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Index: Latin America & Africa - Middle East / Asia - Race/Ethic Minority Issues: U.S., Canada, Europe,  New Zealand & Australia - Homosexuality:  Biological  or  Learned ? Public School Issues - Transgender / Tranvestite / Transsexual - Lesbian  &  Bisexual Women - Homo-Negativity / Phobia - Identity Formation  &  Coming Out - Counseling  &  Therapy - Professional Education  - Bisexuality - Religion   &  Spirituality - Male  Youth Prostitution - HIV-AIDS - Gay & Bisexual Male Suicide Problems - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction  -  - GLBT  History - Community Attributes  &  ProblemsCouples / Families / Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence - The Elderly

Latin America & Africa:
Latin America (Part 2)

Section Index

Part 2 - "Latin America" (This Page): Central America: Panama - Honduras - Belize - Costa Rica - Nicaragua - Guatemala - El Salvador --- South America: Brazil - Peru - Chile - Columbia - Argentina - Ecuador - Venezuela - Uruguay - Bolivia - Guyana - Suriname - Paraguay --- Latin American / Caribbean Resources --- International Issues & Resources.

Part 1 - "Latin America" : Mexico - Cuba --- Caribbean: Jamaica - Trinidad / Tobago - Puerto Rico - Haiti - Martinique / Guadeloupe - Netherland Antilles - Cayman Islands - Bahamas - Bermuda - Saint Lucia --- Latin American / Caribbean Resources --- International Issues & Resources..

Part 3 - "Africa": South Africa - Kenya - Zambia - Namibia - Nigeria - Uganda - Burkina Faso - Botswana - Ivory Coast - Senegal - Egypt - Algeria - Morocco - Tunesia --- Angola - Benin - Burundi - Cameroon - Cape Verde --- Central African Republic - Chad - Comoros - Republic of Congo - Democratic Republic of Congo --- Equatorial Guinea - Erithrea - Ethiopia - Gabon - Gambia -- Ghana - Guinea - Guinea Bissau - Lesotho - Liberia --- Ghana - Guinea - Guinea Bissau - Lesotho - Liberia --- Mauritius - Mozambique - Niger - Reunion - Rwanda --- Sao Tome and Principe - Seychelles - Sierra Leone - Sudan - Swaziland - Tanzania - Togo --- General African Resources --- International Issues & Resources. 


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Sexuality Policy Watch (2008): Position Paper on the Language of “Sexual Minorities” and the Politics of Identity. 
 

LATIN AMERICA

 

CENTRAL AMERICA


PANAMA: - Panama Gay Pride 2007. -3ra Marcha por la Diversidad Sexual en Panamá (Alternate Link) (Translation). - Panama's congress considers legalization of homosexuality. - Panama Considers Broad-Sweeping Homosexual Hate Crimes, Legalization of Homosexuality. - Discriminación en la Policía de Panamá (Translation). - Homosexuales exigen su derecho a ser policías (Translation). - Gays panameños de acuerdo con ley de salud sexual (Translation). - Cuestionan “consenso” en torno a proyecto de ley de educación sexual en Panamá (Translation): Activistas homosexuales y feministas la apoyan, grupos pro-familia no fueron consultados. - Panama Repeals 1949 Law Criminalizing Gay Sex (2008). Lesbian couple jailed for kissing in public (YouTube, 2011).

Vergès C (2007). Programas De Educación Sexual En Panamá. Act Bioethica, 13 (1) (Full Text) (Translation). ¿Cuál es el lugar del placer en los programas de educación sexual? En Panamá, como en otros países de América Latina, la violencia contra niños y niñas y contra las mujeres no les permite reconocer la propiedad de su propio cuerpo y menos su derecho al placer. Los programas actuales sobre educación sexual, prevención del embarazo y SIDA promueven el uso del preservativo y la abstinencia pero no hablan de la ética del placer. Frecuentemente, el personal sanitario y educativo no está preparado para hablar sobre el tema. El uso del placer sexual como mercancía en los medios de comunicación introduce mayor confusión. La bioética debe integrar los estudios de la psicología, la antropología y un sentido de humanidad que permitan a este personal trabajar con las personas hacia la apropiación de su integridad como ser humano.

Panamá: Pretenden educar a los niños en la homosexualidad (Translation): La organización de homosexuales y lesbianas hombres y mujeres nuevos de Panamá han introducido un anteproyecto de ley contra toda forma de discriminación por razón de orientación sexual e identidad de género por el que la minoría radical homosexual pretende atentar contra la conciencia moral mayoritaria de los panameños. La prohibición de discriminación contra cualquier ciudadano por cualquier motivo ya está consagrada en nuestra Carta Magna. Por el contrario, anteproyecto de Ley resulta totalitario al imponer preceptos morales contrarios a la mayoría y coartar la libertad de expresión. El anteproyecto de ley pretende “normalizar” la homosexualidad en la sociedad, cuando todavía existen importantes dudas científicas que permiten sostener que la homosexualidad es una desviación de la conducta sexual.Puedes ver el informe en: www.hazteoir.org/documentos/noesigual3.pdf  - A su vez puedes consultar el texto que prentenden aprobar pulsando aquí.

Lanzan campaña contra la homofobia en Panamá (Translation): El coordinador del Programa Conjunto de las Naciones Unidas sobre el VIH/SIDA, UNISIDA en ese país, planteó que la gente debería tener “más temor a la homofobia que a la homosexualidad”. La Asociación Hombres y Mujeres Nuevos de Panamá y la Alianza Estratégica contra el VIH/SIDA lanzaron hoy en la capital panameña una campaña de comunicación contra la homofobia, que reclama justicia, respeto y tolerancia. - Retiran manuales educativos que promovían homosexualidad entre menores panameños (Translation): El Ministro de Educación, Miguel Angel Cañizales, ordenó esta semana el retiro de cuatro manuales de educación sexual cuestionados por promover la homosexualidad entre los escolares con polémicas dinámicas. Según informó el diario El Siglo, Cañizales canceló la campaña de evaluación de los manuales sobre educación sexual que su despacho “pretendía utilizar para cimentar su programa de educación sexual en todo el país, tras una avalancha de críticas vertidas en contra del contenido ‘subido de tono’ y ‘no apto para nuestra realidad social’ de los cuatro manuales en cuestión”.

For Gays in Panama, Change Comes Slowly N/A. - Support The Legal Registration Of Panama’s First Lesbian And Gay Association. (Alternate Link) -  Panama's gays fight for social acceptance.: "In this unashamedly macho society, homophobic music is not uncommon on the radio. Even the gay community has no universally recognized leaders. Gay pride? Out of the question. Still, as in other years, for a few days this year during Panama's pre-Lenten Carnival, the country's gay men were granted permission to run their own floats and have their own gay Carnival queen..." - Help Support Legal Registration of Advocates in Panama. -  Gay group denied legal status (Must Scroll): "The Ministry of Government and Justice has for the second time denied a request by the Asociacion de Hombres y Mujeres Nuevas de Panama for status as a legal entity. The group, composed of gay men and lesbians, was denied status because the ministry found that homosexuals "go openly against the morals of this country." A ministry spokesman denied that the decision discriminates against gays and lesbians."

Panama Gays Fight Homophobia (Alternate Link, Must Scroll): "The gay community in Panama are fighting homophobia in a struggle to be accepted for society. In Panama you can lose your job for being gay. There are no gay lobbyists, no openly gay politicians and no local gay magazines. Society in Panama is unashamedly macho society and it is not uncommon to hear homophobic music on the radio, according to a report by Reuters..." - Panamanian Ricardo Beteta starts gay rights movement. - A Visit to Panama and My Friend Carlos. - Out and About in Panama. - ¿Cuántos homosexuales hay? (Translation) Es una de las preguntas que más inquietan hoy en día a la sociedad panameña, y también es una de las preguntas más difíciles de responder.

Gays to parade, but won't have their own stage (Must Scroll): " The nation's Board of Censors has approved the gay community's application to march and have floats in the Carnival parades, but has turned down an application for a stage for a Panama City drag queen show. Panama's gays have in recent years presented a higher public profile, and have long benefited from this country's general respect for individuals' privacy. However, gay participation in Carnival and events like the annual three crowns female impersonator competition usually draw opposition from some political and religious leaders." - The Heresy of Difference: "In Panama, as in many other parts of America, homosexuality was allowed--until the conquistadors burst in. That night in 1513, Balboa initiated the land in the punishment of the unspeakable sin of sodomy..."

Panamanian starts gay rights movement N/A (2004) (Alternate Link, Must Scroll): "Although in law and society, gay Panamanians are all but invisible, Beteta is gathering petition signatures to pressure the incoming new legislature to give gay couples marriage-like rights. The petition is a giant step forward given that, in many ways, life for the average gay Panamanian resembles pre-Stonewall America... The rapidly changing situation for gays in Panama is part of the sea change sweeping throughout Central and South America, says Michael Heflin, director of Amnesty International's Outfront gay rights project. While violence including murder, particularly against transgendered people, is widespread in the region, only Nicaragua still outlaws sodomy. In 1998, Ecuador followed South Africa?s lead and became the second country in the world to write a ban on discrimination based on sexual orientation into its constitution. In 2003, Mexico passed a nationwide ban on anti-gay discrimination. Meanwhile, Brazil is emerging as a gay rights leader: In 2000, it gave gay couples Social Security rights. For the past two years, it has urged the United Nations to include gay rights in its human rights mission. " - Estas de acuerdo con permitir matrimonios Gays en Panama? (Translation).

Panama's gays fight for real acceptance: (Alternate Link) "But Ana Carolina was Jorge, and Jorge is gay. In Panama you can lose your job for being gay. There are no gay lobbyists, no openly gay politicians and no local gay magazines... But away from the exuberance of Carnival, being gay in Panama isn't easy. "I've been beaten up for being gay," says Ruben, a smartly dressed 26-year-old business student. "People insult me when I walk down the street and I've had problems getting part time jobs. Groups such as the Catholic Church think we are immoral and vulgar." Gay tourists are told to steer clear of Panama." - Gay friendly Spanish language immersion school in Costa Rica and Panama.

Panama Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2005): Abuse by prison guards, both PNP and civilian, was a recurrent problem. Police officials received and investigated 34 cases of alleged abuse by prison guards from January through June. The Association of New Men and Women of Panama, a gay and lesbian rights group, reported that there were at least two attempted killings of gay inmates by other inmates during the year. It was unclear whether these incidents were under investigation... There were concerns about insufficient police presence at a June 24 gay pride march. Although police authorities permitted the march to take place, they assigned only one police officer to cover the event, in contrast to customary police practice at other marches where enough police were sent to protect marchers and direct traffic... A 1920 law prohibiting homosexuality was not enforced. The law prohibits discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS in employment and education, but discrimination continued to be common due to ignorance of the law and of HIV/AIDS. The government provided treatment for HIV/AIDS in at least 80 percent of cases through the Ministry of Health and Social Security, but the government had problems maintaining retroviral medication in stock. The New Men and Women of Panama, a gay rights group, however, averred that employers discriminated against openly gay people. There were no reported incidents of harassment or other abuse against the approximately 200 persons who participated in a gay pride march on June 24 in Panama City. - Informe Anual sobre Prácticas de Derechos Humanos en 2005 en Panamá. - En nombre de la tolerancia (Translation): La homosexualidad en Panamá está penada por ley y alguien con esa inclinación podría terminar preso.

Walk for Life, against AIDS: "Panama’s gay community had many members at the Walk for Life through the November 30 morning drizzle from the corner of Calle 50 and Via Brasil to Parque Omar, but AIDS is not particularly a “gay disease” here in Panama. Of those AIDS cases whose route of transmission is known, 63 percent were from sexual relations among heterosexuals, 30 percent were transmitted by homosexuals or bisexuals, and the other seven percent from mothers to their children. Intervenous drug abuse is not very common in Panama and we have sanitary practices in our health care system under control, so needle sharing and blood transfusions are not major issues here. Gay people are disproportionately infected, but it's the foolish heterosexual who believes that his or her sexual orientation confers immunity..." - Death by Bureaucracy in Panama: International agencies silent about bungled HIV/AIDS treatment. - UNAIDS: There is a concentrated HIV epidemic in Panamá. HIV seroprevalence is estimated at 10.5 % in men who have sex with men (Multisite study on HIV in specific population 2001 - 2002. PASCA, 2003), and 0.9 % in population between 15 to 49 years old (Informe del  Departamento de Epidemiologia  Ministry of Health (MINSA)). Join the fight against AIDS in Panama (PDF Download): In Panama, men who have sex with men represent a signifi cant proportion of the total of AIDS cases. However, this fact is under-reported due to stigma and discrimination. Th e Association of New Men and Women of Panama is the country’s only gay and lesbian organization with legal status. It works on mass condom distribution, social marketing, HIV prevention, and participates in studies on prevalence and sexual behaviours.

Editorial (Translation): La comunidad gay de Panamá tiene la percepción que el tema de los homosexuales  y el VIH es un tema del pasado, y que ahora nosotros hemos tomado conciencia de esta enfermedad y nos estamos cuidando, por lo tanto las cifras están bajando en la población gay masculina... Los datos recolectados en el Estudio Multicentrico de Sero-Prevalencia y Conductual en Población HSH realizado por Proyecto Acción Sida para Centroamérica (PASCA), que se realizara en la región centroamericana y en Panamá en 2002 reveló que la epidemia está concentrada en los hombres gay, con una sero-prevalencia que oscilaba entre 10 a 12%. A pesar de este esfuerzo de organizaciones internacionales para documentar y reconocer la epidemia, la población sigue siendo ignorada en la ejecución de acciones de prevención y en la asignación de fondos, y uno de los ejemplos más dramáticos de la región, es Panamá.

Gay Panama. - Panama Gay Guide. - AHMNP: Asociacion de Hombres y Mujeres Nuevos de Panama (The Association of New Men and Women of Panama). - Queer-Pats Panama: This is a group for gay,lesbian, bi-sexual and transgender (GLBT) men and women and all other open-minded people, who are ex-pats in Panama or have a special interest in Panama and would like to discuss various subjects, e-mail, talk and make friends.

ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - Gay Panama (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - LGBT rights in Panama. - DonPato's Gay Panama. - Panama: The situation of homosexuals, including societal attitudes, police treatment and state protection (2009).

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.
 

HONDURAS: - Honduras Bans Gay Marriage & Adoption (Alternate Link). - Prohiben matrimonio entre homosexuales en Honduras (Translation). - Honduras: no al matrimonio gay. - Honduran Transgender Woman Wins Asylum. - Honduran teenager flees homophobia and finds a new life in Mexico (2009). - Human Right Watch (2009). "Not Worth a Penny" - Human Rights Abuses against Transgender People in Honduras. Washington, DC: Human Rights Watch. PDF Download Page. - Honduras investigará crímenes contra homosexuales, periodistas y mujeres (2011, Translation). - Honduras:Investigate Murders of Transgender Women (2011).

Pronunciamiento Asociación Internacional de Lesbianas, Trans, Gays, Bisexuales, Intersexuales- ILGALAC, en contra del golpe de estado en Honduras (2009): ILGALAC, la Asociación Mundial de Lesbianas, Gays, Trans, Bisexuales, Intersexuales de América Latina y El Caribe, manifiesta su total y completo rechazo a la violación de Derechos Humanos de la nación hondureña, representado por el golpe de estado en contra del Presidente  Manuel Zelaya Rosales. ILGALAC denuncia la violencia y el autoritarismo de los golpistas encabezados hoy por Roberto Micheletti, que utilizando la represión como principal instrumento de validación, ha perseguido, acosado y violentado a la nación hondureña. Instamos, por esto, a la comunidad internacional a manifestarse en contra de esta nueva asolada fascista, pues el silencio es cómplice de la violencia. Lesbianas, trans, gays, bisexuales, intersexuales, son castigados por contrariar el régimen de la dictadura heterosexual; en Honduras el pueblo conformado también por la comunidad LTTTGBI, está siendo castigado por oponerse al régimen de la dictadura fascista.  Es por esto y por una profunda convicción democrática que ILGALAC se alza nuevamente en contra de la dictadura heterosexual y de la dictadura fascista hondureña! .

Hate Crimes in Honduras: In Honduras today, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face persistent harassment and discrimination. This issue is becoming increasingly urgent: two leaders of Arcoiris (“Rainbow”), an AJWS grantee since 2005, were attacked and detained in separate incidents on the streets of Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, in March and April... Donny Reyes, General Coordinator of Arcoiris, was detained by a police patrol on March 18, 2007 while exiting a taxi in Tegucigalpa. Donny had not committed any infraction and demanded to know why he was being detained. -Honduras Donny Reyes (m), treasurer of LGBT rights group: LGBT rights activist Donny Reyes was reportedly arbitrarily detained by police in the ... district of the capital, Tegucigalpa, on 18 March. The officers beat him and then took him to a police station where they left him in a cell for six and a half hours, where other detainees repeatedly raped and beat him, allegedly encouraged by a police officer. Donny Reyes has lodged a formal complaint about this. Since then police appear to have attempted to intimidate him. Amnesty International believes that he, and other members of the organisation he heads, may bein grave danger.

New arbitrary detentions. This time the victims are transvesti people: On Saturday, May 26th, 2007, Claudia Spellmant, a trans activist with Colectivo Travesti of San Pedro Sula was walking by Morazan Boulevard to Francisco Morazan Stadium in San Pedro Sulas City in Honduras, to a music concert, when she was intercepted by the #57 municipal police patrol. The policemen requested her to get in the car without giving any reason. When she refused, they violently detained and brought her to the Municipal Police Department (Posta Municipal). After half-an-hour, seven other women were arrested and brought to the station, three of them travestis. Next, they were physically, verbally, and psychologically abused by the police officers. The Municipal Police General Commander, Colonel Sandoval then gave instructions to hit Nahomy Otero, one of the travestis arrested, saying she disobeyed the instructions he gave to trans people to avoid particular public places, which are only for “normal” and decent people. - Shadow Report on the Status of Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual and Transgender (LGBT) Individuals in Honduras. - Honduras/Guatemala: Attacks on rights activists reaching 'worrying proportions'.

LGBT organizations march in Honduras (Must Scroll): Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender rights organizations in Honduras marched before parliament to celebrate Gay Pride Day. Protesters criticized the stigma and discrimination they face and demanded respect for their sexual preferences. Participants also condemned presidential candidate Porfirio Lobo’s proposal to reinstate the death penalty in Honduras. In August 2004, the Honduran government granted legal status to three LGBT rights organizations. Despite the organizations’ legal status, discrimination is rampant in Honduras. In one famous case, two police officers murdered a transgender person in July 2003. There has been no progress in this case.

Honduras grants official recognition to gay civil rights groups  (Alternate Link). - Legalizan a tres grupos de gays en Honduras (Translation). - Un pueblo pequeño, una vida pequeña (Translation). - La Iglesia de Honduras se opone a los colectivos gays (Translation). - No retirarán autorización oficial a homosexuales en Honduras (Translation). - Personería Gay en Honduras (Translation). - Homosexuales de Honduras obtienen personalidad jurídica (Translation). -  Religious leaders criticize Honduran government for recognizing gay groups. - Churches Blast Honduras For Granting Minimal Gay Rights N/A. - Equal Protection For Gays: "The Comunidad Gay San Pedrana and LLEGÓ, The National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Organization of Latinas/os, makes an urgent call to the Honduran government and to the governmental agents of San Pedro Sula to end their hypocritical stance and begin respecting the human rights of ALL the citizens of San Pedro Sula and Honduras as a whole."

The Gay and Lesbian Movement in Honduras. - New Filing Deadline is Tested in Immigration Court: Judge Grants Asylum to HIV+ Gay Honduran Man N/A. - Embassy's statement on gays questioned: (Must scroll) "Much has been written about homosexuals in Honduras. To mention a few..." - A Rainbow Flag in Honduras. - Amnistía Internacional, Honduras: Violaciones de derechos humanos contra gays, lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales (Translation). - Violations des droits fondamentaux des lesbiennes, gays, bisexuels et transgenres. - Human rights violations against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. - "Cero Tolerancia" para Gays en Honduras: Policía Arresta Activistas Gays (Translation).

Matan a homosexual en Honduras: "La policía dijo que investiga la muerte en esta capital de un homosexual que fue acuchillado luego de discutir con un desconocido, que huyó... Estadísticas policiales indican que de 1998 hasta ahora han sido asesinados por lo menos 200 homosexuales a causa de la violencia que enfrenta Honduras. Pese a la oposición de las iglesia católica y evangélica, el gobierno autorizó las operaciones de tres organizaciones de homosexuales en Honduras. - Honduras: A police licence to kill? Amnesty International is calling for urgent action to protect the key witness in the prosecution of a police officer who is alleged to have murdered a transsexual sex worker, known as 'Ericka', in San Pedro Sula, Honduras in July... More than 200 gay and transsexual sex workers are estimated to have been killed in Honduras since 1991. Few of these cases have been officially registered, and fewer still investigated or the perpetrators brought to justice..." - Transgender women living in virtual prison.

Human Rights Violations against LGBT (Update II): This is an update on the action regarding the situation of LGBT rights in the city of San Pedro Sula and the constant harassment and intimidation of members of the non-governmental organization Comunidad Gay Sampedrana. Following the murder of Erick David Yáñez, known as Ericka, in July 2003 and the subsequent death threats against Elkyn Suarez Mejía, a transgender individual known as China, who was a witness to the murder, other members of the Comunidad Gay Sampedrana continue to find themselves harassed and intimidated, principally via threatening telephone calls.

"Zero Tolerance" for Gays in Honduras: Police Arrest Gay Activists (Alternate Link): "Gays and transgendered people have been targeted for harassment in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, the country's industrial center and second largest city... Group members reported that San Pedro Sula Mayor Oscar Kilgore ordered a raid on the city's only gay bar, "Boys" on January 12th. Twelve people including Flores and several staff members from "Comunidad Gay," were arrested and held for 24 hours and then released. The bar never reopened. The raid was part of the new "zero tolerance for crime and delinquency" program announced in January by President Maduro and implemented by Mayor Kilgore. Kilgore has also ordered city police to detain "transvestites and effeminate looking people" if they cross the railroad tracks that divide the city's south side from its downtown area..." - Transvestites And Gay Men Threatened With Expulsion From City: Act Now To Protect Freedom Of Movement. - Gay Groups March in Two Cities.

LLEGÓ Urges U.S. Government to Address Human Rights Abuses in Honduras: "In May 7, 2002, a law signed by Honduran President Maduro was implemented. The law named “Social and Co-Existance Law” gives police officials the authority to detain individuals perceived to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Police officers also have the authority to seek out social locations including bars, nightclubs, and parks where LGBT individuals have been found to frequent. The government has also announced the formation of a "reeducation" program for prostitutes, and several transgendered individuals have been transported involuntarily to be enrolled... LLEGÓ is the nation’s only nonprofit organization devoted to organize Latina/o LGBT communities on a local, regional, national and international level. LLEGÓ is home to various programs providing infrastructure development to Latino LGBT communities in the United States, Puerto Rico, Honduras, and Guatemala. LLEGÓ exists to address social, health, and political disparities based on sexual orientation, gender identity, and ethnicity affecting the Latino LGBT community." - Latina/o Unity Celebration will Mark LLEGÓ's 15th Year.

Honduras: Further Information on UA 258/03: "Police protection was reportedly withdrawn from Elkyn Suárez Mejía, a transgender individual also known as China, on 13 September. Amnesty International is therefore increasingly concerned for her safety and that of other members of the non-governmental organization Comunidad Gay Sampedrana (Gay Community of San Pedro Sula), in northern Honduras... Elkyn Suárez Mejía had been provided with 24-hour police protection after receiving death threats regarding information she had about the killing of Erick David Yáñez, a transgender female also known as Ericka, on 15 July. Elkyn Suárez Mejía gave her testimony to the authorities, leading to the identification and arrest of two police officers involved in the murder. However, one of the police agents escaped custody in mid-August and, to Amnesty International's knowledge, has not yet been recaptured. Members of the Comunidad Gay Sampedrana have received anonymous telephone death threats in relation to the case..."

Prevalence of HIV/STD and behavior in Honduran men who have sex with men - The Central American multicenter study of HIV/STD and behavior (XIV International AIDS Conference): 284 men, >17 years, mean age = 24.4 years - from the two largest cities of Honduras. "Forty-five percent self-identified as gay/homosexual, 28% as bisexual, 17% as heterosexual and 11% as transvestite. Mean age of first sexual intercourse was 13.6 yr., and 67% reported first intercourse with a man... The HIV prevalence was high, with low condom use rates, high numbers of sexual partners, low risk perception, and a high percentage of behavioral bisexuality." - Gay AIDS Group Denied Legal Registration in Honduras (1995). - In Honduras Treatment Access Improves for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

60% of All Central American AIDS Is In Honduras: "This is a follow-up report to a story what was carried on this Site about one year ago. The earlier  story can be found in the Table of Contents. The comparisons in the short space of a few months offer a grim scenario of  medical neglect, total government irresponsibility, and a mortal epidemic completely out of control... No one is quite sure exactly why Honduras, with just 17 percent Central America´s population, has over half of the 20,000 reported cases of AIDS in the region. Honduras, with 5.4 million people has more than 11,000 officially diagnosed cases. Costa Rica, with 3.4 million people has 1,400 cases, and Nicaragua with 4 million has just over 300, according to official figures... Also in San Pedro Sula I spoke to Guillermo a 30 year old ex-transvestite sex worker who is now the janitor at San Pedro Sula´s gay community organization known as "Comunidad Gay San Pedrana." ...He says his family in Tegucigalpa is wealthy but will have nothing to do with him... He is open about his HIV+ status with the young gays he sees at the center. "But some of them just don´t pay attention," he says. They don´t think it will happen to them." Jonathon Castro, AIDS educator in the gay/lesbian Association in Tegucigalpa, called "Collectiva Violeta" told me about his friend Rafael who died at the age of 20 on the sidewalk near the downtown area. "They asked him to leave the hospital because they said they couldn't treat his infections anyway. So he just went outside and found a place to lie down and died." Full blown AIDS in persons as young as 18-22 is quite common in Honduras, as apparently many very young adolescents are quite sexually active..."

Out About AIDS in Honduras (Home Page) "...With the women I developed deep loving  relationships that for the first time in my life were based on a power greater than sex. I experienced intimacy that was not sexual, which was  a foreign concept to me. Eventually the women accepted me without a husband and children and embraced me even though with my white skin and green eyes were almost ridiculous to them... When I left La Sabana in April 1997, I was totally exhausted and hungered for familiarity. I missed tough women who wore men’s clothes, walked with heavy feet, taking giant strides. I missed the American lesbians, gays, tranies, drag queens, and artists who had taught me to value open-mindedness, honesty about being a lesbian, and to be grateful for the past struggles that have helped me be free. I was so tired of being “la gringa.” I had never come out as a lesbian in Honduras because I thought it would be unsafe to do so. At first I thought that I had lacked the courage to do this, but I have begun to think that being gay in Central America is really so much more complicated than I ever wanted to admit. Maybe it was a courageous thing not to come out there. What I am sure of is that my experiences in Honduras were rich. They have changed my life, and I am a smarter and more patient lesbian because of them."

Why So High? A Knotty Story: Garifuna culture, discrimination against gay men, massive migration, the Cold War, and ignored prisoners all are theories that attempt to explain this country's serious epidemic... In 2005, Honduras in general had an adult prevalence of 1.5%, according to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. That makes it the hardest-hit country in Central America other than relatively tiny Belize (see p. 483). The spread is mainly through heterosexual sex, which is reflected by a nearly 1:1 ratio of male to female AIDS cases. Yet the virus has also spread widely through the community of gay men, who have a prevalence of 13%--even higher than that of female sex workers, at 9.7%.

Heterogender Homosexuality in Honduras - 2002 - by Stephen O. Murray and Manuel Fernández-Alemany: (Book Review at epinions.com) (Amazon) "provides an ethnography of the sexual culture of males who have sex with males in the lower-class part of San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Its primary thesis is that the analytic distinction between gender (masculine/feminine) and sexuality (heterosexual/homosexual) is inoperative for Honduran men, both those identified and identifying as "homosexual" and their sexual partners who do not so identify. Having elicited more complex systems of gender-sexuality categories from both the homosexuals and their sexual partners, Fernández and coauthor Stephen Murray (yes, the epinions Stephen Murray) follow Gayle Rubin in arguing that gender is more of a continuum than a dichotomy... Heterogender Homosexuality in Honduras balances representations of the flamboyant and voluble "queens" with the perspectives of masculine male partners who generally hide their participation in sex with homosexuals and blend into the population of "regular guys" (hombres)... The first chapter reviews some of the contentious issues in the study of gendered homosexuality and explains how the Chilean graduate student did fieldwork in Honduras... The following three chapters lay out the ideologies of man-male penetration in Honduras (and other lower-class "traditional" Latin American settings, beginning with discussion of the norms (regarded as pregiven by nature) that men cannot be penetrated and homosexuals cannot penetrate... The fifth chapter lays out the typology of kinds of males who have sex with males that the effeminate homosexuals (locas) believe in and act upon. The following chapter investigates the views of their sexuality held by the young men who penetrate homosexuals... The conclusion challenges the equation of penetration with honor and being penetrated with shame. To the contrary, these and other authors have found the heterosexually identified males who have sexual relations with less masculine males do not brag about their conquest of biological males and try to keep others from learning about what they do, whereas the "queens" openly revel in their "conquests" of masculine partners. The "locas" (crazy feminine males) do not seek either conventional male honor or convention female honor..." (Related information from Barnes & Noble) (Amazon.com Reference)

Gay Churches Expand to Latin American Congregations (2000): Homosexuals in Honduras respond to new denomination's message that homosexuality and Christianity are compatible: "Excluded from traditional churches, homosexual Christians in Latin America are forming their own congregations with help from the biggest homosexual denomination in the United States... According to Nelson Arambu, of the Violet Collective, it was the first formal worship held specifically for gays and lesbians in Honduras. "Given the dominant culture of Honduras, it's very difficult for homosexuals or lesbians to enter a church without being rejected," Arambu told ENI. "A majority of homosexuals here are people of faith, but the attitude of the churches toward us has been very negative. They see us as sexual aberrations, people who aren't capable of positive lives, much less of having access  to the glory of God. And since the churches have a lot of influence with the government and society, they contribute to an environment where we're rejected by our families, forcing many homosexuals into the streets where they have to sell their bodies to survive, or end up committing suicide."

Resources: - Gay.com en Español. - (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - IGLA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Honduras. - GLBTQ: Honduras.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 
 

BELIZE:Welcome to a Voice of MSM Communities in Belize: Who is the man? Or who is the woman? - May best articulate the heterosexual individual perception of men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM individuals in Belize. The life of an MSM in Belize is more than just about sex or sexuality. It defined by terms like “girl this and girl that”. It is defined by interests in techno music vs dancehall. It is defined by who works, who pays the bills or divisions in the house chores, mundane stuff. Such mundane activities then reflect itself in definitions of class, ethnicity, educational levels, professional standing, and sexuality. The point is that there is as much diversity in the MSM and gay culture in Belize as there are stereotypes to overcome... The culture of “dry sex” or sex without lubricants and sex with oil base products from my 70 plus interviews in the population demonstrates that HIV education with an MSM focus has barely begun to be conceptualized in Belize. The unique health information that the men who have sex with men need to prevent transmission of HIV is still evolving in the community.

Lesbian Love: "The attitude against homosexuals is well known and the big event that marked the arrival of the "Leeward" ship to Belize is still recent enough. By contrast Belizeans seem to be more tolerant of lesbians. A man who will loudly condemn a homo, suddenly becomes soft spoken and understanding on the subject of lesbians." - Pride in Belize.

