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Latin America, Caribbean & Africa: Africa

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Index: Latin America & Africa - Middle East / Asia - Race/Ethic Minority Issues: U.S., Canada, Europe,  New Zealand & Australia - Homosexuality:  Biological  or  Learned ? Public School Issues - Transgender / Tranvestite / Transsexual - Lesbian  &  Bisexual Women - Homo-Negativity / Phobia - Identity Formation  &  Coming Out - Counseling  &  Therapy - Professional Education  - Bisexuality - Religion   &  Spirituality - Male  Youth Prostitution - HIV-AIDS - Gay & Bisexual Male Suicide Problems - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction  -  - GLBT  History - Community Attributes  &  ProblemsCouples / Families / Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence - The Elderly

Latin America, The Caribbean 
& Africa: Africa

Section Index

Part 2 - "Africa" (This Page): South Africa - Kenya - Zambia - Zimbabwe - Namibia - Nigeria - Uganda - Burkina Faso - Botswana - Ivory Coast - Senegal - Egypt - Algeria - Morocco - Tunesia --- Angola - Benin - Burundi - Cameroon - Cape Verde --- Central African Republic - Chad - Comoros - Republic of Congo - Democratic Republic of Congo --- Equatorial Guinea - Erithrea - Ethiopia - Gabon - Gambia -- Ghana - Guinea - Guinea Bissau - Lesotho - Liberia --- Ghana - Guinea - Guinea Bissau - Lesotho - Liberia --- Mauritius - Mozambique - Niger - Reunion - Rwanda --- Sao Tome and Principe - Seychelles - Sierra Leone - Somalia - Sudan - Swaziland - Tanzania - Togo --- General African Resources --- International Issues & Resources.

Part 1 - "Latin America" : Mexico - Cuba --- Caribbean: Jamaica - Trinidad / Tobago - Puerto Rico - Haiti - Martinique / Guadeloupe - Netherland Antilles - Cayman Islands - Bahamas - Bermuda - Saint Lucia --- Latin American / Caribbean Resources --- International Issues & Resources..

Part 2 - "Latin America": Central America: Panama - Honduras - Belize - Costa Rica - Nicaragua - Guatemala - El Salvador --- South America: Brazil - Peru - Chile - Columbia - Argentina - Ecuador - Venezuela - Uruguay - Bolivia - Guyana - Paraguay --- Latin American / Caribbean Resources --- International Issues & Resources.

To "The SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

The African GLBT Resources Now Have A New Home! 

Sexuality Policy Watch (2008): Position Paper on the Language of “Sexual Minorities” and the Politics of Identity.


SOUTH AFRICA: - Highlights African LGBTI Conference (2011): In South Africa, it was noticed that despite all legal changes promoting LGB equality, there are still issues to be addressed, such as the unequal age of consent regarding heterosexual and homosexual interactions. More importantly, there is a huge gap between what has been accomplished legally and the social situation. While the law hardly discriminates based on sexual orientation, socially same-sex sexuality is only marginally accepted. - South Africa's gay betrayal (2007): South Africa is one of the world's most liberal democracies. So why is it failing to support gay rights in international forums? - Gender inequality and corrective rape of women who have sex with women (2009). - Being Straight and Being Gay: Identity or Multiple Desire. The Case of South Africa (2010, Alternate Link). - Transgender Inclusion in the Namibian and South African LGBT Movements (2007): I examine the implications for few activists claiming transgender as a personal identity and the Namibian and South African movement’s embrace of transgender as an inclusive political strategy as activists participate in creating an African LGBT movement. - Sexual Revelations of Male Inmates: Negotiating Sexual Experiences within the Confines of a Prison (2005).

Joburg Pride statement on arrest of gays and lesbians in Vosloorus (2010): "We do not expect special privileges from the police, but we certainly expect them to respect the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians and their basic human rights. The police must be better instructed to understand and protect the dignity and rights of all South Africans as enshrined in our constitution," she said. -  South Africa: Police Harassment Continues After Gay Pride (2010). - Lesbienne en Afrique (2006, Translation): L’Afrique du sud fait figure de paradis pour les homosexuels en Afrique : la Constitution interdit toute discrimination. Mais la réalité n’est pas toujours aussi rose... Mais dans les townships et les régions rurales, la situation vécue par les homosexuels reste très difficile...- Mr. Gay South Africa wins Mr. Gay World 2011 (2011). - Mr Gay World 2012 to give hope to African LGBTI community (2011). - In The Pink: Gay radio in South Africa (2007). - “What's Identity Got To Do With It?” Rethinking Intimacy and Homosociality in Contemporary South Africa  (2009): The article looks at girls' relationships as spaces in which homosociality, same-sex intimacy, and erotic practices can join together; however, the latter is increasingly joined by homophobia. I argue that the “closet” violently jars with some same-sex relationships, such as “mummy-baby” relationships, because they have never been closeted as such..

South Africa's high court approves gay marriage (2005): Decision paves way for homosexual unions, a first for the continent. - Awaiting a Full Embrace of Same-Sex Weddings (2010): More than 3,000 same-sex couples have been married in South Africa, with about half of those couples including at least one foreigner, the government says...  Anthony Manion, director of Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action, said the law had largely failed to benefit blacks living in the impoverished townships that stretch for miles outside cities like Cape Town and Johannesburg. In them, gay men and lesbians often face unabashed discrimination and violence; advocates say that a growing number of lesbians have become victims of so-called corrective rapes aimed at ridding them of their sexual orientation. “The vast majority of gay people in South Africa are still shut off from marrying the partner of their choice because of the deep economic inequality, social isolation and cultural exclusion,” Mr. Manion said.  He and others complain that the focus on wedding cakes and floral arrangements distracts attention from far more serious challenges. Melanie Judge, an author of “To Have & To Hold: the Making of Same-Sex Marriage in South Africa,” was far more blunt, accusing white middle-class South Africans of ignoring their black brethren in their rush to the altar. “Marriage is a commodity that’s been branded and packaged,” she said. “The law hasn’t gotten to the depths of prejudice if gay marriage ignores our collective trauma in favor of clothes, makeup and honeymoons.” - Working Class and Gay in South Africa (2010, Video, CNN): If you’re working class–and South Africa is a very social conservative country, with the working classes holding some objectionable views too–and gay, then you condemned to a more precarious life. - Constitutional Authority and its Limitations: The Politics of Sexuality in South Africa (2007). - Beyond the law, homophobia remains pervasive (2010).

Homophobia Trumps Racism in South Africa (2010): We are all aware of the fact that most of our government's policies are covered in a veil of hypocrisy and facade. Our rights, though proudly displayed in our constitution for all to marvel at, are sometimes not worth the paper they are written on. As a gay men in this country you are perceived to be an anomalous being that needs to be tolerated for the sake of the “rainbow nation” farce. Our president is quick to call you derogatory names and the ANC Youth League's leaders would not miss a beat in following suit as he too has shared his disapproving sentiments on the issue... Gay South African especially BLACK gay South Africans should look at what is happening to the white community of this nation and brace themselves for the possibility that they might face the same future. We all know that when it comes to the hierarchy of human existence we are at the bottom... I am black and love this country dearly BUT I am also gay and love my life. We only have to look at our fellow African brothers across the diaspora to see that when the politicians are done destroying the economy of their countries they turn to the minority groups to divert attention from their acts. Atrocities are committed daily against the gay community in Africa and nobody bats an eye except the world's gay community. Sadly we live in a continent that is easily swayed by rants of megalomaniacs and we quickly forget that they are the enemy not two people who want nothing more than to love each other and live in peace.

EPOC: homophobic killings continue in SA (2012): Over the past few weeks, South African townships have suffered a series of murders in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) community. The first being of Thapelo Makutle, a 23 year old Gay man in Kuruman, who was killed after having an argument with highly homophobic people, who are also suspected of killing him. The second victim was Phumeza Nkolonzi, who was shot three times in front of her family, in Nyanga: Cape Town. The third victim, Andritha Morifi, a young Lesbian woman in Limpopo who was killed in the most brutal manner. The fourth victim was Neil Daniels, a Trangender in Cape Town. Lastly, Sanna Supa, a Lesbian woman from Soweto was shot dead in her home. There are probably more cases that we do not know about. Even though South Africa is a country filled with crime, we at EPOC believe that these were not random killings but are homophobic attacks on the LGBTI community, the pattern in which they occurred makes us sure of this. The constitution of this country is meant to protect LGBTI rights, but we feel that not enough is being done to find the perpetrators of these crimes, our matters are not taken seriously enough and we are outraged at how incompetent our justice system is and that LGBTI people are still treated very poorly in government institutions by non-sensitised, homophobic and hateful service providers.

Arndt, Marlene (2009). Attitudes towards bisexual men and women: the relationship between respondents' attitudes and their sexual orientation. PhD Dissertation, Psychology, University of Johannesburg. PDF Download. Download Page. This study posits that although the South African government has shown an unprecedented commitment to acknowledging and upholding the human rights of bisexual men and women, negative attitudes exist towards bisexual men and women. A mixed method research study was conducted, consisting of three phases... The results indicated that participants’ attitudes towards bisexual men and women vary on a range of factors such as gender, religiosity, contact, and the sexual orientation of the participants. Both heterosexual and homosexual students have more negative attitudes towards bisexual men and women than bisexual students. This double discrimination by heterosexuals and the gay and lesbian community is seldom recognised or acknowledged. Therefore, the current research findings elucidate that this oppression is real, and may have negative psychological effects on bisexual men and women. The results are discussed against the background of previous studies, and suggestions for future research are made.

Bateman, Chris (2011). Transgender patients sidelined by attitudes and labelling.  SAMJ: South African Medical Journal, 101(2). Full Text. In spite of an enlightened constitution and enabling legislation, South Africa's small transgender population continues to battle medical prejudice and ignorance in addition to huge societal pressure to conform to socially constructed sexual stereotypes. An Izindaba investigation showed that transgender people need precise information and deep pockets to access hormone treatment and/or gender-reassignment surgery, be it in the public or private sector.

Stephens, Angeline V (2010). An exploration of Hate Crime and Homophobia in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa: The Gay and Lesbian Network. PDF Download. This report presents key findings of a research study commissioned by the Gay and Lesbian Network (GLN) in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The GLN is a non-profit organisation that was established in 2003 in response to the lack of psycho-social support services for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI)1 community in Pietermaritzburg... This study signals a response to events that have occurred in national and local contexts: i). It is in response to incidents of hate crime that have been reported in South Africa over the last decade. These mainly include xenophobic and homophobic acts. In particular, a number of homophobic incidents, primarily targeting black lesbian women, received significant media coverage and lobbying from various non-government organisations (NGOs) that highlighted the insidious reality of this crime. In particular, the abhorrent murders of Zoliswa Nkonyana in 2006, of Sizakele Sigasa, Salome Massoa and Thokozane Qwabe in 2007 and that of Banyana Banyana captain, Eudy Simelane in 2008 resulted in significant advocacy and campaigning under the auspices of the Joint Working Group2 (JWG) that sought to draw attention to homophobia in South Africa and to bring about justice and legislative reform...

SA gay activists say government rats on constitution (2011): South African supporters of gay rights claim their government has broken the country's constitution by failing to support a United Nations motion condemning violence against homosexuals. - South Africa’s gay human rights disgrace (2008): South Africa didn’t sign the UN decleration on equal rights of LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, intersexed and questioning) people. - South Africa betrays principles on gay rights (2009). - Homophobia Faces Off Against Racism in South Africa (2010): Matjila seems to be suggesting that people who face discrimination for their skin color deserve protection more than those who face discrimination for their sexual orientation. Why does protecting one group of people from discrimination equate to any sort of insult to another group of people?... Matjila’s view on protecting LGBT people from discrimination is both archaic and homophobic. His attitude - and lack of support for UN efforts to protect LGBT people - has no place at the Human Rights Council. - South Africa : Lack of bisexual, transgender and intersex people causes an imbalance in representation (2011, Alternate Link): Director of the Pietermaritzburg Gay and Lesbian Network in KwaZulu-Natal, Anthony Waldehausen admitted that that there is lack of bisexual, transgender and intersex programming among LGBTI organisations.

Teaching About Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa (2011): This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexismand homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who taught the module. - Exploring homophobic victimisation in Gauteng, South Africa: Issues, impacts and responses (2008, PDF Download. Download Page). - South Africa welcomes gay tourists while homophobic violence persists (2009). - Pink Tourism Fact Sheet: Gauteng has a vibrant, diverse gay culture supported by strong community structures, great places to meet and hang out and lots to do. South Africa has one of the most progressive Constitutions in the world, enshrining gay, lesbian, bi and trans‐sexual rights – from same sex marriage to alternative lifestyles – and creating an environment where people can be themselves to enjoy everything fantastic Gauteng has to offer. - Engaging the KwaZulu-Natal Gay and Lesbian Tourism Market: Tourism KwaZulu-Natal's Initial Gay and Lesbian Tourism Strategy. - Bisexual concurrency in Southern Africa (2010, Podcast): Professor Graham Hart (Director of the UCL Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, UCL STI editorial board member) talks to Dr Stefan Baral (Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins) about his research into bisexual concurrency, bisexual partnerships, and HIV among Southern African men who have sex with men.

SA lesbian killing 'hate crime' (2011): The brutal killing of a South African lesbian activist has been condemned as a hate crime by Human Rights Watch. The US-based group has urged the police to do more to find those responsible for the recent murder and rape of Noxolo Nogwaza. She was stoned and stabbed on 24 April after a row in a bar in KwaThema township, east of Johannesburg. Activists say gay South African women are targeted for what some call "corrective rape". Unlike in many African countries, homosexual acts are legal in South Africa and the constitution outlaws discrimination based on sexual orientation.But activists say gay and lesbian people are often attacked in townships. - HRW: Epidemic of hate crimes against gays (2009): The murder of a lesbian activist who was stoned and stabbed to death is part of an "epidemic" of hate crimes against gays in South Africa, Human Rights Watch said on Tuesday.. - Remembering Eudy, KwaThema’s brightest, killed on its darkest night (2009). - Experiences of Black LGBTI Youth In Peri-Urban Communities in South Africa (2005, PDF Download). - South Africa team to tackle gay and lesbian hate crimes (2011): South Africa is to set up a team to tackle hate crimes against gay people, the justice ministry says. The decision comes after 170,000 activists from around the world demanded action to help lesbians targeted for "corrective rape"...

Matebeni, Zethu (2011). Exploring Black Lesbian Sexualities and Identities In Johannesburg. PhD Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand. PDF Download. Download Page. Exploring black lesbian sexualities and identities is a multifaceted in-­depth ethnographic study of black urban lesbian life in contemporary South Africa. This study, which focuses on lesbian women aged between 17 and 40 years, reads the term lesbian as both a political and a theoretical project. It speaks to current concerns, which raise questions related to the politics of inclusion/exclusion, love, sexuality, identity politics, violence, style and urban space while sensitively giving agency to women’s narratives. In many ways, it enriches and challenges conventional gay and lesbian studies and studies on sexuality in Africa by bringing meaning to the complex interplay between space, style, erotic practice and sexuality. It further illustrates the flexible practices and variable notions of sex, sexuality and gender categories. At the same time it tackles the precarious and painful position of black lesbian women whose lives are an ongoing maneuvering and negotiation between a potentially hostile or violent environment and a country with constitutional protections. The political and theoretical imperative of the study is evident in the representations of black lesbians as occupying subject positions in which they determine the structures and meanings of their lives. Their narratives show that they inhabit the world actively, not only as victims or in relation to others, but also as conscious subjects that make meanings of their lives: subjects who are actively and critically engaging with the world we inhabit. - Matebeni, Zethu (2009). Sexing Women: Young black lesbians' reflections on sex and responses to safe(r) sex. In: Vasu Reddy, Theo Sandfort & Laetitia Rispel (eds), From Social Silence to Social Science Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa. Book & Chapters Download Page. - Matebeni Z (2008). 'Vela bhambhentsele': Intimacies and complexities in researching within black lesbian groups in Johannesburg. Feminist Africa 11: 89–96. PDF Download.

Lesbian health: more than screening for breast cancer and mental health (2008): Lesbians are often regarded as being at relatively low risk for HIV and do not have many health issues. However, given the reality that lesbian women can straddle a range of sexual identities, it is important to consider their health needs broadly. A lesbian woman should have access to the range of health services that serve in the continuum or basket of women’s health services. This would include, for example, services for cervical cancer screening, testing for STIs including HIV and AIDS, and information about planning a pregnancy. Lesbians’ sexual and reproductive intentions are neglected and I imagine that there is very limited space for health workers to talk with lesbians who are planning to have a family. Lesbians are vulnerable to corrective rape and gender-based violence from men and men they are in relationships with. They are not immune to violence in women to women relationships and may need access to post-exposure prophylaxis as well as the same services that straight women may need in terms of obtaining an interdict, etc. A recent study conducted by OUT LGBT shows, however, that nine per cent of lesbians self reported that they were HIVpositive. Some 55 per cent said health workers asked questions which insinuate that heterosexuality is the only normal way to be.

