Egypt. - Iran. - Iraq. - Israel. - Jordan. - Kuwait. - Lebanon. - Lybia. - Mauritania. - Morocco. - Occupied Palestinian Territory. - Oman. - Qatar. - Saudi Arabia. - Sudan. - Syria. - Tunisia. - Turkey. - United Arab Emirates. - Yemen. - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Angola. - Benin. - Botswana. - Burkina Faso. - Burundi. - Cameroon. - Cape Verde. - Central African Republic. - Chad. - Comoros. - Congo. - Côte d'Ivoire. - Democratic Republic of the Congo. - Djibouti. - Equatorial Guinea. - Eritrea. - Ethiopia. - Gabon. - Gambia. - Ghana. - Guinea. - Guinea-Bissau. - Kenya. - Lesotho. - Liberia. - Madagascar. - Malawi. - Mali. - Mauritius. - Mayotte. - Mozambique. - Namibia. - Niger. - Nigeria. - Réunion. - Rwanda. - Saint Helena. - Sao Tome and Principe. - Senegal. - Seychelles. - Sierra Leone. - Somalia. - South Africa. - Swaziland. - Tanzania. - Togo. - Uganda. - Zambia. - Zimbabwe.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Caribbean: - Anguilla. - Antigua and Barbuda. - Aruba. - Bahamas. - Barbados. - Belize. - British Virgin Islands. - Cayman Islands. - Cuba. - Dominica. - Dominican Republic. - Dutch Antilles. - French Caribbean. - Grenada. - Guyana. - Haiti. - Jamaica. - Montserrat. - Netherlands Antilles. - Puerto Rico. - Saint Kitts and Nevis. - Saint Lucia. - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. - Saint-Barthelemy. - Suriname. - Trinidad and Tobago. - Turks and Caicos Islands. - US Virgin Islands. - Latin America: - Argentina. - Bolivia. - Brazil. - Chile. - Colombia. - Costa Rica. - Ecuador. - El Salvador. - Guatemala. - Honduras. - Mexico. - Nicaragua. - Panama. - Paraguay. - Peru. - Uruguay. - Venezuela.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: Central Europe: - Albania. - Bosnia and Herzegovina. - Bulgaria. - Croatia. - Cyprus. - Czech Republic. - Estonia. - Hungary. - Kosovo. - Latvia. - Lithuania. - Macedonia. - Montenegro. - Poland. - Romania. - Serbia. - Slovakia. - Slovenia. - Western Europe, Northern Europe & North America: - Andorra. - Austria. - Belgium. - Bermuda. - Canada. - Denmark. - Finland. - France. - Germany. - Greece. - Greenland. - Holy See. - Iceland. - Ireland. - Italy. - Liechtenstein. - Luxembourg. - Malta. - Monaco. - Netherlands. - Norway. - Portugal. - Saint Pierre and Miquelon. - San Marino. - Spain. - Sweden. - Switzerland. - United Kingdom. - United States of America.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Oceania: - Australia. - Cook Islands. - Fed. States of Micronesia. - Fiji. - French Polynesia. - Johnston Island. - Kiribati. - Nauru. - New Caledonia. - New Caledonia. - New Zealand. - Niue. - Norfolk Island. - Northern Mariana Islands. - Palau. - Papua New Guinea. - Pitcairn. - Samoa. - Solomon Islands. - Tokelau. - Tonga. - Tuvalu. - Vanuatu. - Wallis and Futuna Islands.

Resource: Books - Bibliographies: - International GLBT Bibliography. - Journal: Sexualities Studies in Culture and Society: Contents. - Course: Antropology of Sexualities: Word Download. - The Institute of Research on Women and Gender: Sex and the Global City. - The ONE Institute International Gay & Lesbian Review.  A Guide to Queer Resources in the Social Sciences- "Gay Men, Homophobia, and Masculinity" Section. - Book Bibliography (Gay and Lesbian Issues) 747 Titles. - Lesbian Sexualities Bibliography.  - Gay and Lesbian: Research Resources. - Bibliography: The Sexuality and Rights Institute (PDF Download). - Bibliography: Sexuality and Human Rights (2004).