Caribbean AIDS Outreach Hampered by Homophobia: Paradise for gay tourists, for locals, a closet: ... Double-Edged British Legacy... In Belize, another CARICOM country linked more to the region by language, culture and history, than geography, there is apparently less overt violence against gays, but the gay community still remains completely closeted. I recently spoke with a former Belizan Minister who said she personally is an advocate of gay rights, but hesitated when I asked if she would be willing to say this publicly in her country. There is a non-governmental organization in Belize that provides support services to gay and lesbian people, but doesn't advertise them. Gays and lesbians are "everywhere" in Belize, and even occupy important governmental positions, but they remain psychologically oppressed within their culture. - What’s in a name: The Down Low Restaurant - coincidence or deliberate?

Why So High? A Knotty Story: Garifuna culture, discrimination against gay men, massive migration, the Cold War, and ignored prisoners all are theories that attempt to explain this country's serious epidemic... In 2005, Honduras in general had an adult prevalence of 1.5%, according to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. That makes it the hardest-hit country in Central America other than relatively tiny Belize (see p. 483). - A situational analysis of HIV/AIDS in Belize - 1999.

Understanding the homosexual factor - Part IV: Homosexuality, pedophilia, and bestiality — the deadly connection: (Alternate Link) In discussing the relationship between homosexuality, pedophilia, and bestiality, a number of pointers may have to be mapped out. In addition, certain lead ideas may have to be established to increase our horizon in understanding the broad implications of a lifestyle that has taken on so much social clout that it has been able to, on many issues, suspend, reconstruct, or reorganize reality to the detriment of all. Homosexuality is a lifestyle, not a way of living. It is recreational, it is incidental, and an end, not a means to an end. .. And given the response of the National AIDS Commission to an article in the Amandala on the gay lifestyle, one wonders: Is the National AIDS Commission a gay advocacy group in disguise? Is their mission clearly understood? Or was it a case of picking the wrong priority? This is more troubling when members of a gay advocacy group wrote an email to confirm that the response published was in line with their requirement from the commission. Did the RED Cross of Belize have the same priority for jumping into the fray to protect homosexuals from being identified as having anything to do with the origin of AIDS? The press release by the Ambassador to AIDS thus raises an issue of concern to all Belizeans, and should stand as a point of caution to all parents and organizations involved in the protection of Belizean children from the ravages of the homosexual lobby. - Related Letter: Blue red hue: I’m not that foolish. It is clear that season open. Nobody will read anything you write if you don’t mix in the red and blue. Except, of course, if it is something essential… like Mr. Okeke’s pieces on homosexuality. Congratulations Mr. Okeke, on an excellent series of articles on demonic behavior. It is all about saving the children. Give them the truth, to counter American and British media fabrications. Love the man, but condemn that horrid deed! 

The homosexual high school administrator: The school once had a counselor who had built a rapport with some of the students. Students began opening up to the counselor about their sexual ordeals, and what the counselor described as their own “conflicts” with their sexuality. Some of the boys in the school (some of them minors) were wondering whether they were homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual. Some of them complained of being bullied into sexual activity by older boys at school. Some students reported having sexual relations with a leading school administrator. Some of them were minors, which made this doubly illegal. In some instances, students confided in the administrator, and it was during those vulnerable moments that they were initiated into the world of homosexuality. One relative told the counselor that the administrator sodomized him. - Related Letter: Pedophilia is a crime! - Related Letter: Of pedophiles and hypocrites: There is a line which all parents draw, however. They do not want for their children to be sucked into homosexuality before they have a chance to decide how it is that they want to live. No parent really wants his little boy to become a girl, or his little girl to become a boy, if you understand what we mean.   Pedophilia is much worse than homosexuality. But because the homosexuals have been getting away with so much, those at that school feel they have to cover up for pedophilia. It ain’t gonna work. As soon as the parents realize that it’s their school where this is taking place, there’s gonna be hell to pay. Until then, pedophiles and hypocrites, let the silence reign.  Until such time, all we will say is - bun down Babylon. Straight.

Medical and social consequences of what homosexuals do: The vehemence with which sexual practices are upheld or condemned by society, civil authority and the religious rites, seems to depend on how many people within the upper or lower wrungs of society have adopted them. That seems to suggest that pedophilia, homosexuality, bestiality and every other form of unnatural sexual practice and deviance will eventually find their way up the ladder of public acceptance once the cream of the society are willing to show themselves in it publicly. Although those who practice unnatural and uncommon sexual activities may enjoy them, it is important that we mark out some of the cost of their pleasure... Homosexuals rode into the dawn of sexual freedom and returned with a plague that gives every indication of destroying most of them, those who care for them, and those around them. They returned with the plague of AIDS and its accompanying lethal chain of dangerous epidemics. Those who treat AIDS patients are at great risk, not only from HIV infection, but also from new strains of other diseases. Those who are housed with AIDS patients are also at risk.

Gay cruise ship has come and gone (1998): The 915 gay men and women and the M.S Leeward cruise ship on which they traveled came and left, but not without facing a gathering at the fort area showing displeasure at their lifestyle... Of the 915 homosexual visitors, only 700 actually came ashore, the remainder stayed on board.

Travelers's Tip: It is also important to note that homosexuality is still considered a crime in Belize. There have not been any cases of arrests of visitors, but locals have been imprisoned. Therefore, homosexual travelers will want to maintain discretion.

IGLA Report. (Archive Link) -The Eastgarden. - Sodomy Laws.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.
 

COSTA RICA: - Costa Rica Contemplating Gay Adoption Ban: Costa Rica’s Legislative Assembly is poised to outlaw adoption either by same-sex couples or by mixed-gender couples in which one partner may be gay or bisexual. - Costa Rica considers law to prevent gay adoption. - Avanza plan para prohibir a homosexuales adoptar niños: Jerarca del PANI ve difícil identificar la orientación sexual de los aspirantes Movimiento de gais dice que reforma viola derechos humanos en el país (Translation) (Alternate Link). - Costa Rica: congresistas quieren prohibir la adopción gay mediante una reforma al Código de Familia (Translation): En una clara actitud homofoba, una comisión del Congreso de Costa Rica aprobó este miércoles una reforma del Código de Familia para prohibir de manera expresa la adopción de niños por parte de personas homosexuales. La Comisión de Juventud, Niñez y Adolescencia aprobó por unanimidad la adición al Código de Familia de un artículo que prohíbe «aquellas adopciones hechas a título individual o por una pareja, en las que uno o ambos adoptantes hayan manifestado una orientación sexual hacia personas del mismo género».  - Comunidad LGBTI de Costa Rica demanda acciones concretas por sus derechos humanos (2011, Translation): En las celebraciones del Día Internacional contra la Homofobia y la Transfobia en Costa Rica, las organizaciones de la diversidad sexual exigieron a instituciones gubernamentales el cumplimiento de acciones que respeten en todos sus extremos los derechos que, como seres humanos, también poseen sus miembros...

Costa Rican Supreme Court says No to Homosexual "Marriage". - Congress to Study Bill on Homosexual Civil Unions. - Civil unions in Costa Rica. - Homosexuales de Costa Rica lanzan primer programa de radio gay en Centroamérica (Translation). - Presentan en Costa Rica proyecto para legalizar uniones homosexuales (Translation): Diputados del Movimiento Libertario (ML) y Unidad Social Cristiana (PUSC), ambos de derecha, y el izquierdista Frente Amplio anunciaron este martes su apoyo a un proyecto de ley que busca legalizar la unión homosexual en Costa Rica. - No descartan ciertos derechos para gays en Costa Rica (Translation): La representante novoprogresista Liza Fernández anticipó que no hay los votos para reconocer los matrimonios entre personas del mismo sexo, pero no descartó que se pueda legislar para que los homosexuales y lesbianas adquieran ciertos derechos de pareja. “Cuando uno hace el análisis y lo dialoga con los compañeros en los distintos cuerpos legislativos, yo no creo que haya ambiente ni hay los votos para trabajar una cosa como esa (los matrimonios gays)”, sostuvo Fernández en entrevista radial (WKAQ). No descartó, sin embargo, que se pueda legislar para garantizar que los homosexuales y lesbianas puedan heredar los bienes de su pareja. - Unión Civil gay en Costa Rica, cuando desaparezca la Iglesia (Translation).

Estudio alerta sobre intentos de suicidio por discriminación gay según encuesta exploratoria en población costarricense (Translation): Una investigación en población homosexual costarricense lanzó una campanada de alerta sobre intentos suicidas por causa de la discriminación y rechazo por su orientación sexual. Investigación en 200 homosexuales halló hasta un 27% de intentos suicidas. Rechazo familiar y social, problemas de pareja y soledad son principales causas.

Suicidio en la población homosexual costarricense (Translation): 55 GBT Males. 40% had been suicidal. 22% had attempted suicide. 45 LB Females. 18% had been suicidal. 11% had attemptd suicide.

Entrevista Telenoticias:  ¿Natural o antinatural la unión entre parejas homosexuales? (Translation): Un recurso presentado por el Lic. Yashin Castrillo ante la Sala Constitucional, pretende que se declare inconstitucional las normas legales que prohíben el matrimonio entre homosexuales. Esto ha generado mucha polémica entre los diferentes sectores de la sociedad y fue el tema central de una entrevista.

Homosexuales contra TLC y piden mejor salud y educación sexual (Translation): La comunidad homosexual de Costa Rica se manifestó hoy en contra del Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) con Estados Unidos y pidieron una mejor cobertura de salud y educación sexual, en una declaración elaborada durante su I Conferencia Nacional. El presidente del Movimiento Diversidad, Abelardo Araya, declaró hoy a ACAN-EFE que durante la conferencia de tres días, que concluyó el domingo pasado, se elaboró una declaración de conclusiones y otra contra el TLC. - Realizarán congreso gay en Costa Rica (Translation).

Attitudes & The Law: Homosexual acts are not condem by the law, but the Police occacionally harass gay men and transvestites. Closeted homosexuality is tolerant. in the las gallop poll 70% of the people interview believ that homosexual should have the same rights are heterosexuals. The "Comunidad Eucuménica de Fe" is a group based on the "Theology of Liberation" a lesbian group called "Las Entendidas," a self- help organization, was founded in 1987. In 1993 the "Colectivo Gay Universitario" the AlCS the GGLFC and the "Grupo Diferentes" were members of the ILGA, Futhermore, informal gay and lesbian groups exist; openly gay men and lesbians are active with AIDS organizations. - Survey About LGBTs in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.: The lesbian/gay/bisexual population of Costa Rica lives in relative tranquility and freedom, as long as their sexual preference is not obvious. There are gay/lesbian or gay/lesbian-friendly bars, restaurants and hotels, as well as two printed media and an Internet café. [On the other hand,] the transexual/transvestite population is not organized and is usually the object of more violent aggressions than the gay/lesbian population.

Gay Teacher Fired (1998). - The Supreme Court of Costa Rica has added two important articles of FREEDOM for ALL GLBT peoples to their Constitution. - Gay Times Travel articles: Richard Stern reports from Costa Rica - the Central American country where the gay scene and the gay struggle walk hand in hand. - Learn Spanish in Costa Rica - at ILISA. Your Gay & Lesbian friendly Spanish language school in Costa Rica! 

Sexual Diversity Center Will Open Today (2002): "Costa Rica's first center for gay, lesbian and bisexual people is scheduled to open today with a ceremony at 4 p.m. at the Central American Research and Promotion Center of Human Rights in San José." - Consumo de drogas y alcohol en la comunidad GLTB: Estudio de CIPAC revela que literalmente nos estamos matando. - Homofobia social y seguridad ciudadana. & Los bares gay y el SIDA. & Cacherismo In A San Jose Brothel: Aspects Of Male Sex Work In Costa Rica. & Evaluacion Del Impacto De Los Talleres De Salud, Sexualidad Y Sida En Los Estudiantes De La Universidad Nacional. (Download Page) (Alternate Link). - Cultura homosexual: el mito del otro (Translation).

The Gay & Lesbian Scene: "Because Costa Rica is such a conservative Catholic country, the gay and lesbian communities here are rather discreet. Homosexuality is not generally under attack, but many gay and lesbian organizations guard their privacy, and the club scene is changeable and not well publicized. For a general overview of the current  situation, news of any special events or meetings, and up-to-date information, gay and lesbian travelers  should check in at..." - The places listed in here are known for their friendly attention, the quality of their service and support of activities for gay, lesbian and bisexual people and for their human rights and dignity. We recommend them!

Costa Rica,  for the first time, . . .or the next! "San José has everything that a North American city has for gay people. Gay bars, discos, gyms, boutiques, organizations, hotels, and restaurants. It also has museums of history, science, and art that are like none other on the planet... The gay beach at Manuel Antonio is great because of abundant shade trees and its seclusion from the main public beaches, - but you have to cross a couple of rocky points to get to the gay beach... I receive frequent email asking about the Ticos' attitudes towards gay people.  Ticos are very courteous, fair-minded, respectful people.  They are extremely proud of their democracy.  Over the years they have heard numerous stories carried by the local papers and television about various important people involved in various gay related scandals.  In Oct. of 1997, La Nacion, the leading paper published a suppliment series about human sexuality.  One issue contained a series of articles about homosexuality.  It was very objective, positive, and supportive.  There was even an article advising gay & lesbian people how to "come out" to their parents.  Whenever a gay-related controversy does come up, government officials are quick to remind those narrow-minded people that this is a democracy and that the Constitution guarantees equal treatment and respect for all people!..."

La marginación de los homosexuales en el ámbito familiar, laboral y educativo en costa rica (Translation) (Alternate Link): 1. Introducción - 2. Marco Teórico - 3. La discriminación del homosexual en el ámbito familiar - 4. La marginalidad laboral que se ejerce sobre los homosexuales en Costa Rica - 5. El Sistema Educativo propulsor de prejuicios y estereotipos - 6. Conclusiones - 7. Bibliografía. - Elementos para una práctica renovada de la educación para la sexualidad: homosexualidad y heterosexualidad, homofilia y heterofilia, eros (Translation).

Pétalos y Espinas: Hombres Gay, Relaciones de Pareja y Violencia - 2003 - de Rodrigo Vargas Ruiz (Translation): Este libro es el resultado de una investigación de carácter cualitativo relacionada con el tema de la homosexualidad, la conformación de la relación de pareja entre hombres y el papel que tiene la violencia dentro de ella. La población estuvo conformada por los hombres que tenían una relación de pareja al momento de realizar el estudio y que pertenecían a la Gran Área Metropolitana de San José, Costa Rica. - Capítulo I: Introducción (Translation).

JUSTICIA PARA TODAS: Discriminación contra las lesbianas en Costa Rica (PDF Download). - JUSTICE FOR ALL WOMEN Discrimination against lesbians in Costa Rica (PDF Download). - Lesbian Lives in Costa Rica (PDF Download). - Contexto: Las Vidas De Las Lebianas En Costa Rica (PDF Download). - Being a Lesbian in Costa Rica at the End of the Last Century (PDF Download).  - El Ambiente gay en Costa Rica (PDF Download): Esta es la segunda parte de un artículo donde se recogen testimonios de diferentes personas que relatan sus vivencias sobre el ambiente gay en Costa Rica desde finales de los sesenta, en los setenta y en los ochenta.

Gays y Lesbianas los más discriminados en Costa Rica (Translation): Tres de cada diez personas afirman que el grupo social que menos les gusta es el de los homosexuales; en segundo lugar están los militares y en tercer lugar, los extranjeros. Más de la mitad de los costarricenses no está de acuerdo con que le grupo que menos les gusta ejerza la libertad de expresión, sea electo en cargos públicos o pueda enseñar en las escuelas. Estos datos forman parte de la “Auditoría sobre la calidad de la democracia” publicado este año... De acuerdo con una encuesta realizada en 1996 en el área metropolitana como parte de esta investigación, los grupos más discriminados en orden descendente son los homosexuales (33%), los ateos (21%), los racistas (17%), los comunistas /15%) y los predicadores religiosos (8%). Se puede concluir que por encima de xenofobia, de la discriminación religiosa y política, Costa Rica es homofóbica...A pesar de esta altas cifras de discriminación a los homosexuales, la “Auditoría Ciudadana sobre la Calidad de la Democracia” no realizó estudios complementarios sobre este tema, pero sí investigó más sobre otros tipos de discriminación , a pesar de las bajas cifras que comparativamente arrojaron otros grupos sociales.

HIV/AIDS in Costa Rica and USAID Involvement (PDF Download). - Life Is Hard: Machismo, Danger, and the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua - 1994 - by Roger N. Lancaster. - Similar magnitude of the AIDS epidemics among homosexual men in Costa Rica and in the United States. - HIV/AIDS in Costa Rica (PDF Download): HIV/AIDS in Costa Rica is spread most frequently through sexual contact between men. Costa Rica is one of the few countries in Central America where HIV transmission via men who have sex with men (MSM) eclipses transmission via sex between men and women.

Costa Rica: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors. - Significant Unconventional Sexual Behaviors.

Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism (PDF Download): "He told us that most of the clients of drug addicted chi dren are local men or sailors.He believed that local demand for young boys arises because homosexuality is heavily stigmatised in Costa Rica,so 'respectable' Costa Rican men prefer to pick up boys from the street and take them somewhere discreet to use them rather than to enter into open homosexual relationships with their social and/or age equals.

Homosexualidad en los Indígenas Costarricenses (Translation). - Lair Davis (Our Man in Costa Rica): Remember Lair Davis? He was the founding editor of several queer newspapers including the San Diego Gayzette (1982), Gay Times (1988) and Gay/Lesbian Nation (1990). Lair moved on to other community challenges in San Diego before moving to Santa Cruz. In June 2004, the award-winning “Lair About Town” columnist retired to the tropics of Costa Rica.

Resources: - GayCostaRica.com: The Official Wesite for the Gay & Lesbian Community in Costa Rica.- Cipac DH - Costa Rica: Centro de Investigación y Promoción para América Central de Derechos Humanos. - Agua Buena Asociación de Derechos Humanos: Links. - Costa Rica Gay, Lesbian Bars, Entertainment. - Lesbian and Gay Costa Rica. - Revista Gente10

Gay Costa Rica (Global Gayz) - ILGA Report. (Archive Link)  - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Costa Rica. - Gayscape Links. - GLBTQ: Costa Rica.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 
 

NICARAGUA:Festival of Sexual Diversity and Human Rights in Nicaragua from June 22--28, 2006 (Alternate Link): The main purpose of this project is to portrait from various artistic expressions a new, more natural image and without prejudices of Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals and transsexuals. This activity will take place for the third time, people with different sexual leanings will participate and will presents a broad range of artistic expressions, we think this should be supported and encouraged. This year we will have also the second March for Sexual Diversity where the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transsexual community can express themselves. For this third festival we are inviting groups and organizations from those four communities, asking them for their participation. -  Trans-formar la sociedad: una semblanza contra la transfobia desde Nicaragua (2011, Translation): Transfobia, transexuales, trasvestis, TRANSFORMAR. La creatividad y colorido de los mensajes contra la homo, lesbo y transfobia no se hacen esperar el 17 de mayo de cada año; sin embargo, cada jornada trae nuevos escenarios, nuevos rostros y por qué no, nuevas demandas. En esta entrevista conocimos los sentimientos de dos chicas trans, una del campo y otra de la ciudad, cada una con sus sueños, anhelos y temores...

Amnesty International Organizes Worldwide Gay Protest Against Nicaragua. - Amnistía Internacional organiza protesta homosexual mundial contra Nicaragua (Translation). - Global protests against Nicaragua's gay ban. - Gay rights activists stage rally in front of Nicaraguan embassy (Alternate Link):  Gay rights activists staged a demonstration outside the Nicaraguan embassy in Taipei yesterday as part of an international campaign against the country's sodomy law. "Love is not a crime!" activists from six non-governmental organizations shouted in Mandarin, English and Spanish outside the embassy. The international campaign was initiated by Amnesty International Mexico and also took place in 10 other countries. - Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people at risk.

Cómo se expresa la homofobia en Nicaragua (Translation): Nicaragua no dicta mucho de toda esta estructura educacional y patriarcal estamos inmersos en esa estructura donde se promueven creencias y actitudes de rechazo hacia determinado grupo u comunidad. En donde desde niño te inculcan el rechazo hacia las personas “obvias” gay afeminados, o hacia la comunidad GLTTB. A veces se convierte en una casería de bruja y se les desprecia y ridiculiza en público, se despide de sus trabajos a aquellos tildados como cochón término nicaragüense para referirse al gay. Pero qué sucede cuando el que recibe toda esa educación es gay. Puede que sucedan dos cosas: una, que se convierta en un gay homofóbico, machista y controlador y otra que reprima el impulso y lo canalice a través del ataque a los homosexuales.

¿Un cochón es un gay? Homofobia y patriarcado en Nicaragua (Translation): ¿Pero cómo funciona la homofobia en Nicaragua? ¿Es igual y tiene la misma fuerza como la que se evidencio en Belleza Americana? Para poder contestar estas preguntas, es necesario primero realizar una pequeña arqueología, desde la propia cultura, de algunos aspectos de la sexualidad nicaragüense y en particular la(s) (homo)sexualidad(es) masculina(s). En su libro «Life is Hard» (La Vida es Dura), el antropólogo norteamericano Roger Lancaster propone que las concepciones y prácticas homosexuales angloamericanas y el lenguaje que se usa para describirlas, no son adecuadas para describir la especificidad cultural de la experiencia «homosexual nicaragüense». Argumenta que desde el punto de vista de la cultura, el «cochón» nicaragüense y el «gay» angloamericano, (ambos arquetipos culturales de realidades sexuales que transgreden la heterosexualidad obligatoria), aunque tengan similitudes, también tienen importantes diferencias... Lancaster comenta: «Los cochones son hombres femeninos, o más correctamente feminizados: no son hombres enteros». «FAGGOTS» Y «QUEERS». En el modelo angloamericano, sin embargo, ambos participantes en el acto sexual (y el acto mismo) son condenados y estigmatizados como «homosexuales» (en inglés etiquetados como «faggots» o «queers»)... Volviendo a la pregunta sobre la existencia de la homofobia y sus manifestaciones y fuerza en Nicaragua, habrá que proponer que es sustancialmente diferente a la que se presenta en la película Belleza Americana...  - La Desconstrucción De La Masculinidad (Alternate Link) (Translation).

Gay refugee claimant fights deportation order: A gay teen runaway from Nicaragua who faces deportation next week is "scared" to return home, he says, after being denied asylum because the Immigration and Refugee Board didn't believe he was a homosexual. Alvaro Antonio Orozco, now 21, based his refugee claim on fears of homophobia in a country where sodomy is illegal. He also cited fears of domestic abuse at the hands of his father. - Gay Nicaraguan man goes into hiding after refugee bid denied. - Toronto man who fears anti-gay persecution faces deportation to Nicaragua.

The Gay Situation in Nicaragua: I am only 2 hours away from Managua, so every sane gay above the age of 18 immediately disappears to the capital. The situation in Estelí at least is that there's the typical gay vacuum of people between 18 and 40, and then they come back to the nice places to live to settle down. Those gays I have found between the ages of 18 and 40 that are here seem to be stuck in a void of being permanently 14 in terms of maturity and adhere agressively to activo/passivo roles that emulate straight life more closely. In short I don't expect to find Mr. Right here.

Re-Dressing a Gender Revolution: Drag and the Politics of Identity in Nicaragua: he practitioners of these new politics, advocating for the rights of women and sexual minorities, have needed to outfit themselves with political tools that are both part of the legacy of Sandinismo and comprised of new, global coalitions and tactics. Some of these activists are especially flamboyant in their non-conformity to politics-as-usual: the drag queens of Managua... The drag "pageant" is in fact, ubiquitous in the political events found in the country's capital, Managua, where approximately half of the nation's population resides. It is not only gay men's organizations that "do" drag, either. A number of feminist organizations, AIDS groups, lesbian rights organizations, as well as gay male groups, all feature drag as a part of their strategy to disrupt gender and sexuality norms. In this, drag in Nicaragua is quite different than its North American counterpart, which is most often associated with a gay, male sub-culture.

At Home in a World of Strangers. Towards a Comparison of Gay Urban Cultures: Managua, Nicaragua. - Fight Against AIDS Started Nicaragua's 'Gay Revolution'. - Nicaraguan President Signs Sodomy Law. - Sex and the Sandinistas. - Torture Of A Transsexual. - Nicaraguan law defined marriage as the union of two people of the male and female sex and explicitly prohibits the marriage of same sex couples N/A. - Legalizing the repression of homosexuality (Amnesty International). - Kenneth W. Payne Student Prize Competition 2002 Award-Winning Paper: Queers and Televisionaries: the strategics of sexuality in neoliberal Nicaragua. (Related article: Alyssa Cymene Howe Wins the Kenneth W. Payne Student Prize for 2002: PDF Download)

Queers and Televisionaries: the strategics of sexuality in neoliberal Nicaragua. - Carta pública a homosexuales y lesbianas de Nicaragua (Translation). - Ivo Marcelo Rosales Soto: "Ivo Marcelo Rosales Soto is a psychologist and actor in Nicaragua. He plays Angel in “Sexto Sentido,” who was the first gay character to be featured in a national television series in Nicaragua..." - Survey About LGBTs in Nicaragua and Costa Rica: [... The general situation of LGTB citizens in Nicaragua] can be summarized as very difficult, as a daily struggle to convince the family, friends and work or study colleagues that we are equal in respect to rights[...] Homophobic people tend to keep a distance at this population and can have a hostile attitude towards it[...] There are only a few LGTB or LGTB-friendly places in Nicaragua. [...On the other hand,] there is a clear difference in regards to the situation of a LGTB person according to her/his specific sexual preference. While lesbian/gay/bisexual people can be more or less accepted in their environment, the situation of transexual or transvestite persons is more difficult, as they are not usually accepted and are much more discriminated. [...]. 

The sins of Nicaragua's fathers: "Now there's a small, national movement of men against violence  [against women]. Oswaldo Montoya, one of the movement's members, admits that it is difficult for men to take part. "They find that people accuse them of homosexuality," he said, "because this is a group of men that rejects violence. But I think things are really beginning to change in Nicaragua. These days, it's no longer a compliment to be called a macho." - Beyond Revolution: Nicaragua And El Salvador In A New Era: Nicaragua’s social movements have been forced to grapple with the changing political and economic climate. Florence Babb discusses the growing visibility and activism of Nicaragua’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population. Activists in this evolving movement are reaching out across borders to gain international support for recognition of their right to social inclusion.  -  El artículo 204 y la legalización de la represión de la homosexualidad (Translation). - IGLHRC Book Nicaragua (PDF Download).

In Nicaragua: homosexuality without a gay world.(Journal of Homosexuality: 24-3/4:171-81, 1993. PubMed Abstract) - Ignorance, fear and need: HIV/AIDS in Nicaragua (PDF Download). - STI/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control in Nicaragua: Needs Assessment (PDF Download). - Plenty of Nothing: No drugs, no care, no support for Nicaragua's PWA's. - Exchange between 'Stepping Stones' practitioners from Africa and Nicaraguan organisations working on Domestic Violence, Gender and Diversity. - Abuso sexual, incesto: diez años tocando heridas (Translation).

Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua (2008). Encuesta sobre seroprevalencia del VIH en población Trans-femenina y sus contextos asociados de vulnerabilidad en las Regiones Autónomas del Caribe Norte y Sur de Nicaragua , 2008. PDF Download. Translation.  Aproximadamente un tercio de todas las personas que viven con el VIH en América Latina se encuentran en Brasil, donde un enfoque simultáneo en asegurar el acceso a los servicios de prevención y tratamiento ha contribuido a mantener estable la epidemia. Las relaciones sexuales no protegidas entre hombres y población Trans (travestis/transexuales y transgénero) siguen siendo un factor significativo, y se estima que representan alrededor de la mitad de las infecciones por el VIH que se transmiten sexualmente en el Brasil...

The Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Nicaragua: A Shadow Report (2008): Recommendations: The Nicaraguan government should: • Enact anti-discrimination legislation to prevent discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in the workplace, public schools, and housing and provide redress for such discrimination; • Enact hate crime legislation to prevent the harassment and violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, both by the general Nicaraguan population and the Nicaraguan police force; • Adequately fund CONASIDA to provide treatment to LGBT individuals with HIV/AIDS and to provide male and female condoms, as well as health education, to members of the LGBT community to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS; • Enact legislation to grant unmarried same-sex couples access to public housing and adoption; • Enact legislation to provide benefits to same-sex partners equal to those provided to married individuals to ensure, in particular, that they have access to inheritance and pension rights and protection under domestic violence laws; • Enact legislation to legally recognize change of gender and name for travesti, transgender and transsexual individuals; • Expand asylum law to include protection for individuals fleeing from persecution based on sexual orientation and gender identity; • Grant legal operating status to LGBT advocacy organizations; 14 • Increase education and awareness about the LGBT community and respect for the individuals to dispel the hostile environment resulting from the repealed Article 204.

Submitting or Resisting: Exploring the Popular Central American Belief that Homosexuality Can Be Induced: "There is a popularly held notion in the rural areas of some Central American nations that a man can be ruined sexually. He can be made a homosexual by submitting to anal intercourse. This popular belief is a result of many sociocultural factors including geography, politics, economics and religion. Here an overview of the notion in El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua is presented. These three Central American nations share common characteristics that make it possible to generalize in some ways about them. Homosexuals are explored in urban and countryside regions of these contemporary Latin American communities. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of popular beliefs about homosexuality and homosexuals and the function of such beliefs..."

Excerpt from Roger Lancaster's "Subject Honour and Object Shame: the construction of male homosexuality and stigma in Nicaragua" (Ethnology 27-2, 111-25. 1988, Word 97 Download): ...social definition of the person and his sexual stigma derive from culturally-shared meanings of not just anal passivity and penile activity in particular but passivity and activity in general.  “To give” (dar) is to be masculine, “to receive” (recibir, aceptar, tomar) is to be feminine... Cochones [passive homosexuals] are, therefore, feminine men, specifically, feminised men, not fully male men.  They are men who are used by other men.  Their stigma flows from this concept of use.  Used by other men, the cochón is not a complete man.  His passive acquiescence to the active drive of other men’s sexual desires both defines and stigmatises his status.  consequently, when one uses a cochón, one acquires masculinity; when one is “used” as a cochón, one expends it..."

Books: - Life Is Hard: MacHismo, Danger, and the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua - 1994 - by Roger N. Lancaster (18 Sample Pages).

Resource: - Gay Nicaragua (Global Gayz): News/Reports. - ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - Sodomy Laws. - LGBT rights in Nicaragua. - G:LBTQ: Nicaragua. - Don Pato's Gay Nicaragua. - NicaGay.com.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 
 

GUATEMALA: -  Gay Guatemala: the undiscovered country. - Claudia Maria Acevedo: Working to Save the Individual Identity of Guatemalan Women. - Claudia María Acevedo: Lucha para Rescatar la Indentidad Individual de Guatemaltecas. - Honduras/Guatemala: Attacks on rights activists reaching 'worrying proportions'. - Guatemala gay porn uproar: A gay porn flick released by the Miami- based Kristen Bjorn Productions in 2004 called "Men Amongst the Ruins" is raising heckles from local community leaders in the colonial city of Antigua, Guatemala, who are disturbed that some of the sex scenes were aparently filmed in the ruins of colonial-era Christian temples.