LGBTI radio show hits the airwaves. - Gay newspaper launched in CT (2007, Alternate Link): Independent Newspapers in Cape Town launched a monthly niche publication aimed at Cape Town's gay and lesbian readership this week called "The Pink Tongue". - Homosexual Discrimination Against Heterosexuals and Women “Necessary” for Democracy (2006): It’s okay for guest houses catering to a homosexual clientele to discriminate against heterosexual couples, women, and lesbians, the Commission on Gender Equality ruled recently, saying it is a “necessity in our democratic society.” - Black gays the target of hate crimes (2006). - Gayness ‘worse than divorce and euthanasia’ – study (2007). - Homo-Fascism in South Africa. - Freeing South Africa: The "Modernization" of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto (1998). - Queer Jihad. A View from South Africa (PDF Download. PDF Download)

Researching and working with boys in Southern Africa in the context of HIV/AIDS - a radical approach (2005, PDF Download): Other recent studies on boys and young men in South Africa. (see eg. Ratele et al 2005, and Salo, 2005) have also found how invested many boys seem to be in distancing themselves from other boys they construct as ‘moffies’ or boys who are perceived as effeminate and weak and not very heterosexual. Such characteristics are linked as features of boys who are seen not to be proper boys. The boys’ misogynistic and homophobic performances were intended as assertions of power, yet their effect, ironically, was to restrict what boys could do and say. Ratele et al, 2005, for example, found that boys who were seen to mix with girls as friends were liable to be denigrated as ‘moffies,’ and, in our study, as mentioned, the prospect of being labelled similarly restricted possibilities of boys developing close relations with other boys. I suggest that the idealisation of girls and women by many boys as carers, nurturers, advice givers, is, in part, produced by denying these as identities for (proper) boys. (See Frosh, Phoenix and Pattman, 2002, on the huge costs for boys in general – not just for boys constructed and vilified as gay – of British boys’ investments in homophobia.)... 

A gay lifestyle is okay, but being gay is not (2010, Alternate Link): Gay communities across Africa often run into the sharp end of prejudice against their sexual orientation, yet a transvestite fraternity in the South African coastal city of Cape Town has gained a level of acceptance that allows them to publicly practice their lifestyle with minimal fear of retribution... Marlow Valentine, deputy director of the Cape Town-based Triangle Project, a support group for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, told IRIN that transvestites had been living openly in the city since the early 1960s. "The moffie subculture emerged in District Six in Cape Town during the 1940s and '50s, an inner-city area that truly reflected the idea of a 'rainbow nation', as it was home to people of different ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs during the earlier days of apartheid," he said... "Even though homosexuality was a criminal offence at the time [during apartheid], men who cross-dressed and participated in drag shows were accepted. It seems gay men who retained a level of masculinity were not accepted, but effeminate men were, as their sexual orientation was not seen as threatening," Valentine said... Valentine believes the flamboyant drag queen personas taken on by many transvestites, and the perception that they are successful business owners, have been key to transgender people's ability to integrate more successfully than the general gay population."Transvestites are still known for putting on drag shows in their local communities, and many straight people go to these shows because of the entertainment value, as the shows provide a level of comic relief that is affordable," he said. "They also often run successful businesses, like hair salons and beauty parlours, which usually affords them a level of respect in their communities, because of the high unemployment that exists there. These factors have created a situation ... in which the so-called moffies, or transvestites, have become accepted rather than shunned.".

Camp David Raid (2001): "For the fourteen guys who were humiliated and thrown in jail after a massive police raid at Camp David in Pretoria there have been more than four months of court appearances, severe stress, uncertainty and anxiety about the future. The affects of this matter on their careers and unlawful exposure of their identity by a Pretoria newspaper, all ended in smiles when charges were withdrawn against them before they even pleaded to charges of public indecency. Patrons at Camp David nude bar were arrested on Friday the 17th of November last year during a raid on the club by a platoon of nearly 80 police. After being unlawful photographed in their naked state by police and members of the press, they were thrown into the back of a big police truck and taken to Brooklyn police station where they were kept until the next day before charges were laid due to demands by the lawyers of Camp David to either lay charges or set the men free. The owner of Camp David, Danie Hamman, was also arrested and charges of money laundering, organized crime, indecent behaviour, contravening the liquor act and sexual offences were laid against him... - Camp David club charges dropped N/A: When the police raided the club on November 17, they were met by men wearing only shoes. - Child porn probe at SA's 'Camp David' (2006). - Anti-Gay Hate Crimes: Need for police involvement to curb violence committed against gays (1995). - Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men: Relations With Gender, Race and Religion Among University Students (2006).

Gays fight homophobia in schools (2006). - Gay teens' ordeal (2006): One in five gay and lesbian school children in Pietermaritzburg and Durban are raped or sexually abused at school. This is according to shocking new statistics that show that victimisation of KwaZulu-Natal's gay scholars is widespread. In a 2005 survey, 20% of gay and bisexual men and 19% of lesbian and bisexual women reported having been raped or sexually assaulted when they were at school... The fear of victimisation led to a decrease in self esteem and an increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost one in five surveyed had attempted suicide, according to the report. - Reflections from University Students in a South African Gay and Lesbian Society (2005). - The homonormalisation of white heterosexual leisure spaces in Bloemfontein, South Africa (2008, PDF Download). - The Anti-Gay Politics of South Africa’s “Race War” (2010): The murder of South African white supremacist Eugene Terre’blanche has people wondering if the “rainbow nation” is headed toward another “race war.” Now Terre’blanche’s alleged killers are claiming he tried to rape them. The late leaders’ supporters, however, insist it was the “murderers” who tried to rape him. Any way you cut it, this case shows how homophobia and racism have come together...

HRC intervenes on hate crimes (2007): In a groundbreaking meeting with members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) and other parties concerned, the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) revealed intervention plans regarding the case of Sizakele Sigasa and Salome Masooa killed weeks ago in Soweto. The meeting’s aim was to look at how the human rights sector and other interested groups can deal with the murder of the two lesbian activists, Sigasa and Masooa, and come up with a programme of action... - Police promise justice on murder of soweto lesbians (2007). - South Africa: Murder Highlights Violence Against Lesbians: Culture of Fear Undermines Constitutional Protections (2006). - Queer activists in South Africa (2007). - Gay and Muslim in South Africa (2008): Homosexuality remains a taboo in much of the vast Islamic world. Most Muslim clerics condemn homosexuality outright, citing several verses of the holy Qur'an. But one South African imam thinks that they are wrong.

S Africa approves same-sex unions (2006). - L'Afrique du Sud légalise le mariage homosexuel (2006). - South Africa Gay Marriage Bill Becomes Law (2006). - S. Africa's Top Court Blesses Gay Marriage (2005). - Hundreds protest against same-sex marriages (2006). - South Africa fallout from gay marriage ruling relatively light (2005). - Africa's gay haven N/A: As more gay people "come out" in African countries, they are forced to flee and seek asylum in foreign countries because many states condemn homosexuality. The majority of homosexuals tend to use South Africa as a gateway to their liberty as the country is gay-friendly... - Same-sex marriages 'will destroy the zulus' (2007). - Are HIV positive women who have sex with women (WSW) an unrecognized and neglected HIV risk group in South Africa? (2011).

Gay Cultures in Capetown, South Africa. - Gay and Lesbian oppression. - Lesbian and Gay Equality Project welcomes Law Commission report on Same Sex Marriage (2003). - Abstract: Homosexuality and the law: a gay revolution in South Africa, Journal of African Law, 1997. - Activism bursts from townships (2000). - Forging A Representative Gay Liberation Movement In South Africa (2001). (Alternate Link: PDF Download). - Cape Of Good Hope On Screen / The new, queer South Africa (1999). -  Out and very about (2001): Five years after the new constitution recognised the equality of gay people, Gillian Anstey and photographer Elizabeth Sejake went to find out what's really changed. -  The annual Johannesburg Pride Festival - Africa’s largest Gay & Lesbian Pride event, 2003. - Taking Gay Pride to SA's townships (2005). - Johannesburg Gay Pride 2006 "Be Proud.... Speak Out." - Joburg Pride. - Cape Town Pride. - Africa's oldest lesbian and gay event celebrates 20th Anniversary (2009): Africa's oldest lesbian and gay event celebrates its 20th anniversary this week. The 2009 Joburg Pride Day and Parade... - Putting the ‘T’ into South African Human Rights: Transsexuality in the Post-Apartheid Order (2009).

Coelho, Tony (2009). When the Global and the Local Collide: Gay Identity in Brazil and South Africa According to Parker and Reid. Amsterdam Social Science, 1(2): 6-23. PDF Download. PDF Download.- Summary &  Download Page: This article examines the works of Richard Parker and Graeme Reid who both set out to explore the emerging gay communities in non-western societies. In an era of globalisation, western conceptions of a gay identity are spread throughout the world creating what some might refer to as a global gay identity (Altman 2001). However, Parker, whose research is based in Brazil, and Reid, South Africa, reveal the importance of the local in interpreting samesex behaviour. The local and the global intermingle in these societies creating a gay community of its own, while undermining the notion of a global gay identity. The following key themes presented in both these works are compared in order to understand the complex interplay between the local and global in interpreting what it means to be gay cross-culturally: (1) The economic and political developments that have allowed for the influx of modern ideas from abroad and the growth of gay communities, (2) The categorisation of men who have sex with men through unique terminology and their meanings, (3) The gay spaces which have permitted sexual expression, and (4) The assertion of a modern gay identity by local advocacy groups.

Ntuli, Praisegod Mduduzi. (2009). IsiNgqumo : exploring origins, growth and sociolinguistics of an Nguni urban-township homosexual subculture. Master's Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Abstract. The emergence of gay subcultures in Africa can be attributed to the colonial entrenchment of homophobia and homophobic laws. This emergence of gay subcultures alongside the merciless homophobia necessitated the creation of secretive forms of linguistic communication amongst the sub cultured gays. Among the Nguni people of South Africa, isiNgqumo emerged as the lingua franca within the Nguni gay subculture. This study focuses on the Nguni gay subculture in Durban and the employment of isiNgqumo by township and city/urban Nguni gay men termed skesanas. 36 young Nguni homosexual men and one older Nguni man were the participants who were interviewed. The methodology that was used in this study was ethnography. The study also relied on a snowballing technique to access numerous of the 36 young Nguni homosexual men. The study found that the Nguni gay subculture of Durban is stratified throughout several places within Durban, it is not one geographical location. Two gay clubs and two gay salons were visited as they are some of the locations where the Nguni gay subculture is located.

Not all SA's gays enjoy greater freedom (2004): "South Africa's gays are enjoying a new era of freedom in cities 10 years after the end of apartheid, but black and coloured homosexuals in townships and villages are still victims of discrimination and hate attacks." - "Gay Apartheid" in South Africa N/A (2003): "She also said that many bars ask blacks for their "membership cards." When they can't produce these non-existent ID's, they are denied entrance. "There is still a lot of racism against blacks from whites," she says. "Black and white gays live in two different worlds. It's almost as if there is gay apartheid." Even white gay and lesbian activists acknowledge the divide. Evert Knoesen of the Gay and Lesbian Equality Project concedes that integrating whites and blacks in the community "remains a big issue."" - Gay community still facing many challenges (2004, Alternate Link): "Gays are enjoying a new era of freedom in cities 10 years after the end of apartheid, but black and coloured homosexuals in townships and villages are still victims of discrimination and hate attacks..." - 'Gay hate' website sparks fury (2004, Alternate Link): "South Africa's oldest lesbian and gay service organisation, the Triangle Project, on Friday reacted with outrage at a website that called for the "reclaiming of Cape Town from the homosexual plague"..."

The highest court in South Africa has overturned apartheid-era laws criminalizing homosexuality (Oct. 1998). - Adult gay sex is not a crime, court rules (1997). - A short history of South African Pride (1997). - South African Court Grants Same Sex Spousal Rights (2002). - Court Hears Challenge To South Africa Gay Marriage Ban (2004). - South Africa Anti-Gay Adoption Law Unconstitutional (2002). - South African Gays Gain Adoption Rights (Alternate Link). - L'adoption permise pour les homosexuels en Afrique du Sud (2002, Translation). - South Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations (2000). - Gays tell of mutilation by South African Military (2010). - South Africa OKs gays in its military N/A (Related Information: The Effect of Sodomy Laws on Lifting the Ban of Homosexual Personnel: 3 Case Studies) - A Gay Woman's Experience During her Career in the Department of Defence: Fleet of Hope: A Social Science Commentary - Part 2. (2003).

Gay and Lesbian Youth Experiences of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education (2003). - South African LGBT youth (2005). - South Africa: LGBT issues (2005). - South African Gay and Lesbian Youth Coming Out to Their Families: Analysing Various Decision-Making Pathways and Outcomes (2005). - The use of defence mechanisms as precursors to coming out in post-apartheid South Africa: a gay and lesbian youth perspective (2008). - IsiNgqumo - Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety (2008).

South African gays take centre stage (1999): "Conservative Christians have threatened to disrupt the Miss Gay South Africa beauty pageant which is scheduled to take place on Saturday." - Gays Reap Rewards Slowly in Post-Apartheid South Africa. - Gays neglected in HIV/AIDS campaigns (2004, Alternate Link). - Engendering gay and lesbian rights: the equality cluase in the South African Constitution (2003, PDF Download). - Lesbians targets of rape war: Lesbians are being raped, assaulted and victimised "every day" in the townships, in an attempt to force a change in their sexual orientation. Since January this year, 33 black lesbians have come forward with their stories of rape, assault, sexual assault and verbal abuse to organisations fighting hate crimes in Johannesburg townships.

Behind closed Doors: Gay and Married (2001). -  School boys: the player queen. (2001, Links to 7 other stories at the end of story) - Moffies, Artists, and Queens: Race and the Production of South African Gay Male Drag (2002 Draft; 2004, Published: Abstract). - South African lesbians fear rise of crime against them (2004). - Le mal de vivre des lesbiennes noires (2003, Translation): Les homosexuelles noires habitant dans les townships subissent de graves traumatismes, liés aux agressions verbales et physiques dont elles sont victimes quotidiennement. C’est ce qui ressort d’une étude de deux chercheuses sud-africaines. La première du genre à donner la parole à cette communauté humiliée. - Rape New Weapon Against South African Lesbians (2004).

The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2004): A Religious Opinion on Same Sex Marriage. - For Same-sex Marriage. - Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective Violence Against Women: "No woman can determine the direction of her own life without the ability to determine her sexuality. Sexuality is an integral, deeply ingrained part of every human being’s life and should not be subject to debate or coercion. Anyone who is truly committed to human rights must recognise that every woman has the right to determine her sexuality free of discrimination." - Unmasking our struggle: "When black lesbians and gay men turn to the lesbian and gay community, they are often met with racism from their white counterparts. They may be met with white lesbians and gay men who do not understand their cultural background, find them sexually "exotic", cannot be bothered to spell their names properly and have no understanding of how racism has affected their lives. In extreme cases, they are not made to feel welcome at cultural or political gatherings..."

Stop prison rape in South Africa (2007): Abstract: South Africa has some of the highest rates of rape in the world. Activists have drawn attention to the devastating effect this has on women and children. However, insufficient attention has been paid to rape - predominantly of men - in prisons. This article aims to educate gender activists about the phenomenon of prison rape in the context of South Africa. It hopes to make the case that prison rape reflects and reinforces rape culture in South Africa (and elsewhere). In so doing, it aims to galvanise action to prevent prison rape and all forms of rape. - Prisons slammed over male rapes (2004): "Prison psychological services director Dr Lorinda Bergh testified she found it startling that no policy had been developed to protect homo- and transsexual men in jail... She was testifying on claims by former inmate Louis Karp, who claims to have been raped and abused while awaiting trial for car theft in the Pretoria local prison in 2001 and 2002... Earlier on Tuesday, prison doctor Kobeli Khomari admitted that measures to deal with rape among inmates were inadequate, even though the phenomenon was "very common".Khomari also conceded that rape claims very rarely reached court and said rape victims were not referred for psychological help as a matter of course... She agreed with Barlow that "trauma upon trauma" was heaped on Karp, and that this was largely a result of a lack of understanding of male rape..." - Rape in Prison: An intervention by Rape Crisis at Pollsmoor Prison (2002).

Boy, 15, 'sold' for jail rape (2008). - South Africa: Rape Incidents At Correctional Disturbing, Says Commissioner (2008). - Sexual Violence Plagues South African Prisons (2009). - Jail rape: The sordid facts (2005). - Behind the bars of South African prisons: Gendered roles and vulnerability of male inmates to forced sex (2005, Alternate Link). - Inquiry documents ill-treatment of SA gays in prison (2004). - MPs Demand Action on Prison Rapes, 'Marriages' (2010): Shocked MPs have demanded a plan of action on prison rapes and "marriages" following a report from a civil society organisation that nothing had been done in recent years to address the sexual violation of inmates. Members of Parliament's correctional services committee were reacting to a report from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. The centre's Sasha Gear told them yesterday that it had been difficult to get the Department of Correctional Services to give the matter the attention it deserved.