Books:- Same Sex, Different Cultures: Gays and Lesbians Across Cultures - 1998 - by Gilbert Herdt.(Review) (Review) - The Sambia: Ritual, Sexuality, and Change in Papua New Guinea - 2005 - by Gilbert Herdt. - Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History - 1996 - edited by Gilbert Herdt (Abstract/Content). - Gender Diversity: Crosscultural Variations - 1999 - by Serenaa Nanda (Review). - The Gendered Society Reader - 2000 - by Michael S. Kimmel, Amy Aronson (Abstract). - The Gendered Society - 2003 - by Michael S. Kimmel (Review). - Gender Pluralism: Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times - 2007 - by Michael Peletz (Abstract).

Books:- Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (7 Sample Pages)  (Table of Contents) (Review by Gary Kinsmans: "Third World 'Queer' Liberation "A revolution within the revolution." (Altenate Link: Must Scroll) (Review) - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Among Lesbians and Gay Men (Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Issues, Volume 3) - 1997 - edited by Beverly Greene (Abstract). - Sexualities and society: a reader - 2003 - edited by J. Weeks, J. Holland and M. Waites (Review: PDF Download).- Postcolonial, Queer: Theoretical Intersections - 2001 - edited by John C. Hawley (Amazon.com Reference). - Colonialism and Homosexuality - 2003 - by Robert Aldrich (Review) (Review) (Review) (Abstract). - Gay Life & Culture: A World History - 2006 - edited by Robert Aldrich.  - The Globalization of Sexuality - 2004 - by Jon Binnie (Amazon) (Review). - Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia - 2003 - edited by Chris Berry, Fran Martin and Audrey Yue (Amazon) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Books:- Queer Globalization / Local Homosexualities: Citizenship, Sexualities and the Afterlife of Colonialism - 2001 - edited by Analdo Cruz-Malave, Martin Manalansen, ar Cruz-Malave, Arnaldo Cruz-Malave (Abstract). - The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics - 1998 - edited by Barry D Adam, Jan Willem Duyvendak, Andre Krouwel (Abstract / Table of Contents) (Alternate Link) (Review) (Review). - Global Sex - 2001 - by Dennis Altman (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Amazon). - Amazon to Zami: Toward a Global Lesbian Feminism - 1996 - edited by Monica Reinfelder (Review) (Amazon). - Culture, Society and Sexuality: A Reader - 1997 - by Richard Parker, Peter Aggleton. - Speaking in Queer Tongues: Globalization and Gay Language - 2003 - edited by William L. Leap and Tom Boellstorff (Amazon) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Postcolonial and Queer Theories: Intersections and Essays - 2001- edited by John C. Hawley (Amazon). - Speaking in queer tongues: Globalization and gay language - 2004 - ediyed by William Leap and Tom Boellstorff (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Sexuality and Human Rights: A Global Overview - 2005 - edited by H. Graupner, P. Tahmindjis (Google Books) (Review).

Books: - Queer Spirits: A Gay Men’s Myth Book - 1995 - by Will Roscoe (Review, list of myths by geographic area) (Amazon). - Revolutionary Voices: A Multicultural Queer Youth Anthology - 2000 - edited by Amy Sonnie. (A Note From the Editor) (Review) (Review Comments) (Review) - The Third Pink Book. Human Rights for All? A Global View of Lesbian and Gay Oppression and Liberation - 1992 - RISC, or Reading International Support Centre (Amazon). - Gay and Lesbian Asia: Culture, Identity, Community - 2001 - by Gerard Sullivan, Peter A. Jackson (Amazon) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Sex Matters: The Sexuality and Society Reader - 2003 - by Mindy Stombler, Dawn M. Baunach, Elisabeth Burgess, Denise Donnelly, Wendy Simonds, Dawn Michelle Baunach.

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The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.


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