Informe especial: Transfobia y crímenes de odio en Guatemala (2011, Translation): En lo que va del año se cometieron 13 asesinatos de odio y una joven trans de 20 años está desaparecida. Johana Ramírez, referente de la Redlactrans en Guatemala, también sufrió un atentado y relata los pormenores de esta dura realidad... “En Guatemala hay una persecución continua a nuestra comunidad. La Justicia y el Estado persiguen a las compañeras trans”, explica Marcela Romero, Coordinadora Regional de la Redlactrans. También agrega que esta situación se repite en toda la región: “En Latinoamérica las trans no conocemos la democracia, no hay ley que nos ampare, nuestros derechos se vulneran día a día”. Ante esta grave situación, ninguno de los esfuerzos para reducir los factores de vulnerabilidad de hombres gays, trangéneros y trabajadoras sexuales tendrá éxito alguno. Estos repudiables acontecimientos merecen un trabajo coordinado de los gobiernos, la sociedad civil y las agencias internacionales, porque tienen que ser esclarecidos y es fundamental evitar futuros incidentes. Mientras tanto, si las cosas no cambian, estas ciudadanas serán blanco fácil de la violencia institucional que abusa y mata impunemente, bajo el amparo de los gobiernos. Que la orientación sexual, la identidad de género o el trabajo sexual sea causa de muerte es una responsabilidad compartida por todos nosotros, que requiere urgentes acciones y menos retórica.. - Transexuales marchan en Guatemala para exigir fin de abusos y discriminación  (2009, Translation):

Parejas homosexuales se preparan para unirse en matrimonio en Guatemala (Translation): Unas diez parejas de homosexuales guatemaltecos planean "casarse" en los próximos días, pese a que la ley no permite este tipo de uniones, informó una organización que defiende sus derechos. - Parejas gays planean bodas pese a prohibición legal (Translation). - Primera boda gay en Guatemala (Translation). - Boda gay: Iglesia investiga a sacerdote (Translation).

Lesbianas y gays poco aceptados (Translation). - Homofóbia en la Escuela Normal Central Mixta en Ciudad de Guatemala (Translation). - El rechazo hacia los bisexuales también existe (Translation): ¿Y qué es una persona bisexual? ¿Acaso, el prefijo bi, no denota ambigüedad entre dos polos opuestos? ¿Acaso el sentir y el amar sólo puede procesarse en códigos binarios? Definitivamente, admitirlo, implicaría reducir la vastedad humana (donde la transgeneridad y la transexualidad tienen mucho que opinar) a la misma dicotomía que plantea la monosexualidad con únicamente dos alternativas. No obstante, en espera de acuñar un término más adecuado, la bisexualidad se convierte en un estandarte más representativo, al que es más fácil apegarse y donde la condición de Indefinida/o pierde su sentido peyorativo y se convierte en sí misma, paradojicamente en una definición. Habiendo al fin identidad, el enemigo también adopta un nombre; ese lastre de ser consideradas personas inmaduras, indeseables, indecisas, incluso inexistentes, cuando se piensa que la bisexualidad es un estado transitorio de la homosexualidad a la heterosexualidad y a la inversa, se llama Bifobia y, algunas de las formas más importantes para suprimirla, en aras de la libre expresión de una orientación sexual completa y claramente definida son, como en otras orientaciones, refutando, con información, al prejuicio y, quizás más que en otras formas de disidencia sexo-generica, combatiendo la invisibilidad. De ahí la importancia de definirnos bisexuales y denunciar que la bifobia está ahí; la ejercen y la padecen muchas personas, acaso sin querer, acaso sin darse cuenta o sin saber que existe, quizás quien ahora mismo se encuentra juntoa ti… Quizás tú misma/o.

Guatemala To Vote On Anti-Gay Bill: Guatemalan legislators have been urged by LGBT activists to protect all families by voting against a new act that would exclude same-sex couples from the legal definition of “family.” On Monday, Human Rights Watch called on the country’s lawmakers to reject the bill that would also eliminate single parents from the definition and threatens the legal status of children conceived through reproductive technologies. The bill would punish any Guatemalan officials who advocate, “in any national or international meeting,” for a different definition. “No family will ever benefit from leaving others unprotected,” said Juliana Cano Nieto, researcher in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights program at Human Rights Watch. “The aim of this bill is to strip certain partners, parents, and children of rights and recognition all families deserve.” - Concern Over Bill that Would Restrict Definition of ‘Family’: uman rights groups and activists for the rights of sexual minorities have expressed alarm at a draft law that the Guatemalan Congress is preparing to pass, which would eliminate single parents as well as same-sex couples from the official definition of "family." - Reject Bill Threatening Families. Discriminatory Bill Strips Rights of 40 Percent of Families. - HRW pide a Guatemala que vote contra Ley de Protección Integral de la Familia (Translation).

Marcha Por El Orgullo Gay... (Translation)   Mañana se realizará el desfile del Orgullo de la Diversidad Sexual, el cual servirá para exigir respeto a los derechos de este sector de la sociedad. En los últimos meses varias personas homosexuales han sido asesinadas, de acuerdo con los reportes. El representante de este sector Jorge López, explicó que la actividad de este sábado, es una oportunidad para decirle al pueblo de Guatemala y a nivel internacional que las personas homosexuales, trans género, lesbianas etc, son personas que tienen los mismos derechos de la población, pero no dejan de ser discriminados. En el marco legal guatemalteco, no existe una penalización en contra de la homosexualidad o sea que no es prohibido ser homosexual o lesbiana, no obstante, en la práctica, este sector no tiene la misma protección que el estado de Guatemala brinda al resto de ciudadanos. - Gay Pride Parade in Guatemala: Photo Gallery: Guatemala's Gay Pride Parade. - Desfile de homosexuales en Guatemala reclama respeto y seguridad (Translation). - Homosexuales guatemaltecos piden a candidatos valorar sus demandas sociales (Translation).

Mas Que Matrimonios,   Necesitamos Atención(Translation) En este instante, necesitamos urgentemente asegurar programas  de prevención para todos, acceso a medicamentos para todos, educación para todos y trabajo para todos...  El precio de la indiferencia de nuestra sociedad ya ha sido pagado bastante alto, con las vidas de miles de gays a  causa del SIDA, de los crimines de odio y  a la falta de oportunidades que tenemos solamente por ser diferentes. Debemos luchar porque se nos incluya en la agenda social. Debe salir a luz nuestra difícil realidad y debemos  enseñarles a los demás, que la comunidad gay, tiene necesidades mucho mas importantes que andar consagrando sus relaciones frente un altar. - Pongámosle un nombre a esa unión! (Translation): Que nos dejen usar la palabra “matrimonio” no es la discusión.  Las comunidades de la diversidad sexual buscamos respeto.

Intermediación con el futuro Congreso de Guatemala (Translation): Roberto Alejos manifestó interés por las comunidades de la diversidad sexual en Guatemala: El Jueves 16 de Agosto sucedió algo inusual en la ciudad de Guatemala: Roberto Alejos (candidato a diputado por la UNE), se reunió con representantes de la Red Nacional de la Diversidad Sexual (REDNADS) y la Organización de Apoyo a una Sexualidad Integral frente al Sida (Oasis). Durante la reunión fueron discutidos varios temas relacionados con las comunidades de la diversidad sexual en Guatemala y las violaciones a los derechos humanos que limitan el desarrollo de las personas no heterosexuales. Salud, trabajo y educación fueron los temas generales abordados, pero la epidemia de sida y los abusos de autoridad cometidos por las fuerzas de seguridad constituyeron el centro de la discusión. - Derechos de nuestra comunidad: ¿Hacia dónde vamos? (Translation).

Comunicado de La Red Nacional de Diversidad Sexual y VIH de Guatemala ante comentarios vertidos por los candidatos a la presidencia (Translation):   Que lamentamos profundamente y expresamos nuestra indignación ante la manera fanática  e impune con que los señores candidatos a la Presidencia se refieren a nosotros y nosotras, Que resulta preocupante la ignorancia e irresponsabilidad por los comentarios vertidos, pues estos, además de atentar contra los Hombres y mujeres (Gays, lesbianas, bisexuales, trans e intersexuales) que integramos la Diversidad Sexual, violentando nuestra dignidad humana y nuestro derecho a la igualdad ante la ley; atenta contra el Estado de Derecho deslegitimizando nuestra calidad ciudadana e incitando al odio hacia poblaciones específicas. Es lamentable que en pleno siglo XXI, y a pesar  de los evidentes avances en materia de Derechos civiles y ciudadanía en otras partes del mundo, “nuestros líderes” persistan en posturas retrógradas,  sexistas, intolerantes, fanáticas y limitadas ante el ser humano. 

Murders of transgender/transvestite people on the rise. - Transgender People Face Deadly Attacks: Victims Concerned That Police May Have Been Responsible for These Crimes. - Two Transgender Sex Workers Shot in Guatemala, One Fatally, by Men Believed to Be Police, Says Amnesty International. - Transgender prostitutes get political to end violence (Alternate Link). - Fear for Safety.

Group Accuses Guatemalan Police: "Incidents of harassment by police officers, includ[e]: arbitrary arrests; unnecessary use of force; verbal, physical and sexual abuse; and intimidatory behavior and retaliatory threats against activists and victims who have denounced the abuses," the group said.  - Gay in Guatemala: It ain't easy being gay in America, but it's easier than trying to come out in the heavily Roman Catholic country of Guatemala, where machismo is the next closest thing to a national religion. - Greed, Indifference Continue to Kill Gay Men in Central America.  - Asesinan a dirigente transgénero en Guatemala (Translation). - Now we have to take risks: gay organizing in Guatemala. - Gay Life Emerges In Guatemala: Virtually all organized gay life takes place in Guatemala City, the capital, a sprawling, polluted metropolis of over 3 million... "In Guatemala as in the other Central American nations, there are still serious problems for gays and lesbians," says OASIS director, Ruben Mayorga. "Physical violence against our community is common. Only about five percent of the gay population here even goes to the bars. Most gay Guatemalans are completely in the closet, afraid of anyone knowing about their sexual preference." - Spanish Lace N/A:  Roland talks about gay life in Guatemala in the 1960s. - LGIRTF/Chicago Launches Effort to Document Persecution of Sexual Minorities in Guatemala N/A (1996).

Making An Oasis In A Culture of Violence (2000): This summer, in two separate incidents, two male "transvestite" sex workers, Astrid La Fontaine and Beverly Lineth, were murdered in front of witnesses. The Guatemalan police, which routinely terrorizes "transvestite" sex workers, is not interested in investigating the murders. In Guatemala, as elsewhere in Central America, male "transvestite" prostitution is huge, often a consequence of the prostitute's abject poverty and homo-shame, and the john's rabid homophobia. Males who foam at the mouth when asked if they're gay, nevertheless think it's okay to have sex with a male cross-dresser or a transgender woman: after all, only the "receiver" is a dirty homo. Six to 10 murders of this kind have been documented each year since 1997 by OASIS, a Guatemalan HIV/AIDS prevention organization focusing mostly, but not exclusively, on gay men and sex workers. So far, all the murderers remain unpunished. - Guatemalan Gays Hold First March (2000): Guatemala City - Nervous but defiant, the gay community of Guatemala held its first public parade on Sunday, marching to four sites where transvestites were killed last year in apparent hate crimes. 

Guatemala: Portrait of an Activist. - Guatemala's Dykes Dig in Their Heels: Violence won't stop lesbian organizing. - Guatemala: Activistas Lesbianas Amenazadas. - En Guatemala: Centenares de homosexuales guatemaltecos participaron el sábado en una marcha que recorrió las principales calles del centro histórico de esta capital, para celebrar el "Día Internacional del Orgullo Gay".

Forgotten in Guatemala City: when U.S. journalist Daniel Pearl was killed in Pakistan, the world united in outrage. But when gay reporter Larry Lee was murdered in Central America, local officials treated it as a case of "another undesirable off the streets." - An American's Death, Guatemala's Blunders. - Guatemalan  Program Description N/A: (Archive Link) (New Webpage: Who Can Adopt from Guatemala?) "The Guatemalan government requires that individuals who are adopting from Guatemala sign a statement indicating they are not involved in a gay or lesbian relationship and are not homosexual." - Guatemala's Lethal Legacy: Past Impunity and Renewed Human Rights Violations.

In Guatemala, Bashing Is Just the Beginning: (Alternate Link) "Guatemala has no laws prohibiting homosexuality, but the subject is so taboo, and anti-gay violence so accepted, that openly gay groups simply do not exist. This distinguishes Guatemala from Costa Rica, Panama, Honduras and El Salvador, where out-gay groups have formed in the 1990s." (On the same web page: ‘I Was Gay, It Was Obvious’  & Shame, Homophobia Help Spread HIV in Guatemala) - Guatemalan AIDS Patients: Face Drug Lottery. - Amnesty Internation: Guatemala: In June and July, two transvestite sex workers were killed in Guatemala City. Guatemalan gay groups have alleged the existence of an orchestrated program of ''social cleansing'' carried out with police acquiescence, support, and possible direct involvement.

How To Be A Lesbian In Guatemala: An interview with Claudia Acevedo. This lesbian activist, feminist, and mom, gives us the Guatemalan lowdown on homophobia, lesbian invisibility, class, and organizing. - Lesbiradas Says, Enough! Interview with an activist fighting for lesbian rights in Guatemala. - Cómo ser lesbiana en Guatemala: Una entrevista con Claudia Acevedo. Esta activista lesbiana, feminista y madre, nos dice la verdad sobre la homofobia, la invisibilidad de las lesbianas, las clases sociales y el arte de organizarse en Guatemala. - Lesbiradas. - Guatemala: Lesbian Activists Threatened (Alternate Link). - Lesbiradas: Lesbian Activism in Guatemala.

Cyber-Café Initiative - El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala: From November 1999 to October 2002, Advocates for Youth worked with three NGOs in Latin America to develop three cyber-cafés for Latino gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) youth. These NGOs - Entre Amigos in El Salvador, Comunidad Gay San Pedrana in Honduras, and OASIS in Guatemala - were assisted in the creation of resource centres meant to serve as safe spaces for GLBT youth to gather and exchange sexual health information without fear of being targeted due to their sexual orientation.

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Returned Peace Corps Volunteers Web Pages: - Cuates: "Good Friends" in Guatemala. - Cuates Lives on in Guatemala. - Cuates is Alive and Well.

UNAIDS: Guatemala: The AIDS epidemic in Guatemala particularly affects men who have sex with men. The country faces the challenges of a post-conflict situation with great inequality and high levels of poverty. HIV prevalence is just under 1%, but higher than 10% among men who have sex with men and around
3 – 4% among sex workers. Half the population is indigenous and while HIV rates are no higher in these populations than in the remainder of the population, poor access to health services and extreme poverty makes indigenous peoples highly vulnerable to the impact of HIV... Discrimination against people living with HIV and vulnerable groups such as men who have sex with men remains a significant barrier to a more effective AIDS response in Guatemala. - The Impact of AIDS in Guatemala: There is a misconception that AIDS in Latin America is a disease of men who have sex with men. But as I stood in the waiting room of the AIDS clinic at the Hospital Roosevelt, the faces that looked up at me were young women. The face of AIDS is changing in Guatemala to be a disease of younger women. These women are at risk of contracting HIV from their male partners who often have sex with other men but do not identify as being gay.

International Symposium on gay men & Aids (2004): Dr Rubén Mayorga, Guatemala: “Proportionally, gay men (homosexuals and bisexuals) and other MSM present the highest HIV and AIDS prevalence documented to date in Guatemala and Central America. The number of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support programmes and projects for this group is quite insignificant compared with the magnitude of the problem in this group. Gay men and other MSM living with HIV and AIDS are extremely young and almost a third of them have sexual relations with women and men.”

Successful trip to Guatemala for Rainbow World Fund volunteers: The group is on an eight-day journey around Guatemala organized by the Rainbow World Fund, a San Francisco-based lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender humanitarian aid group, the first and only group of its kind in the world. Among its many projects, RWF makes an annual trek to Guatemala to disperse medical and school supplies to people living in grinding poverty in one of the Western Hemisphere's poorest nations.

Whitam, F. (1980). The Prehomosexual Male Child in Three Societies: The Unitied States, Guatamala, and Brazil. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 9:37-99. - Whitam, Frederick and Robin M. Mathy (1986). "Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatamala, the Philippines, and the United States". New York: Praeger Special Studies (Review: Download Page). - "Homosexual occupations" in Mesoamerica? (Abstract). - Guatemala's Premier Gay Sauna. - Timeless Treasures: Mayan Ruins, Colonial Cities, and Gay Life in Guatemala (Alternate Link): Guatemal city... Plenty of Gay-Friendly Accommodations.

Guatemala Poeta Adolescente Gay entrada (Translation): Mike es un joven poeta guatemalteco, que aporta algunos de sus hermosos poemas a ISLA TERNURA, de los cuales puedes disfrutar si navegas por las siguientes páginas.

Resources: Gay Guatamala (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. -The Eastgarden - IGLA Report. (Archive Link) - Gayscape. - GLBTQ: Guatamala. - GayGuatemala.com: Articles/Articulos. - El blog Gay de Guatemala. Descripción: Espacio que explora y muestra el punto de vista gay de temas sociales, experiencias personales, pero mas que eso usar el derecho de expresión.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


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EL SALVADOR: Salvadoran Gay Pride - 2006: Here in El Salvador events for the month of June within the gay community are on a smaller scale, yet still alive and growing in vibrance and visibility. And this year, the big day was the 24th of June. The morning began with various groups setting up tents in the central park of El Centro, across from the cathedral...  I was disappointed to find that the majority of conversations and information were based on sexual practices and disease prevention. On one hand, this heavy emphasis certainly reinforces certain stereotypes of the gay community, but on the flip side, the highly attended educational campaign reached individuals ranging in sexualities and sexual practices. I would have liked to have seen more conversation on gender identity and sexuality as a whole, however, I was quite surprised and impressed with the amount of people who courageously participated in such a taboo event in this homophobic country of El Salvador. - Educacion Sexual: Diversidad Sexual: Lesbianismo (Translation).

El Salvador: threats to LGBT HR: Members of the Between Friends Association (Asociación Entre Amigos), including the organization' s director, William Hernández, have received death threats and are apparently under surveillance. This may be an attempt to halt the organization' s work on behalf of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in El Salvador. - LGBT group facing death threats. - Campaigners seek Christmas cheer for El Salvador gays. -  New police attack underscores dire gay situation (Alternate Link): A vicious and violent police attack a week ago Monday on four transgendered youth in El Salvador, which hospitalized one of them with serious injuries, is only the latest in an unending wave of violent attacks that continues to inundate the Central American nation's LGBT community. - Demand Official Investigation Into the Murders of Three Sex Workers in El Salvador (Alternate Link).

Asesinados a pedradas dos jóvenes homosexuales en El Salvador (Translation): Ayer fueron encontrados en un pozo de La Libertad (El Salvador) los cadáveres de seis adolescentes que estaban desaparecidos desde el domingo por la mañana. Los seis jóvenes (cuatro chicas y dos chicos) habían ido a bañarse a una poza pero no regresaron. Según la policía, los dos chicos, de 17 y 19 años respectivamente, eran homosexuales y algunas de las chicas se dedicaban a la prostitución.

Fear of "Gay Planet" in El Salvador: The right wing Christian Democratic Party (PDC) has proposed an amendment to El Salvador’s constitution that would define marriage as between one man and one woman ("as so born"). The proposal also bans adoption by gay couples. - El Salvador empuja una reforma constitucional para prohibir matrimonios gays (Translation). - Gay issues in El Salvador (2006): Dozens of gay and lesbian protesters marched today in a Gay Pride March in San Salvador. The marchers demanded an end to discrimination and equal opportunities in employment and education. On the same day, El Salvador's Roman Catholic archbishop, Fernando Sáenz Lacalle, used his weekly press conference to urge the legislature to pass an amendment to El Salvador's constitution which would ban same sex marriages.

Voice for homosexuals: A hero in the fight for gay rights: Despite a number of death threats, the efforts of William Hernandez, praised by Sir Elton John for speaking up for gays and lesbians, are finally being recognised... Mr Hernandez, 36, may know that better than almost anyone. As head of a gay and lesbian organisation in El Salvador called the Asociacion Entre Amigos - the Among Friends Association - he has made himself a target not just of harassment and pressure by what he believes are agents of the police, the government and Christian groups but also of repeated death threats. The most recent incident came one summer day last year. "I will kill you before you get married," the gunman whispered. But if the outlook for gay rights in El Salvador remains bleak - with legislation afoot in congress specifically to outlaw gay marriage though a constitutional amendment - Mr Hernandez is at least increasingly winning the attention of his brethren activists abroad. For better or worse, he is the new poster boy of a global movement to expand gay rights and to pressure those countries that remain hostile and repressive... By yesterday, the article by Sir Elton was already circulating like a piece of samizdat among Mr Hernandez's friends in the city of San Salvador. Speaking by telephone from San Salvador, Mr Hernandez was excited over its appearance but agreed it might stir trouble. "This is certainly going to cause controversy and put us in the centre of a hurricane," he said. "But it will also help draw the attention of the international community to our work and so this is a cost that we are ready to assume, of course." - Elton J. denuncia situación de los gays (Translation): El cantante británico, Elton John, denunció en un artículo la situación de discriminación que padecen los homosexuales en El Salvador. - Resumen Entre Amigos (Translation):  La meta principal de Entre Amigos es “contribuir a mejorar la calidad de vida de los homosexuales y bisexuales en El Salvador”.

Diario de un gay guanaco (Estas son mis experiencias como homosexual en este país tercermundista y machista. La presión contra nosotros continúa como en el pasado, pero por lo menos, hoy tenemos la posibilidad de evadir la censura social mediante la Internet. !Enhorabuena!): La homosexualidad amenaza a la familia (Translation): Sí, esto lo digo yo, que he visto a muchos homosexuales infelizmente casados, con hijos y fornicando por ahí con otros hombres. Los he visto en discotecas gay y luego en el supermercado con la esposa e hijos, empujando el carrito de compras. No me puedo imaginar la clase de vida que llevan. O quizá sí: llevan vidas dobles y vacías... - En El Salvador todavía existen los tabúes (Translation): Sobre la homosexualidad hay mucho que se plantea a nivel de “chambre y chiste”; pero muy poco sobre lo que realmente ocurre dentro de la vivencia homosexual de nuestro país. Se manejan elementos científicos (algunos de ellos ya obsoletos) para mantener una visión tradicional hacia ellos y ellas. La verdad es que la vida gay en nuestro país es una realidad que no se puede negar y se ve cada vez más presente en las universidades y empresas mismas, pero siempre ocultas por una doble moral.

Action Alert: Gays targeted in El Salvador. - How homosexuality is seen in El Salvador. - Murder of five transsexuals and a woman in El Salvador. (Alternate Link) - Killings Target Gay, Lesbian, Transgender Communities: Other Activists Remain Under Threat. (Alternate Link) - Murders and bomb threats in El Salvador - Gays being targeted

US Granting Political Asylum: "Cruz was routinely raped, beaten and humiliated in El Salvador for being a "culero" - a "faggot" - despite his every effort to hide his sexual orientation and act straight, even macho. Finally, threatened with death by paramilitary thugs, he fled to the United States and began life anew." - Gays Seeking Asylum Find Familiar Prejudices in U. S.

HIV/AIDS estimates (WHO, PDF Download): The HIV epidemic in El Salvador is concentrated with a low prevalence in the general population. A multicentric study conducted in the country in the most vulnerable population in high prevalence areas (such as ports) showed a prevalence of 17.8% in men who have sex with men and 3.6% among female sex workers (although it reached 16% in places such as Puerto de Acajutla.).  - Behavior patterns of HIV/AIDS transmission in the military in El Salvador: One hundred and fourteen cases (31 AIDS, 83 HIV+) were documented... Most (97%) were infected through sexual contact (sexual preference: 88% heterosexual, 9% bisexual, 3% homosexual)...

Gay El Salvador. (Translation): Secciones: Caliche, Noticias, Nawat, Iglesia. Matrimonios gay, Salir del closet, Literatura gay, Libro de visitas, Lugares gays, El Salvador en la web.

ILGA Report. (Alternate Link) - The Eastgarden. - Gay El Salvadoe (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - LGBT rights in El Salvador. - glbtq: El Salvador.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


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SOUTH AMERICA


BRAZIL: - Homosexuales realizan enorme marcha en Sao Paulo (Translation): Una enorme multitud cubrió hoy la principal avenida de Sao Paulo al son de estridente música y coloridas banderas, en el 11 Desfile del Orgullo de los Gay, Lesbianas, Bisexuales y Transexuales (GLBT), en la considerada mayor manifestación de homosexuales del mundo. La concentración, que según sus organizadores atrajo a unos 3 millones de personas, fue convocada bajo el lema "Por un mundo sin racismo, machismo y homofobia". - São Paulo Gay Pride 2007. - Brazil's considers outlawing homophobia (Alternate Link). - The Biggest Gay Sauna In Latin America. - glbtq: Transsexuals of Brazil. - Mãe Dá Voz À População Gay Brasileira (Translation): Edith Modesto, fundadora do primeiro Grupo de Pais de Homossexuais do Brasil, reúne depoimentos de 89 gays e lésbicas em livro-documentário. - Dia da Visibilidade Lésbica no Brasil - 29 de Agosto (Translation). - Project School without Homofobia (2009). -  Transsexual model steals the show at Brazil fashion week (2011).

Brazil Court Decision on Civil Unions Sparks Protest (2011): The Brazilian’s Supreme Federal Court’s unanimous decision last week recognizing same sex civil unions has set off a storm of outrage from the country's religious institutions, most prominently the Brazilian Roman Catholic Church. - Legalizan en Brasil la unión civil homosexual (2011, Translation): Tras dos días de intenso debate, el Supremo Tribunal Federal de Brasil, la máxima corte del país, legalizó anoche la unión estable de personas del mismo sexo y garantizó que las parejas de gays y lesbianas puedan tener los mismos derechos que los matrimonios heterosexuales, tanto civiles como económicos, como ocurre en otros países de América latina.. - Brazil athlete comes out after homophobic slurs (2011) . - São Paulo aprueba la celebración de un “Día del Orgullo Heterosexual” a propuesta de un concejal evangélico (2011, Translation). - Más de 400 activistas LGBT se reunen en la V Conferencia de ILGA LAC en Curitiba (2010, Translation). - A Psychosocial Study of Male-to-Female Transgendered and Male Hustler Sex Workers in São Paulo, Brazil (2011). - Psychosocial pathways to inconsistent condom use among male sex workers: personality, drug misuse and criminality (2011).

Grupos gays brasileiros lançam múltiplas ações legais para silenciar a oposição cristã (Translation): Vendaval de processos é tentativa de impedir críticas ao movimento homossexual. - Avança o imperialismo homossexual no Brasil (Translation): Copiando o radicalismo podre dos esquerdistas dos EUA, o governo Lula deu, em novembro de 2006, 70 mil reais para o Movimento Gay de Minas. E há muitos outros grupos homossexuais recebendo dinheiro e privilégios do governo federal. Copiando o radicalismo podre dos esquerdistas dos EUA, a Câmara dos Deputados em Brasília aprovou lei que torna crime de homofobia toda oposição ao homossexualismo. - Acatando a vontade de grupos homossexuais, juíza censura campanha contrária à ditadura gay (Translation): A Justiça da Paraíba determinou a retirada de outdoors espalhados por Campina Grande (130 km de João Pessoa) com mensagens contrárias ao homossexualismo. - O Congresso e os homossexuais (Translation): O déficit de representação política e de proteção legal dos milhões de cidadãos homossexuais do Brasil é enorme e deveria receber mais atenção. Com poucas exceções, os parlamentares evitam a associação de sua imagem com a defesa dos direitos relativos à liberdade de orientação sexual. Nossos congressistas parecem temer que lhes possa custar votos.

Gay TV kiss makes waves in Brazil. - "El fútbol es masculino, no gay" (Translation): Un juez brasileño enfrentará la justicia luego de ser acusado de discriminación por haber dado un veredicto en el que dijo que el fútbol era un deporte masculino, no gay. Se informó que el juez agregó que nadie que recuerde la era de oro de los '70 de y vio a jugadores de la talla de Pele y Tostao podría considerar jamás tener como ídolo a un homosexual. Sus comentarios surgieron durante las deliberaciones respecto a una querella presentada por el jugador brasileño Richarlyson, quien juega para Sao Pablo, sobre quien el técnico de otro equipo había dicho que era gay en televisión nacional. - Gay Life in Brazil. - Transsexuals of Brazil; Part 1 & 2 (2006). 

A possibilidade jurídica de adoção por casais homossexuais (2007, Translation): Este trabalho procura apresentar a realidade de um tema atual e polêmico no Brasil: ADOÇÃO POR CASAIS HOMOSSEXUAIS. Tema este que ainda não existe legislação própria, mas que é aceita pela jurisprudência. Foram analisadas algumas doutrinas a respeito do mesmo, associando-as com as leis e as jurisprudências, com a finalidade de definir as possibilidades de ajuste dessa adoção. Além de um breve histórico sobre a situação da homossexualidade, desde a sua definição até a aceitação nos dias atuais, como também os requisitos e finalidade da adoção. E por fim foram abordados aspectos sobre a adoção por casais homossexuais, aprofundando-se no problema desta adoção, ou seja, a sua aceitação no Brasil. - Adoção por casais homossexuais já tem precedentes no Brasil (Translation).

Adoção por homossexuais – uma nova configuração familiar sob os olhares da psicologia e do direito [Adoption by homosexuals - a new family configuration under the eyes of psychology and law. Abstract also available in English. (2006, Translation)] Por séculos, na sociedade ocidental, a filiação esteve ligada à idéia do patriarcado onde o pai era o chefe da família constituída por sua esposa e prole. A família na atualidade só pode ser considerada sob configurações que compreendem desde a monoparentalidade até um casal do mesmo sexo. No que diz respeito a homossexuais, a ciência proporcionou a perpetuação de estigmas acerca de uma suposta personalidade pervertida e apenas nas últimas décadas presenciamos alterações de discursos que apontam para papéis construídos e não mais instintivos, como a paternidade sócio-afetiva que não responsabiliza apenas motivações biológicas para a construção do afeto. Dentro das discussões que debatem o direito dos homossexuais à adoção, o pressuposto de que o homossexual não pode e não quer ter filhos vem perdendo sua força. No Brasil é legalmente possível um homossexual adotar uma criança, o que demonstra que os impedimentos são morais – reflexo de uma sociedade que embora esteja mudando seus conceitos, o faz lentamente. - Gays in Brazilian state quietly tie the knot.

Grupo Gay da Bahia lança cartilha para evitar assassinatos de homossexuais (Translation): Desde o início deste ano, já foram registrados 23 assassinatos de homossexuais no Brasil. Apenas nos primeiros 15 dias de fevereiro, ocorreram 14 homicídios. Para evitar que esse número cresça, o Grupo Gay da Bahia (GGB) lançou, na semana passada, a cartilha Gay Vivo Não Dorme Com Inimigo, com dez orientações de prevenção. Segundo o fundador do GGB, professor Luiz Mott, a média de assassinatos de homossexuais é de quase 100 por ano. Para ele, os crimes são cometidos por ódio às minorias sexuais. “São crimes praticados com requinte de crueldade, com muitos golpes, instrumentos de morte e muita violência”,disse ele. - Violência contra homossexuais no Brasil.

Homossexual assassinado após ganhar concurso (Translation): Um jovem homossexual de 19 anos foi encontrado violado e morto, algumas horas depois de ter vencido, no domingo, um concurso de beleza «Miss Gay Arapiraca», em Batingas, no estado brasileiro de Alagoas. Activistas dos direitos dos homossexuais deploraram o assassínio por desconhecidos que abordaram o jovem numa rua próxima do bar onde decorreu o concurso, num caso de aparente discriminação e homofobia. - Kulick D (2008). Travestis, stigma, violence and escândalos. Talk given at CLAM/UERJ. PDF Download.