Police-jail rapes of white SA men is a war crime pattern (2010): It’s a pattern: often white South African men are arrested on frivolous charges, dumped in holding cells with black criminals and raped – and then released without charges the next day… The writer of the following article, known only as Sybille*, says these race-targetted rapes are ‘war-crimes’ – ‘acts of aggression to humiliate and degrade members of the white conquered tribe’.. - Jail rape of white South African men a war crime (2010). - ‘Rape in jail’ ad too shocking for some (2010): The Civil Society Prison Reform Initiative has slammed an advertising campaign seeking to deter drunken-driving by warning male drivers they face the prospect of being raped in prison if arrested. - South African Lesbians Targeted for Rape and Violence (2011). - South African victory on lesbian rape (2011): Free Gender is a Black lesbian group from Khayelitsha in Cape Town.   The group organised a rally in protest against the lack of government and political  response to ” corrective rape”. - South Africans decry rapes of lesbians (2011): Rights activists are speaking out against rapes targeting lesbians in South Africa.

South African man charged with ‘correctional rape’ of lesbian (2010). - South Africa corrective rape (2009, Video). - Raped and killed for being a lesbian: South Africa ignores 'corrective' attacks (2009). - South Africa: 'Corrective Rape' Spreads To 'Fix' Lesbians (2009). - Lesbians subjected to "corrective rape" in South Africa  (2009): Lesbians living in South Africa are being subjected to "corrective rape" and severe violence by men trying to "cure" them of their sexual orientation, human rights groups have said.. - Female athletes often targets for rape (2010). - Tackling South Africa's rape epidemic (2009): The trial of three of the men accused of the rape and murder of one of South Africa's leading sportswomen, the openly gay football star Eudy Simelane, starts in South Africa on Wednesday. - Viols et meurtres de lesbiennes en Afrique du Sud : l’épidémie (2011, Translation). - Girl, 13, latest victim of ’corrective rape’ in South Africa (2011).

Perpetrators of corrective rape: Uncertainty and gender in the 21st century (2011): South Africa is “witnessing a backlash of crimes targeted specifically at lesbian women, who are perceived as representing a direct threat to a male dominated society” according to ActionAid, an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) backed by the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC). The most notable of these crimes against lesbian women is corrective rape. Perpetrators of corrective rape desire to show lesbians “how to be real women.” They manifestly believe that forcing heterosexual intercourse onto lesbians will somehow reinstate a ‘traditional’ hetero-normative sexual identity in their victims. Using violence to attain their ‘goal’ indicates an attitude of hatred towards lesbian women. Unfortunately, support groups report that corrective rape is on the rise in South African townships...

Mieses A (2009). Gender Inequality and Corrective Rape of Women Who Have Sex With Women. GMHC Treatment Issues. PDF Download. African women face a new epidemic, one that threatens their lives and creates additional barriers to HIV prevention.  South African lesbians and other women who have sex with women (WSW) challenge dominant South African ideas about gender identity. Some WSW are sexually and brutally punished by local men for being gay and violating traditional gender presentation. This punishment is referred to as “corrective rape.” Reported incidents of corrective rape have been growing, and many unreported cases remain uncounted. South African officials rarely declare these crimes as hate crimes, despite the fact that the victims are targeted for being WSW. In July 2007, two women were found in a Johannesburg township after being gang-raped, tortured, tied with their underwear and shot execution-style in the head... - 'These Women, They Force Us to Rape Them': Rape as Narrative of Social Control in Post-Apartheid South Africa (2006). - « Corrective rape » or how to set lesbians straight (2010). - Hate crimes: The rise of ‘corrective’ rape in South Africa (2009).

Krause, Kristina (2006). Being a Lesbian in South AfricaWord Download. “In a country numbered by violence against women, lesbians are a target not just because they’re women, but because they love women”, (Gail Smith of Women Behind the Mask, 2003). Black women are the most underprivileged group in South Africa and when the title of lesbian is added, their status drops even further. For outsiders, a black lesbian woman has become something deeply offensive. Her homosexuality all at once, puts her against South African culture, religion, blackness, womanhood and her family. However, according to South Africa’s constitution this should not be the case...

van Dyk, Delene (2011). “Lesbian Lives Unlimited”; The psycho-social-sexual experiences of lesbian women in Tshwana (Pretoria): A qualitative analysis. In: Saskia E. Wieringa (ed), Women-Loving-Women in Africa and Asia, pp. 428-463. Amsterdam: TRANS/SIGN Report of Research Findings. PDF Download.  This report illustrates that, to really understand the lives of lesbian women, you should change the way you look at them and throw your heteronormative stereotyped lenses away, with no limiting beliefs. Not two women in this study presented with the exact same life experiences (like women in general), although there might be areas that resemble each other. This report highlights the need to find out more about lesbian women’s lives, not only to understand their lives and experiences better, but because it gives a voice to a very marginalized group of women. It gives a voice to both the women who are comfortably out and proud and then to those that, due to unfortunate circumstances, cannot be out and be who they really are and love who they really want, too afraid of the consequences, the discrimination, and rejection.

Klein, Thamar (2009). Intersex and transgender activism in South Africa. Liminalis: Journal for sex/gender emancipation and resistance, 3. PDF Download. Download Page. South Africa has come a long way concerning the legal treatment of trans* (in medical literature often categorised as transgenderism, transsexuality, gender dysphoria, or gender identity disorder) and intersexuality (also known as hermaphroditism or disorder of sex development). LGBTTIQ-activists consider the country to be, from a legal point of view, among the most progressive worldwide... South Africa is despite its progressive laws far from being a ‘dreamland’ for trans* and intersexed people. Instead they still face a vast array of obstacles, phobias, discrimination, and hate crimes. However the constitution and the progressive laws provide a legal basis from which they can fight for their rights.

MSM left out of media, prevention programmes (2010): Men who have sex with men (MSM) do not make headlines in South African media and HIV experts have warned that a lack of accurate coverage prevents targeted HIV prevention and care for these men... "MSM doesn't mean that you're gay – it just [means] a man who sleeps with other men ... but as soon as you say that a man sleeps with another man, people think that's 'gay'," Radebe told IRIN/PlusNews. "We have to get away from boxing people and come to an understanding." Reinforcing stereotypes that all MSM are gay – or that they have the same HIV prevention needs as gay men – may alienate this vulnerable group, which does not usually self-identify as being gay. It may also deter them from accessing target HIV services for fear of being labelled “gay”, he added... But same-sex relationships remain difficult terrain for media in South Africa. One of the most popular television soap operas, Generations, recently broke new ground with a gay kiss – and lost a substantial number of viewers in the process, according to Melissa Meyer, a project coordinator with the HIV/AIDS and the Media Project at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand...

HIV Prevalence and Risk Practices Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Two South African Cities (2011): MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided finger-prick blood specimens for anonymous HIV testing in a laboratory. From July to December 2008, 285 MSM were recruited in Johannesburg (n=204) and Durban (n=81). Participants had a median age of 22 years and were predominantly black Africans (88.3%). The HIV prevalence was 49.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.5%-56.5% in Johannesburg and 27.5% (95% CI 17.0%-38.1%) in Durban. HIV infection was associated with gay identification (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.4; 95% CI, 3.7-19). Factors in the previous year that were associated with HIV infection included receptive unprotected anal intercourse (aOR 4.3; 95% CI 2.4-7.6); sex with a person known to be HIV positive (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.9); and a sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.2)..,

HIV and Sexual Risk in African MSM in South African Township (Study From 2008 to 2012): South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are an understudied population in HIV/AIDS epidemiological and social science research... The aims of the proposed study are (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV among African MSM living in South African townships and identify which behavioral, psychosocial, and network characteristics distinguish infected MSM from non-infected MSM; (2) to identify the structural and psychosocial correlates of sexual risk behavior in these men, with a particular focus on the role of alcohol use; and (3) to describe the social organization of same-sex sexual practices of these men and identify structural and psychosocial factors that affect how these practices are experienced. To accomplish these aims, the proposed study combines HIV testing, a survey, and ethnography. - HIV prevention and men who have sex with men: A South African experience (2010).

Boyce P. et al (2011). An Exploratory Study of the Social Contexts, Practices and Risks of Men Who Sell Sex in Southern and Eastern Africa. PDF Download. This report presents research conducted on behalf of Oxfam GB with funding from UNDP - an exploratory study of the social contexts, practices and risks of men who sell sex in Southern and Eastern Africa. The research was undertaken by the African Sex Worker Alliance in collaboration with Dr. Paul Boyce (UNDP) and Dr. Gordon Isaacs (SWEAT) as principle investigators... Conclusion: The data presented in this report combine to build-up a complex and nuanced account of the lives and life-worlds of male sex workers in the Southern and Eastern Africa region. A strength of the methodology adopted in the study (both in the formative workshop and in the follow-up activities) was a focus on sex workers' narratives amidst the creation of discursive spaces wherein intimate and personal views of male sex work could be shared. This added analytical depth to explorations of social vulnerability, sexual subjectivity, 'belonging', risk and so forth. The research consciously countered approaches to the study of sex work that focus on the classification of 'types' of sex worker or sex work, or which focus on the categorization and quantification of sexual risk practices. Whilst such research can certainly engender useful information, we were also concerned that in terms of analysis of sexualities and sex work as lived day-to-day practices such studies typically offer only a partial or limited perspective. In basing our research and analysis within first-order accounts of sex workers' lives we have sought to ground the research with a strong, experiential epistemology, which is also personally and emotionally sensitive. Personal developmental milestones [family background], language, vernacular, cultural and tribal affiliations, including inner city and peri-urban influences - and migrant sex work populations -have created mini-sub-cultures that often contain specific mores, codes of behaviour, class divisions and gender rivalry . This anthropological diversity must be addressed -sensitive to the needs, aspirations and participation of all concerned. This in turn can offer important insights into sex workers life experiences in a manner that can offer new and significant pathways for addressing social vulnerability, rights, risks, HIV prevention and health.

Disclosure decisions of HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cape Town, South Africa (PPT Presentation as PDF): Sixty eight of the 92 MSM living with HIV reported anal sex with more than onepartner who were unaware of their HIV positive status. Almost 60% of the respondents indicated that it was difficult for them to tell other people about their HIV positive status. MSM did report experiencing discrimination (64%) resulting from being HIV positive, including loss of housing or employment (45%). Of interest is that 11% of the MSM reported that they were currently married. Whilst 36 of the 92 MSM indicated that they had unprotected vaginal sex more than once in the previous 3 months with partners who were unaware of their HIV positive status.

Researching MSM in South Africa: Some Preliminary Notes from the Frontlines of a Hidden Epidemic (2009, PDF Download. Reference): In South Africa, almost all medical and civil society-based research on HIV and AIDS has been focused on heterosexual transmission (or on mother-to-child transmission) (Abdool Karim & Abdool Karim, 2005). The near-erasure of homosexuals from the HIV/AIDS epidemiological picture in South Africa could be attributed to political exclusion (Fourie, 2006). It may also be due to a historical reluctance by policymakers to address HIV/ AIDS in same-sex practicing populations because such an engagement would require engaging with sexual practices and identities that are already steeped in prejudice and pathologization (Johnson, 2007). We would argue that the prevailing culture of denial vis á vis homosexuality in the South African context is in and of itself a hostile response towards homosexuality, and is something which warrants analysis in terms which include South Africa in other continental cultures of denial around homosexuality. These cultures tend to categorize homosexuality as a Euro-American perversion that has contaminated African “tradition”; despite increasing evidence of the existence of homosexuality in pre-colonial Africa2. The assumption that homosexuality is a sign of European and Western decadence is underpinned by homogenising discourses that view “tradition” as static, unchanging and fixed. Central to this discourse is the common and totalising argument that homosexuality is “unAfrican” with the argument often focused on homosexuality’s absence in pre-colonial Africa (Antonio, 1997)...

Call for MSM to Be on Aids Agenda (2010): As World AIDS Day approaches, activists and service providers in the non-governmental health sector have warned government that it will never turn the tide of AIDS if high risk groups such as men who have sex with other men are not brought into focus in efforts to prevent HIV spreading further. An online survey conducted by the OUT Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Inter-sex network in 2007 shows that 15 - 20% of men in South Africa, which translates to about 1.8 million men, have sex with other men. Non-governmental organizations and activists have cautioned that this is a high-risk group and its continued marginalization in national AIDS programmes poses a threat to making real progress in addressing AIDS. So far, programmes in South Africa, largely driven by the National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS, have been designed to respond to what has been described as a "general heterosexual epidemic". This is of concern to Dr Oscar Radebe, a medical officer with Health for Men, an NGO that offers health services to men...

Lane T, Raymond HF, Dladla S, Rasethe J, Struthers H, McFarland W, McIntyre J (2011). High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Men's Study. AIDS and Behavior, 15(3): 626-34. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. The Soweto Men’s Study assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among MSM in Soweto, South Africa. Using respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, we recruited 378 MSM (including 15 seeds) over 30 weeks in 2008. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 13.2% (95% confidence interval 12.4–13.9%), with 33.9% among gay-identified men, 6.4% among bisexual-identified men, and 10.1% among straight-identified MSM... The results of the Soweto Men’s Study confirm that MSM are at high risk for HIV infection, with gay men at highest risk. HIV prevention and treatment for MSM are urgently needed..

Lane T, et al (2006). High-Risk Sex among Black MSM in Gauteng, South Africa. PDF Download. Despite high levels of HIV awareness, high-risk sexual behavior among the most sexually active suggest that Black South African MSM are highly vulnerable to HIV infection.  • A concentrated HIV epidemic among Black MSM may be linked to the generalized epidemic in South Africa through the
sexual behavior of men who have sex with both men and women. • Researchers, CBOs, and provincial and national departments of health can work together to address the HIV prevention needs of MSM.
• The feasibility of community-based strategies for HIV prevention should be systematically explored. This must include the development of specific strategies to encourage HIV prevention among bisexual and straight-identified men as well as among gay-identified men.  • The association of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among Black South African MSM will be an important area of focus for HIV prevention efforts.  • Barriers to availability of and access to latex-compatible lubrication, particularly cost barriers, must be addressed.

Livingston L, et al. (2008). Prism Project: Needs Assessment Report: Resourced Gay Men in Tshwane aged 18-40, 2007/8. Pretoria: OUT Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) Well-Being. PDF Download. The NA was a first step in exploring determinants of casual sexual risk-taking among White resourced gay men in Tshwane. Three broad areas were explored, i.e. biographical data, views of health problems and solutions and lastly, sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof. It became clear that HIV and STIs are seen as serious health problems confronting gay men. Without a strong sense of community, they appear apathetic and disinterested in taking responsibility for their own sexual health and well-being. Casual sex seems to be occurring in a context where anal sex is a preference, where motivating and de-motivating factors are mediated by the type of venue, the time of day, the codes given and the substance used, where there is no regular testing and no one knows their recent status, where there is no condom use in steady relationships and inconsistent condom use in casual encounters, where there is no negotiated safety in steady relationships and casual encounters, and where monogamy is claimed but not carried out and secrecy surrounds the most recent casual encounter. It is clear that this situates these men as being at a high risk of contracting and transmitting an STI or HIV. An intervention is needed to deal with the developing problem.

Tucker, Andrew (2009). Framing exclusion in Cape Town's gay village: the discursive and material perpetration of inequitable queer subjects. Area, 41(2): 186-197. Abstract: Within and beyond geography, there has been a growing concern in understanding how and why exclusion can occur within ‘gay spaces’, with a specific focus on Western Europe and North America. Heidi Nast's (2002 Queer patriarchies, queer racisms, international Antipode 34 874–909) work on the ‘white queer patriarch’ has taken this work further by exploring the multiple, interrelated, historical and contemporary factors that can lead to exclusion and exploitation. Despite growing interest surrounding South Africa's new liberal queer agenda, issues of contemporary exclusion among queer groups as a direct result of race and racism have remained relatively unexplored. By incorporating elements of Nast's schema, this article will examine the power that exists in the creation and framing of essentialistic ‘white’ and ‘coloured’ queer male subjects in Cape Town's gay village. These subjects will be shown to simultaneously draw on historical inequalities while also re-imagining them in contemporary settings to re-inscribe perceptions of classed and gendered difference. The creation of such inequitable subjects helps us understand how exclusion can become real and normalised within a space such as Cape Town's gay village in a way that draws on a history of material inequalities and discursive perceptions of race.

Black like me? Gay hairstyling and the paradox of modernity in South Africa (2007 Dissertation): The starting point for this research project is hairstyling and "hair saloons". Hairstyles are an important marker of cultural identity and hair saloons frequently provide safe social spaces for gay men as well as a significant point of interaction with broader communities. Hair saloons are thus sites where same-sex identities can be developed and expressed as well as negotiated with the outside world. In the South African public imaginary, gay lifestyles are associated with "modernity", a term which has both negative and positive connotations. This is particularly apparent in the ambiguous response to hairstylists, as a source of what is both desirable and regrettable about "modernity". This research will explore the articulation between "modernity" and contemporary same-sex identities in South Africa. The nature of rural and urban, traditional and modern, will be explored through a network of stylists and their associates who live and work outside of the metropole, in the urban peripheries, small towns and rural areas of South Africa's Mpumalanga province.

Currier, Ashley McAllister (2007). The Visibility of Sexual Minority Movement Organizations in Namibia and South Africa. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract: The South African state has responded favorably to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movement organizations’ (SMOs) efforts to protect and extend sexual and gender minority rights, whereas Namibian state leaders have verbally attacked LGBT organizing and threatened to arrest sexual and gender minorities... I engaged in intensive, continuous ethnographic observation of four Namibian and South African LGBT social movement organizations for approximately 800 hours and analyzed my ethnographic fieldnotes. I also analyzed more than 2,100 newspaper articles and LGBT SMO documents and conducted 56 in-depth interviews with staff, members, and leaders of LGBT SMOs. In this dissertation, I explore the varied strategic dilemmas of visibility and invisibility that Namibian and South African LGBT SMOs faced...

The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2003): Expressions of Johannesburg pride (Alternate Link): "One can almost write a report on Pride before it takes place. South African Gay and Lesbian Pride (formerly Lesbian and Gay Pride - a more inclusive and less marginalizing title) is now firmly following the model set by Prides worldwide... so what are they partying after, you may ask? It is a far cry from the foundation of the Pride phenomenon in South Africa, now in its 14th year. There was a time - and Yusoof Abdullah, co-organiser of the Pride event this year is keen to remind people of his connection to those initial Pride marches - when Pride meant something... Well there is a good reason why some political sentiments need to be injected back into the Pride event - our most public expression of pride in ourselves and our community. Just because it says so in the constitution doesn't mean that people don't discriminate against lesbian and gay people and that homophobia is not still rife in South Africa... Few lesbian or gay people in the world have not heard of Matthew Shepard; a victim of a violent and brutal homophobic attack that led to his death hanging from a fence in the USA. But we have our own Matthew Shepards - we are just less willing to learn their names and honour their suffering with action... I have been marching in Pride marches in UK and South Africa since 1985. I have never missed a year. I even helped to organise one in South Africa in 2001. My commitment to the need for Pride and its meaning is total - so why was this the first year of my adult life that I couldn't march? Am I getting old? And why should that be such a sin in the gay world? No, none of this, I just could not find anything there to be proud of.

'I've got two men and one woman': ancestors, sexuality and identity among same-sex identified women traditional healers in South Africa (2003):  This paper presents preliminary insights into the complex nature of the same-sex orientation of seven women who are sangomas (traditional healers) in Soweto. Data was derived from an ethnographic study, used as the appropriate methodology because of the veiled and secret nature of same-sexuality amongst traditional healers... the belief system of the sangomas provides a window into different categories of sexuality in an African framework through which the interaction and intersection of their personal same-sex desire, and that of their male ancestors, can be viewed. Sangomas construction of identity and desire shifted between that of personal agency and that of a dominant male ancestor. This required constant negotiation and encompassed elements of both the 'modern' and 'traditional'. In the case of these sangomas, same-sexuality the basis of marginality assumes a social status and becomes a source of power.

(Un)Imagined Bodies and Identities (2008): I come from South Africa, a country that suffers in its postcolonial phase, like all other African countries do, from the past and present afflictions of European colonization and American imperialism that has including a white minority regime until 1990. Like all imperialist and other formerly colonized countries, South Africa is also still embedded within European heteropatriarchal values and queerphobia. However, I did not expect to be one of the unimagined and unvoiced bodies and identities in Canada, a country globally recognized for its advanced human rights and protections that includes the legal recognition of a person’s multi-layered identities... I would also like to preface this paper with the argument that theorizing about the lack of queer content in the MA Documentary Media program is about more than a silence about queer sexuality. It is about a racialized heteronormativity as it is reproduced within Canadian academia and the larger Canadian mainstream society...

Cloete A, Rispel L, Reddy V, Metcalf C (2010). Constructs of identity and HIV risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two South African cities. PPT Presentaton at the
Third Annual International Colloquium "Gender, Sexuality, History and Culture in Africa", University of Lagos, Nigeria.
PDF Download. Comclusion: MSM identities are not only widespread but also
diverse in South Africa. - Understanding the social context of risk for MSM is important when designing HIV prevention programmes and services, in order to meet the needs of individuals with diverse sexual behaviours in a non-discriminatory and nonjudgmental manner. - More in-depth ethnographic type of research is needed to understand risk taking behaviour of MSM.

Arnott J, Crago A-L (2009). Rights Not rescue: A Report on Female, Male, and Trans Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa Sexual Health and Rights Project, Open Society Institute. PDF Download.

Sonnekus, Theo (2009). Invisible Queers: Investigating the 'other' Other in gay visual cultures. Master or Arts Dissertation, University of Pretoria. PDF Download. Download Page. The apparent ‘invisibility’, or lack of representation of black men in contemporary mainstream gay visual cultures is the primary critical issue that the study engages with. The study presupposes that the frequency with which white men appear in popular representations of ‘gayness’ prevails over that of black men. In order to substantiate this assumption, this study analyses selected issues of the South African queer men’s lifestyle magazine Gay Pages. Gay visual cultures appear to simultaneously conflate ‘whiteness’ and normative homosexuality, while marginalising black gay men by means of positioning ‘blackness’ and ‘gayness’ as irreconcilable identity constructs. Images of the gay male ‘community’ disseminated by queer and mainstream media constantly offer stereotypical, distorted and race-biased notions of gay men, which ingrain the exclusive cultural equation of white men and ideal homomasculinity. The disclosure of racist and selectively homophobic ideologies, which seem to inform gay visual representation, is therefore the chief concern of the dissertation...

Freeing South Africa: The "Modernization" of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto (1998): Although engaged in another research project, in my free time with friends like Paul, I thus stumbled onto a series of questions that began to perplex me: Who was Linda? In the letter quoted above, I had unproblematically identified Linda as "gay." But in his context, was he? And if so, how did he come to see himself as so? And I quickly confronted questions of gender as well. Did Linda consider himself as male? And if so, had he always done so? As issues like these began to pose themselves, I soon realized that for black men in townships around Johannesburg, identifying as gay was both recent and tied up, in unexpectedly complex ways, with a much larger historical transformation: the end of apartheid and the creation of a modem nation; in a phrase, the "freeing" of South Africa... Certainly, in Soweto in the 1960s, hostels populated by rural men had become notorious sites for same-sex sexual relations. Township parents warned young sons not to go anywhere nearby, that they would be swept inside and smeared with Vaseline and raped (see also Mathabane 1986:68-74). To urbanraised skesanas like Linda, however, these stories apparently only aroused phantasy and desire. Linda described a "marriage ceremony" in which she took part in one of the hostels, as follows:...

Coetzee, Catherine Anne (2009). The development and evaluation of a programme to promote sensitive pscyhotherapeutic practice with gay men and lesbians. PhD Dissertation, Rhodes University. Abstract and Download Page. Clinical psychology’s relevance and future viability depend on its ability to render services that are relevant and sensitive to multicultural and minority issues. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people are one such group that professional psychology – both in South Africa and abroad - has identified as having unique treatment needs for which psychologists require specialised knowledge and skills in order to render appropriate treatment. Competence to treat non-heterosexual patients has been framed in terms of a gay affirmative paradigm which has as its basic tenet the recognition that same-gender orientation is not pathological but rather a healthy alternative to heterosexuality. From this perspective being “gay friendly” or “gay accepting” is not enough. To implement a gay affirmative approach in practice, practitioners must have resolved their possible prejudice and heterosexist bias and have the requisite knowledge of concerns unique to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals to be able to apply their skills in a culturally sensitive manner. Although more American post-graduate psychology programmes are addressing sexual diversity, their failure to produce psychologists who feel competent to treat lesbian/gay or bisexual individuals has highlighted the need to develop effective training strategies based on empirical nvestigation. The dearth of comparable data about local South African psychology training prompted this inquiry which had four broad aims namely, (i) to establish to what extent trainees’ prior training had equipped them with the knowledge, awareness, and skills to approach their work with non-heterosexual patients in a gay affirmative manner, and (ii) to implement and (iii) to evaluate to what extent a brief structured training programme is effective in engaging the trainees; in increasing knowledge, in raising awareness, and in changing specific attitudes and imparting specific skills required for treating lesbian and gay patients.; and (iv) what, if any, recommendations should be made for the future with respect to training of sychologists in this area?...

Uit in die kuberruim: enkele waardetoevoegings en uitdagings ten opsigte van Gay@Litnet binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks (2006): This article investigates the nature, role and contribution of Gay@Litnet as an electronic alternative for the publication of gay literature in South Africa. Attention will be given to the manner in which Gay@Litnet acts as a public forum for nurturing gay identity within the current socio-political context of South Africa. A brief summary of the current socio-political situation of South African gays will be given in order to place the discussion into the necessary context. Secondly, an evaluative description of the dynamics of Gay@Litnet will be given, where after a few value-adding properties and challenges concerning Gay@Litnet will be discussed.

The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2001-04): Charity begins at… uhm… - Meds, Drugs and HIV. - How Sexuality is used to disempower women. - Homophobia and the Rights of Lesbians and Gays. - Recognise Same Sex Marriages. - Queer State funeral in Sebokeng.

History: South Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations. - Gays tell of mutilation by apartheid army. - Men who suffer in silence:  South African law does not recognise the existence of male rape..." - A leading light of gay and AIDS activism in SA (1998). - The official treatment of white, South African, homosexual men and the consequent reaction of gay liberation from the 1960s to 2000. PhD Dissertation. University of Jahannesburg. Download Page.- 'I've Got Two Men and One Woman': Ancestors, Sexuality and Identity among Same-Sex
Identified Women Traditional Healers in South Africa
(2003). -
State of Emergency: An exploration of attitudes towards homosexuality in the SADF, 1969-1994. Master's Dissertation, History Department, Stellenbosch University. Abstract and Download Page.

Mbali, Mandisa (2005). The Treatment Action Campaign and the History of Rights-Based, Patient-Driven HIV/AIDS Activism in South Africa: Research Report No. 29. University of Kwazulu-Natal Centre for Civil Society. PDF Download. Download Page. In asserting these continuities, it is not this Report’s aim to underplay the discontinuities between anti-apartheid, gay rights activism in the 1980s and early 1990s and TAC’s militant AIDS activism in post-apartheid South Africa. Conservative gay AIDS activists affiliated to Gay Activists of South Africa (GASA) tried and failed to gain access to the apartheid government’s AIDS committees during the 1980s. In the early 1990s, anti-apartheid gay AIDS activists used transition-era negotiating spaces such as the National Aids Convention of South Africa (NACOSA) to further their aims. However, the post-apartheid era brought much greater scope for AIDS activism as it brought with it a free press and the Constitutional Court, which were used to maximum potential by TAC activists, especially in advocating HIV treatment access for all, as the second and third sections of this Report argue. In using these democratic institutions, TAC defended and extended ‘first generation’ political rights.

Reddy, Vasu (2005). Moffies, stabanis and lesbos: the political construction of queer identities in southern Africa. PHD Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download (Very large: 159 Megs). Download Page. This dissertation focuses on discursive constructions of sexuality (in particular homosexuality). This study is not a social history, nor does it explain and motivate the existence of homosexuality. Rather, the project explores the regulatory public discourses of homosexuality in Southern Africa in relation to historical events and archived texts. (Southern embraces primarily South Africa although one chapter foregrounds neighbouring African countries in the Southern region). Applying recent studies in queer theory to a number of events, issues and sources, I formulate a critical methodology that demonstrates the political construction of homosexuality. I argue that the emergence of political queer identity has its roots in the apartheid State, and show how these identities are politically grounded (and indeed) reinforced In the post-apartheid project. The study conceives homosexuality as a 'queer identity' that resists and subverts heteronormativity.

Rees, Jennifer (2010). Masculinity and sexuality in South African border war literature. Master's Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch. PDF Download. Download Page. This thesis explores masculinity and sexuality, hegemonic and “deviant” in the nation state of the old apartheid South Africa, by addressing aspects of fatherhood, boyhood and motherhood in white, predominantly Afrikaans family narratives... I explore what happens when this white-centred patriarchal hegemony is broken down, threatened or resisted when “deviance” in the form of homosexuality occurs. A second focus of this thesis is that of “deviance” in the army. I analyse “deviance” in three novels, moffie (2006) by André Carl van der Merwe, The Beautiful Screaming of Pigs (1991) by Damon Galgut and Kings of the Water (2009) by Mark Behr. These novels foreground “deviance” and I make use of them in exploring the punishment, or “consequences” of being homosexual or “deviant” in the highly masculine environs of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) army.

van Zyl M, et al. (1999). Human rights abuses of gays and lesbians in the South African Defence Force by health workers during the apartheid era. Cape Town, Sotuh Africa: Simply Said and Done
on behalf of Gay and Lesbian Archives, Health and Human Rights Project, Medical Research Council, and the National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality.
PDF Download. - Gays tell of mutilation by apartheid army (2000).

Forman, Ross G (2002). Randy on the Rand: Portuguese African Labor and the Discourse on "Unnatural Vice" in the Transvaal in the Early Twentieth Century. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 11(4): 570-609. PDF Download. Reference. Because the economic center of South Africa had shifted from the Cape Province to the Transvaal as a result of the development of the mines, the country was heavily indebted to these workers from Mozambique, who in 1907 comprised about 70 percent of the labor force officially hired by the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA)and numbered more than seventy thousand... Their inquiry was prompted by and followed on the heels of an explosive 1906 investigation of "immorality" among the indentured Chinese laborers brought to the Transvaal after the conclusion of the Anglo- Boer War, for the earlier investigators had heard repeated testimony that the "Mozambique Natives" could teach the Chinese inore vice than the Chinese could teach them... For instance, although a number of "boys" - interviewed were named by other witnesses as being party to mine marriages, nearly all claimed linowledge of the practice but categorically denied their ou7n involvement in it...

Troubling Gender: Homosexuality in an African Society: "The aim of our study is to analyse the interrelationship between the stereotypes and my myths surrounding same-sex relationships/sexuality, sexual ransgression and gender-based violence.We will document the findings and place them in the context of the existing, but marginal research. What kind of myths and stereotypes are prevalent around homosexuality in African societies and especially in South Africa? Are there any intersections between these myths and gender-based violence and/or violence against lesbians – and if so,what are these myths? To understand these myths we will documen the history of same-sex relationships in differen African societies..." (Paper presented at the Sex & Secrecy Conference 2003, the 4th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality,Culture and Society (IASSCS) by Wendy Isaack and Henriette Gunkel: PDF Download).

Ratele, Kopano (2006). Ruling masculinity and sexuality. Feminist Africa, 6: 48-64. PDF Download. Full Text. Download Page. In a recent study on masculinity focusing on boys from several high schools around the Western Cape, similar thinking was evident. Firstly, in response to the question “What is a man?”, some of the boys answered that a man is “always considered … the head of the household while women are subordinate to men. Therefore a woman is not allowed to [be equal to] her husband when it comes to household decision-making.” In regard to the question of sexuality, a boy said “the problem with abstinence is that you might go crazy, if you are a man” (Ratele et al, in press). From discussion on gay and lesbian identities in that study, it was also clear that “a real man” does not behave in ways that are “unmanly” and does not have sex with another man. As a boy in one group said, “like some gays you can’t even tell that they’re gay ... among themselves they don’t parade around with it. I don’t mind if they’re like that, but I mean if they walk around going like ‘hello doll’ and that little kiss thingy…” [he doesn’t need to finish his idea]. Another boy at a different school, in reference to men looking after children, said “when you look after a child, you also have to put on an apron which makes you look like a moffie”[4] (Ratele et al, in press).

Theuninck AC (2000). The Traumatic Impact of Minority Stressors on Males Self-Identified as Homosexual or Bisexual. Master's Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Full Text & Summary N/A. (Archive Link) - Highlights: "In the present S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made suicide attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South African gay/bi adolescents, 38.7% have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality." "The sample consists of 329 males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample were from 15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were white (73.8%), with 16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either Indian, Coloured, or unspecified."  "When considering the influence of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in gay/bi men, it was found that internalised homonegativity had the strongest influence. This is perhaps not surprising since loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing that sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related to a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide. Having witnessed people being victimised for being gay was the next strongest factor related to suicidal tendencies. Witnessing others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places the gay/bi person in a catch 22 position..."

Wells H, Polders l (2004). Levels of Empowerment among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender [LGBT] People in Gauteng, South Africa. Research initiative of the Joint Working Group conducted by OUT LGBT Well-being in collaboration with the UNISA Centre for Applied Psychology. PDF Download. PDF Download. "Suicide attempts: 17% of the sample (n=347) had made a past suicide attempt or attempts. Of those who had attempted suicide 24% had made multiple attempts. The youngest age at which suicide was attempted was 13 years. No significant differences were found between age groups for attempted suicide. Suicide attempts showed similar rates for men and women. Interestingly, although black individuals reported the highest frequency of “always” or “often” thinking about suicide, white respondents had a higher rate ofattempts (22%) than black (16%) or Indian (12%) respondents."