Official Attitude and the Law.: "Although homosexuality is not illegal, the police use the pretext of "Safeguarding morality and public decency" and "preventing outrageous behavior" to stop, arrest and bring homosexual to trial, whereas they  would not bother heterosexual in similar situations. Several cities have adopted anti-discrimination regulation which protect homosexuals." - Brazil's Homophobia Worst in the World: "The final statistics for anti-gay slayings between 1997 and 1998 confirm Brazil as the leading homophobic nation in the world: 130 gay men, lesbians and transvestites have been murdered - an average of one crime every three days... In the words of Lobato community leader Oséas Santana, "when a homophobe attacks a gay man or a lesbian, it's not only the attacker's fault, but also these opinion makers', who send messages so inhumane and in disagreement with the teachings of the Son of God"." - Com raça, classe e sem homofobia (Translation). - Brazilian political moves are raising fears that gay rights will be damaged by branding homosexuality an illness, reports Tom Phillips in Rio de Janeiro. Controversial plans to provide state support to try and “convert” Rio de Janeiro’s gays to heterosexuality have stunned Brazil (Alternate Link). - Gran desfile gay en Sao Paulo. - Lanzarán plan Brasil sin homofobia (2004) (Translation): Más de un millón de militantes y simpatizantes de los derechos homosexuales participaron en la multitudinaria fiesta callejera.

Brazil's Hate Crime Murders Number 132 in 2001. - Even while they face violence, homosexuals see an increase in awareness of their rights. - Brazil a leader in gay hate crimes. - Violence against Gay Brazilians Comes Out Into Open N/A:  (Excerpt, must scroll) "Flamboyant homosexuality is widely accepted, with drag queens and transvestites greeted with smiles in public. It's the `average' homosexuals who are viewed as a threat." - A Plea from Brazilian Activists. - Brazil - World Champion In The Murder Of Homosexuals. (Alternate Link) - Meeting about homosexuality provokes polemic N/A: The III Christian Encounter on Homosexuality organized by the Exodus-Brazil association in this city two weeks ago sparked polemic among psychologists and psychiatrists, gay and lesbian groups and among Christian organizations." - Exemples de persécution motivée par la préférence sexuelle de la personne: Brésil. - Roberto Warken: Brazil's Gay Activist Webmaster. - Brazil's Gay Men Appear Singled Out, Attacked for Living Ordinary Lives. - Skinheads in Brazil Sentenced in the Death of a Gay Man. - Brazil gays hold vigil after skinhead murder. - Gays Banned from Brazilian Town.

In Brazil: Prejudice Out at school (Must Scroll): " Recognizing that prejudice often starts at a young age, the Brazilian government has decide to address anti-gay discrimination by taking the issue to the classroom. “Brazil Against Homophobia”, launching May 25, 2004, will focus on training public school teachers in how to discuss homosexuality with students..." - Brazil gays stage protest 'kiss-in' Couples kissed against discrimination and prejudice.  - Brazil's homosexuals slam 'insulting' bill (Alternate Link). - Str8 Brazilians do not see gay marriage has a bad thing. - Brasil reconhece uniões homossexuais no exterior e dará visto de residência a parceiro (Translation). - Gay union basis for visa in Brazil. - Gays in Brazilian State Quietly Tie Knot. - Gay marriage: Brazil whips Australia. - Hundreds of thousands turn out for gay pride parade (Alternate Link). - Gays March Through Brazil. - Record numbers join Brazil gay march. - Festa da diversidade. - Huge Gay Pride march in Brazil. - Tearful Man Crowned Miss Gay Brazil N/A: "Transsexuals and drag queens have competed for the title of Miss Gay Brazil 2004." - Brazil holds world's largest Pride event. - Gay Carnaval in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil

A [Brazilian] Senate committee Tuesday approved a measure that would recognize the union between gay couples N/A. - Brazil Grants Limited Rights to Gay Partners N/A. - Boys and Girls From Ipanema: "il est retourné au «pays du carnaval», à la découverte de la communauté gay. Loin du folklore, il a vu l’émergence de revendications nouvelles, pour l’égalité des droits et contre l’homophobie ancienne d’une société où la peur des représailles freine encore la visibilité." - Brésil: chevauchée gay pour un candidat à la députation. -  Idéal physique féminin, gay et travesti au Brésil ou nouvel esthétisme du corps technologique? - Crossdressing in Brazil: Behind the Glitter. - Thousands of transgendered attend Brazil gay parade. - Os bispos e os homossexuais (Translation): " Por quase três séculos, os bispos do Brasil deixaram os homossexuais em paz. Quem perseguia os sodomitas era a Inquisição, que enviou para os cárceres do Santo Ofício de Lisboa duas dezenas de fanchonos." - Lutheran Church Refuses to Ordain Homosexuals. - Brazil gays to fight subsidized heterosexuality.

Top Brazilian Newsmagazine - Veja - Examines Gay Life. - Gay Life in Salvador, Brazil. - Sticks and Stones: Jane took this photo of her friend Lindsay Duval between two of Brazil's cross-dressers. Transvestites are an accepted part of Brazil's culture... But he offers a lecture on gay life in Brazil. He says that in a macho Latino culture, homosexuality is both despised and accepted, licentious and licensed. Unlike in the United States, police never hassle gay men here. - Homosexuality and Adoption in Brazil (PDF Download). - Brazilian Supreme Court Minister Defends Homosexual Union. - Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil. - Tens of Thousands March in Latin America's Biggest Gay Parade.

Antropologia: - Contemporary male homoeroticism in Brazilian gay magazines: the case of Sui Generis and Homens. - Macho versus Macho: a produção discursiva da hiper-masculinidade em alguns contextos homoeróticos na cidade de São Paulo (Translation). - O homoerotismo nas revistas Sui Generis e  Homens (Translation). - Shifting sexual boundaries: Comparing gay-identified and non-gay-identified men who have sex with men in Brazil and in the USA (2010).

de Sousa ICF, Cruz FO  (2000). Conceptual and Practical Approaches to HIV/AIDS: The Brazilian Experience. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 3(1):  Full Text, PDF Download. "In Brazil, the lack of a self-identified homosexual community delayed the response to HIV/AIDS related illnesses. Instead of a defined community, however, we see a spectrum of sexual identities and practices. For social scientists and educators, the problem of addressing HIV/AIDS lies not only in the many taboos surrounding sexuality, but also in the difficulty of establishing categories related to sexual identities and behaviors. In the homosexual world in particular, where these identities and practices tend to be more secret and marginal, the confusion is exacerbated. Thus, the complexity may not be grasped completely in self-reported sexual identifies nor in accounts of sexual behaviors. For instance, Lago, (1999) studying self-reported definitions of bisexual men in Brazil, argues that there is no basic sexual activity criterion for identifying them. He states that among bisexuals, identification is related more significantly to homosexual attraction rather than equivalent to homosexual practice..." - Brazil's AIDS Model: A Global Blueprint? Not as easy as it looks. - Reducing AIDS Risk Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Salvador, Brazil. - Homophobia in Northeastern Brazilian University Students (1997).

Marsiaj JP (2006). How Relevant Are Legislatures? Sexual Diversity Politics and Political Institutions in Brazil. Paper prepared for delivery at the 2006 Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, York University, Toronto, Ontario, June 1-3, 2006 (PDF Download): This paper examines the interaction of the gay, lesbian and travesti (GLT) movement in Brazil and legislatures, both at the federal and state level (Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states). It demonstrates that, despite significant institutional constraints on the action of legislators, GLT activists have sought alliances and have pressured state and federal deputies, at times successfully. Moreover, important victories, such as the passage of anti-discrimination legislation, have been achieved through an engagement with legislatures. This essay will argue that, despite important constraints and limitations (both endogenous and exogenous), legislatures can provide important paths for the inclusion of marginalized groups in Brazil. Factors such as the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, the internal structure of the legislature and the ideological makeup of deputies help shape the degree to which sexual minorities are able to gain access to and influence over legislators, as well as the extent to which concrete victories result from this engagement.

Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua (2008). Encuesta sobre seroprevalencia del VIH en población Trans-femenina y sus contextos asociados de vulnerabilidad en las Regiones Autónomas del Caribe Norte y Sur de Nicaragua , 2008. PDF Download. Translation.  Aproximadamente un tercio de todas las personas que viven con el VIH en América Latina se encuentran en Brasil, donde un enfoque simultáneo en asegurar el acceso a los servicios de prevención y tratamiento ha contribuido a mantener estable la epidemia. Las relaciones sexuales no protegidas entre hombres y población Trans (travestis/transexuales y transgénero) siguen siendo un factor significativo, y se estima que representan alrededor de la mitad de las infecciones por el VIH que se transmiten sexualmente en el Brasil...

Coelho, Tony (2009). When the Global and the Local Collide: Gay Identity in Brazil and South Africa According to Parker and Reid. Amsterdam Social Science, 1(2): 6-23. PDF Download. PDF Download.- Summary &  Download Page: This article examines the works of Richard Parker and Graeme Reid who both set out to explore the emerging gay communities in non-western societies. In an era of globalisation, western conceptions of a gay identity are spread throughout the world creating what some might refer to as a global gay identity (Altman 2001). However, Parker, whose research is based in Brazil, and Reid, South Africa, reveal the importance of the local in interpreting samesex behaviour. The local and the global intermingle in these societies creating a gay community of its own, while undermining the notion of a global gay identity. The following key themes presented in both these works are compared in order to understand the complex interplay between the local and global in interpreting what it means to be gay cross-culturally: (1) The economic and political developments that have allowed for the influx of modern ideas from abroad and the growth of gay communities, (2) The categorisation of men who have sex with men through unique terminology and their meanings, (3) The gay spaces which have permitted sexual expression, and (4) The assertion of a modern gay identity by local advocacy groups.

Mott L (2003). O jovem homossexual: noções básicas de direitos humanos para professores, professoras e para adolescentes gays, lésbicas e transgêneros. Revista do Mestrado em Educação, 7: 95-102. PDF Download. [Abstract also in English.] O artigo discute os problemas enfrentados pelos professores quando se deparam em suas salas de aula com jovens homossexuais, propondo uma educação diferenciada para eles. A intolerância anti-homossexual no Brasil é recorrente. Os arquivos do Grupo Gay da Bahia registram a violência física que sofrem meninos e meninas homossexuais, na família e na escola: humilhação, insultos e espancamentos. Muitos professores e inumeráveis famílias tiveram de enfrentar a dramática situação de conviver com um jovem homossexual. Um professor, psicólogo ou psicanalista bem informado e consciente de que seu papel não é ser “cão de guarda da moral dominante” mas auxiliar seus alunos e clientes a encontrarem sua felicidade e realização existencial, pode ajudar o jovem homossexual a enfrentar com menos traumas sua “opção” de assumir a própria homossexualidade.

O crime anti-homossexual no Brasil (Translation). - O que todo cristão deve saber sobre homossexualidade (Translation). - Por que excluir os gays nas escolas? (Translation) - Homofobia na Escola. (Translation) - Entrevista: Ensina-se a ser gay(Translation) (PDF Download) "A homossexualidade pode estar escrita na ponta do giz, do lápis ou do nosso próprio nariz. Que influência a direção, a escola, os professores e os pais podem ter em todo esse processo?" - GLBTs: O direito de “ser diferente”. (Translation)

Michê: la masculinité au marché ou les aléas de la "prostitution virile au Brésil (Bibliographie). - Challenging National Heroes and Myths: Male Homosexuality and Brazilian History. - Gays in the early 1900s in Brazil. -  "The ghetto is over, darling": emerging gay communities and gender and sexual politics in contemporary Brazil. - Homosexuality, Eugenics, and Race: Controlling and Curing “Inverts” in Rio de Janeiro in the 1920s and '30 (PDF Download. Download Page)

The meeting of the michês - by Paulo Longo: In Brazil machismo rules and male prostitutes rarely dare admit they are gay. But the michês – or hustlers – of Rio are starting to come out of the shadows... Our experience has shown that poverty cannot be used as the only justification for prostitution. In our day-to-day work at Programa ‘Pegação’ – a slang word meaning ‘seducing’ or ‘catching someone for sex’ – most of the boys approach us first as potential clients. As time goes by, and the relationship gains more intimacy, we hear things like ‘With you I would have sex for free, ’cause I like you a lot’... Little by little, male prostitution is coming out of the shadows. This may not improve the way that it is viewed by others, but it does reflect an internal change. Until now, in the few academic papers, in the press and even in social debates, male sex work is not even up there with female sex work as ‘the oldest profession’... Michês working on the streets in Rio are generally very young, between 11 and 23 years old. (Profile of Paul Longo) - Anthropologist to Speak About Male Prostitutes Crossing Gender Lines in Brazil N/A. 

Prostituição masculina (Translation). - Prostituição masculina muitos conceitos para várias práticas (Translation). - Idéal physique féminin, gay et travesti au Brésil ou nouvel esthétisme du corps technologique?: "Dans la prostitution masculine, la jeunesse est un capital, mais dont la rentabilité s’érode vite. De fait, il semble que le culte de la jeunesse soit encore plus en vogue au Brésil qu’en Europe. Par contre pour aller travailler en Europe, le travesti doit être ‘produite’, c’est-à-dire être passer par le processus de chirurgie esthétique. Une ‘bombadeira’ avec vingt ans d’expériences de production de corps travestis me racontait que pour gagner de l’argent, le travesti se prostitue. Pour se prostituer le travesti a besoin d’un corps. Un corps produit. Pour attirer l’attention du client. Pour se sentir mieux avec soi-même. Ce n’est pas supportable de sortir dans la rue avec des seins faits de torchons. La honte, d’enlever ses vêtements et de perdre toutes ses plumes. Le travesti ne peut pas supporter cela. Alors, elle modifie son corps pour se sentir mieux et donner le meilleur au client. Avoir une prothèse mammaire, c’est le certificat leur permettant de gagner leur vie. Pour arriver à s’acheter une voiture, un appartement, c’est petites choses. Il faut faire appel à un chirurgien. Plus le corps est bien produit, le mieux il gagne sa vie (Mona, 2001)." - Introdução ao Tema da Prostituição Masculina (Translation). - Um olhar sobre a Prostituição Masculina ... (Translation). - Perfil psicossocial da prostituição masculina em Belém (PDF Download).

Human immunodeficiency virus incidence and risk behavior in the 'Projeto Rio': results of the first 5 years of the Rio de Janeiro open cohort of homosexual and bisexual men, 1994-98: "HIV incidence rate (IR).. differences were observed in four categories: (1) non-commercial sex workers and non-transvestites who had protected sex prior to study entry (IR 1.6 per 100 men-years); (2) non-commercial sex workers and non-transvestites who had unprotected sex prior to study entry (IR 2.7 per 100 men-years); (3) commercial sex workers (IR 3.5 per 100 men-years); and (4) transvestite groups (IR 16.8 per 100 men-years)."

Le syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise au Brésil et dans ’Etat du Ceará: "De 1982 à février 1998, le Brésil a enregistré 129 000 cas de syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise, ce qui correspond à un taux d’incidence cumulée de 82 pour 100 000 habitants, le situant parmi les pays moyennement atteints. Ce taux varie considérablement entre le Sud-Est du pays (152 pour 100 000) et le Nord ou le Nord-Est (25 pour 100 000). La transmission par voie sexuelle est jusqu’à présent prédominante. Essentiellement liée à l’homosexualité et à la bisexualité au début de l’épidémie, la transmission est désormais fréquemment hétérosexuelle... - Incident HIV infection in a high-risk, homosexual, male cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. - Brazil Launches First Anti-AIDS Campaign for Gay Men. - Brazil Aids campaign causes stir. - The Politics of AIDS: The Brazilian Case in Perspective (PDF Download). - Straight Talk: "In this report, Susan Dentzer looks at some of the innovative government-sponsored prevention programs that Brazilian officials say helped people protect themselves from the virus." - Willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials among a sample of men who have sex with men, with and without a history of commercial sex, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. - Reducing AIDS Risk Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Salvador, Brazil. - Sexual partners and practices of young homosexuals in Rio de Janeiro (Abstract): Parcerias e práticas sexuais de jovens homossexuais no Rio de Janeiro (Abstract, Full Text). - Brazil Targets AIDS Among Gay Teens (Alternate Link). - Brazil to give gay teenagers sex education.

Rio Gay Guide: "And if you're not exactly a day person, night life is teeming with possibilities. Have dinner around 8 or 9 at world-class restaurants, and go for a round-up of gay bars and lounges in Ipanema or Copacabana. Around midnight move on to the dance clubs. In addition to the mandatory go-go boys, you will enjoy live shows, drag performances, and other specials. Circuit parties are a perfect alternative for weekend nights. Those who prefer to take a, let's say, more direct approach to things, will love Getting Off in Rio. Everything you wanted to know about gay baths, movie theaters, and sex hotels. Except for the gay baths, of course, lesbians are welcome at most gay clubs and parties..." 

Kulick D, Klein C (2001). Scandalous acts: the politics of shame among Brazilian travesti prostitutes. Paper presented at the "Gender and Citizenship: Looking Across Policy Borders" Symposia, Ledamotshuset, Sweden. PDF Download. Full Text. Home Page. - Kulick, D., & Klein, C. (2003). Scandalous acts: The politics of shame among Brazilian travesti prostitutes. In B. Hobson (Ed.), Recognition Struggles and Social Movements. New York: Cambridge University Press. - Childhood cross-gender behavior of homosexual females in Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States. - Once taboo, erotic ceramics a link to ancient Peru. - Breve histórico da imprensa homossexual no Brasil (PDF Download). - Homossexualidade e subjetividade on line: um estudo de comunidades virtuais gays (PDF Download). - O PSTU e a homossexualidade (Word Download).

Artigos de Luiz Mott: Homossexualidade, Inquisição, Religião, Aids (Translation): - 1. A Revolução homossexual: O poder de um mito (Translation). - 2. Sodomia na Bahia: o amor que não ousava dizer o nome (Translation). - 3. Filhos de Abraão e de Sodoma: Cristãos-novos homossexuais nos tempos da Inquisição (Translation). - 4. Meu menino lindo: Cartas de amor de um frade sodomita, Lisboa, 1690 (Translation). - 5. História da sexualidade no Brasil (Translation). - 6. Etno-história da homossexualidade na América Latina (Translation). - 7. Memória gay no Brasil: O amor que não se permitia dizer o nome (Translation). - 8. Intelligentsia homossexual e militância gay no Brasil (Translation). - 9. Porque os homossexuais são os mais odiados de todas as minorias (Translation). - 10. Políticas afirmativas e cotas de reparação para os homossexuais (Translation). - 11. Rosa Egipcíaca: Uma santa africana no Brasil (Translation). - 12. Paulistas e colonos de São Paulo nas garras da Inquisição (Translation). - 13. Torturas e heresias na Casa da Torre: Bahia, século XVIII (Translation).

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Brazil: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Brazil). - Notas Para Uma História Do Cinema Homossexual Na Era Dos Regimes Totalitários (Translation). - Filmes Com Temática Gay, Lésbica E Transgênera (Translation). - Gay Bombshells in Brazil's Soaps.

Dispatch from Brazil: Mix Brasil Celebrates Record Attendance With Innovative Programming: It is one of Brazil's greatest contradictions that a deeply religious country is also one of the most sexually liberal societies in the developing world. Despite the influence of Catholicism and other fastly growing religions (Brazil is home to the world's largest number of Catholics), sexual minorities have a visibility in Brazil that makes it an anomaly among Latin countries. In such a unique context, the growing success of the Mix Brasil Film and Video Festival of Sexual Diversity - which celebrated its 13th year with record attendance in Sao Paulo from November 10-20 (and will tour abridged programs to Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia) - is an important exploration of film and sexuality in a pluralistic world.

Resources: - GGB: Grupo Gay da Bahia (Translation): Links, Publications, O Grupo Gay da Bahia é a mais antiga associação de defesa dos direitos humanos dos homossexuais no Brasil...(In English). - Gay Brazil (Translation). - Jornal Homo Sapiens. (Archive Links, 2000-2003 Issues) - Mix Brazil Magazine: Intolerancia, GLBT Groups. - Associação Brasileira Interdisciplinar de AIDS. - Grupo de Apoio e Prevenção à AIDS da Bahia. - PSTU: Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado - Secretarias Gays e Lésbicas. - Red Lesbica (Translation): Connecting the Latina Lesbian Community: Links to GLBT Groups in Brazil (Translation).

Associação da Parada do Orgulho GLBT de São Paulo: Ativismo (Translation). - Grupo Arco-Íris, Rio de Janeiro (Translation). - Grupo de Amparo ao Doente de AIDS: GADA, São José do Rio Preto.. - GGAL: Grupo Gay de Alagoas (Translation). - Associação Gay De Minas - Grupo Guri (Translation): A cena gay em Belo Horizonte (Translation). - Nuances: grupo pera livre expressão sexual.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

Gay Brazil. Gay Life in Salvador, Brazil. (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - ILGA Report (Archive Link). - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Brazil.. - GLBTQ: Brazil. - GLBTQ: São Paulo.

Pridelinks. - Gayscape. - Search the QRD. - Search all GLBT Resource Directories. - Search Google.com.

Vidas em Arco-Íris: Depoimentos sobre a Homossexualidade - 2006 - by Edith Modesto (fundadora e coordenadora do Grupo de Pais de Homossexuais (GPH), que existe desde 1999 e que hoje conta com 54 pais). Mãe Dá Voz À População Gay Brasileira (Translation): Edith Modesto, fundadora do primeiro Grupo de Pais de Homossexuais do Brasil, reúne depoimentos de 89 gays e lésbicas em livro-documentário. Vidas em Arco-Íris - Depoimentos sobre a Homossexualidade (Translation): Edith Modesto dá voz a gays e lésbicas em novo livro. - O arco-íris esclarecido (Translation): Livro reúne depoimentos de homossexuais que explicam como é ser gay hoje em dia. - A vida dos homossexuais em arco-íris (Translation).

Resenha: Transformações da homossexualidade (Translation): Fry, Peter. Para Inglês Ver: Identidade e Política na Cultura Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1982... MacRae, Edward. A Construção da Igualdade: Identidade Sexual e Política no Brasil da Abertura. Campinas: Ed. da UNICAMP, 1990.

Books: - Beyond Carnival: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Brazil - 1999 - by James Green (Abstract) (Review) (Review) (Coming Out in Brazil: A candid talk with Beyond Carnival's author James N. Green). -  Beneath the Equator: Cultures of Desire, Male Homosexuality, and Emerging Gay Communities in Brazil - 1998 - by Richard Parker (Review) (Review) (Review) (Amazon.com: 19 Sample Pages). - Travesti: Sex, Gender, and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes - 1998 - by Don Kulick (Abstract) (Review) (Amazon). - The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics: National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement - 1999 - edired by Barry D. Adam, Jan Willem Duyvendak, Andre Krouwel. Contains: "More Love and More Desire: The Building of a Brazilian Movement" by James N. Green (Review). - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (7 Sample Pages) (Table of Contents). Contains: "Desire and militancy: lesbians, gays, and the Brazilian Workers Party" (P. 57-70) "James Green gives a revealing look at the contradictions for gays and lesbians that the Brazilian Workers Party presents them with: a party which, on the one hand has been the major champion for homosexual rights, and which, on the other hand, under pressure from the progressive Churches, is constrained to limit its support." - Tentative Transgressions: Homosexuality, AIDS, and the Theater in Brazil - 2004 - by Severino J. Albuquerque (Abstract).


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PERU: -  The fourth regional conference of ILGA in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC): taking place in Lima, Peru September 20 – 23, 2007. It aims at gathering a large number of activists dealing with LGBT issues in Latin America and the Caribbean (ILGA members and non members) to further progress their advancement. - Las mujeres invisibles (Translation). - 'Bandera' lesbiana encabezará la Marcha del Orgullo: Lima 2007 (Translation). - Soccer player "outed" in Peru as Argentina hosts gay soccer tournament. - Homosexuales y lesbianas pidieron que se reconozcan sus derechos (Translation). - Homosexuales piden ley de no discriminación por orientación sexual en Perú (Translation). - Homofobia en el Perú: crónica de una golpiza anunciada (2011, Tranlsation): A las 6 pm de la noche, de las 4 parejas que estaban presentes, dos deciden besarse, una pareja de lesbianas y otra de gays, las otras dos parejas solo se abrazaban. De pronto, y sin mediar explicación una tropa de aproximadamente 10 policías se acercan a las parejas y empiezan a empujarlas. Los activistas protestan y preguntan el porqué de esa acción tan arbitraria. Los policías no contestan y continúan empujando y ordenando que se retiren. Estaban armados de varas, escudos y cascos, no eran policías comunes y corrientes era la tropa de asalto preparada para romper disturbios...

Perú y el fantasma de la homofobia (Translation). - Cada año se registran 69 casos de agresión física a homosexuales en el Perú (Translation). - Perú: más de medio millar de homosexuales fueron agredidos el 2006 (Translation): Más de 600 homosexuales, entre travestis, lesbianas y gays, fueron intervenidos en las calles de diversas ciudades del país, en la mayoría de casos con violencia, durante el año 2006, según estimaciones del Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (Mhol). - Defensoría del Pueblo denuncia a Municipalidad de Lima por discriminación a lesbianas, trans, gays y bisexuales (Translation). - Fascistas persiguen a comunidad LTGB de Peru (Translation): Con frases como “la degeneración no es una opción” el Movimiento Nacionalsocialista Despierta Perú, de tendencia fascista, se organizó en diversas regiones de Perú para retirar propaganda lésbica, trans, gay y bisexual (LTGB) y lanzar amenazas a estas comunidades. El Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (Mhol) demanda una ley que sancione actos de este tipo.

Una lesbiana se postula al Congreso (Translation): Por primera vez en la historia política de Perú, una lesbiana convicta y confesa se postuló al Congreso de la República en la lista del Partido Socialista que participará en las elecciones generales del próximo 9 de abril. - Homosexuales exigirán que el gobierno del Presidente Alan García trabaje para eliminar la discriminación por orientación sexual en la V Marcha del Orgullo GLBT en Lima (Translation). - Gay night club to open today despite city warnings. - Miraflores Night Club is Shut Down by Municipal Authorities. - Gay Night Club Representative Pays to have Civil Servant Attacked.

Brit sets gay union precedent in Peru: Peru held its first gay marriage ceremony last week, setting a precedent for the South American nation. News site LivinginPeru.com reports that a British citizen and his Peruvian partner formalised their union under British law in a ceremony held at the British Embassy in Lima. - Primera unión homosexuales en Perú desata una polémica (Translation). - Homosexuales Peruanos Luchan Por Derechos Constitucionales (Translation): Diversos grupos homosexuales de Perú están dando una ardua lucha en su país con el objeto de garantizar la no discriminación contra las minorías sexuales en la Carta Magna, tarea difícil que es torpedeada sistemáticamente por algunos partidos políticos y el Arzobispo de Lima, monseñor Juan Luis Cipriani, entre otras autoridades...  Mientras los congresistas de los partidos peruanos, continúan debatiendo sobre la permanencia o modificación de la Carta Magna, los homosexuales siguen siendo agredidos diariamente, sin contar con ninguna norma legal que les garantice en forma efectiva sus derechos.

Peru celebrates first Gay Pride parade (2002) (Alternate Link).  - Marcha del Orgullo Gay, Invitación (Translation). - Segundo Festival De La Diversidad Sexual: Expresiones GLBT (Page replacement). (Translation) (Alternate Link) - Activista Gay Es Discriminado En Gimnasio (Translation). - Nuestro Afecto No Afecta: Acto De Protesta Contra La Discriminación Hacia Las Lesbianas, Gays, Trans Y Bisexuales (Translation). - Catholic U. in Peru Angers Students by Handing Out Pamphlet Calling Homosexuality an Illness. (Alternate Link) - What are the conditions currently faced by sexual minorities in Peru?: 2004. - The Emergence of Lesbian Sexuality and Identity Cross-Culturally: Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States.

Permit denied for Gay Pride: "Peruvian activists from the Homosexual Movement of Lima (MHOL) have organized a parade and rally, among other activities, to celebrate “Pride Week” at the end of June. Authorities denied the group’s request for a permit to hold the parade and rally in the Miraflores district of Lima; citing a letter signed by one neighborhood resident, authorities claimed “neighbors” opposed the parade. The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC) urges people to send letters to district officials in Miraflores, urging them to grant permission for the parade as an important expression of freedom and democracy." -  Reconocimiento de la Comunidad Gay Lésbica Peruana al Respeto a la Diversidad Sexual (Translation).

Over 600 individuals were detained in a series of raids on gay nightclubs in Lima in late January and early February (1996) (Alternate Link). - Debunking The Lie: "The Revolution Is Anti Gay." - Gays unwillingly sterilized by Peruvian government, report says. - Exemples de persécution motivée par la préférence sexuelle de la personne: Pérou. - Policia mata a gay en Perú (Translation). - Peru Human Rights Practices, 1994: U.S. Department of State. - Peru: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission: a first step towards a country without injustice.

Gay in Lima, Cusco, and Machu Picchu, Peru: "Lima apparently has a relatively small gay community for a city of 8 million people. The gay scene is much smaller than Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, or Bogotá and about the same as Santiago. Also the gay scene here is so well-hidden that when I first came to Lima in 1997 it appeared there was no gay community here at all. After discovering the scene I decided to create this web-page so that gay visitors to Lima would quickly be able to find places that interested them without being put at risk or enticed into dangerous places or situations in an attempt to search for those places. There is no gay listings magazine published in Lima. The magazine called Paradero that appeared in 2000 and part of 2001 is no longer published. Although Lima has become a little more liberal in the last few years bear in mind that Peru generally still has a macho and conservative culture. The gay rights movement in Peru is in its infancy and an attempt is being initiated to change the constitution. In the meantime Homosexuality continues to be viewed negatively so adjust your behavior accordingly and keep a low profile in public. Acceptance will only be achieved slowly and by not provoking reactionary elements. The gay scene in Lima is free of dress-code, uniforms, and clones; dress for all occasions and places is casual lightweight summer wear (but in the southern winter months you will need a light sweater or jacket). There is no ageism. There is also a lack of attitude."

Vulnerability and sexual risks: Vagos and vaguitas in a low income town in Peru (2005, PDF download): "This emphasis focused on pleasure and on penetration as forms of domination determines a pursuit of satisfaction less often directed to regular partners than to casual ones, including women and feminized homosexual men.  Queers do better things than women. (Luis, 20) These men, as compared to women, function as an object of relief. This involves the
exercise of power over someone who is weaker, a quasi-woman, with whom one can do things that are not possible with steady partners. Compensated sex is another strategy for survival. This form of sexual transaction seems to be part of a set of new (or perhaps newly recognized) values rooted in the local culture and illustrated by the colloquial expression por la plata todo se da [‘‘people do anything for money’’]. The queers say—‘‘be my husband. I’ll treat you, I’ll buy you clothes, running shoes, give you money’’. They give you everything ... you only have to have sex. (Cesar, 22) ... Among men, it normally takes place with gay men and transvestites in the barrio. These practices do not challenge the norm of heterosexuality, when and if the youth is assumed to be in the ‘‘active’’ role. Because, if you are going to be with a homosexual you know he is going to pay you, right? Sometimes, for the sake of need or money you just stick it [the penis] in. (Cesar, 22)
And sometimes they do it more, because they need it, for money. There are guys who, correctly, go home and tell their mothers: ‘‘Mum, here you are’’. They give the money to their mothers; otherwise, they starve. (Luis, 20) Among men, compensated sex can also provide the opportunity to obtain clothes or food: And most guys go for it, since the queers give you money, they dress you, and you stick it in. If you are spoiled and are used to getting everything from others, that’s it. (Luis, 20) If they want money for Saturday night and don’t have any, because they don’t work, they can look for a queer to get some cash. (Felipe, 21)

Gay Guide to Lima: "This web-site describes and reviews the best gay discos, bars, saunas, beaches, meeting places, hotels, in Lima, Peru and much more." - About Lima Gay Life. - Gay Places in Other Cities in Peru. - Potential for gay retirement in Lima, Peru. - Homosexuals in Peru, like most countries in South America, live in societies that strongly disprove of alternative sexual behavior. Peruvians, specifically, are mostly Roman Catholic and posses very conservative values. - Travas and Travestis of Peru (Translation).