Can we Talk about Suicide in Africa? (2011): This morning, while reading an article from Behind the Mask about the suicide of a young South African LGBTI activist, Sabelo Zondo, I wondered how many lost lives were due to suicide in the queer communities in Africa. The practice of autopsies after a sudden death is not a systematic medical practice in Africa, except for some legal reasons. People do take their own life and we need to talk about depression and suicide in the society in general and in the LGBTQI communities in particular. In addition to dealing with the stressful transition from childhood to adulthood, LGBTQI youth face many other challenges in Africa. Among other issues, the lack of supportive, positive social structures that allow different gender expression contribute to make LGBTQI youth very vulnerable to depression and suicide attempts. But it does not have to be this way. Can we start by talking about suicide. We should not be ashamed to admit that we are going through depression. We should train and enable queer youth to assist their peers who are dealing with traumatic experiences...

Belkin A, Canaday M (2010). Assessing the integration of gays and lesbians: Into the South African National Defence Force. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 38(2): 1-21. PDF Download. The evidence suggests that the integration of gay and lesbian personnel has not had a negative impact on recruitment and retention, morale, unit cohesion or operational effectiveness in the SANDF.

Achmat, Zackie (2010). LGBTI Freedom and Equality in Africa: a Different South African Perspective. Newsletter: International AIDS Society (PDF, Must Scroll). In theory, we are equal as gay men. We can have sex without any fear of prosecution. The constitution and a myriad of laws guarantee us equal access to social services, employment benefits, fostering, adoption, marriage, divorce and inheritance. We can also serve in the South African National Defence Force and enjoy gay culture and freedom of expression. However, that young, Black gay man’s only rights include sex with a partner of his choice and to openly associate with LGBTI people. These rights are vital, but real equality is a chimera. Equality, privacy and freedom are privileges enjoyed by middle- and upper-class people, including gay men of all races. LGBTI people both consciously and unconsciously lay claim to their rights as human beings and they locate these rights as global citizens. These rights to freedom and equality correctly inspire and activate people everywhere. However, the uncritical adoption of the American, Australian and European rights–based strategies focused on the lobbying of parliaments, litigation and visibility through the media has led to an impasse. A rightsbased movement that looks only to parliaments and the courts must fail, since they are largely captured by corporations and the urban, middle- and upper-class elites...

Kraak, Gerald  (2002). Homosexuality and the South African left: the amibiguities of exile. On The Subject of Sex & The Body Seminar Series (in collaboration with the Graduate School for the Humanities and the School of Arts). Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research (WISER), The University of Witwatersrand. PDF Download. Download Page. This article is a contribution to a slim, but emerging body of work in gay South African historiography – the hidden, largely unacknowledged role played by gay menand lesbians in opposition politics and in the anti-apartheid and liberation movements..

Muholi, Zanele  (2009). Mapping Our Histories: A Visual History of Black Lesbians in Post-Apartheid South Africa PDF Download. Other Writings. Home Page.

Stobie C (2009). Postcolonial Pomosexuality: Queer/ Alternative Fiction after "Disgrace". Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa, 21(1/2). Full Text. The development of South African queer/alternative writing is illustrated by the shift from William Plomer's oblique re-working of homosexual desire into cross-racial erotics in Turbott Wolfe (1925), through occasional explorations of homosexuality under high apartheid by authors such as Stephen Gray (1988)--although such texts were vulnerable to banning by the censors to increasingly explicit material towards the end of the century, by such authors as Damon Galgut (1995), Ashraf Jamal (1996) and Tatamkhulu Afrika (1996). In addition to authors who are personally invested in queer issues, Nobel laureates Nadine Gordimer and J M Coetzee refer to these issues in works from their later periods such as Gordimer's The House Gun (1998) and Coetzee's Disgrace (1999). In view of the apartheid-era legislation declaring homosexuality illegal it is understandable that after the shift to democracy and the passing of legal safeguards for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people a number of authors have explored the painful self-acceptance of gay identities--mainly also white and male--during apartheid. This exploration forms part of the retrospective cartography of the previously occluded queer nation. An interesting turn in the post-apartheid era is the handling of the trope of bisexuality, which opens up a potentially useful domain for considering sexuality and national identifications beyond the constraints of binary models (see Stobie 2007). Since the publication of Disgrace a significant development in queer writing has been the shift to representing a more varied spectrum of sexuality--not necessarily viewed as a prime marker of identity; more awareness of gender issues; a consciousness of postcolonialism; and an exciting experimentation with form in the fictional narration which also visualises a future that can countenance new forms of gender performance and sexuality. This collective shift, more evident in the writing of women authors focusing on queer/ alternative themes, might be called postcolonial pomosexuality. The term "pomosexuality" refers to expressions of queer beyond separatist or essentialist notions of sexual orientation (Queen and Schimel 1997), and my addition of the adjective "postcolonial" sites this intimate domain within wider political power structures.

Mark Gevisser: In his new essay in the latest edition of Granta, Mark looks back at the lives of two older men from Soweto, and how they negotiated the double-jeopardy of being black and being gay in apartheid South Africa, from the perspective of his own same-sex marriage in February 2009. Extract. See: Recent Writings. - Gevisser, Mark (2000). Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa. In: Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: South Africa: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: South Africa. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

Simon and I: A film by Beverley Palesa Ditsie and Nicky Newman. A challenging, provocative, and unconventional film about life in Southern Africa in the presenceof HIV/AIDS. - Simon and I: Simon and I recounts the lives of two giants in the South African gay and lesbian liberation movement, Simon Nkoli and the film maker herself, Bev Ditsie. The story is narrated by Bev, both as a personal statement and a political history. Through good times and bad, their relationship is viewed against a backdrop of intense political activism and the HIV/AIDS crisis. Their converging and diverging lives, culminating in Simon s death, are revealed in this heartfelt testament using a mixed format of interviews and archive footage.

Resources: GALA: Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action: GALA was established under the name The Gay and Lesbian Archives in 1997. - Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (To 2009). (Old Site, to 2007) (Archive Link). GALA 2003 Report:  Established in 1997, GALA is an independent project of the South African History Archives Trust (SAHA) which forms part of the Historical Papers collection based at the William Cullen Library at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. For SAHA this was a valuable extension of its existing collections that echoed SAHA’s historic commitment to documenting human rights struggles in South Africa. GALA represents a unique resource of material relating to lesbian and gay experience in Southern Africa. It is appropriate that the only lesbian and gay archive on the continent should be located in South Africa, considering that this is the first country in the world to enshrine equality on the basis of sexual orientation in its constitution. In the light of the constitution making process and the ensuing legal reforms, South Africa has become a focus for international and local research attention.. - Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action (GALA): Strategic plan 2007-2011.

The Durban Lesbian & Gay Community & Health Centre. - GMax: gay and lesbian South Africa. - Gay South Africa. - The South African Gay Information Guide. - South African Lesbian and Gay Equality Project. - Grey Gay Guide. - Feminist Internet Resource Guide: Africa (To 2006). - Gay South Africa Lifestyle. - Gender DynamiX: African based organisation for the transgender community. The aim is to create awareness and visualize transgenderism. - Lesbians in South Africa: A forum for South Africa's Lesbian community (To 2006): - Jewish OutLook: the new South African Jewish Organisation catering for the Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgendered and Intersex Community. - Cape Town GLBT Links. - Exit online - stories from South Africa's LGBT newspaper. - South Africa Gay & Lesbian Issues News: Service for global professionals. Constantly updated news and information about South Africa..

Joburg Pride. - Cape Town Pride. - Videos, Gay Pride: Cape Town Pride Parade, 2011. - Cape Town Pride Parade After Party at Cape Town Stadium, 2011. - Cape Town Gay Pride 2010 - Bronx Boyz. - South Africa Gay Pride at Zoo Lake, 2009. - Gay Pride in Cape Town, 2008. - Cape Town Pride GoPink, 2008. - Homophobic Harassment During Gay Pride, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - South AfricaZimbabwe.

Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: South Africa Information News. - African Veil: Countries Covered: South Africa. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Mamba Online: Gay South Africa Lifestyle, News, Dating. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. South Africa Individual Documents since 1999. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: South Africa News Report 2000 to Present. - ILGA: Africa: South Africa. - LGBT rights in South Africa. - QRD. - Gayscape.

Arts & Culture Index: Africa N/A. (Archive Link, to 2003). - Botha MP (2003). Homosexuality and South African cinema. Kinema, 19, Spring 2003:39-64. Full Text.

Passion and pride at the gay film festival (2010). - Out in Africa, 2010. - Out in Africa Gay & Lesbian Film Festival Johannesburg (2011). April 2011 Out in Africa Film Fest (2011). - Out In Africa: South African Gay and Lesbian Film Festival. - SA Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (2008, Must Scroll): The Out In Africa SA Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (OIA) celebrated its 15th birthday this spring with over 100 screenings held at Nu Metro in Johannesburg and Cape Town, for 11 days in each city. - South Africa: Out in Africa: Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (2007). - Homosexuality and South African Cinema (Bibliography to 1991). - The Power of Culture Special: Cinema in Africa - South African Queer Cinema Exposes Double Standards: Ten years after the first democratic elections, black South African queer film has come out of the closet. - Queer cinema as a fifth cinema in South Africa and Australia (2005): In South Africa, the first major Queer film festival, The Out In Africa Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in 1994, was instrumental in developing and maintaining a post-Apartheid Queer public sphere which fostered further legal change. Given the significant histories of activism through Queer Cinematic Cultures in both Australia and South Africa, I propose in this thesis the existence of a new genus of cinema, which I term Fifth Cinema. Fifth Cinema includes Feminist Cinema, Queer Cinema and Immigrant/Multicultural Cinema and deals with the oppressions which cultures engage with within their own cultural boundaries. It can be informed by First Cinema (classical, Hollywood), Second Cinema (Art House or dual national cinemas), Third and Fourth Cinema (cinemas dealing with the decolonisation of Third World and Fourth World people), but it develops its unique characteristics by countering internal cultural colonisation. Fifth Cinema functions as a heterognosis, where multi-dimensional representations around sexuality, race and gender are used to assist in broader cultural liberation.

Branton, Heather (2002). Feminist Visions: Lesbian and Gay in Southern Africa: Activists, Lovers. and Healers. Feminist Collections, 24(1): 6-9. PDF Download. Download Page. Films Reviewed: Forbidden Fruit. Tina Mchida in Zimbabwe (Rainmakers, Series 2). Everything Must Com to Light.

Review (2010): Reading Zanele Muholi’s Faces and Phases (Book) and Difficult Love (Film). Zanele Muholi is very clear about the objectives of her work as a black lesbian South African visual activist. In the introduction to her 2010 book, Faces and Phases, she states: In the face of all the challenges our community encounters daily, I embarked on a journey of visual activism to ensure that there is black queer visibility. It is important to mark, map and preserve our mo(ve)ments through visual histories for reference and posterity so that future generations will note that we were here" (2010: 6). - Difficult Love wins an award at Bilbao (2011). - World renowned lesbian photographer and visual activist Zanele Muholi has once again been recognised for her work as her award winning film Difficult Love is being screened in local and international film festivals.The film was commissioned by the SABC and is co-directed by Peter Goldsmid and Zanele Muholi.

Books: - Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa - 1995 - edited by Mark Gevisser, Edwin Cameron (Google Books) (Review). - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Review by Gary Kinsmans: "Third World 'Queer' Liberation "A revolution within the revolution." Contains: "Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa" (P. 111-36, Alternate Link for Review) "Mark Gevisser, co-editor of the South African anthology Defiant desire (1994), discusses the development of homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa." Plus: "Awakenings: dreams and delusions of an incipient lesbian and gay movement in Kenya" (P. 179-92) "John Mburu writes from the embattled movements in southern Africa, where a spate of dictatorial presidents have made anti-homosexual pronouncements and embarked on campaigns of anti-gay and lesbian harassment. Mburu specifically deals with the movement in Kenya." - Moffies: gay life in Southern Africa - 2000 - by Bart Luirink (Review) (Abstract) (Amazon). - Sex and politics in South Africa - 2005 - by Neville Wallace Hoad, Karen Martin, Graeme Reid (Abstract & Author Information) (Google Books). - Queer visibilities: space, identity and interaction in Cape Town - 2009 - by Andrew Tucker (Google Books) (Review & Author Interview) (Black Bull, Ancestors and Me: My Life as a Lesbian Sangoma is one of four books granted Honor Status for the Stonewall Book Award-Israel Fishman Non-Fiction Award 2010).

Books: - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Among Lesbians and Gay Men (Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Issues, Volume 3) - 1997 - edited by Beverly Greene (Abstract). Contains: "From Apartheid to Mandela's Constitution" by Cheryl Potgieter. - The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities - 2001 - by Delroy Constantine-Simms (Excerpt) (Interview with author) (Review: Black Gay / Gay Black) (We are soliciting essays on Black homosexuality for the "The Greatest Taboo: Volume 2) Contains: "Institutionalizing Sexuality: Theorizing Queer in Post-Apartheid South Africa" by Vasu Reddy. - The Invisible Ghetto: Lesbian & Gay Writing from South Africa - 1995 - edited by Matthew Krouse. - Gayle: The Language of Kinks and Queens, A History and Dictionary of Gay Language in South Africa - 2005 - by Ken Cage. - Hungochani: the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa - 2004 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related Article: homosexuality taboo in africa. - The Cultural Politics of Female Sexuality in South Africa - 2010 - by Henriette Gunkel (Contents & Introduction) (New NAI Book on Homophobia in Africa). - Black Bull, Ancestors and Me: My life as a Lesbian Sangoma - 2009 - by Nkunzi Zandile Nkabinde (Review (Blessing ceremony for book launch) (Video: Nkunzi Zandile Nkabinde prays/performs at the launch).

From Social Silence to Social Science: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa - 2009 - edited by Vasu Reddy, Theo Sandfort & Laetitia Rispel (Amazon) (Review) (Podcast Package: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa) (Free Download. Download Page). Contents: Foreword. - Introduction. - - Theory, methodology, context: 1 Researching same-sex sexuality and HIV.  2 Sexuality research in South Africa: The policy context.  3 Same-sex sexuality and health: Current psychosocial scientific research in South Africa.  4 Homosexual and bisexual labels: The need for clear conceptualisations, operationalisations and appropriate methodological designs.  5 Gender, same-sex sexuality and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Practical research challenges and solutions.  6 From social silence to social science: HIV research among township MSM in South Africa. -- History, memory, archive:  7 Gay AIDS activism in South Africa prior to 1994.  8 Sexing women: Young black lesbian women’s reflections on sex and responses to safe(r) sex in Johannesburg.  9 Creating memory: Documenting and disseminating life stories of LGBTI people living with HIV
Ruth Morgan, Busi Kheswa, John Meletse.  10. Perspectives from sub-Saharan and southern Africa 10 What we know about same-sex practicing people and HIV in Africa.  11 Same-sex sexuality and HIV/AIDS: A perspective from Malawi.  12 A bird’s eye view of HIV and gay and lesbian issues in Zimbabwe. 13 Epidemiological disjunctures: A review of same-sex sexuality and HIV research in sub-Saharan Africa. -- Needs, programming, policy and direction for future research:  14 Mobilising gay and lesbian organisations to respond to the political challenges of the South African HIV epidemic.  15 Are South African HIV policies and programmes meeting the needs of samesex practising individuals?  16 Lessons learned from current South African HIV/AIDS research among lesbian/gay/bisexual populations.  17 Observations on HIV and AIDS in Cape Town’s LGBT population.  18 Some personal and political perspectives on HIV/AIDS in Ethekwini.  19 Health for all? Women who have sex with women (WSW) health needs and issues. -- Conclusions:  20 Taking research-based prevention forward.

The Prize and the Price: Shaping sexualities in South Africa (Free Download) - 2009 - edited by Melissa Steyn, Mikki van Zyl (Amazon). - Some Sections with Homosexuality Related Issues: Foreword. - 1. The Prize And The Price. - 5. Renegotiating masculinity in the Lowveld: narratives of male-male sex in compounds, prisons and at home. - 7. Are blind people better lovers? - 8. Sexuality in later life. - 13. Heterosex among young South Africans: Research reflections. - 17. Queer marriage: Sexualising citizenship and the development of freedoms in South Africa. - 18. Beyond the Constitution: from sexual rights to belonging. - Conclusion: Shaping sexualities.  See also the Index.

The country we want to live in Hate crimes and homophobia in the lives of black lesbian South Africans (Free Download) - 2010 - by Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Jane Bennett, Vasu Reddy, Relebohile Moletsane (Full Text) (HSRC Seminar: The Country We Want to Live In - Hate Crimes and Homophobia in the Lives of Black Lesbian South Africans). Contents: Foreword. - Preface. - - Part I: Context and History:  Context and socio-political background. - Language and vocabulary. - The delimitations of this report. - -  Part II: Perspective and Profile: Roundtable Seminar on Gender-Based Violence, Black Lesbians, Hate Speech and Homophobia. - - Part III: Current and Future Prospects: Legally-focused campaigning. - Conclusions and Recommendations: a way forward?

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

KENYA: - Gay Kenya publishes its first 2011’s newsletter: Security is one of the issues of the first newsletter published by Gay Kenya this year. (2011). - Security initiative for Kenyan LGBTI Launched (2011). - Kenyan gays celebrate new constitution (2010). - Kenya gay activist criticises Odinga crackdown threat (2010): A gay rights activist has criticised Kenya's prime minister for threatening a crackdown on homosexual people.. - Coming out in Kenya (2009): Pauline Kimani is one of Kenya’s few openly lesbian women. - Being Gay in Africa (2010, Alternate Link): As in much of Africa, sex between men is illegal in Kenya, a legacy of British colonial rule. “I simply don’t understand what the problem is,” says Steven, a peer educator from Mtwapa, near Mombasa. “Why can’t they leave us alone to be what we want to be?” But this simple wish seems a long way from coming true. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face discrimination in employment, lack of freedom of association, hate speech and arbitrary arrest... - Kenyan Gays Battle Prejudice (2011). - Blackmail gangs target gay Kenyans (2012).

Kenya: Halt Anti-Gay Campaign: Protect Health Workers, Activists; Condemn Mob Violence, Incitements to Hate (2010).  - Kenyan Gays in State of Panic (2010): A recent call for the arrest of all gay and lesbian people by Kenyan prime minister Raila Odinga has confused and worried the LGBT community of the African country. Odinga spoke Sunday at a rally in Kibera and told listeners that all gay men and lesbians would be subject to laws in the new constitution that criminalize homosexuality. The new bill of rights in Kenya prohibits discrimination on any grounds, according to Voice of America, and the remarks have vexed and worried activists like Nguru Karugu of the Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya.  - Anti-transsexual discrimination in Kenyan medical services (2009). - Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya (2009). 

Being gay in Kenya (2006): (Alternate Link) Though rarely enforced, punishment in Kenya for gay sex is five to 14 years in jail. Sex between women is not mentioned in the law. The gay Kenyan men interviewed by Reuters asked to have their names changed, citing potential family and work problems. - Being gay, Christian and African (2006): A 32-year-old Kenyan student, angered by a campaign in Cameroon "outing" top personalities for their alleged homosexuality, speaks anonymously to the BBC News website about his struggle to accept his sexuality. - Homosexuality debate in Kenya un-muted as key figures start questioning homophobia N/A (2005): During the first week of July, a lawyer in the western Kenya town of Eldoret was reported in a national newspaper as calling for a debate on homosexuality. The lawyer, Alfred Nyairo Momanyi, issued a statement in which he urged the Anglican Church of Kenya to lead the debate. - Homosexual Tourists Get Hostile Reception from African Muslims (2003).

Where the Gay Community Hangs Out (2005): In Nairobi, the homosexual community is a close-knit one that often operates in private homes and behind closed doors, unwilling to come out of the closet at least until recently when representatives of the gay community in Kenya have began appearing on radio shows and showing a more visible face of an invisible world. - Life slowly gets easier for gay people in Kenya. - Rants and raves of a Kenyan gay man: Homophobia and Racism. - Being gay, Christian and African: A 32-year-old Kenyan student, angered by a campaign in Cameroon "outing" top personalities for their alleged homosexuality, speaks anonymously to the BBC News website about his struggle to accept his sexuality. - Male sex worker in Kenya with ‘important’ clients.

Mumbi Machera, Mumbi (2003). Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. In: Signe Arnfred, ed., Re-Thinking Sexualities in Africa, 157-170. PDF Download. In the course of writing this paper, the Daily Nation, a daily newspaper published in Kenya, put out an article entitled: "Bi-curious: An emerging trend." The article (published on November 17, 2001) addressed an "emerging breed of young Kenyan women who are choosing a different kind of sexual relationship - they love occasional dalliances with other women, which is considered a bit of fun". What I found very curious about the bi-curious girls is the difficulty they face in self-defining their new sexual identities. The girls interviewed reiterated that they are not lesbians; so what are they? They admitted having sexual intimacies with their girlfriends "but they do not consider these trysts as cheating on their boyfriends." The girls interviewed also said that they are not bisexual.

Editorial: Men Who Have Sex With Men and Their HIV Epidemics in Africa (AIDS, Frits van Griensven, 2007. Access via Google Search): "In this issue of the Journal, Geibel et al. report a capture-recapture study to estimate the number of men who have sex with men (MSM) who sell sex in Mombasa, Kenya. The authors surveyed 77 venues and estimated the number of MSM selling sex at these venues to be 739... the investigators were able to identify and enroll hundreds of MSM selling sex in the African country of Kenya. This number also indicates that there must be a fairly large population of male clients willing to pay for the sexual services of these MSM, as well as a larger community of other MSM, since most MSM do not sell sex. Indeed, an earlier snowball-survey conducted in Nairobi in 2004 enrolled 500 MSM in a needs-assessment within 2 months. That the HIV prevalence among Kenyan MSM may be high can be derived from data from an ongoing cohort study among MSM in Kilifi, a town located on the northern coastline of Kenya between Mombasa and Malindi: 38% (23/60) of men were HIV-infected at baseline.[3] Additional evidence for an elevated HIV prevalence among MSM in Kenya comes from HIV voluntary counseling and testing data from sites throughout the country, where of the 780 MSM tested between 2002 and 2005, 10.6% were HIV-infected.

Homosexuals come out in Kenya: (2007, Alternate Link)  Luzau Basambombo spent six months in a Kinshasa prison, abused over and over again. The Congolese human rights activist suspects that he was put behind bars because he openly admitted being homosexual. 'If you are gay in Congo, you become an outlaw,' he says. After being released from prison, he left Congo for Uganda where he was granted asylum. 'When the authorities found out that I was gay, I was asked to leave the country,' he says. Today, the 38-year-old Congolese lives in Nairobi and he feels comfortable there. 'Things are changing here in Kenya - in favour of us.' Gays and Lesbians are prosecuted in most African countries. In some Nigerian federal states, where the Muslim sharia law is in force, homosexuals are stoned to death. - Kampala homo pubs: The Ugandan Minister of Ethics and Integrity, Miria Matembe recently outed a bar, according to a report in New Vision, a Ugandan newspaper... There is too much immorality all around us. Homosexuality, lesbianism, name it."

Anglicans defect to Kenya over gay priests: On Thursday, two U.S. priests were consecrated as Anglican bishops in Kenya, the latest in a string of priests who are defecting to African congregations because of the American church’s liberal stance on gays. - United Nations Human Rights Committee Pushes Kenya to Legalize Abortion and Homosexuality: With regard to homosexuality, Roman Wieruszewski, the UN ‘expert’  from Poland, expressed concern that the country considered homosexuality an unnatural act and had enacted laws to that effect.  He asked, “Does the country consider this to be inconsistent with the Covenant’s non-discrimination clauses?”. - Pro-gay church community established in Kenya, Uganda: (Alternate Link) The church community of St Sebastian, based in the Spanish Canary Islands, has announced the establishment of its first fellowships in Africa, being prepared in Uganda and Kenya. The all-inclusive church community is especially known for its outreach to homosexuals. In Kenya and Uganda, both the government and local church communities are strongly homophobic.

Statement from the LGBTI coalition in Kenya (2006): The Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya is a recently formed umbrella body consisting of eight Kenyan groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people, representing the interests and concerns of all LGBTI Kenyans... All members of the Kenyan family cannot be said to have equal rights as long as paragraph 162 and 165 of the Kenyan Penal code exist. Whilst these draconian laws remain on our statutes, LGBTI people will continue to be the target of verbal and physical injury, sexual violence and social marginalization. Further to this, these laws inhibit the delivery of effective HIV prevention and treatment services to LGBTI people in Kenya, recognised by our own National AIDS Control Council in the Kenya Country Position Statement to UNGASS, 2006. Enough is enough. It is time to scrap the laws that the British imposed upon us and left us with, laws that the colonizers themselves scrapped long ago. Let Kenya move out from the shadows of her colonial past and recognise the rights of her gay and lesbian citizens. - Rich LGBT program at the World Social Forum 2007 in Nairobi, a milestone for the Kenyan LGBT movement (2007). - Cabinet to Discuss Homosexuality in Kenya (2006): I am the type of person who totally ignores anything a politician says but this article on Ngilu just goes to show how Kenyan politicians have their heads buried in the sand.

Kenya: issue of homosexuality among Coastal youths (2006): Speaking in Mombasa during a leaders meeting, Ngilu said she was shocked by revelations that homosexuality among teenagers was rampant in Coastal towns... “We cannot allow sex between man and man. Men should have sexual relationships with women only,” she said. She urged the provincial administration to crack down on tycoons who, she said, lured youths into homosexuality. Coast General Hospital chief administrator, Dr Khadija Shikelly, said schoolgirls engaged in anal sex to avoid getting pregnant. “There is need for parents to educate their children on the dangers of this vice,” she said. - Human Rights Commissioner Confronts Homophobic Statements by Council of Imams in Mombasa (2007): Recently the Council of Imams and Preachers of Coastal Kenya, along with Muslim youth groups, have launched a campaign to eradicate homosexuality and prostitution from Kenya's second city, Mombasa. The groups claim that homosexuality and immorality are on the rise in Kenya. "The Kenya National Commission on Human Rights is always deeply concerned when those in positions of authority and responsibility make comments that might be understood as some in the community to be a call to violence against another community or group of people - in his case homosexual people. Whilst the law in Kenya criminalizes homosexual acts between men, the law does not criminalize a community or an individual because of his or her sexual or gender identity.

The "Myth" of Homosexuality in Kenya Society N/A (1998, Alternate Link). - Kenyan Bisexual Myths (2009). - Homosexuality and HIV/AIDS in Kenyan Society - A series of articles from Kenya's Daily Nation newspaper. - AIDS services for gay men slowly grows (2006). Understanding the HIV Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nairobi- Kenya’s President Jumps on Anti-gay Bandwagon (1999). - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors: Adolescents and Adults. - Gays, lesbians fight conservative governments and an unkind society (2003). - Kenya Gays See End To Repression (2003). - Kenyan Gay Rights Activists Optimistic. (2004, Alternate Link)

Gay bashing the new national pasttime in Kenya (2003): When people use the term "gay bashing", they are often referring to gay people being physically attacked by bigots and the like. But as any counsellor will tell you, physical attack is not the only way to cause hurt. Well-aimed and badly intentioned words can be just as vicious as a fist or a kick in the ribs. - The gay underground (2004): In Kenya, a clause on sexual freedom in the draft constitution raised a storm when it came up for debate at Bomas of Kenya last year. That the clause was included is in itself telling as it suggested the existence of a gay ‘community’ in the country. Acting on this assumption, Society’s Tony Mochama went behind the veil of secrecy under which homosexual relations are conducted and discovered a vibrant world of same-sex romance.. - Amin Shamji: Kenya's George Michael (2000) - LGB Support in Peace Corps Kenya (2003).

AIDS Kenya: Where Are Kenya's Homosexuals?  (2000, Alternate Link) "Daniel Arap Moi, the current Kenyan president, agrees. ''Kenya has no room or time for homosexuals and lesbians. Homosexuality is against African norms and traditions, and even in religion it is considered a great sin,'' Arap Moi has been quoted saying i n Kenya's Daily Nation newspaper. But networks of men who have sex with men can be found across the continent. And in Kenya, where homosexuality is a criminal offence, their voices are beginning to be heard. Statistics on the number of such men are hard to come by." - Kenya: Gay and positive (2003, Alternate Link): Some clients would infect your behind with sexually transmitted diseases and you would suffer silently because how do you explain to the doctor how you got the infection? - HIV positive and gay in Kenya; double stigma. - Support Survive AIDS Kenya (2001).

Homosexuality and Aids: A double-edged sword (1998). - HIV and Kenya's homosexuals (1998). - ‘Yan Daudu’ and Proud - Same-Sex Bonds Take Many Forms In Africa Today (1999): Not only do there appear to be more gay couples in Mombasa, but there is a tradition of "marriage" between men. As older women, known as mkungus, educate young girls in the duties of marriage, young homosexual men learn from male mkungus. Ahmed, 36, gives his pupils cooking lessons, advises them on perfumes that will please the "husband," and demonstrates how to wear a khanga(flowered cloth) in the house. At the end of the month's training he receives cloth and kitchen utensils as payment. Three hundred miles away, in Nairobi, men come to a bar in a well-known public building for their "sun-downer"— the drink at the end of the day. Some are flamboyant, wearing makeup and jewelry. Jack, almost seven feet tall, is a 23-year-old hairstylist who has been blackmailed and arrested several times by the police. Others are more discreet, such as Odongo, 42, a gas station attendant from near the Ugandan border who left his wife in his hometown and regularly pays for the company of young men...

Mke-si-mume: Neocolonialism and Sexual Practice in Kenya (2002): Most men who have homosexual intercourse still tend to lead traditional Kenyan lives with a wife and children. Some men who prefer sex with men claim that they are pressured into marriage. Several wives know of their husband's sexual and emotional relationships with other men, while others remain ignorant. . - Gay men on the agenda (2003): "For many veterans of conferences on the HIV/Aids scourge on the African continent, the recent ICASA conference in Nairobi was remarkable for being the first such high-profile gathering in Africa that made a space for gays and lesbians on the official programme..." - In Fight Against AIDS, Kenya Confronts Gay Taboo (2009).  - In the life of a Kenyan gay sex worker (2010).

Challenges in addressing counselling needs of MSM in highly stigmatized contexts: results of a qualitative study from Kenya(2009): Participants expressed a range of attitudes to MSM from affirmation through tolerance to negative and stigmatizing, with some expressing that gayness was a disease that good counselling could change. All said that they lacked skills to conduct effective risk- reduction counselling. Most had learned all they knew about MSM from male sex workers and mentioned triggers such as poverty, alcohol and drugs. Few linked risk taking behaviour with life issues, self worth and stigma. As a result counsellors knew about the complex issues faced by high risk MSM but few described this impacting on their approaches to risk-reduction counselling. Similarly, counsellors said they were non-judgemental yet our data reveal many had strong social constructs and were unable to ‘put aside their values’..

Arap Moi joins the club (2000): Kenyan President Moi has echoed the anti-lesbigay sentiments of Uganda's Museveni, but is it a matter of conviction or a method of distraction? Planet Out news staff reported on 30 September 1999.... The staggering claims, that there are no homosexuals among Gikuyus, is shattered by Stephen O. Murray's interview with a young Gikuyu man called Kamau, who is a student in London. Kamau states that he had been aware of his attraction to other men from a very young age and that he met and knew of other young men who, just like himself, showed interest in men."

Lesbianism sweeps through female soccer in Kenya (1998): Leading Kenyan psychiatrist says closeness between people of the same gender results in homosexuality. - Chronology of Protest And Destruction in Schools: "Devil worship, homosexuality and drug abuse are rampant in schools in Central Province, a new report says... Homosexuality was particularly common in Kiambu and Thika districts, a fact attributed to their proximity to Nairobi, a city going through socio-cultural turbulence."

Kenya Rules Out Condoms For Prisoners (2000, Alternate Link): "He admitted that sodomy and homosexuality are rampant in Kenya's prisons. Dr. G.M. Baltazar, a Nairobi  epidemiologist, also admitted that homosexuality is rampant in the prisons. "Prisoners, because they are confined together, will continue having abnormal sexual relations, whether we like it or not," he said." - Kenya: Homosexuality Major Cause of Aids Spread in Prisons (2008): So it came as a shock last week when the man in charge of health services in Kenya's jails admitted that homosexuality is rampant in the facilities and is fuelling the Aids spread, both inside and outside when inmates are freed to rejoin the society. - Une réponse trop lente face une séroprévalence très élevée en milieu carcéral.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Kenya: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Kenya. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

Books: - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Table of Contents). Contains: "Awakenings: dreams and delusions of an incipient lesbian and gay movement in Kenya" (P. 179-92) "John Mburu writes from the embattled movements in southern Africa, where a spate of dictatorial presidents have made anti-homosexual pronouncements and embarked on campaigns of anti-gay and lesbian harassment. Mburu specifically deals with the movement in Kenya."

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Kenya Information News. Kenya Archives. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Kenya. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Kenya News Reports from 1998 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Kenya- LGBT rights in Kenya. - Sodomy Laws. - Gay Activist Alliance.