Peru: A New Nexus for HIV/AIDS Research: Welcome to Peru, a somewhat incongruous hotbed of HIV/AIDS research. "Everyone's going to Peru, and it's not because they have a huge epidemic," says Robert Grant, a virologist at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), who runs one of many collaborative projects now under way. "It's because of the research climate." Intensive efforts are now under way to understand the country's perplexing epidemiology--the epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and has not "bridged" much to other groups--and to evaluate new treatment and prevention strategies. The scope and scale of the research enterprise is especially remarkable given the government's foot-dragging when it comes to offering anti-HIV drugs to people who need them.

APAIP-Asoc.Proyecto Arcoiris Peru: "Peruvian Víctor Cerna is engaged in a novel AIDS prevention initiative that focuses on gay and bisexual men not effectively reached by other programs. In the workshops, mutual support groups, and other activities that he organizes, Víctor places heavy emphasis on nurturing the self-esteem of program participants. [The program is]  based on a strong conviction that technical information about “safe sex” is not in itself sufficient to ensure “safe sex” behavior. In Víctor’s view (which is shared by many experts in the AIDS prevention field), the self-esteem of men at risk of contracting the disease is a critically important determinant of whether they will or won’t acquire the HIV virus...  In spite of the fact that gay and bisexual men constitute a very large portion of people with AIDS and HIV in Peru, there is a notable absence of prevention efforts specifically addressed to that group... Of the few nongovernmental organizations engaged in AIDS prevention work in Peru, only one is working directly with Lima’s gay community, and it has not succeeded in reaching out to the large numbers of men who engage in sexual activity with other men but do not regard themselves as, or admit to being, gay..."

NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial in Peru: PDF Download. - The margin has many sides: diversity among gay and homosexually active men in Lima. - Risk factors for HTLV-II infection in Peruvian men who have sex with men. - High Rates of Sex with Men among High-Risk, Heterosexually-Identified Men in Low-Income, Coastal Peru. - HIV Sentinel Surveillance for Men who have Sex with Men in Peru. - Bisexuality and risk behavior in Lima, Peru. - Sexual Role and Transmission of HIV Type 1 among Men Who Have Sex with Men, in Peru. - Monitoring trends in sexual behaviour and HIV/STIs in Peru: are available data sufficient? - Risk factors for HGLV-II infection in peruvian men who have sex with men. - Association of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection and Syphilis with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru. - HIV-1, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexual Behavior Trends Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Lima, Peru.

Peru: report on links between unsafe sex and public 'net cafes: One recent survey, for example, found that a small number of men--10 out of 1,112 in the survey--reported having had their last sexual intercourse inside a private module of an Internet cafe. Nine out of the ten had anal sex (only four used a condom), and one out of the ten had oral sex without a condom. Of those who had anal sex, four out of nine had a casual partner, three out of nine an anonymous partner, and two out of nine a stable partner. All last sexual partners were males and all had met on the Internet.

Proyectos de investigación/acción: población de Hombres Homosexuales, Bisexuales y Trasgénero (HHBT) (Translation).

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Peru). - deambiente.com's film listing. - "Don't Tell Anyone"  "No se lo digas a nadie" (Perú & España, 1998): "Don’t Tell Anyone (No Se Lo Digas A Nadie) is a ground-breaking, honest and hard-hitting tale of the troubles that accompany a Peruvian man’s search for sexual identity in a country intolerant of open homosexuality. All his life, Joaquin knew he preferred men. But he dared not tell anyone, not his father, Luis Felipe, a racist and unobliging male chauvinist patriarch who tries to beat the secrets of masculinity into him..." - No se lo Digas a Nadie. - OutfestPeru: 2007 IV Festival de Cine Gay Lésbico de Lima (Translation).

¿Qué es deambiente.com? Es un portal gay lésbico con pretensiones particulares y algo distintas de los otros websites. - Different Definitions in Modern Gay Peru: "From the Pacific to the Andes, Peruvian culture spans centuries and rugged terrain. It also contains some different views of homosexuality. In Lima, sexual identity varies according to the label a person adopts, not according to their same-sex behavior..."

Movimiento Homosexual de Lima N/A: (Archive Link) "El Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (MHOL), es el espacio donde los Gays, Lesbianas, Bisexuales, Travestis, Transexuales (GLBTT) buscan reflexionary a partir de su participación en los talleres y actividades logramos tener mejores respuestas ante la vida... fundado en Octubre de 1982, es una asociación civil sin fines de lucro integrada por lesbianas y gays, que buscan contribuir a la democratizacion de la sociedad a través de la no discriminación, el respeto a la diferencia y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de las minorías sexuales, a través de la defensa y promoción de los derechos de gays, lesbianas, bisexuales, travestís y transgénero." - Diario de Lima Gay N/A: (Archive Link) La movida GLBT en el Perú N/A. - GayPeru.com: Portal gay, lésbico y bisexual. Incluye noticias, informes especiales, salud, tarjetas virtuales,...

Goodreau SM, Peinado J, Goicochea P, Vergara J, Ojeda N, Casapia M, Ortiz A, Zamalloa V, Galvan R, Sanchez JR (2007). Role versatility among men who have sex with men in urban Peru. Journal of Sex Research, 44(3): 233-9.  PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

Homosexualidad En El Perú Precolombino (Translation): Los Vicus. - Los Moches. - Los Chimúes.

Identidad en el Peru: Bibliography.

Resources: - Recuerdos de Familia: Rescatando la memoria de la comunidad gay peruana. - Frente por el Derecho a Ser Diferente, Lima Perú. - Encuentros con el Arte. - peruesgay.com. - Colectivo Parentesis. - Red Peruana TLGB. - Movimiento Homosexual de Lima (Translation). - GPUC: Gays y lesbianas de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Translation). - PERUESGAY.com. - LesLima (Translation). - Colectivo JADE: Jóvenes en Acción Defendiendo Nuestra Identidad (Translation). - Lesbiana Perú, Una Lesbiana es una Ciudadana (Translation).

Resources: - Guia Gay Lésbica Peruana. - Gay Guide to Lima Links. - Grey Gay Guide. - Gayscape. Peru: GLBTQ Links. - Directorio Lesbico gay bi transexual de Peru (Translation). - Google Directio, Peru: Homosexuales y bisexuales (Translation). - Encounter With Art: Cultural events in celebration of GLBT Pride. - Articulo Neutro (Translation). - Homosexualidad: En Peru Blogs (Translation)

Gay Peru (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - Sodomy Laws. - LGBT rights in Peru.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


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CHILE: - Marcha gay en todo Chile (Translation): Unas 500 personas en Talca, 500 en Arica, 300 en Chillán y unas otras quincemil mil en Santiago- según la organización- , marcharon entre ayer y hoy por las principales avenidas de esa ciudades para demandar igualdad de derechos para las minorías sexuales. - Parada Gay reúne 10 mil no Chile (Translation): Desfiles ocorreram nas principais ruas do Centro de Santiago. Não há registros de grandes incidentes durante a festa. - Chilean Homosexual Non-Discrimination Law Fails Following Protest. - The construction of gay identity in Chile (PDF Download). - Chile to cover sex change operations (2012): Chile will soon cover sex change surgeries under its public health plan in order to allow citizens of limited means to "recover their true sexual identity," Health Minister Jaime Manalich said.

Chile: Sexual Diversity and Human Rights Organization on Alert: Proposed “Anti-Discrimination” Law Being Undermined (2011): Organizations and collectives supporting sexual diversity have sounded the alert about changes that are being have been proposed for the bill known as the Anti-Discrimination Law. These modifications are a setback to from the commitments and actions that the State – represented by the government of Sebastián Piñera – is undertaking to prevent, punish and eradicate discrimination.

Transgender character erased from Chilean version of Argentinian soap opera. - Transgender Murders in Chile Increasing. - Transgender Murders Mount in Chile: MOVILH Sites 11 Such Killings Since 2002. - Transgender murders go unpunished. - Karina's Story: Buidling a life as a transgender woman. - Debate por la primera transexual lesbiana en Chile (Translation). - VII Latin American and Caribbean Lesbian Feminist Meeting to Be Held in Chile, 2007. - America Latina, Chile Y La Tv Gay (Translation).  - La comunidad homosexual chilena celebra el día del Orgullo Gay (Translation).

Chile: they podrian to approve law that allows homosexual unions (Translation): The Executive authority sent this week a message to the House of Representatives that allows this organ to approve the law of concubinaria union, even between people of he himself sex. The contribution of the government refers economic aspects of the pair. - Recognition of gay unions in Chile. - In Conservative Chile, a Push for Change: Gays and Others Grow Bolder in Their Challenge to Nation's Cultural Arbiters. - Chile empieza a abordar derechos y discriminación de homosexuales (Translation).

Chile's gay movement gets home: The Ministry of National Property has given the Movement for Homosexual Integration and Liberation (Movilh) an abandoned government building for its headquarters. The organization will be able to use the space for the next five years. - Chilean lawmakers mull gay protections. - Rights for homosexual and transexual children.

Sexual Minorities Report Gay Bashing, But Greater Recognition: The Chilean Movement for Homosexual Integration and Liberation (MOVILH) will press charges next week against several Carabineros (militarised police) for brutally beating a man three times in a single night. The violent Dec. 22 attacks on Manuel, a 32-year-old security guard, are described in the latest MOVILH report on the human rights situation of sexual minorities in Chile, presented Tuesday in Santiago. But the 152-page document also highlights positive findings, such as a fall in complaints about homophobia from 58 cases in 2005 to 49 in 2006 -- a 15 percent drop. Manuel told IPS he was beaten up three times by Carabineros in the early hours of Dec. 22, 2006. The first time was at the doors of a well-known gay disco in central Santiago, the second at a police station and the last in a police vehicle. - Police abuse of gays continues in Chile: MOVILH President Wants Police To Undergo Human Rights Training.  A pair of incidents involving members of the Carabineros [Chilean Police] has brought renewed attention to an age-old problem in Chile: police abuse of the country’s gay population.

Bisexualidad: La doble vida de muchos chilenos (Translation): Los prostitutos del centro llaman a sus clientes “los oficinistas”, pues en gran parte son administrativos y profesionales de clase media alta, que se “escapan” a la hora de almuerzo o después del trabajo para tener sexo con otros hombres. La mayoría son casados y padres de familia que se autodefinen como heterosexuales por temor a la censura social. - La identidad lesbiana es distinta que la identidad gay (PDF Download).

Public Opinion and Homosexuality - Homosexuals Denounce the Media (Archive Link). - Southern Exposure. - Ser Homosexual en Chile. - Gobierno chileno y unión civil homosexual/ Gay Chile (Translation). - Gran éxito del primer periódico homosexual de Chile (Translation). - Marcha Gay en Chile (Translation). - Neonazis suspenden marcha anti-gay al ser "persuadidos" por punks (Translation). - Quiénes son y dónde operan los neonazis chilenos (Translation). - La chilena que defiende a los gays y lesbianas en EE.UU (Translation). - High Court Discriminates Against Lesbian Mother.

Primer registro de discriminación sexual (Translation): En Chile se produjeron 46 casos de homofobia con proyección pública en 2002, algunos protagonizados por senadores, obispos católicos, pastores evangélicos, periodistas, escritores, animadores y comentaristas de televisión y el presidente de un popular equipo de fútbol. - La primera protesta homsexual en Chile (Translation): Stonewall Criollo: Los vientos de cambio durante la UP no abarcarían las prácticas sexuales gay. Una insólita protesta en la Plaza de Armas en abril de 1973 quedaría en la memoria como la primera protesta homo en Chile.

10 activists from Buenos Aires chained themselves at the Chilean embassy to protest the arbitrary arrests of 50 gays committed by the Chilean police. - Chilean prison officials complicit in possible HIV infection of gay prisoners. - A Second Chance For Gay  Chilean Who's Desperate To Stay In Canada. - Militares homosexuales mataron al conscripto (Translation): Timmerman dijo que el recluta Soto Tapia fue asesinado porque, tras ser violado en varias ocasiones por dicha banda, tenía intención de denunciarlos.

Movimiento de Integracióny Liberación Homosexual, Movilh - Chile. - Historia del Movilh en la lucha por los derechos de las minorías sexuales. - Travestis en Chile. - Activists from Sri Lanka, Jamaica & Chile To Be Honored.

Gender Role Beliefs and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men in Chile and the U.S.

Las crónicas de Pedro Lemebel y la identidad homosexual en Chile, 1890-1990 (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Masculinidades, trabajo y relaciones de género y clase en Santiago de Chile. - Hace bien releer desde otro lugar la literatura chilena : Juan Pablo Sutherland, escritor, presenta "A corazón abierto", la primera antología de escritos homosexuales que se hace en esta faja de tierra. Escritos de principios del siglo XX confluyen con textos de los '90 en una obra que su autor define como un correlato de la historia chilena. - Visibilidad y Participación Social de las Homosexualidades en Chile: La emergencia de una esfera pública subalterna (PDF Download).

AIDS Prevention Key Focus of First Gay Newspaper: "Despite the fact that a large proportion of Chileans are familiar with the basic means of preventing infection with HIV, the AIDS virus, the spread of the disease has not been curbed, and 70 percent of HIV-carriers in Chile are homosexuals, said Roa... The newspaper was created by eight journalists with degrees from Chile's three leading universities, including the Catholic University. Only three of them are gay. All of them work on a voluntary basis, depending on their jobs with other print-media for a living." - MSM - Death & the Erasure of Gay Identities. - Seroprevalence of AIDS in Chilean male and female prostitutes. II.Male prostitution. - An integrated prevention strategy for gay and bisexual men in Santiago, Chile. - Disseminating STD/AIDS information to homo-bisexual population in Chile.

Sexualidad y homosexualidad: Por el derecho a la diferencia - 1997 - by Joaquín Aedo, et al. (Review). - Loco afán: Crónicas de sidario - 1996 - by Pedro Lemebel (Abstract). - Homofobia Cultural Y Masculinidad En Santiago De Chile - - 1992 - by Gabriel Guajardo S. Excerpt: PDF Download. - La Dificultad De Ser Gay En Chile ... Y En Todo Lugar - 2000 - by Adela H. Wilson (Review: Translation)

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Chile). - Cine Gay en Bogotá (Translation). - Muestra Cine Gay + Lésbico (Translation): Sumándose a la celebración del orgullo Gay nacional, el Centro Arte Alameda acoge por octavo año consecutivo la muestra de cine Gay-Lésbico que se ha convertido en un clásico dentro de la cartelera capitalina. - " En Memoria victimas GLTB Inocentes " Víctor Hugo Robles nos regala su documental (Translation).

Resources: - Homosexuales y bisexuales: Links. - Gayscape. - Gay Chile: English. - Gay Associations. - AFIRMACIÓN CHILE: Mormones Gays y Mormonas Lesbianas. - Trabajo y Estudios Lésbicos N/A (Archive Link). - Santiago Gay.cl: El Portal Gay de Santiago Chile (Translation). - Gay Chile Internacional (Translation). - TravesChile (Translation). - Gay Magazine (Translation). - Radio Gay Chile. - PuntoGay: El Portal Gay Chile. - El Directorio Completo de los Sitios Gay de Chile.

OpusGay: ... es un periódico de distribución y actualización mensual.- Opus Gay vs Opus Dei (Translation). - Chile settles row over gay paper: Opus Gay's title was challenged from its inception in 2002. The Catholic conservative movement Opus Dei has lost a legal battle to force a Chilean newspaper for homosexuals to change its name from Opus Gay. - Periódico OpusGay ganó batalla por la marca impugnada por el Opus Dei. - OTD- Organización de Transexuales por la Dignidad de la Diversidad (Translation).

Gay Chile (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - IGLA Report (Archive Link). - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Chile


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COLOMBIA: - Colombia to recognize rights of gay couples: First for Latin America affects health, social security and even inheritance. - Colombia conservatives derail gay union bill: Legislation was backed by President Uribe; supporters vow to revive it. - Gay Rights Grow in Colombia: Legislation Pending to Extend Benefits to Same-Sex Couples. - Colombia Gives Gay Couples Same Rights As Marriage. - Gay Couples in Colombia Granted Health Benefits. - Colombia gay rights step closer: Marcela Sanchez, head of Colombia Diversa Marcela Sanchez said the bill "validates our relationships." Congress in Colombia has approved a bill to grant homosexual couples the same rights to social security benefits as heterosexual couples. - Recognition of gay unions in Colombia. - Congress passes gay rights bill. - Colombia gay rights law defeated. - "Patrimony" benefits granted to gay couples in Colombia. - Colombia: Allowed back in school by court order, lesbian students are heckled by student body, school principal (2009).

Fuerzas del Estado son las principales violadoras de los derechos de la diversidad sexual (2011, Translation): Aún con una legislación avanzada en las garantías para los derechos de la diversidad sexual, el prejuicio ha generado muchas violaciones a la poblaciónLGBT (lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transgéneros) en Colombia. La Fundación Caribe Afirmativo, dirigidaa la comunidad LGBT en el Caribe colombiano, analizó la implementación de la Directiva 006 de 2010, que compromete a laPolicíaen la protección y el respeto de la población LGBT. Ydenuncia: las leyes constituyen "letra muerta yno logran parar lapersecución yel abuso policial que vive la población LGBT”...

An ex-President's son talks about being gay and Colombia Diversa. - Controversia por suicidio de pareja gay (Translation). - Presentación del documental: “Putas o peluqueras”. Historias de discriminación laboral de mujeres trans (2011, Translation): La sistemática exclusión social que viven las mujeres Trans en Colombia, su victimización por un sistema heteronormativo, patriarcal y prejuicioso y el alto nivel de violencia verbal, física y simbólica que viven en Colombia hombres y mujeres que libremente han optado transgredir el género y construir su identidad en relación a sus propias realidades, sentimientos y acciones; ha motivado el trabajo que en esta ocasión presentamos a la ciudadanía de la región Caribe para que en el marco del mes del “Orgullo Gay” (que se extiende por el reconocimiento de los derechos de lesbianas, bisexuales y hombres y mujeres Trans) se generen reflexiones, acciones y decisiones que garanticen al vida digna a las mujeres Trans de nuestra región...

Transgender TV Diva: I had read about it but until I saw it with my own eyes, I didn`t truly get it. Endry! Diva! Reina! Something amazing is happening on Colombian television and her name is Endry Cardeño (who interprets the irrepresible Laisa Reyes in the most popular soap opera in Colombia, Los Reyes). The soap, a dramedy which follows the trials and tribulations of the Reyes family as they are miraculously rescued from povery by an eccentric millionaire, sometimes is a bit too broad to qualify as a true classic in the vein of, say, Betty La Fea, which subverted Latino soap operas by creating a story line around a bookishly smart nerdy woman who stole everyone`s hearts (even if at the end of the series the producers gave in to the temptation of falling for the ugly duckling turns into a beautiful swan storyline).

Coming out all over: Colombia. - Gays in Colombia coming out of closet. -  Gay Pride Bogota pokes fun at macho Colombia (2005): Many Bogota residents said it was a disgrace: secondary school pupils singing their way out of the closet to announce their lesbian identities, gays dressed as soldiers and bishops on carnival floats and drag queens provoking onlookers: all this and more at the Gay Pride Parade 2005 that floated its way through the centre of the Colombian capital on 3 July, wiping the floor with Catholic morals and the culture of machismo prevalent throughout this very violent country. - Homofóbica violence in Colombia (Translation). - Homofobia, conflicto armado y derechos en Colombia (Translation): El hecho de que los, las les LGBT hayan ganado ciertos derechos en Colombia, no implica que ellos mismos y la sociedad les reconozca como sujetos de tales.

Gay movement picks up steam (Alternate Link): "A colorful June 27 parade up busy Carrera Septima here spread smiles and giggles among tens of thousands of spectators, many of whom preserved their delight by taking photographs. The entertainment was a civil-rights march, the centerpiece of Bogotá’s fourth annual “Pink Series.” The two-week festival commemorates the June 28 anniversary of a 1969 revolt at New York’s Stonewall Inn, birthplace of the gay rights movement. Besides the march, the festival includes lectures and two dozen films. Drawing standing-room-only crowds, the events suggest Colombia’s GLBT movement is gaining strength despite unrelenting machismo and moral hypocrisy in this war-torn Roman Catholic country...." - 800 Celebrate Bogata Pride Festival. - Faces of Colombian Civil Society: Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender Individuals.

On December the 11th 1998, the first marriage contract with full legal rights between two homosexual men took place in Santafe de Bogota, the capital of Colombia. - School teachers cannot be fired for revealing they are gay, Colombia's highest court has ruled. - The Sophistry of War Distracting Colombia. - Colombia Senate Moves to Recognize Gay Couples N/A. - Colombia S.C. orders same-sex conjugal visits. - In Colombia: Lesbian Inmate Subjected To Punitive Sanctions And Inhuman Treatment, In Response To Petition Claiming Her Rights (Archive Link).

Homofobia: gran amiga del SIDA (Translation). - Los 'cabeza rapada' en Bogotá, entre el nazismo y el antirracismo (Translation). - Los Gays, los Transgéneros, las Lesbianas y los Bisexuales (Sector LGBT) en Bogotá estan Viviendo un Momento Histórico (Translation). - Gays piden a Luis Eduardo Garzón participación directa en el gobierno de Bogotá (Translation). - Senadora Piedad Cordoba insiste en ley Gay (Translation). - Actidud hacia la homosexualidad en estudiantes de Iztacala UNAM  (Alternate Link) (Translation).
Relaciones afectivas entre homesexuales: Sexualidad clandestina y amor de desestres: Una reflexión libertaria y libertina sobre el amor homosexual y la calle (Translation). - Columbia Out of the Closet: "Hola mi nombre es Al , tengo 25 anos y soy Colombiano de nacimiento. Soy Gay pero me tomo algo de tiempo el proceso de aceptar esta condicion en mi, por esta razon decidi crear esta pagina donde puedo expresar mis sentimientos con libertad al mismo tiempo que puedo ayudar a otros a entender que es lo que significa realmente ser gay viendolo desde una perspectiva positiva..."

Police in Colombia believe nine anti–gay murders may be linked. - Openly Gay Political Candidate Attacked: Demand Investigation And Protection. - Social Cleansing - Campaign against Gay and Lesbian students. - Police fail to protect. - Torture, rape and murder in Barrancabermeja. - 328 Murders Reported in Medellin: PDF Download N/A. (Google Cache) - No Human Being is Disposable: Social Cleansing, Human Rights, and Sexual Orientation in Columbia. - Guerrilha persegue homossexuais (Translation).

Historia del movimiento gay en Columbia (Translation). - Interview with Juan Pablo Ordonez, Human rights activist - Colombia: "But by 1993 he was working with the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRA). 'I was interested in the violation of the rights of gays and lesbians but the old issue of the "disposables" came back to haunt me,' he says. In fact, the two issues are closely connected. Every year in Colombia hundreds of gay prostitutes, along with beggars, street kids, petty thieves and drug-users - are killed in a grim class warfare that Colombians refer to as ' social cleansing'. On one side are the killers: police death-squads, vigilantes and private security guards. On the other are the victims, those that middle-class Colombians label 'social deviants'. The killings are never investigated and rarely publicized." - Evaluación clínica de la orientación sexual en adolescentes. El papel de médicos generales y pediatras: PDF Download.

Homoerotic, homosexual and bisexual behaviors and relationships (Translation): "El interés por el estudio de la conducta homosexual es de vieja data en Colombia. Se han encontrado conductas que podrían catalogarse como "homosexuales" en varias de las culturas que existían en el territorio de la actual Colombia a la llegada de los europeos. En Bogota, la incidencia de conducta homosexual fue de 28% en varones y de 13% en mujeres. Curiosamente, se hallaron diferencias en las distintas ciudades de Colombia. Estos porcentajes no implican exclusividad de conducta homosexual, sino que se refieren al porcentaje de individuos que habían tenido alguna experiencia sexual con una persona de su mismo género. Podría tratarse de una experiencia aislada, o de una preferencia estable, de homosexualidad "circunstancial" o de homosexualidad o bisexualidad "permanente"..." - Analisis De Situacion Y Respuesta Del VIH Con HSH En Colombia (Word Download). - The problems of Male Sex Workers and Poor Transvestites N/A (Section of a report).. "Most of the male sex workers I came to know were between 10 to 18 years of age and reported having been forced to leave their homes at a young age because of abuse by their families."

Body and Conflict in Colombia: Reflections in a Political Practice (Word Download): "In this paper, based on my experience as an academic and an activist in one of the most recent organizational movements of gay and lesbian people in my country, I want to examine some of the questions that this and other LGBT-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender-movements face in Colombia and maybe in other Latin American countries too. Looking at what is happening in my country in a comparative international context can reveal many similarities with past or present situations in countries with longer traditions of social and political movements around sexuality..." - Truth, Justice And The American Way: Andres Duque And Daniel Castellanos.

The Impact of Conflict and Community Organizing on Colombian Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transgender Individuals (PDF Download): "Traditional Colombian society, heavily informed by Catholic Church teaching on homosexuality and by macho and patriarchal ideals of sexual identity and gender, has long considered homo-, bi- and transgender-sexuality reprehensible. Although the 1980s witnessed the decriminalization of homosexual relations and a gradual opening up of the debate on traditional values and social attitudes towards lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transvestites and transgender individuals (LGBT), human rights violations against these communities continue. The forty-year civil conflict exacerbates the potential for abuse as state protection is weakened, individuals rely upon force to achieve their goals, and armed actors seek societal control through intimidation and violence. Members of LGBT communities require vigorous protection by Colombian state institutions as well as monitoring by non-governmental organizations to ensure the preservation of their social, political, economic and social rights...." - The Impact of Conflict on Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transgender Individuals.

Sexual practices of secondary school students in Colombia. National Survey results and analysis: 75% of respondents were between 13 and 18 yrs (median age 16 yr.); 42% referred previous penetrative sex: 40% vaginal, 15% oral, and 9.2% anal. Median age for first intercourse was 14 yrs. 26% referred condom use in their first intercourse. Among those who have had sex intercourse, 40% have had more than one sex partner during the last year, 5% reported homosexual intercourse, and 2.5% bisexual intercourse. 17.4% reported always using condom.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Columbia: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

Amor Universal Love will present photographic works, publications, film and objects, and will tour public libraries in Colombia: "In Colombia, as in many other countries Homo, Bi, Trans, Lesb, are very hard issues to come to terms with when you are 12 to 20 years old and do not have an educational or economic support that let you speak up freely, so our purpose is to help these boys and girls grow strong from their inside... Why it is important to make this [sexual diversity] exhibition?" - Homosexualismo prehispánico en Colombia: reflexiones alrededor de la evidencia etnohistórica y arqueológica (Translation).

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Columbia). - Our Ladies of Assassins (La Virgen de los Sicarios, 98 minutes): "In the city of Meddelin in Colombia, Our Ladies Of Assassins, is an adaptation of the workmanship of the writer Fernando Vallejo. In the film Fernando comes back to his native city, Bogota, thirty years later and and he falls in love with a young fascinating guy called Alexis..." - Colombian artist Miguel Angel Rojas explores personal themes in an exhibit at Miami gallery. - Empieza la cuarta edición del Ciclo rosa en Bogotá y Medellín (Translation): "Veinte películas de nueve países y conferencias sobre la iglesia y la homosexualidad se realizarán en las dos ciudades..." - Ciclo Rosa 2004 (Translation): En Colombia tiene sus orígenes en una retrospectiva del director alemán Rosa von Praunheim, que se realizó en Bogotá y Medellín entre junio y julio del 2001. A partir del año siguiente, y por iniciativa del Goethe Institut, en asocio con la Cinemateca Distrital y el Centro Colombo Americano de Medellín, se dio comienzo a una muestra anual de cine de temática homosexual.

Resources: - Gay.com en Español. - (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - IGLA Report.(Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Colombia.. - LGBT in Colombia. - Guia GAY Colombia. - Bogota Gay Nightlife by districts. - Transcolumbia (Translation):  La  Asociación por el Derecho a la Identidad Cultural y Sexual de los y las Transgeneristas en  Colombia-TRANSCOLOMBIA-se   fundó    en   junio del 2005,    a partir de la articulación de la experiencia de Casa de Reinas Linda  Lucia Callejas, una organización de base comunitaria con una experiencia de más de 15 años al servicio de la comunidad trans y  de las experticias de la Líder Trans Charlotte Schneider Callejas,  constituida legalmente ante Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá el 16 de marzo del 2007. TRANSCOLOMBIA  es una entidad sin ánimo de lucro, de utilidad común, que tiene  como misión el Promover el reconocimiento, exigibilidad, garantía, restitución y realización plena de los derechos fundamentales, los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales (DESC), los derechos civiles y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

Pridelinks. - Gayscape.


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ARGENTINA: Gay football World Cup kicks off: The gay World Cup has kicked off in the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires, showcasing more than 500 footballers from 28 countries.- Inaugura Argentina Mundial Gay (Translation). - Argentina's Los Dogos Win Gay World Cup of Football. - Argentina Wins Gay Soccer Cup. - Argentina will host 1st Lesbian-Gay World Soccer Championship. - Online gay comic book is a first. - Trans youth to undergo surgery in Latin America. - Court awards Argentine teen with transgender surgery- Argentina celebra el mes contra la homofobia y la transfobia con múltiples actividades (2011, Translation): Campañas, charlas, debates, mateadas, presentación de un libro, volanteadas, recolección de firmas. Estas son algunas de las actividades que se organizarán en la Argentina a lo largo del Mes Contra la Homofobia y la Transfobia, cuya fecha clave es hoy, 17 de mayo...

Entrevista a las representantes de la RedTraSex y la REDLACTRANS (2011, Translation): Elena Reynaga, Secretaria Ejecutiva de la Red de Mujeres Trabajadoras Sexuales de Latinoamérica y el Caribe (RedTraSex) y Marcela Romero, Coordinadora Regional de la Red Latinoamericana de Personas Trans (REDLACTRANS) y Vice Presidenta de la Federación Argentina de Lesbianas, Gays, Bisexuales y Trans (FALGB) fueron entrevistadas por el equipo de corresponsales clave y hablaron sobre diferentes temas vinculados con su trabajo y activismo...  ¿Cuál es el trabajo de la REDLACTRANS en los otros países de América Latina y el Caribe?  Marcela: La red se ha fortalecido, identificando y empoderando a líderes en la mayoría de los países, quienes a su vez replican las experiencias a nivel nacional. Además, damos apoyo según las necesidades y disponibilidades de la red, tales como pronunciamientos y apoyo político, entre otros. Trabajamos en varios frentes el derecho a la identidad de género, al respeto, a la igualdad de oportunidades, al acceso a la salud, a la no violencia hacia las trans, que en muchos casos es ejercida por la misma policía que debería velar por nuestra seguridad. Muchos opinan que ser una persona trans es una enfermedad; sin embargo, ser trans es sentirse y pensarse como mujer a pesar de haber nacido con un cuerpo de hombre.