Gay Kenya. - The Gay and Lesbian Coalition of Kenya. - Diary of a Gay Kenyan. - The Fight for LGBT Rights in Kenya (2010, Video). - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Kenya Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Kenya.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

ZAMBIA: - `No vote for pro-gay politicians (2011): The church says it will campaign against political leaders advocating gay rights and has embarked on sensitising and educating members of the public on dangers of voting for such candidates. The stance follows Patriotic Front (PF) president Michael Sata’s statement that homosexuals have rights in Zambia. - Should gay men be openly accepted in Zambia? (2010, Includes Video): This is a sensitive issue that many do not even like the sound of and later on even read about or watch (watch video below of openly Zambian gay guy) anything associated with gay men. However if you are going to war, it is often said you need to put your best soldiers forward which could also translate as a metaphor for addressing all Zambian under-laying issues if Zambia is ever going to move forward and develop in any way. - Zambia's New Constitution Forbids Same Sex Marriages (2010). - Zambia moves against criminalization of homosexuality (2010): Former president of Botswana Festus Mogae has urged President Rupiah Banda’s government not to criminalise homosexuality and sex work because that would make the fight against HIV/AIDS difficult.And President Rupiah Banda said he understood the need not to criminalise homosexuals..

Church slams Sata’s gay rights stance (2011): The Church has strongly condemned the stance taken by Patriotic Front (PF) leader Michael Sata regarding gay and lesbian rights, saying such acts should not be entertained in a Christian nation like Zambia. Correspondent Cleopatra spoke to Kitizo, a 22 years old gay man from Lusaka. - 'Advocating gay rights and lesbianism is an abomination' (2011): Mr Kafumbo said advocating gay rights and lesbianism in Zambia is an abomination. He called on church mother bodies, especially the Zambia Episcopal Conference to exert pressure on Mr Sata to step down.. - Zambia's Vice-President Using Homosexuality as Wedge Issue in 2011 Elections (2011).- More condemn Sata in gay rights (2011, Alternate Link). - Life in gay Lusaka (2008).

Being openly gay Zambia (2009, Video, Alternate Link): Eventhough it's forbidden by law in the christian nation of Zambia, there are gays who are more or less open about their homosexuality. - Priest wants homosexuality legalised (2009): A Jesuit priest and former university of Zambia lecturer has called upon the Zambian government to make homosexuality legal. - Zambia under fire for anti-gay sentiment (2010): As a gay couple in Malawi began serving a 14-year jail term for conducting an open relationship, another southern African country came under fire over its treatment of gays. New York-based rights watchdog Human Rights Watch warned that recent homophobic statements by religious leaders and government authorities in Zambia, Malawi's neighbour to the west, was undermining that country's fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic. - Zambian VP Kunda: Report Homosexuals to the Police (2009): In parliament this week, Zambian VP George Kunda told officials  that the government knew of people who had married to hide their homosexuality, and instructed people to report those people to the police, according to a Zambian news outlet..

The love that whispers (2009): Homosexuality is still illegal in Zambia, and it's possible to be prosecuted and jailed for sodomy. So although it would be a bit too extreme to say that it's underground or hidden, it does take a little luck or effort to find. I recently had the good fortune to meet a couple who agreed to give me some insights into gay Lusaka. Joshua Banda (35) and his partner Greg Mbewe (28)* have been together for eight years, having met in 2000 through mutual friends. Judging by what they say, they are at the hub of a vibrant and lively gay community in Lusaka. Their stories and experiences make it clear how ridiculous it is to claim, as some still do, that homosexuality is "un-African". Both Banda and Mbewe realised at a fairly young age that they were different from other boys and, beginning in their teens, each slowly began to find others like themselves. Around 1998 Banda saw an advertisement in a newspaper for a new organisation called Lesbians, Gays and Transgenders, or Legatra. He contacted it and became a member. Through a friend he made at Legatra he met Mbewe. "It was love at first sight," Banda says...

Zambian gays gather to look into the future of their sexuality (2006, PDF Download). - Hope for Zambian MSM (2007): For the first time in Zambia, men having sex with other men (MSM) will have a government endorsed assessment aimed at identifying their existence and sexual behaviours in relation to HIV and Aids. This is done to draw the government’s attention to health issues faced by MSM in that country. Spearheaded by US-based Centre for Disease Control (CDC) together with the Zambian Ministry of Health and the Society for Family Health International, the assessment “is exciting and will give some sort of identity for MSM in Zambia” according to Riva Ukwimi, who is the project coordinator of Friends of Rainka (FORP) at the Society for Family Health...

Zambian lesbian speaks out (2006):  Cindy aged 28 speaks out about her sexuality after being called a tomboy for years. Living in one of Zambia’s cities located in the heart of copper-belts in Ndola. Cindy talks about what she’s been through and how she’s trying by all means to leave the city because her community can not accept that sort of sickness... From that time I have had threat within the community and I have since moved to Lusaka where I’m not very much free, easier to make friends who are like. I wish there more news and activities involving lesbian in some organisations that way there would be more us coming out to contribute or participate. I’m very please to discover that there is a website that’s dedicated to Zambian LGBT “Africanveil”. I’m also please to be amongst the contributors of Africanveil, this will help in having to open the site to all Zambian lesbian that feel left out, I’m please to have had a chance to speak to ndanji regarding our contribution as women.

Zambian activists have vowed to fight for their rights, despite official pronouncements that organizing would be a felony N/A (1998, Alternate Link). - Homosexuality situation in Zambia. (2000, Alternate Link) - Homosexuality in Zambia (1998). -  Zambian Homosexuals Elect Leaders (1998). - Fear of arrest: Harassment of activists (1998). - Zambian Gays Hold Meeting In Defiance Of Ban (1998). - Police in Lusaka have begun a clamp-down on the gay movement and their supporters N/A (Must Scroll). - Africa's gays seek swift end to legal bans (Must Scroll) N/A. - Zambia Angered by Norwegian Support of Gays (1999). - Homosexuals prowl Zambian Streets (1998).

Gay Group Struggles for Life in Zambia N/A. (Related Information N/A: Government treatment of homosexuals in Zambia, and its attitudes towards gay organisations; protection or support available from human rights groups)  - Conflict over Gay organizing spreading north to Zambia N/A. - No Legal Organizing in Zambia (1998). - Zambia's Registrar of Societies continues to refuse to register the gay organization Legatra (Lesbian, Gay and Transgender Association), according to the Gay and Lesbian Times (2001). - Legatra's foundation was not a wise step (2001). - Zambia gets 'tough on corruption and gays' (2003). - Makaveli: The Story Of An African Gay Bar N/A.

African Gays Encouraged by South African Decision N/A: "The London Times reports gay men and women across the African continent have been heartened by the South African Supreme Court's recent repeal of the country's sodomy laws and are hoping that the tolerance evidenced by the decision will spill into the minds of other African leaders. This week Kenneth Kaunda, Zambia's former President, called on Zambians to "cool down" after months of often vicious debate and controversy surrounding efforts by the Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender Persons Association (Legatra) to gain official status as a non governmental organization. The Zambian government has repeatedly warned anyone agitating for gay civil rights risks arrest and imprisonment."  - Zulu defends homosexual.

'My name is Pelekani Luwenji, I am a homosexual': "Please don't insult me for this letter. It wasn't just Mercy who made me become homosexual, it was an arrogancy of many other girls and the hatred of certain people. I still have dreams of getting back to girls. I can even consider becoming a bi-sexual. I will take my chances of homosexual. At least being gay will satisfy my everyday need for enjoyment and everlasting comfort and passion. In TIME magazine a woman wrote that gays and lesbians should have fair and equal treatment. I know that many Zambians are against homosexuality. I know some can stupidly say that homosexuals are a threat to Zambian society. Can I please enlighten on some truthful and interesting insights on this whole issue? ..."

The Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Zambia (PDF Download) (Word Download): The retention of codes that criminalize sexual relationships between same-sex consenting adults has a devastating impact on same-sex practicing people in Zambia.  Gays, lesbians, and bisexuals in Zambia live in constant fear of arbitrary detention, discrimination in education, employment, housing, and access to services, and extortion—all buttressed by the existence of sections 155 - 157 and lack of specific legal protections for LGBT under Zambian law... On 23 September 1998 in a statement to parliament, published in the Times of Zambia, Zambian Vice President Christon Tempo vowed that, "If anybody promotes gay rights after this statement, the law will take its course... When LGBT organizers appeared in the newspaper to announce their wishes to register the organization, government officials warned that any attempt to register the group or hold public meetings would be met with arrests. The then Home Affairs Minister Peter Machungwa ordered police to arrest anyone who attempted to register a group advocating for homosexual rights... Extortion of gay men remains a major problem, and is often conducted with police participation.  Gay men interviewed for this note all reported that blackmail of men believed to be gay was a regular occurrence and often led its victims to financial ruin, depression and ostracism from family and community.  A recent report on a Zambian human rights website included an report by a police officer in which he described the targeting of gay men—both Zambian and foreigners—for police-instigated extortion attempts...

African prisons' refusal to provide condoms exposes prisoners to HIV (2001): "The report claims that, "Malawi and Zambia show that at least one in eight men has sex in prison."" - Sexual practices and HIV infection in some Zambian prisons (1989). - Zambian Prisoners routinely raped by prison warders (2006). - Responding to the challenge of HIV/AIDS behind bars (2005). - HIV/AIDS in Zambia (2003). - The history of HIV and AIDS in Zambia. - Discussions of Homosexuality in Zambia: PDF Documents (2011).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Zambia Information News. Zambia Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Zambia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Amnesty International 1999 Annual Report on Zambia.

Global Gayz: Africa: Zambia News Report. - ILGA: Africa: Zambia. - LGBT rights in Zambia. - Zambia Gay Rights News (To the Present). - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Zambia Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa - Zambia

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 


ZIMBABWE: - Zimbabwe's Mugabe condemns gay 'filth'  (2011). - Zimbabwe’s Mugabe blasts Western gay “filth” (2011). - Zimbabwe Queers Hit Back (2011): Zimbabwean gay rights activists have hit back at the ranting by President Robert Mugabe that their “unnatural activities” would never be allowed in the southern African country, accusing the veteran leader of failing to provide leadership to tackle more pressing challenges bedevilling Zimbabwe. - Detention, Harassment and Intimidation of Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ) members (2011). - Police in Zimbabwe arrest gay right activists (2010). - Zimbabwe Police Raid Gay Group (2010, Video). - Gay workers freed by Zimbabwe court (2010). - Zimbabwe gay rights workers released after alleged torture (2010). - Zimbabwe Shrugs Off Gay Rights (2010). 

US report paints grim picture of gay life in Zimbabwe (2010): The US State Department's 2009 report on human rights in Zimbabwe paints a grim picture: a broad definition of sodomy carrying a $5,000 fine or up to a year in prison, government censorship and confiscation of any queer materials, lack of treatment for HIV/AIDS for gay men and disturbing reports of "corrective" rape. - Lesbians and Gay Men in Zimbabwe Face Brutal “Corrective” Rape (2010): In a country long plagued by violence, corruption, and an authoritarian government, Zimbabwe’s President Mugabe is known as one of the worst anti-gay autocrats in Africa. Mugabe has repeatedly located blame for the country’s ills on lesbians and gay men, cultivating widespread bigotry and violence. His virulent homophobia has given rise to the rape of lesbian and gay male Zimbabweans, under the guise of “correcting” them into heterosexuality.

Zimbabwe rules out Gay rights in new Constitution (2010). - Mugabe condemns churches that allow gay marriages (2010). - Family throws out gay son (2010). - "Worse than dogs and pigs?" Attitudes toward homosexual practice in Zimbabwe (2010). - South African Lesbian and Gay Community Concerned About Democracy Crisis in Zimbabwe (2008). - Gay in Zimbabwe: Arrests, Limited Access to Health Care. - A Bird's Eye View of HIV and Gay and Lesbian Issues in Zimbabwe (2009). - Zimbabwe: Juveniles to Be Flogged for Homosexual Act (2009).

Living in fear: a lesbian in Zimbabwe shares her story(2010: Although my friends, my true friends are aware of my sexuality, I am still afraid that my family will find out one day and reject me. The fear is always there as I listen to comments made about homosexuality at home and in public places.I listen hoping that no one will notice how silent I am or see the raw fear in my eyes.. - Twenty Schoolgirls Arrested in Zimbabwe Homosexuality Crackdown (2010): While Americans celebrate a major victory in the battle for LGBT rights, news from Zimbabwe shows how much work still has to be done. According to the ZimDiaspora.com, police in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe's second-largest city, have arrested some 20 schoolgirls for allegedly engaging in "lesbian relationships.”

South Africa Gay Marriages Spark Homophobic Outcry In Zimbabwe (2006). - Zambia will never legalise gay marriages-gov’t (2006).  - Zimbabwe Latest: Gay Bashing in Parliament, Mugabe Prez for Life (2006): Another week, another unfortunate report from Zimbabwe. The latest are gay-baiting remarks made by the country's leading opposition figure and a homophobic "joke" by its top minister...- Zimbabwe gay group wins international award (2005). - Kelvin Ncube: I'm gay: ZBC radio and TV presenter Kelvin Ncube has sensationally revealed that he is gay. In an exclusive interview with New Zimbabwe.com last night, Ncube said: "I have always wanted to share this with everyone but the situation in Zimbabwe did not allow it." - Zimbabwean drag queen reveals all (2006): This in-your-face attitude put him on a collision course with Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe, who regards homosexuality as un-African. Mr Mugabe infamously described gays as "worse than pigs and dogs" at the opening of the Zimbabwe's International Book Fair in 1995. "That changed the world, just those words," says Kudah, who after subsequent harassment fled into exile to the UK.  

New Blow for Gay Rights in Zimbabwe (2006): Activists struggle on as legal clampdown on same-sex relationships comes into force... Until recently, homosexuality was not illegal in Zimbabwe, although the statutes outlawed sodomy. However, a new law that came into force in August makes "physical contact between males that would be regarded by a reasonable person as an indecent act" a criminal offence. In a terse response to the new law, Keith Goddard, programme manager for the group Gays and Lesbians in Zimbabwe, GALZ, said, "Lesbians and gays are there and have a right to their sexual preference. Sexual preference is a human right." Geoff Feltoe, a professor of law at the University of Zimbabwe, said the amendments represented a hardening of attitudes towards same sex-relationships. "A seemingly intimate embrace or hug between two men would presumably be construed as a crime now," said Feltoe. "It would seem the impetus for such legal transformation was the sensational sodomy trial of the late Banana."  - L'Église anglicane du Zimbabwe radicalise sa position sur l'homosexualité (2007, Translation). - Activists struggle on despite new legal clampdown on same-sex relationships (2006).

Gay activist goes into hiding (2007, Alternate Link): The dreaded Zimbabwe state security agency the Central Intelligence Organization (CIO) has launched a manhunt for gay activist Dumisani Dube after the activist made a stunning disclosure to ZimDaily last week that he had a love affair with cabinet minister and Mugabe loyalist Stan Mudenge who infected him with the deadly HIV virus five years ago... The hunted gay activist who fears for his life has gone into hiding and says he is making arrangements to flee the country before he is captured. The CIO is well known in Zimbabwe for their rank brutality and savagery when dealing with suspected culprits. Dube, a member of a fringe association Gays And Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ) has threatened to expose names of six well known cabinet ministers, priests and several ZANU PF bigwigs who he claims are gay and have solicited sex from his friends and other GALZ members over the past ten years... - Zimbabwe Hunting Gay Activist, Claims Affair With Mugabe Loyalist.

Homosexual and hated in Zimbabwe (1998). - Zimbabwe Church Council Condemns Homosexuality (1996). - Zimbabwe's Gays & Lesbians Critique Former President (1999). - Zimbabwe: Gay Activist Arrested, Faces Prison Under Sodomy Law (1998). - GALZ leader charged with sodomy (1998). - Totally unacceptable to cultural norms: Gays in Zimbabwe fight institutionalized homophobia, see slow gains in social acceptance (2000). - Gay Zimbabwe (2000): Black Gay Life in Zimbabwe. - Gay Advocates Brace for WCC Showdown in Zimbabwe N/A. - Black skin, 'cowboy' masculinity: A genealogy of homophobia in the African nationalist movement in Zimbabwe to 1983 (2005).

Mugabe says homosexuals should be 'cured' by church (1998). - Police raids Zimbabwe gay organisation's office (2001). - Statement from the Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe: Under The Cloak of Marriage (2002). - Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, who is currently in South Africa for the opening of the African Union, "has ordered a witch hunt to flush out gays and lesbians in his government."N/A - Lesbianism rife at school (2002, Must Scroll). - Fighting Fear - most well-known lesbian in Zimbabwe N/A (2000). - Zimbabwean lesbian tells tales of her struggle (2001).

Homophobia and Postcolonialism By Mica A. Hilson (1996). - Robert Mugabe challenged to 'take the test': Research shows that most homophobes are repressed homosexuals (1997). - The Apartheid of Homosexuality (1999). (PDF Download) - Zimbabwe's Gays Go 'Out' at Great Risk N/A. - In and Out of the Zimbabwe Closet (1997). - Zimbabwe gay rights face dim future (1999). - Zimbabwe's GALZ Issues Statement on Presidential Election (2002). - Exemples de persécution motivée par la préférence sexuelle de la personne: Zimbabwe N/A. - Homophobic Dictator Mugabe Hunted and Haunted in Rome (2002). - Our day of shame over Zimbabwe: While Mugabe butchers his way to another stolen term, the commonwealth does.... nothing. - The Gay Oral History Project in Zimbabwe: Black Empowerment, Human Rights, and the Research Process (1999).