Argentina: Las personas transexuales son las más discriminadas en televisión (2011, Translation): Las personas con identidades, expresiones de género, orientación o prácticas sexuales no normativas son los colectivos más discriminados a los cuales se les reservan etiquetas negativas y epítetos peyorativos y ofensivos, de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por el Observatorio de la Discriminación en Radio y Televisión...  El Observatorio, un espacio de cooperación institucional conformado por la Autoridad de Servicios de Comunicación Audiovisual (AFSCA), el Instituto Nacional contra la Discriminación, la Xenofobia y el Racismo (INADI) y el Consejo Nacional de las Mujeres (CNM), informó que "este sentimiento de rechazo y desprecio puede en ocasiones llegar a la violencia física, la agresión y hasta el exterminio". "Es habitual que en los medios de comunicación este colectivo sea objeto de burlas y chistes. Es importante recordar que la violencia física generalmente comienza con violencia verbal", dice el informe dado a conocer a propósito de celebrarse mañana el Día Internacional contra la Homofobia, Lesbofobia y Transfobia. El informe explica que la discriminación es un conjunto de prácticas culturales de estigmatización y represión en función de las cuales se vulnera la igualdad de oportunidades, trato y resultados de distintos colectivos y sujetos sociales en función de la desigualdad y las diferencias que se atribuyen a los mismos...

Terapias” contra la homosexualidad en México y Argentina (2010, Translation). - Una organización argentina que lucha por los derechos de los transexuales en América Latina y el Caribe gana el "Premio Clarence H. Moore al Servicio Voluntario". (2009, Translation): Una organización argentina basada en la promoción de los derechos de las personas transgénero fue galardonada anoche con el prestigioso Premio Clarence H. Moore al Servicio Voluntario durante la ceremonia de los Premios a la Excelencia en Salud Pública Interamericana. La Fundación Panamericana de la Salud y Educación (PAHEF) y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) otorgaron el premio a REDLACTRANS (Red de América Latina y el Caribe de Personas Transgénero) en reconocimiento a la labor de la organización en impulsar la aceptación y los derechos humanos de las personas transgénero en la región y marcar un verdadero progreso. - ‘El teje’, primer periódico hecho por travestis latinoamericanos (2011, Translation): Con artículos sobre las propias vivencias, entrevistas y hasta chistes, un grupo de travestis edita en Argentina un periódico, ‘El Teje’, el primero en su tipo de Latinoamérica, con el ánimo de arrancar los estigmas contra una comunidad cercada por los prejuicios.

Argentina Gay Marriage Law: First Country In Latin America To Approve Same Sex Marriage (2010). - Argentina Approves Gay Marriage, in a First for Region (2010).- 2.697 matrimonios gays tras sanción de ley hace un año (2011, Tranlsation).

Gay marriage bill proposed in Argentina  (2007). - The 'Final Battle' for Gay and Lesbian Rights: By drawing the media spotlight to five-year-old twins Lucas and Julia and their two "daddies", the Argentine gay and lesbian community is gearing up to fight for the passage of a bill in Congress that would not only legalise same-sex civil unions, but grant these couples the inheritance and adoption rights normally limited to marriage. The bill will be introduced in the Argentine Congress in September. If it is passed into law, Argentina will become the first country in Latin America to legally recognise homosexual couples nationwide. - Lanzamiento de la campaña por el matrimonio homosexual en Argentina (Translation).

Gays Kiss on TV as Argentina Ponders Same-Sex Unions. - Big Brother Argentina features a gay love story... sorta. - Homophobia and Argentina. - Mr. Gay Argentina (2007). - A Look at the Progression of Argentina's Homosexual Rights. - Concurso de cuentos infantiles sobre homosexualidad en Argentina (Translation). - Homosexualidad y placer son tabúes en la educación sexual en Argentina.

Keshet Argentina: invite you to be a part of an amazing movement that is happening in the Spanish speaking Jewish community. At KESHET Argentina we envision a vibrant Jewish community that fully includes all Jews, and it is our mission to see this vision become a reality. In this past year we have been able to partner with Jewish institutions and offer programs on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Trans (GLBT) inclusion. These efforts have built a strong foundation for change. We have just begun the work that will give our GLBT family members and friends a fully welcoming Jewish community: Jewish synagogues where they will be able to go to services with their partners and Jewish schools where they can send their children knowing they will be welcomed.

Gays of Buenos Aires, Unite! - Civil union proposals passed in Rio Negro province and Buenos Aires City. - Wary of past abuses, Argentine capital approves gay rights. -  Buscan el reconocimiento de las uniones civiles entre homosexuales en la provincia de BsAs. - Buenos Aires Approves Gay Civil Unions. - Gays y Lesbianas de la Ciudad, Uníos. - Civil union in Argentina a first for Latin America. - Se realiza primera "boda" homosexual en Latinoamérica (Translation). - Gay couple unites in Argentina, a first for Latin America. - Los argentinos aceptan cada vez más la homosexualidad (Translation): "Fallos de la Justicia, medidas de gobierno y encuestas lo indican así. Pero los especialistas prefieren ser cautos: aseguran que se acabó el discurso discriminatorio, pero que la discriminación está latente." - Getting hitched in Buenos Aires: members of Argentina's foremost gay rights group discuss how they made Buenos Aires the first South American city to recognize civil unions. 

Last tango for machismo as gay tourists flock to Argentina. - Gays flock to Buenos Aires. - Gay tourism growing in Buenos Aires' cosmopolitan city. -  Buenos Aires, la nueva meca del turismo gay. - Gay tourism growing in Buenos Aires' cosmopolitan city. - Sex in public places among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Rosario and Córdoba, Argentina: Opportunities for HIV prevention (PDF Download).

Coming Out as a Sacrament in Argentina. - Buenos Aires Bisexual Women. - Lesbianas in Argentina. - Susana Cook, directora de Tango Lesbiango:  “El género es una actuación”. - Homosexual Activists Desecrate Catholic Church in Argentina. - Gay activists push sex-ed content in Buenos Aires schools. - New Open-mindedness on Sexuality Has Its Limits.

Police torture transvestites in Argentina: ... In the last ten years, at least 64 transvestites have been murdered in the Capital City, and the province  of  Buenos Aires, Argentina. - Vanessa Lorena Ledesma and repeated threats to other transvestites in the Province of Córdoba. - Transvestite dies in detention.

Argentina Celebrates First Gay Pride Week (1992). - Comunidad Homosexual Argentina c/ Inspección General de Justicia (1991). - Attacks on lesbian and gay offices in Croatia and Argentina (1996). - National Gathering of Lesbians, Gays, Transvestites, Transsexuals and Transgendered people Rosario, Argentina (1996). - Gay Variety Show Sensation in Argentina.  - Police Raid Argentine Gay Group (1997). - 2000 march in gay pride parade in Buenos Aires (1997). - Exacerbatin Insecurity: Police Brutality in Argentina (La inseguridad Policial: Violencia de las Fuerzas de Seguridad en la Argentina, 1998): PDF Download.  - Pensions for same sex partners in Argentina N/A. - New Era of Gay Tolerance Dawns in Argentina N/A. - Argentina: Pionera Del Movimiento Homosexual En America Latina (Translation).

Gays y lesbianas: por los mismos derechos (2006, Translation): Marcelo Ernesto Ferreyra, arquitecto de profesión, ha sido un activista social desde 1987, primero en Buenos Aires y luego en Latinoamérica y el Caribe. En Argentina ha contribuido a los cambios de la legislación en la ciudad de Buenos Aires y a la inclusión del tema de la discriminación por orientación sexual. Ferreyra fue uno de los principales promotores de la Marcha del Orgullo en Buenos Aires. Ha colaborado en varias organizaciones internacionales como Interpride, del cual fue vicepresidente y director para el área de América Latina y el Caribe. Desde el año 2000 empezó ha trabajar en la Comisión Internacional de Derechos Humanos para Gays y Lesbianas (IGLHRC), también para la región de América Latina y el Caribe, siendo hoy su coordinador adjunto... En 1967, incluso antes de Stonewall, se creó “Nuestro Mundo”, el primer grupo gay que surgió en Argentina. ¿Qué propósito tenía esta organización?  No sólo el primero en Argentina, en América Latina también. En realidad era una organización que se generó en el contexto universitario, lo único que queda como documentación del comienzo de la organización son los boletines que publicaban. “Nuestro Mundo” en sus inicios no tenía un enfoque muy politizado, sino que buscaba recaudar información, por ejemplo hacia reseñas de películas de la época o comentaban algunas noticias que se presentaban en los diarios. Fue un grupo que comenzó muy despacio, pero que se generó en un contexto sociopolítico especial. Digamos que nació entre dictaduras, antes de la última y cruenta dictadura del 76, en unas circunstancias en que las libertades se iban logrando gradualmente, y poco a poco se fue generando la fantasía de que se formaran otros grupos. Ya a principios de los 70 se coaligaron y se convirtieron en un grupo muchísimo más político y, en realidad, bastante mítico, no sólo para Argentina sino para toda la región de Latinoamérica, que fue el Frente de Liberación Homosexual (FLH)...

Presentación del Libro Carlos Jáuregui, Una Biografía Política (2010, Translation): El miércoles 10 de noviembre a las 19 hs se presenta Carlos Jáuregui, una biografía política de Mabel Bellucci, Editorial Emecé-Planeta. El evento tendrá lugar en la Casa de la Lectura, Lavalleja 924, ciudad de Buenos Aires. Integran la mesa Flavio Rapisardi, docente de la UBA y de la UNLa Plata; Carlos Figari, docente de la UNCatamarca e investigador del Conicet; Marcelo Ferreyra, representante de la Comisión Internacional de Derechos Humanos para Gays y Lesbianas-IGLHRC; María Rachid, coordinadora del Programa Nacional de Diversidad Sexual del INADI y Keny De Michelis, fundadora de Travestis Unidas y miembro de la ILGA... Este libro recorre el itinerario activista y político de Carlos Jáuregui. Aún siguen vivos sus recuerdos y sus luchas. Sin embargo, es necesario profundizar su larga trayectoria como militante desde sus primeras intervenciones en los organismos de Derechos Humanos hasta la formación del movimiento GLT, en Argentina. Su vida se ensambló en la textura misma de los dilemas y desventuras de esa etapa de la post-dictadura a la instauración del neoliberalismo a lo largo de los años noventa. Yo por haber formado parte de su círculo íntimo, fui testigo de su voluntad transformadora como así también un protagonista de la historia que nos relata Carlos Jáuregui. Una vida de militancia gay (título aproximado). Más exactamente este libro es una biografía de nuestra sociedad a partir de las reivindicaciones y las luchas de las llamadas “minorías sexuales”. De allí que daré mi testimonio...

El compromiso politico con la diversidad sexual en la Argentina (Translation). - Osvaldo Sabino (Argentine Gay Author). - Third National GLTTB Conference in Cordoba, Argentina (1998). -  Neither Man, Nor Woman: Transgender: In Spanish. Activist Lohana Berkins talks about "the desire that goes way beyond the physical." (Transcript). - Volver a politizar lo gay: Del diario de un joven argentino desencantado con los tiempos que le han tocado vivir (Translation). - Censura a la campaña del Sida en Argentina (Translation): "Los carteles con leyendas de repudio fueron adheridos a los mensajes en Buenos Aires. La campaña de prevención incluye anuncios gráficos y vía pública, además de spots de radio y televisión..."

El poder adquisitivo de los gays tienta a empresas de servicios (Translation): "En la Argentina hay unos 500.000 homosexuales de ingresos medios a altos. Viajan de 3 a 4 veces por año y compran primeras marcas. Las compañías diseñaron estrategias especiales para venderles..."

Osvaldo Bazán lança livro contanto a História da homossexualidade na Argentina (Translation): "O jornalista Osvaldo Bazán revela com rigorosidade documental, a história de uma minoria negada e muitas vezes atropelada pela história oficial. Uma investigação criteriosa que vai desde o descobrimento da América até a restauração da democracia. Este é um dos mais importantes livros para reconstituir a caminhada dos homossexuais argentinos. Assim é apresentado o livro "Historia de la homosexualidad en la Argentina (de la Conquista de América al siglo XXI)" (Editorial Marea)..." - Historia de la homosexualidad (Translation): "La "Historia de la homosexualidad en la Argentina", de Osvaldo Bazán, es uno de los libros que está dando que hablar en ese país. El autor es un reconocido periodista que buceó largo tiempo en archivos, recogiendo testimonios y cotejando fuentes, para publicar esta narrativa que va desde la conquista hasta nuestros días. En su largo recorrido, Bazán encontró claras recurrencias históricas en la actitud frente a la homosexualidad como comentó el autor en entrevista con Marcelo Justo, de la BBC..."

Invertidos sexuales, tortilleras, and maricas machos: the construction of homosexuality in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1900-1950. - Argentina: Official Position - The Law - and Police Edicts (History). - “Con discriminación y represión no hay democracia”: The Lesbian and Gay Movement in Argentina (1997): PDF Download. - 'Sex Priest' stuns Argentina with love memoirs. - IGLHRC Book 7/23/03: Argentina: PDF Download. - Resisting Kirchner’s Recipe (Sometimes): ‘LGBTTTI’ Organizing In Argentina.

Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences (Trabajadores sexuales masculinos en Córdoba, Argentina: características sociodemográficas y experiencias en el trabajo sexual) (Alternate Link) (Full Text: PDF Download. PDF Download). - A profile of clients of male sex workers in Cordoba, Argentina. - High human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroprevalence in men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina: risk factors for infection. - Two HIV-1 epidemics in Argentina: different genetic subtypes associated with different risk groups. - Transgender: Civil rights and HIV/AIDS prevention

Supporting Activities to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Measures: "The program, which targets high risk groups, will expand HIV/AIDS prevention activities nationwide with community support; will improve the quality of life of all people living with HIV/AIDS through the provision of better care, treatment and support; and will strengthen of operational capacity of institutions dedicated to the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Groups targeted include intravenous drug users, homosexual men, transsexuals, bisexuals, commercial sex workers, prison inmates, orphaned children, all people living with HIV/AIDS and their families, pregnant women, health professionals, people infected with HIV and tuberculosis, and the general population..." - World AIDS Day (2002): Red Cross Red Crescent National Society activities. - Epidemiological Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (2003): PDF Download. - Argentina AIDS agencies blossom, but face fiscal hurdles (Alternate Link). - HIV/AIDS Coinfection: High rate of multiple viral infections in Argentina IDUs.

HIV seroincidence in a population of men having sex with men from Buenos Aires, Argentina (2002): According to the Argentine National AIDS Program's 2001 report, in Argentina at the beginning of the epidemic (1982-1990), men having sex with men (MSM) represented 60% of the total notified AIDS cases, decreasing to 28% in 1999. However, AIDS cases in MSM have increased slightly since then.- Up in Smoke: Epidemic Changes Course (2006): Over the past few years, HIV infections of heterosexuals have eclipsed those of injecting drug users and gay men.

Propato, Ignacio Daniel (2010). Homosexualidad en Los Medios Masivos de Comunicación de La Argentina. Creación y Producción en Diseño y Comunicación, 32. PDF Download. Introducción: En este ensayo se abordará el tratamiento de la temática homosexual por parte de los medios masivos y su implicancia actual en la sociedad argentina, analizando este fenómeno desde visiones de diferentes teóricos de la comunicación como Dennis Mc Quail, Paul Lazarsfeld, Robert Merton, Harold Lasswell, Raymond Williams y Antonio Gramsci.

La irrupción de las novelas con temática lésbica en la narrativa argentina contemporánea: Monte de Venus de Reina Roffé, y En breve cárcel de Sylvia Molloy (Word Download). - Bibliografía Anotado: Minorías Sexuales: Argentina (PDF Download). - The progression of the gay rights movement in Buenos Aires, Argentina (PDF Download).

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Argentina: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies: Browse Argentina. - Festival de cine Gay/Lésbico/Trans de Argentina. - "Bienvenidos a este Festival, soy gay " (Translation): Diversa, el festival de cine GLTBI de Argentina concluye el próximo 19 de noviembre. ANRed dialogó con la Directora General de dicho evento, Gabriela Waisman, quien nos contó la experiencia que va por su tercera edición. - Video: Argentina Coming Out Of The Closet. - Cine y homosexualidad en la Argentina.

Argentina: país gay-friendly (Translation): La BBC de Londres destacó a Argentina como el país más tolerante con los gays, comparado con el resto de América Latina.

Resources: - Sociedad de Integración Gay Lésbica Argentina (Translation) (Links) (Cursos, ciclos y conferencias) - Feminist/Lesbian Activism and Life in Argentina: Links. - M@G@Zine At GayMondo.com - Christian gay(friendly) churches and organizations in Argentina. - Gay in Buenos Aires. - Humanistas por la No-Discriminación Sexual N/A. (Archive Link) - Comunidad Homosexual Argentina (Translation). - AG Magazine (Translation): Actitud Gay Magazine, Noticias y contenidos LGBT de Argentina, Latinoamérica y el mundo. - CEGLA (Translation): Cristianos Evangélicos Gays y Lesbianas de Argentina. - Deportistas Argentinos Gay (Translation). - Google Directory: GLBT Argentina. - Buenos Aires Gay Guide.

(Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Argentina. - GLBTQ: Argentina.

Pridelinks. - Gayscape. - QRD

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

Books: - The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics: National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement - 1999 - edired by Barry D. Adam, Jan Willem Duyvendak, Andre Krouwel. Contains: "Democracy and Sexual Difference: The Lesbian and Gay Movement in Argentina" by Stephen Brown. - Historia de la Homosexualidad en la Argentina: de la Conquista de America al Siglo XXI - 2004 - by Osvaldo Bazan. (Review) (Translation(Review) (Translation) (Review) (Translation) .


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ECUADOR:Unión civil sí, matrimonio gay no (Translation): ras el triunfo oficialista en las elecciones para definir asambleistas que modifiquen la Constitución del país, no se incluye al matrimonio homosexual en los temas a debatir. En cambio, prometen las uniones civiles. - Asamblea tendrá que decidir sobre unión de homosexuales (Translation). - Ecuador prohibirá que homosexuales sean expulsados de Fuerzas Armadas (Translation).  - Defense Minister resigns in midst of a gays in the military controversy. - La movida Gay se vive en los bares alternativos de la capital (Translation). - Marcha por el orgullo gay en Ecuador con poca asistencia (Translation).

The constitution of a gay community house in Ecuador: I am an Ecuadorian homosexual person who wishes to request any kind of help in order to constitute a communital and non-profit organization which has, as its ultimate purpose, the duty to aid homosexual people from the community of our country, Machala, in accepting themselves as they are and forming groups to relate to other homosexual people, not only with the idea of bucking up the individual's self-esteem socially, but also psychologically.  Gay Ecuadoran Strikes Out on Asylum Claim. - Denuncian la “cura de homosexuales” en Mexico y Ecuador (2010, Translation).

Continued torture and ill-treatment  of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. - Persisten las torturas y malos tratos a lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales. - Defend the Defenders: "Orlando Montoya, Director of Equidad, a  Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender organization based in Quito, Ecuador, and members of this organization received several anonymous death threats in March and April 2001. Montoya, a well know human rights defender, was a co-founder of the first lesbian and gay organisation in Ecuador..." - Pride and Prejudice: Time to break the vicious circle of impunity for abuses against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people. - Temor por la seguridad y amenazas de muerte. - La homosexualidad en Ecuador. - La impunidad por homofobia y discriminación que sufre la comunidad GLBT en América Latina y Caribe: PDF DownloadWe the undersigned, endorse the following petition: Sexual Orientation Rights in Ecuador (2003).

Camouflaged Homophobia in Ecuador (Alternate Link). - El camuflaje de la homofobia en el Ecuador. - Ecuador: Scapegoating in Guayaquil: Police action against a Gay Pride March in Ecuador, violates the 1998 Constitution, and triggers repression in a country politically and economically on  the brink. - Ecuador: la realidad frente a la utopía: "El fin de la discriminación por motivos de orientación sexual no ha tenido su lugar ni su tiempo tampoco en Ecuador. Es más, en Ecuador se sigue denunciando de forma contínua la violación de los derechos humanos de gays, lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales en un ambiente de impunidad institucionalizada. Existe constancia del acoso, detenciones arbitrarias, torturas, malos tratos e intentos de ejecuciones extrajudiciales por motivos homófobos a manos de los cuerpos policiales del país, así como de amenazas de muerte realizadas desde el anonimato. Los defensores de los derechos humanos de estos colectivos tampoco son ajenos a este tipo de trato. En los últimos meses, Amnistía Internacional ha promovido diversas acciones basadas en casos concretos de violaciones de derechos humanos en Ecuador por motivos de orientación sexual..." - Amnistía International Ecuador: Minorias Sexuales.

Gay groups protest in Ecuador. - Gay Ecuador: "In 1998 Ecuador's constitution was amended to legalise homosexuality. Since then, a thriving gay scene has emerged, with new bars, discos and saunas opening all the time. Quito and Guayaquil offer the most in terms of diversity of entertainment for gay and lesbian travellers." - Ecuador Court Repeals Anti-Gay Morality Law N/A. - Homosexuality legal in Ecuador (Alternate Link). - Death threats to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender human rights defenders: Crimes of Hate, Conspiracy of Silence. - Gay rights activist survives attempt on his life, as UN meets to consider protection for LGBT people.

Correlates of condom use in a sample of MSM in Ecuador: In Ecuador, the prevalence of HIV in the general population is approximately 0.3%. However, up to 17% prevalence has been reported among specific groups of homosexual and bisexual men. The objective of this study is to explore correlates of condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) across eight cities in Ecuador... Information was obtained for 2,594 MSM across the eight cities. The largest subcategory of self-identification was active bisexuals (35%), followed by those who described themselves as "hombrados" (masculine gays, 22%). The mean age was 25 years, and the majority were unmarried (78%), with a median of 10 years of schooling (IQR 7 – 12)... Only 10% of the MSM interviewed were involved in sex work (i.e., sold sex)... Despite the reportedly high community awareness of sexual preferences, which may be interpreted as a sign of acceptance, 25% confirmed aggression from the police due to their sexual identity... The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ecuador is largely confined to the MSM population, as is the case in most Latin American countries. Nevertheless, recent years have seen a trend towards feminization of the epidemic that may be related to a high prevalence of bisexual MSM in the region, as illustrated in the results of this survey... - HIV-1 Infections among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in Ecuador: Does oral sex play a role?

Fausto Paez, A Gay Ecuadorian Activist In New York: "He proudly says that he is a gay Ecuadorian who fights for equality and respect for sexual diversity. He says that despite the fact that the Ecuadorian constitution supports freedom of sexual orientation, police are not respecting human rights and are finding new ways to target homosexuals. Already a little disenchanted, he spoke to our newspaper to make declarations. According to him, because he is gay, people worry about what he might say. He still feels rejection from the heterosexual community... One example is the work that was done in 1997 with the decriminalization of homosexuality, and the inclusion of sexual orientation into article 23 line 3 of our constitution, making Ecuador the third country in the world to accept freedom of sexual orientation as law... Many problems still exist, because we need to keep educating people. The achievements of 1997 and 1998 meant an arduous fight and the work continues... What is written in the constitution is not being followed. Many people continue to be in the closet, there are violations of fundamental human rights, article 23 of the constitution has not been applied as it should be because the government has not established concrete sanctions for people who discriminate against a gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender citizen. The police misuse their power, they blackmail people in exchange for not telling others that they are gay..."

Ecuadorian Lesbian and Gay Magazine: EN DIRECTO: "The 6th issue of "En Directo" (May 1996), a Lesbian/Gay Bulletin, contains articles on HIV/AIDS education, international news, the Beijing Women's Conference and more. It's 27 pages, slick and well-designed, and is an important and brave publication in a country where homosexuality is still illegal..."  - Gender Roles in Andean Society. - "Archivos del destino" tergiversa la realidad del homosexual: "También vemos el típico caso del hombre  que justifica que no es homosexual porque el es el que hace el papel masculino y además está casado. Joffre hace el papel femenino "supuestamente." Y se trata de enfocar al homosexual masculino como un violador. Este es uno de los engaños más fuertes a que se ve sometido el homosexual ecuatoriano. El pensar de que porque hace el papel de penetrador en una relación sexual , es más masculino que el penetrado. Todo se debe a una falta de aceptación y a la misma confusión que vienen causando en la sociedad ecuatoriana este tipo de programas..."

Persecution in Ecuador: "In November 1997 their Constitutional Court decriminalised homosexual acts between consenting adults by annulling Article 516 of the Penal Code. There was then a constitutional review and following pressure the Constitution was amended to ban discrimination against all people, including that based on sexual orientation. However LGBT people still suffer human rights abuses. Cases range from arbitrary arrests of LGBT people to the police allowing LGBT prisoners to be raped while in custody. Schools have refused to allow obviously gay men to matriculate and have not allowed gay students to get their qualifications. There are also cases of gay men being made to take HIV tests while under arrest and in handcuffs. A homophobic group in Ecuador recently announced it would embark upon a campaign of “social cleansing” directed at the LGBT community, which it refers to as “human garbage”..." - No to "social cleansing" of people because of their sexual orientation.

Variaciones sexuales (Translation): "La homosexualidad es un inter?s sexual hacia personas del mismo sexo. Es importante comprender que todas las personas tenemos la capacidad inherente de reaccionar sexualmente tanto con miembros del mismo sexo como con miembros del sexo opuesto, pero que nuestra educaci?n nos ha canalizado hacia la respuesta sexual con personas del sexo opuesto. La pregunta importante es, ?por qu? una persona que ha sido entrenada a responder selectivamente al sexo opuesto, que sabe las consecuencias sociales que implican las trasgresiones en esta ?rea, decide tomar la opci?n que es contraria a las expectativas sociales? ..." - The only man. A gay Ecuadorian beach party.

Llamoja, Gaby Mariño (2008). Visibilidad Trans en America Latina y el Caribe.  PPT Presentation. PPT Download. Translation.  Un 15 de Mayo del 2008 Briana Jijon Arce, ciudadana transexual, se acerco a la Universidad “Laica Rocafuerte”, a inscribirse a una PRE- universitaria en la carrera de periodismo del año 2008 – 2009,le comunicaron que el Consejo nacional de Educación Superior , no permitiría su matricula de estudios para estudiar en la universidad. Con la ayuda de la Fundación “Amigos por la Vida” FAMIVIDA, denuncio a la Universidad Laica Vicente Roca fuerte ante la Defensoria del Pueblo: en la ciudad de Guayaquil. Por lo tanto Defensoria del Pueblo resuelve la matricula de Briana Jijon A., el dia 20 de junio del 2008, generando un precedente histórico, en pro de los derechos de las personas trans del Ecuador..

Gay Life in Quito, Ecuador. - Guide to Gay Quito & Gay Ecuador. - El portal GLBT de Ecuador (Translation). - Special Groups: Women, Senior, Gay & Lesbian Travelers to Ecuador. - The Ecuadorian resource for gay lesbian and bisexual teenagers, and adults.

Resource Links: - GayEcuador.com - Quito gay Ecuador (Translation).- Gay Guide to Quito, Ecuador. - Gay New Watch: Ecuador. - Enkidu Magazine: Ecuador News (Translation). - Grey Gay Guide. - Gayscape.

(Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - IGLA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Ecuador.

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VENEZUELA: - LGBT Community in Venezuela Asks for Human Rights: Lobbying the President of the Venezuelan National Assembly, Cilia Flores. - Lesbianas venezolanas luchan por igualdad de derechos ante la ley (Translation). - Thousands march in GLBT pride parade (2006). - 6th Annual Gay and Lesbian Pride Celebrated in Venezuela (2006).  - Homosexuales venezolanos marcharon contra la discriminación y por legalización del matrimonio (Translation). - En Venezuela hay 3 millones de gays y 4 de bi (Translation). - Venezuela: Homophobia Stalks the Streets - in Uniform (2009).

- Matrimonio homosexual en Venezuela (Translation). - Aberration: gay unions in Venezuela (Translation): Nuevamente unas declaraciones de Manuel Rosales marcan la agenda del debate... Para asombro de una buena porción de la audiencia, Rosales, que hasta ese momento había respondido las interrogantes con datos y argumentos elaborados con base en hechos, remató el asunto diciendo que esa opción es aberrante y agregó que va contra la naturaleza divina. - Celebrado primer matrimonio homosexual en Venezuela (Translation). - Primer divorcio gay en Venezuela: se separa Primero Justicia (Translation).

Is President Hugo Chavez - gulp! - gay? - Tildan de aberración insidia a Chavez: Articulista insinuó homosexualidad (Translation): El ministro de Relaciones Exteriores venezolano, Nicolás Maduro, calificó de "aberración" el artículo de un columnista español publicado en el diario "El Mundo" que especula sobre una presunta homosexualidad del presidente venezolano, Hugo Chávez. - Centre-Right Party Backs Gay Candidate in Venezuela Election (2005). - Chávez y la homosexualidad (Translation).

Al salir del clóset: no ha sido fácil (Translation): Jogreg Henríquez es gay, y en este blog narró la forma en que lo dio a conocer al mundo. Y la manera en que ese mundo reaccionó. Luego de estudiar decenas de propuestas, la redacción de BBC Mundo decidió darle el primer lugar a esta bitácora digital y publicarla en nuestra página [BBC]. Jogreg es originario de Guatire, Estado Miranda, Venezuela. Tiene 33 años de edad y afirma que si bien tenía idea de su orientación sexual, por mucho tiempo evitó reconocerla.

Gay Politics in Venezuela: As the LGBT rights movement matures throughout Latin America, it's thrilling to be witness to history. One aspect of maturity is political engagement and in countries such as Chile, Mexico, Colombia and Brazil, the shape of engagement sometimes takes the form of openly gay candidates daring to run for office (and in the case of Mexico's Patria Jimenez or Enoe Uranga, actually winning). Now it is Venezuela's turn. Not that it is a first. Oswaldo Reyes, widely recognized as a pioneer in bringing homosexuality out of the closet in Venezuela by becoming one of the movement's first out leaders, was also the first person to run for political office in Caracas as a openly gay man in the late 1990's. Unfortunately - as some of the other candidates in Latin America - he seemed to run only on the fact that he was gay (and incorrectly assumed that he could win by counting on the gay vote alone). Rumors of campaign improprieties also followed him and tainted his reputation for the rest of his life. Mr. Reyes died earlier this year leaving an indisputable political legacy including the fact that he was the first one to call for constitutional protections for Venezuela's LGBT community during his failed candidacy to the National Assembly in 1999.

Escándalo en Venezuela por asesinato de prelado homosexual (Translation): El  asesinato del subsecretario de la Conferencia Episcopal  Venezolana, monseñor Jorge Piñango,  luego de haber tenido relaciones  homosexuales con un prostituto, en un motel de Caracas, Venezuela ha desatado un escándalo mayúsculo. El Fiscal General, autoridades policiales y medios de comunicación controlados por el Gobierno, diero a conocer detalles precisos del encuentro sexual del Monseñor, usando este triste hecho, para intentar desprestigiar a una Iglesia que viene denunciando las arbitrariedades del Gobierno y, últimamente, el poco imparcial nombramiento del Poder Electoral.

Venezuela's sexual revolution within the revolution: At the January World Social Forum in Caracas, Green Left Weekly’s Rachel Evans and Maurice Farrell caught up with Ricardo Hung from the Alianza Lambda gay-rights organisation and Moises Rivera Lopez, the coordinator of the Sexual Riverside Network for the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) community... Last August, on the international day of action against homophobia, Lambda “held a big protest in the Simon Bolivar plaza ... We took down the national flag and raised the rainbow flag.” In September, Lambda helps with a gay and lesbian film festival and with a December cultural festival... “We are also campaigning for same-sex marriage rights”, Rivera Lopez said. “On December 28, Venezuela’s vice-president Vincent Rangel announced that a national referendum would be held to make same-sex marriage legal for the first time.

$1M for HIV Awareness (but what about the gays?): So today I find an article ("An Ounce of Prevention, Aimed at Women and Youth" - IPS, August 12, 2005) that says that the Venezuelan government has decided to launch an initiative to raise HIV/AIDS awareness in two specific communities: Women and youth. - Yhajaira Marcano Bravo, Venezuelan Trans Activist fled the country due to police harassment and is asking for protection (Alternate Link). - Movimiento Gay Revolucionario de Venezuela participará en Foro Social Mundial (Translation).

Struggling for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Venezuela. - Venezuela Holds Gay Pride Parade. - Venezuela celebra por primera vez el Orgullo (Translation). - Venezuela salió del closet con una bandera en mano (Translation). - Deuxiéme Gay Pride au Venezuela. - Venezuela’s gay community have come out in style to celebrate “Gay Pride Day.” - El pasado 29 de junio se dio inicio en Venezuela y el mundo, la celebración de la Semana del Orgullo Gay... (Translation)" - Venezuela's Gay Pride Flag. - Candidatos a Mister Venezuela 2004. - Venezuela: Marcha del Orgullo Gay en Caracas (2004).

Venezuelan HIV Activists Defeat Libertador University: A court orders Venezuela's national teachers college to stop requiring an HIV test for admission. HIV/AIDs discrimination increases against those most susceptible to the silently growing epidemic, especially the very poor, or black, or gay - Venezuela: persecuzione di stato ai transessuali (Translation). - Gays En La Televisión Venezolana: Homofobia Masiva? (Translation)

Headline News, June 27, 2001: "Venezuela's Center for Psychiatric Studies (CIPPS) says that as many as 31% of Venezuelans are either homosexual or bisexual.  CIPPS director Fernando Bianco claims that clinical studies have shown between 9% and 11% are male or female homosexuals while 15-20% of the population maintain sexual relationships with either or both sexes. 'Our results are very similar to those in other countries although the base incidence of homosexuality here is higher at 9% than abroad (4%) ... probably because lesbianism and homosexuality is more recognized and tolerated in Venezuela.'" - Gays y lesbianas reclaman igualdad social y jurídica. (Translation) - El homosexual venezolano y la vil Venezuela (Alternate Link). - Soledad (Translation). - Movimiento Gay Revolucionario de Venezuela desde 2002 hasta nuestros días... (Translation).

Los adolescentes y la homosexualidad (Translation). - La homosexualidad en la adolescencia (Translation). - Grupo de Investigación de Género y Sexualidad (GIGESEX) (Translation): Retorno al genero: el postmodernismo y la teoria lesbiana y gay (Translation). - Homosexualidad, Género Y Cultura Política: PDF Download.

Hora Pico (Translation) "A muchas personas les incomoda hablar de estadísticas, pero a otras les sirve de brújula en medio de este boom gay. Son muchos los heterosexuales que han revisado una y otra vez su sexualidad y considerado la idea de intentar otras opciones. El argumento en general es, que en medio de todo este destape - fuertemente publicitado a través de los medios de comunicación - capaz que uno está metido en el closet y no se ha dado cuenta..." (El Nuevo Cojo Ilustrado Nº 4 - Julio 2003 - Venezuela: Hora Pico). - El rumor gay (Translation): "Es tan irracional la fobia contra la homosexualidad, que el poner en duda la virilidad masculina se ha convertido en el arma más poderosa para destruir la imagen de una persona. .." -  Venezuela y el homosexual "hombre" venezolano (Translation): "El problema PRINCIPAL de Venezuela es el altíssimo índice de homosexualidad reprimida existente en TODOS los hombres venezolanos. Venezuela es el pais donde todos los hombres, SIN EXCEPCION DE NINGUNO, son homosexuales. La vida del hombre venezolano gira, de la mañana a la noche y todos los dias de su vida, en contrarrestar y balancear las pulsiones homosexuales que emanan de lo mas íntimo de su ser. Su vida está dominada por los mecanismos de defensa que el venezolano usa para tratar de esconder su altísima homosexualidad. Esos mecanismos de defensa psicológicos son el pelo corto, el bigote, las chaquetas de cuero, la chiva, el poner tono de barítono al hablar, el comprarse un "jeep", etc., etc.,.."

Kozak Rovero, Gisela (2011). Words without nation: The diaspora and lesbianism in Venezuelan poetry. Sexualides: A Working Paper Series on Latin American and Caribbean Sexualities, 7. PDF Download. This article takes an initial look at the representations of lesbian women offered by poets Ana Nuño (1957), Dina Piera Di Donato (1957), Manón Kubler (1961), and Verónica Jaffé (1957). These writers’ different aesthetic projects are associated, on the one hand, with the development of poetry in Venezuela, and, on the other hand, with the emergence of a poetic discourse that is a product of the diaspora. The working hypothesis proposes that these texts demonstrate the poets’ search for their own symbolic, erotic universe within a phallocratic society and literary tradition and that they are thus foundational, marking a break with the rest of Venezuelan literature.

The HIV/AIDS Prevention Efforts in Venezuela: PDF Download. - Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: PDF Download. - Venezuela struggles to cope with Aids.

Identidades translocales y orientación sexual en Caracas: arqueología, genealogía y tecnologías de la orientación sexual (Word Download).

Él, Que Supo De La Vieja Herida: Representaciones De Él, Que Supo De La Vieja Herida: Representaciones De Homosexualidad En La Literatura De Armando Rojas (PDF Download).

Cartografia del deseo: Representaciones de homosexualidad masculina en la literatura hispanoamericana (1880--2000) (Spanish text, Manuel Ramos Otero, Armando Rojas Guardia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela) - 2002 - by Wilfredo Jose Hernandez, University of Connecticut. Dissertation Abstract.

Miss Gay Venuxuela (Translation). - Culminaron las sesiones de fotos del Miss Gay Venezuela (Translation). - Miss Venezuela Gay 2007. - Video Miss Gay Venezuela 2006. - Miss Venezuela Gay 2004.

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies: Browse Venezuela. - Diversa, el festival de cine gay llega Venezuela (Translation): La muestra internacional de largometrajes, en su versión itinerante, llegará al país sudamericano invitado por la Cinemateca Venezolana. En el marco de actividades por el Día Mundial del Orgullo gay, se proyectarán películas de todo el mundo. - Cinemateca Nacional de Venezuela exhibe ciclo de cine para promover debate sobre diversidad sexual (Translation).

Venezuela también tiene su teatro de transgénero (Translation).

Venezuela Offers a Hidden Paradise for Gay Men and Lesbians.

Resources: - Lambda Venezuela Orgullo Gay (Translation). República Gay Venezuela N/A (Archive Link) (Translation): Artículos, encuestas y foro de charlas. - Diversidad Sexual: Página en castellano dedicada a la diversidad sexual buscando dar orientación e información a la comunidad homosexual. - Movimiento Gay Revolucionario de Venezuela (Gay Revolutionary Movement of Venezuela) (Translation). - Divas de Venezuela (Translation): Trans, Gays, Lesbianas, Bisexuales, Intersexuales, Heterosexuales y toda la Diversidad sean Bienvenidos.

(Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - IGLA Report.(Archive Link) - LGBT rights in Venezuela. - Gayscape. - Google Directorio: Homosexuales y bisexuales Venezuela.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


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URUGUAY:  - Uruguay Honors Sexual Diversity: Latin American Memorial First Of Its Kind. - Against the discrimination: They inaugurate in Uruguay first "gay square" of Latin America. - Uruguay Leftists to Pass Homosexual Civil Partnership Law. - Uruguay Set To Legalize Civil Unions. - Senadores de Uruguay aprueban Ley de Concubinato para heterosexuales y homosexuales (Translation). - Uruguay aprobó por mayoría el proyecto de Unión Concubinaria para homosexuales (Translation).- Civil Union Legislation Stalls In Uruguay Parlament: Any improvements in benefits for same-sex couples appear to be a long way off in Uruguay. - Uruguay: Project of concubinato (Translation).

Pobres, políticos y homosexuales, los más discriminados en Uruguay (Translation): "La tolerancia es parte de los mitos fundamentales de la uruguayez, que hoy luego del 2002, definitivamente se está apagando", aseguró Gustavo Leal coordinador del estudio. - 20 años del movimiento homosexual uruguayo: ¿Es posible la igualdad sin visibilidad? (Translation): Claro que en este país aún queda mucho para terminar con la discriminación y la homofobia, y para instalar una conciencia de derechos humanos que garantice la igualdad y la equidad para todas las personas. Claro que la lista de nuestros derechos postergados aún sigue siendo larga...
Es justo reconocer que hemos avanzado... pero el desafío continúa como siempre: ¿es posible la igualdad sin visibilidad? ¿Quién se suma a la lucha?

La homosexualidad no mata, la homofobia sí, dicen sus familiares en Uruguay (Translation): "La homosexualidad no mata, la homofobia sí", afirmó la mexicana Irma Angel en Montevideo, en un acto en el marco del III Encuentro por la Unidad Familiar en la Diversidad con representantes de 14 países de América y Europa. El acto, en homenaje a las personas y familias víctimas de la homofobia, se realizó en la Plaza de la Diversidad Sexual, ubicada en el casco antiguo de Montevideo, donde se reunieron algunas decenas de personas con pancartas que rezaban consignas como "En una de cada cinco familias alguien no es heterosexual"...

Uruguay: Primer Pais Latinoamericano Que Sancionara Con Prision A Los Homofobicos (Translation): La reforma al Código Penal aprobada este mes por el Parlamento sanciona con hasta dos años de prisión a quienes promuevan la discriminación contra las minorías sexuales. La norma es inédita en Latinoamérica, pues leyes similares existentes en otros países no tienen alcance nacional, a diferencia de la uruguaya... La Genesis De Un Hito. - Abdala Y Las Uniones De Hecho. - Madres Lesbianas. - Movimiento Homosexual.

El monstruo homosexual (Translation): ... La proliferación de estos casos probablemente determina que, como mencioné, los adolescentes homosexuales en los Estados Unidos se suiciden con una frecuencia tres veces mayor que los heterosexuales. En Uruguay -a la espera de trabajos al respecto- la hipótesis de la mayor frecuencia relativa del suicidio homosexual podría ser aún más fundada que en el primer mundo.

Caravana y marcha de la diversidad sexual (Translation). - 11ª Marcha del Orgullo Homosexual 2003 (Translation). - Diversidad sexual: lanzamiento de campaña de firmas (Translation). - Gays Entre Los Curas: Curas Católicos Homosexuales Se Reunirían En Forma Secreta (Translation). - Prez Disses Gays: But the Lady Protesteth Too Much. - Presidente ataca a gays. ...pero la dama protesta demasiado. - Discriminación sexual en Uruguay (2002) (Translation): Esta es la conmovedora carta recibida en nuestra redacción de Julio César Duarte, procedente de Uruguay. En ella, bajo su experiencia, cuenta la árida situación de sentirse atraído por las personas de su mismo sexo en un país como el suyo. Asimismo, sirve para reflexionar sobre el difícil camino de una persona que se reconoce como gay y se enfrenta a la dura prueba de sus propias creencias religiosas.

A Very Out Lesbian: (Una lesbiana a cara descubierta) Diana Mines, one of the pioneers of lesbian, gay, transgender, and bisexual (lgtb) activism in Uruguay, talks about herself and the state of her community and her country. The Gully caught up with her last Fall, shortly after she helped organize Montevideo's eighth annual Pride March. - Lesbianas y Discriminación en la Sociedad Uruguaya Contemporánea (2002) (Translation).

Uruguay: avance en los derechos de los gay (2003) (Translation): José María Touron, murió con 35 años, en uno de los 20.000 accidentes de tránsito ocurridos en 1999 en Uruguay. Su muerte, cuatro años después, marcó un precedente judicial, al abrir una puerta a la modernización de la judicatura en materia sexual, según reconocieron organizaciones de activistas por los derechos de los homosexuales.

UNAIDS (2006): Uruguay: In Uruguay, even though HIV prevalence remains less than 1%, the epidemic is concentrated among populations at particular risk, such as drug users and men who have sex with men. - 2007 AIDS conference in Sydney, Australia: Men Who Have Sex With Men: Other studies put the rate of HIV among men who have sex with men at 17% in Maharashtra, India, 27% in the Ukraine in Eastern Europe and 21% in Uruguay in Latin America, according to the latest figures compiled by the Foundation for AIDS Research (amFAR). 

Jóvenes, Sexualidad Y Vih/Sida En El Uruguay Conocer Para Prevenir (PDF Download). - Justicia uruguaya investigará a Fossati por dichos contra futbolistas gays (Translation). - Sexual transmission of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections among male transvestite comercial sex workers in Montevideo, Uruguay.

Uruguay considers gay rightsN/A (Must Scroll). - Uruguay: avance en los derechos de los gay (Translation). - Uruguay forbids hate speech and violence based on sexual orientation. - Report from Uruguay on Lesbians Rights (1994?).

Prez Disses Gays: But the Lady Protesteth Too Much: "Batlle suggested that homosexuality was a "pathology" which should be "corrected." Uruguayan queer activists were not amused. They're afraid that if Batlle gets away with his public expression of homophobia, life could get more unpleasant for queers in Uruguay, both the relatively few who are out and the tightly closetted majority. Some fear his words could incite violence against gays..." - Presidente ataca a gays.

Urugay coach Jorge Fossati has called for a ban on gay players. “Sincerely, I believe that a gay should not be in a professional group of men,” Fossati told Uruguayan daily El Pais. “There are certain norms that have to be safe-guarded, and gays are real transgressors. The gays - well, they have different habits.” - Activistas 'gays' amenazan con llevar a juicio a DT Fossat (Translation): "Dirigentes de asociaciones de homosexuales exhortaron hoy a los futbolistas uruguayos a "hacer valer sus derechos" sexuales y amenazaron con iniciar acciones judiciales contra el entrenador de la selección de Uruguay, Jorge Fossati, por expresar su reparo a integrar homosexuales en su plantel..."

Happy in Uruguay: "Little by little we found other gay members, one of them had been my guiding teacher companion, another had served as the Young Adults' Leader, there was a returned missionary who had been assistant to the President in his mission, etc. Finally, on April 13, 1997, six of us met to talk about the creation of a chapter in Uruguay. This will be an important step for us. Church members can be very hostile against gays and gay members do not have anyone to turn to because the only thing one can find is intolerance . . . and excommunication..."

Homosexualidad en la Historia de Uruguay: Visión Social de la Homosexualidad (Translation) (Alternate Link) (Translation): ... La sociedad homofóbica: ¿razones? ... La virtud masculina ... Homosexualidad y delito ... Homofobia y pánico ... - Historia de amores ocultos (Translation).

Uruguay: South America's hot new gay getaway (Alternate Link). - Uruguay: destino gay friendly (Translation). - Is Punta Del Este, Uruguay Gay-Friendly? - ¿Existen guetos gay en el Uruguay? (Translation): Casi todos los sitios urbanos usualmente tienen un gueto gay. Montevideo siendo la ciudad más grande y habitada del Uruguay no sigue esta tendencia. Los sitios más visibles de la comunidad gay son el Centro, la Ciudad Vieja y el barrio de Pocitos. Usted puede notar la presencia gay or la decoración de los lugares, el tipo de negocios y las miradas en la calle.

En Gays y Lesbianas de Uruguay encontrarás el listado de películas de temática lésbica más completo de la Web (Translation). - En Gays y Lesbianas de Uruguay encontrarás el listado de películas de temática gay más completo de la Web (Translation). - Se estrena un nuevo capitulo de 'Let it bi', la nueva serie para gays (Translation): Se trata de una serie gay grabada en Barcelona que cuenta las historias independientes, aunque conectadas, de todo tipo de gente. La serie combina elementos de series como Friends, Frasier o Queer as folk. Entre sus personajes, un chico de 23 años forzado a la prostitución y al porno, una cantante transexual, un famoso actor de cine, una pareja a punto de separarse y sus respectivas relaciones.

Colectivo Ovejas Negras: Noticias - Nationales: Homofobia en Secundaria: Violencia (in)visible. - Abuso policial contra travestis: Nadie levanta los cargos. - Entrevista a Juan Castillo. - Entrevista al Presidente: la masonería, el casamiento entre homosexuales y el aborto. - Comisión multidisciplinaria diseñará el nuevo plan de Educación Sexual. -Reasignación legal de sexo.

Resources: - Gays y Lesbianas de Uruguay (Translation). - Mujeres Prohibidas: Primer sitio Web de Lesbianas Uruguayas (Translation). - Grupo Diversidad (Translation): Página del Grupo Diversidad, la Comunidad Organizada de Gays, Lesbianas, Travestis, Transexuales y Bisexuales del Uruguay. - Colectivo Ovejas Negras. - Out In Uruguay. - Relatos Lesbicos (Translation). - Sociedad > Gays y lesbianas (Translation). - Amor en la Diversidad: Love in Diversity (Translation). - Minorías sexuales en dfensa de la diversidad sexual (Translation). - Estudio Academico Sobre el Lsbianismo N/A (Archive Link) (Translation). - Varones Gays,Bisexuales y HsH en el Uruguay. Diverso. Grupo Fenix Diversidad. Uruguay (Translation).

Gay Uruguay (Global Gayz): News/Reports. - IGLA Report. (Archive Link)  - LGBT rights in Uruguay.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

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BOLIVIA:Demand Investigation Into The Attacks Against The Parade For Respect For Sexual Diversities In La Paz City (2007): On June 30th, 2007, the organizations of the LGBT community of La Paz City were organized to celebrate the Respect For Sexual Diversities Day, when one of the floats of the parade was attacked with a dynamite charge. As a result of the explosion, six of the activists were wounded. - Homosexuales denuncian ataque en marcha del orgullo Gay (Translation). - A gay commitment ceremony in Bolivia. - Demandemos Investigación a los Atentados contra la Marcha por las Diversidades Sexuales en La Paz (Translation). - Matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en Bolivia (Translation). - Hacia una conciencia social homosexual en Bolivia (Translation).

La comunidad gay de Bolivia busca espacio en la Asamblea Constituyente (Translation). - La homosexualidad no es escándalo ni prostitución ni espectáculos grotescos (Translation). - El 10 % de la población no es heterosexual (Translation). - Neonazis en la Bolivia de Evo (Alternate Link) (Translation): Asimismo, la comunidad de homosexuales no reciben ninguna crítica buena. “La decadencia de un pueblo va de la mano con la decadencia que esta dispuesta a soportar, se habla mucho de ser tolerante, incluso se ha dejado de ver la homosexualidad como una enfermedad mental y verla como una ‘opción sexual’. El Día de Orgullo Gay nos muestra una faceta más de un mundo en ruinas, se debería tratar a estas personas profesionalmente”, sentencia JEML.

Homosexuales a la Constituyente... (Translation) Lógicamente esta nueva constitución tiene que representar y beneficiar directamente a los bolivianos. Pero que pasa cuando las minorías no nos sentimos en ningún momento representados y pero aún no hay quien vele por nosotros y aún menos nustros intereses. La situación no es nada alentadora, se que existen grupos que apoyan al gremio uy otros grupos que son minorías. La constitución que se está planteando no contempla nuestros derechos, ni tampoco nos protege y peor aun ni nos menciona. La constituyente tiene muchas prioridades que cabalmente recaen en las primeras necesidades del boliviano, pero que hay de las minorías, tampoco tenemos un representante en la constituyente, y su hubiera sería objeto de burla, persecución.

Fuerzas Armadas Y Debilidades Internas: Los Peores Enemigos Del Movimiento Homosexual Boliviano (Translation):  El movimiento homosexual boliviano enfrenta serios tropiezos para la defensa de sus derechos a raíz de diversas debilidades internas y de una primitiva discriminación proveniente de diversos sectores, en especial de las Fuerzas Armadas… Tanto Cediv, como la página de lesbianas Estadea desconocen el número exacto de organizaciones homosexuales existentes en el país y manejan escasas informaciones respecto a las iniciativas efectuadas por otros grupos y sobre la historia del movimiento de las minorías en su país. El conocimiento sobre antecedentes básicos sobre la historia del movimiento homosexual boliviano se explica, a juicio de algunos grupos gays, por el surgimiento de muchas organizaciones que duran poco tiempo, sin siquiera alcanzar a ser conocidas por las mismas minorías sexuales... Con el objeto de superar esos problemas y coordinar las acciones del movimiento homosexual a nivel nacional, la "Comunidad Lésbica, Transgénero, Bisexual, Gay y Heterosexual", realizó en octubre una asamblea donde acudieron 60 representantes de todo el país. "Nos reunimos a nivel nacional por primera vez para dar continuidad y fortaleza a nuestro grupo" y, el mismo tiempo, contribuir al fortalecimiento de la totalidad del movimiento homosexual boliviano, declaró Zabala...

Paternidad Gay, Maternidad Lesbica (Must Scroll) (Translation): Ahora… soñando un poco, espero ver algún día un blog o una entrevista a madres lesbianas o padres gays que crían y educan sus propios niños (o adoptan). Digo soñando un poco porque se que la realidad boliviana no permite que personas del mismo sexo conformen una familia, ya que ni siquiera hay una ley que ampara o permite la unión civil entre personas del mismo sexo.

Gays and Guns, an Update: A week ago I wrote about how I missed out-there gay people in Bolivia, after more than a dozen years living in San Francisco. Well, I spoke a week too soon. Last night Cochabamba celebrated its first gay parade parade, complete with traditional Bolivian dances performed in drag. Los Tiempos reports that thousands of people participated, if not as paraders, then as spectators. Way to go Cochabambino gays! I should note that I can hardly wait for the comments blaming me personally for having brought Sodom and Gomorrah to La Llajta. That credit, I am afraid, will have to go to others, Bolivians one and all. And as for those who are upset about our support on the Blog of gay Bolivians, my advice is, really, just get over it. Trust me, your homophobia is far more damaging to gay people than their homosexuality is to you.

The Man Who Would Be Gay: Later that day I stopped by the gay and lesbian booth in the Plaza. The country´s univerity student federation´s congress was happening, and the square was full of posters, booths and young people texting each other. A very nice and extremely straight acting young man spoke with me and told me some figures. More than one in every two Bolivian gays has been physically assaulted at least once in their life. Some doctors refuse to treat HIV+ patients. The Catholic Church-- which is currently bargaining hard to be included in the talks which are rewriting the Constitution-- opposes sex education, protection for homosexuals (and transgendered people) from discrimination, distribution of condoms, etc. The government defines homosexuality as "a problem." Police routinely raid gaybars and bash. A social youth worker I later talked to said a huge # of her homeless kids were gay, not unlike the U.S. and oh-so-progressive Canada.

El desfile de gays (2004) (Translation). - In pictures: Bolivia Gay Pride (2005). - In pictures: Bolivia Gay Pride (2005): This is the second year that a Gay Pride event has been held in La Paz. Bolivia's first Gay Pride was held in the southern city Santa Cruz in 2001. In light of the controversy over Law 810, we decided to give this year's event a more political slant, renaming it a 'March for Sexual Diversity'. - Miss Transformista Gay Bolivia 2005 (Translation).

Bolivia law could legalize abortion, gay unions. - Podrían legalizar el aborto y las uniones homosexuales en Bolivia (Translation). - Bolivia Sexual Rights Bill to Open Floodgates to Abortion and Homosexual Unions. - La Razón: Los gays renuncian a su derecho a casarse por desconocimient (Translation). - Bolivia. Mujeres Creando beaten and arrested. - Programa sobre derechos sexuales estrenado con exito en Bolivia. Pero sus productoras todavia enfrentan cargos por "obscenidad". O Esquerdismo Gay (Translation). - El Deber: Echan a presuntos policías homosexuales en Santa Cruz (2002) (Translation):  Un tribunal del Batallón de Seguridad Física de la Policía de Santa Cruz determinó ayer la baja de dos guardias de la unidad policial que el sábado fueron sorprendidos desnudos, presuntamente manteniendo relaciones homosexuales.

Homosexuales piden fin de discriminación legal (2003) (Translation): La Red Nacional de Comunidades gay, lésbicas, bisexuales, travestis, transgéneros y transexuales de Bolivia exigió que se legisle el derecho a la libre opción sexual, el fin de la discriminación en sus fuentes trabajo y el matrimonio de parejas del mismo sexo, informa este martes el diario La Razón de Bolivia. - Nueva ley de derechos sexuales y reproductivos en peligro (Translation): Diversas organizaciones del movimiento de mujeres instaron al presidente de Bolivia, Carlos Mesa, a promulgar la reciente aprobada Ley Marco sobre Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos por el Parlamento y a no ceder ante las presiones de Iglesia Católica, la que quiere que el mandatario ejerza su derecho a veto.

Making waves interview with Mujeres Creando, Bolivian anarchofeminist group: Overnight, in beautiful handwriting, words appear on the walls of La Paz, the high-altitude capital of Bolivia. They speak truths Bolivian women won't say out loud. Deconstructing machismo, anti-gay prejudice and neoliberalism, Bolivian anarchofeminist group Mujeres Creando takes art back to the streets.

ILGA Special Report: Bolivia (1996). - Love and Honesty: The Dawn of Gay Rights: Mujeres Creando paints Bolivia. - The Climate in Bolivia.

Promoting HIV Risk-Reduction Strategies and Facilitating MSM Empowerment: Hombres Apoyando Cambios Efectivos y Responsables (HACER) is a weekend-long group-level intervention program to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), who may or may not identify themselves as gay. MSM constitute the group facing the highest stigma from society, public institutions, and the media. In Bolivia, MSM are perceived as promiscuous, irresponsible, and depraved, defying the norms of nature and society. Homosexuality remains a taboo that results in marginalization of MSM individuals and, in turn, leads many to engage in high-risk behavior. - Sinopsis de USAID sobre Bolivia: PDF Download. - HIV-1 subtyping and epidemiology in Bolivia.

Estadísticas VIH/SIDA: Datos de Bolivia 1984-2001 (Translation): La vía más importante de transmisión del VIH en Bolivia es la vía sexual. Más que el 95% se infectaron en relaciones sexuales, en los últimos tres años este porcentaje fue el 98%. Lamentablemente en el 20% de las personas registradas en los últimos tres años la vía de transmisión no fue conocida. Aunque al principio, la transmisión del VIH afectaba sobre todo a los homosexuales y bisexuales (el 75% de los casos), en los últimos años los casos se han convertido en una transmisión mayormente heterosexual. El 62% del total de los casos en los últimos tres años se infectaron por vía heterosexual, el 29% en relaciones homosexuales y el 8% corresponde a personas con preferencia bisexual. Estos porcentajes muestran que la infección con el VIH/SIDA no es un problema particular de determinados grupos, sino pueda ocurrir en todos las orientaciones sexuales. El año 2001 muestra un porcentaje registrado creciente en personas homosexuales y bisexuales en comparación con los años anteriores.

BoliviaGay.com: Se Inaugura La Mejor Discoteca Gay De Bolivia En Cochabamba. -

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

(Global Gayz): Gay Bolivia. Great Lake, Uyuni: Potosi Silver Mine. News/Reports. - ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - QRD: Bolivia.
 

GUYANA:Gays from Guyana report rights abuses at OAS meeting (2007):  A gay rights group from the South American country of Guyana aired concerns of LGBT Guyanese to the General Assembly of the Organization of American States and at a parallel event held days earlier. The presentation was part of a joint effort by Guyana's Society Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination, the International Gay & Lesbian Human Rights Commission and the Global Rights, Mulabi-Latin American Space for Sexualities & Rights to promote a higher level of participation of LGBT activists within the OAS. - Guyana Launches Men’s Affairs Bureau to Tackle Homosexuality, Address Domestic Violence (2011): Prevent Male Homosexuality: “We don’t want every young male child to start thinking that that is ok; I am not going to say the word. If we don’t want them to think that, then we need to start providing a community of men where they can get together and discuss male problems in a strong masculine environment. (President of Guyana).

Gay Bashing In Georgetown, Guyana – A Gay Man Shares His Experiences (2010): Homosexual men in Guyana are still finding it difficult to live free from fear of stigma and discrimination as the World celebrates another AIDS Day today. These are everyday parts of their lives whether at school, work or accessing services from hospitals or transportation service providers. Kobe, a young openly homosexual man, said his first experience with stigma and discrimination goes way back to his childhood when he was bullied and harassed... Kobe said that although he has overcome being affected by words, some people take their attacks further than that. He said that up to the day before (being interviewed) while he was speaking on his cell phone, five young men were passing and one of them picked up a bottle to toss at him... He added that the day prior to that incident, he was actually pelted with a bottle by another set of 20-something year old your guys.  He said that most of the harassment that he receives would be in the form of people smiling in a mocking manner or nasty comments from older people... Today, Kobe is part of the Guyana Rainbow Foundation and is also affiliated with the Society against Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD).  He also has a youth community based organization called Diverse Youth Movement which looks at issues in the younger Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual and Transgendered (LGBT) community.  His organisation looks at personal development and capacity building for young persons. He said that because the Guyana Rainbow Foundation is fairly new, they have not approached agencies for assistance with funding to look at social cohesion and conflict resolution...

Stella Says…Watch your back, morality police are lurking: A similar incident could take place in Guyana today since sodomy is still on the law books here too. Unless the standing laws of the country change to be more tolerant of sexual preference, it seems the logical outcome could one day be paranoid heterosexuals narking on their homosexual neighbours to "clean up the neighbourhood." The privacy of gay couples could be torn asunder by the scrutinizing eyes of disapproving moralisers. The civil rights of these homosexual Guyanese could be lost through ignorance and fear.

Uproar over `homosexual law' (Archive Link). - Law banning sexual orientation discrimination put on hold (Archive Link). -  Religious groups say no to sexual orientation in human rights bill (Archive Link). - Guyanese urged to denounce Constitutional Amendment on `sexual orientation - Human rights body backs sexual orientation bill. - D-day for Sexual Orientation Bill. - Guyana debates gay rights bill. - Parliament passes fundamental Rights Bill. - Future of sexual orientation bill uncertain. - Guyana Buries Gay Rights Bill. -  Guyanese/British Peer attacks anti-gay hysteria in Guyana. - Comprehensive Gay Rights Bill at Risk

Religious community condemns gay marriage. - Gay couple creates storm in Botanical Gardens (Archive Link). - Shooting at gay wedding in Guyana injures one. (Alternate Link). - "Otisha" released from hospital: "Otisha" was shot when an unidentified man, reportedly enraged that a same-sex marriage had taken place, fired at Pearson's house where the gay "couple" had gone after the wedding and the taking out of pictures at the Botanical Gardens."

The Gay Issue: "Here in Guyana, we have our own cross to bear as it were. For example, in March of this year what was purportedly a “gay marriage” – between two men – was celebrated. At a ceremony for the newly ‘weds’ one known homosexual man, the infamous transvestite Otisha, was shot by a man, irate over the alleged travesty that was taking place. The Guyana Council of Churches – whose Chairman, Juan Edgehill’s position as an anti-gay crusader is well established – as well as other religious bodies came out in instantaneous condemnation of the supposed union. One may do well to note that the act of violence committed by one person against another was not worthy of note in Bishop Edgehill’s indignation..."

Letter to Editor by Vidyaratha Kissoon: "Some of the suicide cases in Berbice felt they were homosexual" (Stabroek News, August 2, 2001): "The continued condemnation of homosexuality in Guyana has severe consequences. The recent survey of Suicide in Region 5 & Region 6 revealed that 8.9% of the suicides felt they were homosexual. Men and boys who are sexually abused are scared to report because they feel that they will be labelled as homosexual and be condemned as a result.

Mentally Ill Gay Guyanese Victim Of Torture Is Freed From A Complex Odyssey Of Over Six Years In Immigration Custody: Our pro bono client Peter Conrad Ali is a forty-year-old mentally ill gay Guyanese victim of torture including experiences of rape by governmental authorities in Guyana. He was detained by immigration authorities since 2000 after his return from Guyana and subjected to three separate removal proceedings on his claims for deferral of removal protection under the United Nations Convention against Torture.

HIV/AIDS in Guyana (2006):  In Guyana , youth, women of childbearing age, commercial sex workers, mobile populations such miners and loggers, and men-who-have-sex with men have been identified as among those most at risk for HIV infection. What began as an epidemic concentrated among groups engaging in high-risk behaviors, such as commercial sex work, is now characterized as a generalized epidemic since the prevalence rate is above one percent in the general population (based on public sector AIDS case reporting estimates are between 3.5% and 5.5%), though there is an acknowledged paucity of supporting data. Efforts are underway to collect data that will aid in the understanding of the Guyanese epidemic and ensure that programming is targeted at those most likely to transmit the disease. General heterosexual transmission includes sexual transmission that occurs in marital, regular, and casual partnerships and accounts for about 80% of those infected. Additionally, transmission through men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) is estimated to be about 18%. Rates of HIV among those considered most-at-risk are significantly higher than those of the general population. - Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: PDF Download. - Where major religions here stand on homosexuality, condoms. - The new HIV study (2006): a new study – conducted by Surinamese Ms. Julia Terborg – has been launched which shows that Female Sex Workers (FSW's), and Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) are most at risk for HIV infection.

Students Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD) - Guyana: News / Updates. - Students Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD) - Guyana: (Archive Link, to 2004) "Students Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD) is an independent network of students, mostly from the University of Guyana, who recognise the struggles of gay and lesbian Guyanese in different contexts. SASOD is also supported by individuals who through their own work have also recognised that many gay and lesbian Guyanese suffer silently as they come to terms with their sexual orientation..."

The SASOD 2003 Campaign: Guyana, a developing world of South America and part of CARICOM is now realizing its many potentials, roles and duty to its people. Part of Guyana's development is the adoption and ratification of basic UN Human Rights. To fulfill this giant task, Guyana's Parliament is now in debate over the Sexual (Orientation) Discrimination Bill. Persons from various sexual orientations have come out in support of this bold move but education of the masses to gain  full support for this bill is yet to be accomplished. This site is dedicated to publishing relevant articles, forums, letters and opinions that can help to boost knowledge, acceptance and tolerance of all Guyanese citizens and is solely interested in "Preserving Human Rights and Dignity for all Guyanese."

A description of being gay in Guyana in 2005 (Must Scroll):  “Openly gay” in Guyana usually refers to someone who is usually engaged in sex work and might dress in women's clothes. There is always a risk of violence or verbal abuse. Other gay men who do not wish to live this way would find it difficult to assert themselves since the homophobia in the society could result in persecution in different ways. There is always the threat of violence , and many gay persons have to live dual lives to avoid that violence. While there are communities of support, the communities of support cannot offer protection. Gay men have different experiences and have found ways to survive in Guyana. The experiences of gay men vary with economic background and political affiliations. Young gay men who live in rural areas are at greater risk if they live openly unless they have affiliations and connections with police or other prominent persons in the community. Communities of support can offer some solace, but no proteciton and gay men have to find their own ways to survive, and this usually means by not living openly – sometimes living dual lives.    

Guyanese Gay and Lesbian Anthology: a new anthology dedicated to gay and lesbian writers of the Guyanese Diaspora.  We welcome  contributions from emerging as well as established writers and seek to foster a literary dialogue within the Guyanese gay and lesbian community.

Research on young gay men in Guyana (2001, PDF Download): The purpose and significance of this research is an effort to help provide an explanation for the causes of the silent pain and use of coping mechanisms of gay thirty (30) years and under in Georgetown...   The stigmatization of gays causes them to suffer emotionally and psychologically. In some cases gay are unable to function effectively – there are always uneasy. The uneasiness takes the toll of a low self esteem creating a melodramatic and an unstable self concept... The research is intended to show that there lies in the life of gays a great amount of pain which they suffer silently from a rejected family members and society. One must also understand the psychological and social effects that causes gay to become traumatized. Such trauma can lead gays to become introverted (home boy) or commit suicide (take his own life).   

Review of Film Festival (2005): SASOD – the Society Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination – is currently hosting `Painting the Spectrum’, A Celebration of Love, more specifically gay and lesbian love. The festival consists of the screening of films which feature homosexuality or bisexuality as one of the major themes. - Painting the Spectrum 2006 - SASOD's Lesbian and Gay Film Festival: Report on Festival. - Painting the Spectrum 2007 - SASOD's Lesbian and Gay Film Festival: Report on Festival.

Gay Guyana (Global Gayz): News/Reports. - ILGA Report. (Archive Link)  - The Eastgarden. - LGBT rights in Guyana. - LandOfSixPeoples.com's Homosexuality Articles ListingLetters on Homosexuality and AIDS. - Students Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD) - Guyana: News / Updates. The SASOD 2003 Campaign.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

SURINAME:Un poco de oxigeno para los gay (2011, Translation): El Caribe no es un lugar amable para los homosexuales. Legislaciones restrictivas, prejuicio, agresiones, estigmatización... En Paramaribo, la capital de Surinam, la situación es un poco mejor. Escucha a Kenneth van Emden, de Suriname Men United, contarnos cómo están las cosas..


GUYANE / FRENCH GUYANA: - Guyane, 18 ans, "Je regardais plus son ptit copain qui était juste à coté..." (Translation): Y..., 18 ans, en 2003 dans une petite ville, je fais mon coming-out à ma meilleure amie, sa réaction est très bonne! Salut je m’appelle Y..., j’ai tout juste 18 ans. J’habite à Cayenne (capitale de la Guyane française mais pas plus de 30 000 habitants) autant vous dire que tout le monde se connaît, c’est pourquoi je ne donne pas mon prénom en entier... Aujourd’hui, je suis hyper heureux car je peux me confier à quelqu’un. J’ai un copain que j’aime. Lui m’aime. Il m’a fait connaître des gens (en particulier 2 personnes) super cool et très gentilles même si je ne suis pas toujours à l’aise avec eux (mais ça vient avec le temps). J’ai ma meilleure amie que j’adore. Et là ce sont tous des gens qui connaissent enfin le vrai Y... 

Urgence en Amazonie française, 2ème partie (Translation): "Face à une épidémie à VIH guyanaise très problématique, les experts préconisent une profonde réforme sociale et sanitaire, éducation comprise... Or il n’y a pas que les Haïtiens, il y a plein d’autres populations qui sont touchées. Le déni se porte bien. Aujourd’hui en Guyane, témoigner de son homosexualité et du fait d’être séropositif relève du suicide. Or, on voit bien ce qui se passe dans d’autres pays : nier certaines réalités n’a pas de sens..."

La Santé Observée: Chapitre 7.8: Le sida (PDF Download): "En 1997, en France métropolitaine, c’est la région Ile-de-France qui est la plus touchée (89 cas par million d’habitants), suivie de Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. Mais la situation est beaucoup plus défavorable en Guadeloupe (118) et Guyane (316)... Dans les départements d’outre-mer, la fréquence des cas de sida est extrêmement élevée en Guyane (4 003 cas par million d’habitants), en Guadeloupe (1 871) et en Martinique (1 127). Le taux à la Réunion, nettement plus faible, est du même ordre que dans de nombreuses régions de métropole. Les taux sont toujours très élevés en Guyane, puisque, pour l’année 1997, il est 8 fois plus fort qu’en moyenne en métropole. Le taux en Réunion demeure inférieur à la moyenne de métropole... La fréquence cumulée des cas de sida dus à une contamination homosexuelle ou bisexuelle masculine est la plus forte en Guyane, puis en Ile-de-France et dans les régions du Sud de la métropole..."

C'était le bagne... (Translation)"Il y a cent cinquante ans, Napoléon III décidait d'envoyer des forçats dans la colonie française d'Amérique du Sud. Un siècle d'enfer vert, que raconte à L'Express l'historienne Marion Godfroy... L'histoire des bagnards de Guyane recouvre un siècle d'histoire pénitentiaire. Un siècle de condamnations, de travaux forcés, de privations de liberté, de colonisation vouée à l'échec... Et la nuit? La nuit, c'est la chasse gardée du prisonnier. Les surveillants ne rentrent plus dans les cases. C'est le royaume du caïdat, et on a intérêt à savoir qui dort à côté de soi. C'est là où on règle les comptes, où on sort ce que l'on a planqué, les couteaux sous les lattes, les petites lampes à huile... L'argent commence à circuler, pour acheter de quoi manger ou une sodomie chez le copain. L'homosexualité est si répandue que l'administration pénitentiaire marque sur les dossiers soit PA, pour pédéraste actif, soit PP, pour pédéraste passif. Le passif est souvent un jeune relégué. Mais, finalement, aussi curieux que cela paraisse, le plus atroce est non la vie dans le pénitencier, mais à l'extérieur..."

Vaval Au Bûcher (Translation): Rien à voir néanmoins avec les travestis qui déambulent lors des parades, hésitant entre le costume féminin bon enfant ou burlesque et l'androgyne troublant que d'aucun n'hésiterait pas à qualifier dans cette société matriarcale et donc très machiste de "makoumé".Nos touloulous blancs se font d'ailleurs déborder par un groupe de travestis, genre drag queen sur le retour, ayant quelque peu négligé l'épilation. Curieusement l'un d'eux, malgré sa tenue provocante dégage un charme véritablement troublant et sa démarche si elle veut singer le déhanchement des mannequins de mode n'en demeure pas moins réellement féminine ; nous avons là un bon potentiel pour une gay-pride dont je doute de l'organisation prochaine en Guyane..."

ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - Gay Amazonia (Translation): Site de Guyane. - An Nou Allé ! CGL Antilles-Guyane & Outre-Mer (Alternate Link).

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.
 

PARAGUAY: - Soy Feliz... Soy Gay: Con esta frase nunca antes vista impresa en Paraguay, se lanza la campaña contra la homofobia en este país históricamente machista y homofóbico. Por primera vez en su historia, la ciudad de Asunción, capital de Paraguay y algunas ciudades aledañas, verán en varios puntos afiches visibilizando de manera explicita a hombres demostrando afecto hacia otros hombres... La homofobia, es considerada una patología social como el racismo, que se manifiesta en el temor, el rechazo o el ataque a la afectividad entre personas del mismo sexo, es culturalmente aceptada de manera muy extendida en Latinoamérica y abiertamente tolerada en Paraguay. - Primera campaña contra la homofobia en Paraguay (Translation). - Transsexual beaten to death by Paraguayan youth. - Inauguration of “EL CENTRO SOMOSGAY”, the first LGBT community center in Paraguay (2009). -- Paraguay se suma al Día Internacional Contra la Homofobia y la Transfobia (2011, Translation): En el marco del Día Internacional contra la Homofobia y la Transfobia entrevistamos a dos activistas de organizaciones que reivindican los derechos de lesbianas y trans en el Paraguay, para conocer cómo viven la discriminación y el estigma...

Aireana y otras organizaciones LGBTI de Paraguay apoyan la campaña regional "CURAS QUE MATAN" (2011, Translation): El 17 de mayo se celebró el Día Internacional contra la Homofobia, Lesbofobia y Transfobia, conmemorando que en el año 1990, en un hecho histórico, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) aceptó oficialmente la homosexualidad como una variación natural de la sexualidad humana. Aireana y otras organizaciones LGBT del Paraguay apoyan y difunden la campaña regional latinoamericana y del caribe “CURAS QUE MATAN” realizando actividades para hacer visibles nuestros derechos y alertar sobre las terapias "reparativas" que consideran la homosexualidad como una “enfermedad” que debe ser "curada"..

"Dios los cría", primer programa radial gay de Paraguay (Translation): "Dios los cría" es el primer programa gay-lésbico que se imite en el país por RGS Satelital. Ya lleva un mes y medio al aire y la receptividad de la comunidad homosexual como también de los simpatizantes es bastante buena, según los responsables. El conductor, Andrés Vázquez (36), sin ningún tipo de temor, admitió al aire que es homosexual, convirtiéndose en el primer radialista que asumió su condición de gay. El programa va todos los domingos desde las 22 hasta la medianoche siendo la productora general Natalia Cabarcos.

Paraguay: Presentan proyecto de Ley contra la discriminación social, homosexual y racial (Translation). - Dia Mundial Contra La Homofobia: Presentan proyecto de Ley contra la discriminación social, homosexual y racial (Translation).

Bishops of Paraguay denounce attempts to distort human sexuality: "We know that other laws will follow that will open the doors to the recognition of homosexual unions, adoption by such couples, the legalization and indiscriminate acceptance of abortion, etc, and that distort the value of the natural family made up of husband, wife and children. These positions often form the basis for certain behaviors such as homosexuality, lesbianism, etc," the bishops maintained.

Manifiesto por el día del orgullo gay lésbico (Alternate Link) (Translation). - My Esteemed Friend and Compadre. - Ministra Paraguaya Apoya Union Civil Entre Lesbianas (Translation). - Ministra de la Mujer promoverá unión civil entre lesbianas (Translation).

Paraguay. Otros ojos: (Translation): Con la asistencia de 400 personas provenientes de diversas organizaciones sociales y políticas, los días 15 y 16 de noviembre de 2003, se realizó en la ciudad costera de San Bernardino, el Primer Encuentro Feminista del Paraguay, convocado por la Coordinación de Mujeres del Paraguay (CMP)... Al lado de las voces indígenas que reclamaron por el uso indiscriminado de agrotóxicos que están dañando el ecosistema de sus comunidades, integrantes de la Red Gays, Lesbianas, Transgéneros y Bisexuales, encontraron en el taller sobre Discriminación y Derechos Humanos, un espacio para manifestar sus demandas. Este taller fue organizado por Amnistía Internacional (AI), Paraguay. Su objetivo fue contribuir a generar conciencia sobre las distintas formas de discriminación y brindar información sobre el principio de igualdad y no discriminación. Carmen Colazo, Coordinadora Nacional de AI, Paraguay, Fabián Gamarra, Coordinador de la Red Gays, Lesbianas, Transgéneros y Bisexuales, condujeron el debate donde se escucharon distintos puntos de vista de mujeres y hombres activistas de esta Red.

Amnistía en Paraguay N/A:  (Archive Link) "AI Paraguay está trabajando en cuestiones relativas a GLTB desde 1999 ya sea con alianzas estratégicas con organizaciones locales como con acciones concretas de defensa de activistas o víctimas de violaciones de Derechos Humanos motivadas por la orientación sexual." - Coordinacion de trabajo Gay, Lésbico, Transgénero y Bisexual: Noticias (2002) (Translation). - Coordinacion de trabajo Gay, Lésbico, Transgénero y Bisexual: Noticias (2003) (Translation). - Coordinacion de trabajo Gay, Lésbico, Transgénero y Bisexual (2003) (Translation). - Coordinacion de trabajo Gay, Lésbico, Transgénero y Bisexual (2004) (Translation).

Paraguay: Un Movimiento Incipiente Y Afectado Por Lapidarias Leyes (2003) (Translation): El movimiento homosexual paraguayo es uno de los más jóvenes en Latinoamérica y contiene características que lo vuelven único: jamás ha efectuado una marcha por la defensa de los derechos de las minorías sexuales, legislaciones internas discriminan explícitamente a ese sector de la población, cuenta con sólo tres espacios de diversión y en la actualidad sólo existe una organización defensora de los derechos humanos. Se trata del GAG-L (Grupo de Acción Gay Lésbico), instancia creada en 1999 y que en la actualidad lucha con gran esfuerzo y pocos recursos económicos por aminorar la discriminación en un país que castiga a las minorías sexuales a través de sus lapidarias leyes y de violentas acciones homóficas que van desde el nivel doméstico al público... En un contexto sociocultural y jurídico hostil, el GAG-L ha efectuado diversas actividades desde su creación para aminorar la homofobia, denunciando y reportando en informes cada hecho que violenta los derechos de su sector y efectuando talleres y seminarios de sensibilización.

UNAIDS (2006): Paraguay: In Paraguay, even though HIV prevalence remains less than 1%, the epidemic is concentrated among populations at particular risk, such as sex workers and drug users. The main mode of HIV transmission is sexual intercourse and the HIV transmission has increased in young people. Young women are particularly at risk to HIV infection due to their low level of education, unequal access to formal employment, unequal income and social status, and limits on their ability to negotiate the use of condoms or safer sex... Plans for 2007: Support HIV prevention initiatives, especially those targeting key populations at high risk (such as men who have sex with men; sex workers; and transgender people)  - Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of bisexual men in Paraguay. - The risk of sexually-acquired HIV infection in Paraguay.

Tejiendo Redes Contra la Explotación de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes en Paraguay (2007, PDF Download): ... Trabajo de CEAPRA con niñas transexuales... Negativas: Discriminar por la orientación sexual o identidad de genero. -  Abordaje discriminativo, desde las instituciones que trabaja por los Derechos de la Niñez y Adolescencia. - Dificultades en el área de educación, para la inserción escolar de niñas transexual.

Being an American homosexual in Paraguay (1986).

Paragay: Joja ha Joayhu [Unión e Igualdad] (Translation)Info/Política (Translation). Noticias (Translation).

Gay Paraguay (Global Gayz) - ILGA Report. (Archive Link) - The Eastgarden. - En el GAG-L, Grupo de Acción Gay Lésbico N/A (Archive Link), trabajamos por la construcción de una sociedad más igualitaria y justa, donde todas las personas gocen de sus derechos sin distinción de raza, sexo, idioma, religión, opinión, orientación sexual o cualquier otra condición. Reivindicamos el derecho a la libre orientación sexual y el respeto a las diferencias. - Gay Paraguay: Info for Tourists.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

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The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

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Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

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International Issues & Resources.

 

Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies / Reports (and/or Abstracts):


Barrán JP (----). Homosexualidad en la Historia de Uruguay: Visión Social de la Homosexualidad. José Pedro Barrán es Catedrático de Historia del Uruguay, de la Licenciatura en Historia de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de la República. Full Text. (Translation) Full Text. (Translation)

Bautista CT, Sanchez JL, Montano SM, Laguna-Torres VA, Lama JR, Sanchez JL, Kusunoki L, Manrique H, Acosta J, Montoya O, Tambare AM, Avila MM, Viñoles J, Aguayo N, Olson JG, Carr JK (2004). Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among South American men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(6): 498-504. Abstract. PDF Download

Brown S (2002). “Con discriminación y represión no hay democracia” The Lesbian and Gay Movement in Argentina. Latin American Perspectives, 29(2): 119-138. PDF Download.

Cáceres CF (2002). HIV among gay and other men who have sex with men in Latin America and the Caribbean: a hidden epidemic? AIDS, 16, Suppl 3: S23-S33. PDF Download.

Cáceres CF, Fernández P, Silva-Santisteban A (2009). Men who have Sex with Men and the HIV Epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean. PDF Download.

Carrara S, Simões JA (2008). Sexuality, Culture and Politics: The Journey of Male Homosexuality in Brazilian Anthropology. Cadernos Pagu, Campinas, 28: 65-99. Translated Version. PDF DownloadPDF Download.

Carrara S, Vianna ARB (2003?). Lethal Violence Against Homosexuals in Rio de Janeiro City: General Characteristics. PDF Download.

Chinaglia M, et al. (2008). Assessment of Risk Factors for HIV Infection in Female Sex Workers and Men who have Sex with Men in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay. PDF Download.

Clark JL, Caceres CF, Lescano AG, Konda KA, Leon SR, Jones FR, Kegeles SM, Klausner JD, Coates TJ; NIMH STD/HIV Collaborative Prevention Trial (2007). Prevalence of same-sex sexual behavior and associated characteristics among low-income urban males in Peru. PLoS One, 22;2(1): e778. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Coelho, Tony (2009). When the Global and the Local Collide: Gay Identity in Brazil and South Africa According to Parker and Reid. Amsterdam Social Science, 1(2): 6-23. PDF Download. PDF Download.- Summary &  Download Page.

Córdova, Luiz Fernando Neves (2006). Trajetórias de homossexuais na Ilha de Santa Catarina: temporalidades e espaços. [History of homosexuals in Ilha de Santa Catarina: temporalities and spaces] Tese apresentada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências Humanas do Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. PDF Download.

Balder, Sara (2005). Marginalization of alternative gender and sexual identities: The role of normative discursive practices in Chilean society. Colorado Research in Linguistics, 18(10): 1-11. PDF Download.

de Braz CA (2006+). Macho versus Macho: a produção discursiva da hiper-masculinidade em alguns contextos homoeróticos na cidade de São Paulo. Full Text. Translation. Download Page.

de Sousa ICF, Cruz FO  (2000). Conceptual and Practical Approaches to HIV/AIDS: The Brazilian Experience. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 3(1):  Full Text, PDF Download.

Decker JC (2007). The progression of the gay rights movement in Buenos Aires, Argentina. PDF Download.

Douglas, Eduardo de Jesus (1998). The colonial self: homosexuality and mestizaje in the art of Nahum B. Zenil. Art Journal, 57(3): 14-21. Full Text.

Espejo, Juan Cornejo Espejo (2011). “Coming out” en la escuela. Bagoas, 5(6): 49-68. PDF Download. Translation.

Fernández-Dávila P, Salazar X, Cáceres CF, Maiorana A, Kegeles S, Coates TJ, Martinez J; NIMH HIV/STI Collaborative Intervention Trial (2008). Compensated Sex and Sexual Risk: Sexual, Social and Economic Interactions between Homosexually- and Heterosexually-Identified Men of Low Income in Two Cities of Peru. Sexualities, 11(3): 352-374. PDF Download.

Ferreira AD, et al. (2006). Profile of male Brazilian injecting drug users who have sex with men. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22(4): 846-860. PDF Download.

García J, Laboy MM, de Almeida V, Parker R (2009). Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 1;6(3):44-60. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Gondim RC, Kerr LR, Werneck GL, Macena RH, Pontes MK, Kendall C (2009). Risky sexual practices among men who have sex with men in Northeast Brazil: results from four sequential surveys. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 25(6): 1390-8. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Gonzalez S (2008). Living in the Margins: The Male Homosexual Experience in Salvador. PDF Download. ISP Collection. Paper 242. Abstract.

Goodreau SM, Peinado J, Goicochea P, Vergara J, Ojeda N, Casapia M, Ortiz A, Zamalloa V, Galvan R, Sanchez JR (2007). Role versatility among men who have sex with men in urban Peru. Journal of Sex Research, 44(3): 233-9.  PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

Green JN (2003). Homosexuality, Eugenics, and Race: Controlling and Curing “Inverts” in Rio de Janeiro in the 1920s and '30. Paper presented at the onference "The Body and the Body Politic in Latin America.". Presented at the Conference on “The Body and the Body Politic in Latin America,” Center for Historical Studies, University of Maryland at College Park. April 18-19, 2003. PDF Download. Download Page.

Green JN (2001). Challenging National Heroes and Myths: Male Homosexuality and Brazilian History. Estudios Interdisciplinatios De America Latina Y El Caribe, 12(1). Full Text. Download Page.

Green JN, Babb FE (2002). Introduction. Gender and Same-Sex Desire in Latin America. Special Issue of Latin American Perspectives. Edited with Florence Babb, 29(2): 3-23. PDF Download.

Guajardo G (2006). Visibilidad y Participación Social de las Homosexualidades en Chile: La emergencia de una esfera pública subalterna. Revista Mad: Revista del Magíster en Antropología y Desarrollo, 14. PDF Download.

Gutiérrez J-P, et al. (2006). Correlates of condom use in a sample of MSM in Ecuador. BMC Public Health, 6: 152. Full text. PDF Download.

Human Right Watch (2009). "Not Worth a Penny" - Human Rights Abuses against Transgender People in Honduras. Washington, DC: Human Rights Watch. PDF Download Page.

Izazola-Licea JA, Gortmaker SL, De Gruttola V, Mann J (2000). Prevalence of Same-Gender Sexual Behavior and HIV in a Probability Household Survey in Mexican Men. Journal of Sex Research, 37(1): 37-43.  Full Text. (Journal of Sex Research: Table of Contents)

Kozak Rovero, Gisela (2011). Words without nation: The diaspora and lesbianism in Venezuelan poetry. Sexualides: A Working Paper Series on Latin American and Caribbean Sexualities, 7. PDF Download.

Kulick D (2008). Travestis, stigma, violence and escândalos. Talk given at CLAM/UERJ. PDF Download.

Kulick D, Klein C (2001). Scandalous acts: the politics of shame among Brazilian travesti prostitutes. Paper presented at the "Gender and Citizenship: Looking Across Policy Borders" Symposia, Ledamotshuset, Sweden. PDF Download. PDF Download. Full Text. Home Page. Scandalous acts: The politics of shame among Brazilian travesti prostitutes. In B. Hobson (Ed.), Recognition Struggles and Social Movements. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lancaster RN (1988). Subject Honor and Object Shame: The Construction of Male Homosexuality and Stigma in Nicaragua. Ethnology, 27(2): 111-125. PDF DownloadAbstract.

Lewis, Vek (2009). Sociological Work on Transgender in Latin America: Some Considerations. PDF Download.

Llamoja, Gaby Mariño (2008). Visibilidad Trans en America Latina y el Caribe.  PPT Presentation. PPT Download. Translation.

Loehr K (2007). Transvestites in Buenos Aires: Prostitution, Poverty & Policy.  Master's Dissertation, Georgetown University & Universidad de San Martin. PDF Download.

Lyons D (2004). The construction of gay identity in Chile. CS&P, 3(1): 24-44. PDF Download.

Machado, Joani de Nazaré Campos; Silva, Silvia Cristina de Souza SILVA(2002). Perfil psicossocial da prostituição masculina em Belém. Universidade da Amazônia. Belém-Pará. PDF Download.

Malufm Sônia Weidner (2005). Embodiment and Desire: All About my Mother and Gender at the Margins. New Working Paper Series, London School of Economics, Gender Institute. PDF Download.

Mariño R, Minichiello V, Disogra C (2003). Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences. Rev Panam Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health 13(5), 311-19. PDF Download.

Marsiaj JP (2006). How Relevant Are Legislatures? Sexual Diversity Politics and Political Institutions in Brazil. Papern prepared for delivery at the 2006 Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, York University, Toronto, Ontario, June 1-3, 2006. PDF Download.

de Mello M, de Araujo Pinho A, Chinaglia M, Tun W, Barbosa Júnior A, Ilário, Paulo Reis MCFJ, Salles RCS, Westman S, Díaz J (2008). Assessment of Risk Factors for HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Metropolitan Area Of Campinas City, Brazil, Using Respondent-Driven Sampling. Horizons Final Report. Washington, DC: Population Council. PDF Download.

Mendès-Leite R (1995). Michê: la masculinité au marche ou les aléas de la "prostitution virile" au Brésil. In: Mendès-Leite, R. (dir.) Un sujet inclassable ? Approches sociologiques, littéraires et juridiques des homosexualités. Lille, GKC, 1995. Full Text. Bibliographie.

Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua (2008). Encuesta sobre seroprevalencia del VIH en población Trans-femenina y sus contextos asociados de vulnerabilidad en las Regiones Autónomas del Caribe Norte y Sur de Nicaragua , 2008. PDF Download. Translation.

Monteiro M (2001). Contemporary male homoeroticism in Brazilian gay magazines: the case of Sui Generis and HomensFull TextDownload Page.

Monteiro M (2000). O homoerotismo nas revistas Sui Generis e  Homens. Full Text. Translation. Download Page.

Mott L (2003). O jovem homossexual: noções básicas de direitos humanos para professores, professoras e para adolescentes gays, lésbicas e transgêneros. Revista do Mestrado em Educação, 7: 95-102. PDF Download. Abstract also in English.

Muñoz CB (2004). Identidades translocales y orientación sexual en Caracas: arqueología, genealogía y tecnologías de la orientación sexual. Programa Globalización, Cultura Y Transformaciones Sociales. Centro De Investigaciones Postdoctorales, Facultad De Ciencias Económicas Y Sociales, Universidad Central De Venezuela (Word Download).

Nesvig, Martin (2001). The Complicated Terrain of Latin American Homosexuality. Hispanic American Historical Review, 81(3/4): 689-72. PDF Download.

Nussbauner GM (2005). Homossexualidade e subjetividade on line: um estudo de comunidades virtuais gays. Alceu: Revista de Comunicação, Cultura e Política, 6(11): 64-76. PDF Download.

Orellana JO, et al. (2001). Actidud hacia la homosexualidad en estudiantes de Iztacala UNAMFull Text. Full Text. Translation. Translation.

Pan American Health Organization (2009). Challenges Posed by the HIV Epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean 2009. PDF Download.

Pinella AP, et al. (2003). Evaluación clínica de la orientación sexual en adolescentes. El papel de médicos generales y pediatras. Med UNAB, 6(17): 93-97. PDF Download.

Parker R, et al. (1995). AIDS prevention and gay community mobilization in Brazil. Development, 2: 49-53. PDF Download.

Parry O (1996). In One Ear and Out the Other: Unmasking Masculinities in the Caribbean Classroom. Sociological Research Online, 1(2). Full text.

Peres WS (2002). Biossociabilidade contemporânea e a expressão travesti [Contemporary biosociability and transgender expression]. Revista de Psicologia daUNESP, 1(1):  8-17  PDF Download. Translation.

Pérotin-Dumon A (----). Las crónicas de Pedro Lemebel y la identidad homosexual en Chile, 1890-1990. Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Propato, Ignacio Daniel (2010). Homosexualidad en Los Medios Masivos de Comunicación de La Argentina. Creación y Producción en Diseño y Comunicación, 32. PDF Download.

Rios LP (2003). Parcerias e práticas sexuais de jovens homossexuais no Rio de Janeiro. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 19, Supplement 2. Full text.

Rodrigues J, Grinsztejn B, Bastos FI, Velasque L, Luz PM, de Souza CT, Georg I, Pilotto JH, Veloso VG (2009). Seroprevalence and factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV-negative high-risk men who have sex with men from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 9: 39. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download.

Salazar X, et al. (2005). Vulnerability and sexual risks: Vagos and vaguitas in a low income town in Peru. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(4): 375–387. PDF Download.

Snowden JM, Konda KA, Leon SR, Giron JM, Escobar G, Coates TJ, Caceres CF, Klausner JD; NIMH HIV/STD Collaborative Intervention Trial (2010). Recent syphilis infection prevalence and risk factors among male low-income populations in coastal Peruvian cities. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 37(2): 75-80. PDF Download. Full text.

Stern R (2001). Gay Costa Rica: Gay Life and Democratic Process in Costa Rica. Gay and Lesbian Review, July/August. Full text.

Soto-Lafontaine, Melisa A (2008). Gender Variance, Institutional Imaginaries. Latin American Transgendered Immigrants in the Netherlands. Master's Dissertation, University of Amsterdam. PDF Download.

Tabet S, Sanchez J, Lama J, Goicochea P, Campos P, Rouillon M, Cairo JL, Ueda L, Watts D, Celum C, Holmes KK (2002). HIV, syphilis and heterosexual bridging among Peruvian men who have sex with men. AIDS, 16(9): 1271-7. Abstract. PDF Download.

Vergès C (2007). Programas De Educación Sexual En Panamá. Act Bioethica, 13 (1) (Full Text) (Translation).

Williams, Jeff (1998). Homosexuality and Political Activism in Latin American Culture: An Arena for Popular Culture and Comix. Other Voices, 1(2). Full text.

Zunt JR, et al. (2006). Risk factors for HTLV-II infection in Peruvian men who have sex with men. American Journal of Tropical medicine and Hygene, 74(5): 922–925. PDF Download.

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