Zimbabwe Gays: 'Dogs and Pigs' No More? (2004, Alternate Link) - Mugabe fuels 'Reformation' against gays (2004). - Zimbabwe gays soldier on (2003). - Reports in various Zimbabwean newspapers claim that members of GALZ were beaten and chased from their stand at the Zimbabwe International Book Fair last week. This year's scandal has led to the resignation of honorary trustee, the Midlands provincial governor, Cephas Msipa from the board of the fair (2004). - Gay leader detained (2004): "Gay leader Keith Goddard was detained at State House for several hours and later spent two days at Harare Central Prison for breaching security regulations at State House recently..." - Gay bashing in Zimbabwe: I - Mugabe's unholy war (1996). - Gay bashing in Zimbabwe: II - Outing the gay debate (1996). - Mugabe fuels 'Reformation' against gays (2004).

Gays move closer to recognition in Zimbabwe. "Yet, in subtle ways, things are also changing. Intolerance, particularly at the official level, seems to have mellowed into indifference. The random and all too frequent arrest of gays appears to have ceased, while the police’s last raid of the Gays and Lesbians Association of Zimbabwe (GALZ) office was in 1996. "We have a good relationship with our local station," says Keith Goddard, who heads the 400-member organisation. "They treat us with great professionalism." Furthermore last July, after years of fighting, gays were allowed to set up their own stand at the annual Zimbabwe International Book Fair – no small feat, considering that their presence at the 1995 event caused a fiasco. "We thought it was a positive development and we can now put that whole campaign to rest," Goddard told IPS. Buoyed by a new-found confidence, the gay community is now pushing for greater recognition by society..."  - Zimbabwe gay group wins court victory, but mob attacks exhibit (2005). - Gays Flee Zimbabwe Mob (2004). - Zimbabwe clamps down on male hookers.

Engelke, Matthew  (1999). ‘We Wondered what Human Rights He Was Talking About.’ Human rights, homosexuality and the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. Critique of Anthropology, 19(3): 289-314. PDF Download.  This article addresses the recent debates on homosexuality and human  rights in Zimbabwe, particularly as they relate to the controversy surrounding the Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ) participating in the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. These debates highlight the problems inherent in talking about universal human rights when appeals to ‘cultural difference’ are made. In Zimbabwe, for example, critics of GALZ and homosexuality have tried to argue that ‘homosex is not in African culture’.

The 'Unsaying' of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity - 1998 - by Marc Epprecht, Department of History, University of Zimbabwe (Journal of Southern African Studies 24: 631-51): PDF Download. - Fear and loathing of homosexuality in Zimbabwe: settler origins and African transitions, 1890-present (2003).

Maunze, Rumbidzai (2009). A history of debates on sexuality in Zimbabwe. Master's Dissertation, Historisch-Kulturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität Wien. Download Page. When talking about sexuality in Zimbabwe, the influence of colonialism cannot be ignored as it comes to the forefront of much debate. Sexual orientations such as homosexuality are claimed to have been a colonial invention and not a Zimbabwean phenomenon hence debates on this tend to place blame on colonialism. Prostitution is believed to have increased a lot during colonialism due to the high influx of European settlers into present day Zimbabwe. Gendered sexuality is also said to have been influenced a lot by colonialism in Zimbabwe. This thesis brings the debate on sexuality to not only focus on the colonial aspects of sexuality in Zimbabwe but to bring it closer to home and find out how the government, media, families and religious institutions are debating sexuality.

Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies (2010). The Bible and Homosexuality in Zimbabwe: A Socio-historical analysis of the political, cultural and Christian arguments in the homosexual public debate with special reference to the use of the BiblePDF Download. - The attitude of the Methodist Church in Zimbabwe to homosexuality: towards a socio-sexological theological investigation (2010).

Blackmail in Zimbabwe: Troubling Narratives of Sexuality and Human Rights (2009): Abstract: Through analysis of a challenging scenario of homosexual blackmail in Zimbabwe, this article highlights the significance of the discursive and rhetorical realm in which law operates. Drawing on historical and contemporary sexual politics in Zimbabwe, it situates the practice of blackmail within its local context and considers how the victims' respective racial and sexual identities combined with their active sexual agency to pre-empt their representation as 'innocent', and to restrict their access to legal or discursive exculpation. It shows how the ascendant narratives that emerge from the blackmail scenario obscure the victims' 'truth', render them perpetually 'guilty', and reinscribe conventional sexual hierarchies. The article uses this analysis of blackmail to illustrate how the advance of sexual rights is inhibited by a tension between our idealisation of innocence in making rights claims, and our aspiration to agency in developing sexual equality.

Writing Still: New Stories from Zimbabwe - 2003 - edited by Irene Staunton (The African Review of Books): "Two stories dealing with gay rights tell of love lost, or never grasped. 'When Samora Died', by Annie Holmes, is more than a mere 'gay rights' story though. It is about the entrenched prejudices of white Zimbabweans, not just against blacks and communists, but 'homos' too. 'Mea Culpa' by Rory Kilalea, tells of a gay university student beginning to understand, and deny, his sexuality in a world of racism. He finds a voice to fight the racism and in doing so has to deal with the so many other remnants hiding in his closet. -  Writing Still - New stories from Zimbabwe (2003).

Male Rape in Zimbabwe: The depravity of Mugabe’s regime knows no bounds (2003). - Reports of rape and torture inside Zimbabwean militia (2003): " Ms. Siyangapi is one of the few women to speak publicly about the prevalence of rape and other sexual atrocities in the Zimbabwe military. But a growing number of human rights groups have charged in recent months that forced sex and sexual torture are routine elements of life for men and women alike in the Youth Service, used as both a reward and a punishment..." - Let's turn off Mugabe's lights: the best way to bring Zimbabwe's regime to its knees is for South Africa to cut its electricity supply - Features - related article: Male rape, the latest weapon for Robert Mugabe's men (2003).

Zimbabwe TV chief faces inquiry (2002): "The powerful head of the Zimbabwe state broadcaster is to be investigated by the government after allegations of homosexuality were made against him, according to newspaper reports. Alum Mpofu, the chief executive of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corp, has been accused of causing a disturbance at a Harare nightclub after being caught "in a compromising situation" with a man, according to the state newspaper the Herald..." - Zim TV chief faces inquiry over alleged homosexuality (2002). - Zimbabwe Media Chief Quits Before Probe (2002).

Carlos Mpofu, from Bulowayo, Zimbabwe (2000), was twenty years old when our researcher spoke to him in 2000: Meanwhile, in high school I had just begun inching toward acting on my feelings. I had started dating my O-level teacher. I never had real sexual contact, just small stuff; and we never even discussed the fact that we were both gay. But we knew that we enjoyed each other's company. He was much older. We broke off for a while, because we were frightened. But in December 1998, we reconciled. One night early in the next year we went out; we were holding hands and cuddling, sort of, at a movie house. One of my workmates was in the theater, a fellow teacher at the church school. On Monday, I went back to work and Pastor Bismarck called me in. He said, "I have heard a very disturbing thing and I want to discuss it with you." I was fired on the spot for being gay. They "preaccused" me of things they thought I would do to schoolkids-molest them or corrupt them... I was suicidal for about a month. I attempted to commit suicide; but my friends found me and revived me... In June I fell in love. We made the mistake of being too careless. We did the kinds of crazy things you do when you are in love. Bulawayo is a small city and my mother was well known. My elder brother's girlfriend saw us kissing in town. This was the beginning of the biggest family problems at home...

Totally unacceptable to cultural norms (2000): Gays in Zimbabwe fight institutionalized homophobia, see slow gains in social acceptance (First of four parts): "These are some of the responses government-appointed commissioners recorded just last summer when they surveyed half a million Zimbabweans about what they want included in the country's new constitution. In each of their reports, the verdict on whether or not "freedom of sexual orientation" would be a fundamental right is clear. "Homosexuality and lesbianism were rejected and condemned as they were regarded as totally unacceptable to cultural norms and values of Zimbabwean society," one report sums up. In another report, 98 percent of those surveyed answer no to the question, "Should gays and lesbians be allowed in Zimbabwe?" The invectives go as far as blaming Gays for natural disasters "such as drought, locusts, worms and diseases.""

Gay group supports condom provision in Zimbabwe's prisons: The statement said: "Due to the fact that men generally have a high sex drive, they are bound to have sex regardless of circumstances. By making condoms unavailable and by not acknowledging that men have sex with men in prisons, the government and prison authorities are encouraging the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS and putting pressure on the national health budget." It adds that gender roles and identities in prison are defined primarily by the ability to exercise power. It is important that those less able to stand up for themselves are not bullied into unwanted sex and can protect themselves. - GALZ's Statement on the provision of condoms to prisoners (2010). - Zimbabwe plans to give condoms to prisoners (2010). - Prison AIDS rates high without condoms (2011): A doctor at a government referral hospital, Blessing Mukumba, was quoted as saying: "Out of all the prisoners that we attend to on a daily basis, about 60 to 70 percent of them admit to have had sex with other males at one time or the other."Research shows that around 60 percent of all prisoners in Zimbabwe are currently living with HIV/AIDS..

Phillips, Oliver (2011). Blackmail in Zimbabwe: Troubling Narratives of Sexuality and Human Rights. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 19-45. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Film: Tina Machida in Zimbabwe (2000, Harare, Zimbabwe - Gays and Lesbians): A young woman fights for the rights of gays and lesbians against the odds. 26 minutes, Color, Closed Captioned. - Zimbabwe: Gays talk straight: SPARK is a regular series of features that gives young people a chance to talk openly about sex and drugs and other teenage topics. All SPARK features are designed to provoke and carry a wide range of views. In Zimbabwe, young gay men break taboos to talk candidly to Craig Hamilton about their sexuality.

Resources: - Amnesty International On-line, Zimbabwe. - gayZIM: Zimbabwe's only online, interactive magazine. - Gays & lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ: Basic Information) GALZ Web Site. - Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ Web Site). - Gays et Lesbiennes du Zimbabwe (Translation). - Gays et Lesbiennes du Zimbabwe (Translation).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Zimbabwe Information News. Zimbabwe Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Zimbabwe. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Zimbabwe Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Zimbabwe News Reports from 1998 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Zimbabwe. - LGBT rights in Zimbabwe. - Sodomy Laws.- Lesbian and Gay Rights in Zimbabwe (1998). - QRD.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Zimbabwe.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

NAMIBIA - OUTRIGHT Namibia to amplify voices of Namibian LGBTI people (2011). - Documenting LGBT Discrimination in Namibia (2011). - Namibia city hosts first gay rights march (2010): About 40 people are expected to march in Keetmanshoop’s first-ever march for gay and lesbian rights on Saturday. Keetmanshoop, in the southern part of Namibia, near the gay-friendly South Africa, is marking the inauguration of Ada Ma/Hao (We stand together), a new project advocating for equal rights for gender minorities in southern Namibia.- Response To 'Gay Excess' Criticism (2010). - Transgender Inclusion in the Namibian and South African LGBT Movements (2007): I examine the implications for few activists claiming transgender as a personal identity and the Namibian and South African movement’s embrace of transgender as an inclusive political strategy as activists participate in creating an African LGBT movement.

Gay week set to attract 'straight' community (2007): The Namibian lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) organisation – trp – endevours to raise awareness and educate the public about diversity. “We want to increase tolerance and acceptance of all people who are different in society”, Carol Millward, the project coordinator of the LGBTI Week celebrations said. - Namibia Law Banning Male-to-Male Sex Is Hindering Condom Distribution, HIV Prevention in Prisons, Advocates Say (Alternate Link) (2006). - Jail condoms draw fire in U.S., Namibia (2006). - Namibia's prisons sit on AIDS 'time bomb' (2006, Alternate Link). - Dispelling “heterosexual African AIDS” in Namibia: Same‐sex sexuality in the township of Katutura (2006). - Constructing Namibian queer selfhood in the era of HIV/AIDS (2003, Word Download).

Homosexuality Not An Import (2006): The question at hand is, did white people teach innocent black Namibians how to practise homosexuality as has been alleged before? The answer to this myth might be difficult to obtain, but the following might give an overview of the situation at hand and whether this should be blamed on the small number of whites of homosexual orientation.Take the Wernhil Park public toilet in the Windhoek's city centre for example.It is mainly frequented by blacks, with a few whites who make use of it.Go to the Windhoek city centre on a Saturday morning or any day of the week during lunch hour and you will see them, young black male Namibians, most of them professionals, who appear to be macho.They will show no outward sign of having anything to do with homosexual activities, and most of them have girlfriends, perhaps as way of covering up or just to fit in with others, but come night time they will find excuses to get to their same-sex partners.Among adults there are those who have taken advantage of their positions, enticing young boys for sex in exchange for job offers..

Being Gay In Namibia (2005): But in Namibia, a growing national debate about homosexuality has followed a period of harsh condemnation, and gay rights groups now operate openly in the capital, Windhoek. One of them is the Rainbow Project, where Gurirab works as a suicide prevention counselor. The organization has interviewed gay Africans from across the continent, and its leaders say they believe the time is right to challenge prejudices and start a wider discussion on what being gay really means. "The only answer is education," said Linda Baumann, 21, who grew up in a tribal community and was expelled from it when she revealed she was a lesbian. She now lives in Windhoek and hosts a radio program about gay issues. "We have to have courage and stick up for ourselves."" ... In Namibia, gays said there was a relatively relaxed climate in large cities in the years before and after independence from South Africa in 1990, and gay couples in Windhoek could hold hands in the street. But in the mid-'90s, they said, a chilling change occurred. "The first five years after independence it was like a utopia," Swartz said. "People were proud to be gay. But when Namibian leaders' promises fell through and poverty did not improve, the government became increasingly unpopular. . . . The leaders were looking for a smokescreen and someone to blame."In 1996, the public campaign against homosexuals began...

Lorway, Robert (2007). Health Silence: HIV Risk and Male-Male Sexual Practices in the Windhoek Urban Area. In: Suzanne LaFont and Dianne Hubbard, Eds., Unravelling Taboos: Gender and Sexuality in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibi: Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre. PDF Download. - "Most of the men I know who have girlfriends are saying that they
prefer to have sex with us moffies [effeminate males] because they don’t want to catch STDs cheating on them, or HIV, or get someone pregnant. Most of them think they can even have sex with men without a condom because they think it is less risky than sex with a woman." (Jason, 21-year-old male from Katutura). Question: What is such a male sexuality? - Dispelling "Heterosexual African AIDS" in Namibia: Same-Sex Sexuality in the Township of Katutura (2006).

Bisexual concurrency, bisexual partnerships, and HIV among Southern African men who have sex with men (2010, Abstract): The sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men (MSM) in southern Africa has been little studied. We present here the first data on bisexual partnerships and bisexual concurrency among MSM in Malawi, Namibia and Botswana... 34.1% of MSM were married or had a stable female partner, and 53.7% reported both male and female sexual partners in the past 6 months. Bisexual concurrency was common, with 16.6% of MSM having concurrent relationships with both a man and a woman... The majority of MSM in this study report some bisexual partnerships in the previous 6 months. Concurrency with sexual partners of both genders is common. Encouragingly, men reporting any concurrent bisexual activity were more likely to report condom use with sexual partners, and these men were not more likely to have HIV infection than men reporting only male partners. HIV-prevention programmes focussing on decreasing concurrent sexual partners in the African context should also target bisexual concurrency among MSM. Decriminalisation of same-sex practices will potentiate evidence-based HIV-prevention programmes targeting MSM.

HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana (2009, Abstract): The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241); 20.0% (42/210) among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84) among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8). In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0), and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9) were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527) reporting at least one abuse. MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

Khaxas, E, Wieringa S (2007). Same-Sex Sexuality among Damara Women. In: Suzanne LaFont and Dianne Hubbard, Eds., Unravelling Taboos: Gender and Sexuality in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibi: Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre. PDF Download. -When our former president, Sam Nujoma, said that homosexuality is un-African and that people engaged in same-sex relations must be deported, one of my interviewees responded by saying: “… It’s only people in Windhoek and parents of people here in Windhoek who see this thing as a big issue. But people like me who came from smaller towns, [we know] there are gay people. Parents with children like that accept that it is their children … he was born that way, there is nothing I can do about it, I cannot
re-create him, thus, the problem is only in the city.” My research reveals that in Damara culture same-sex relations have existed for a long time. This chapter will examine the same-sex practices of Damara female-bodied persons and explores how Damara culture plays a role in the fact that many women in same-sex relationships among the Damara live their lives more openly than women of other ethnic groups in Namibia...

Namibia Chips Away at African Taboos on Homosexuality (2005): (Alternate Link) "She also apparently gossiped with colleagues. Other teachers started teasing Gurirab, asking him why he didn't play soccer and why he spent so much time around his mother. Then one morning, he said, the gym teacher invited him into his office, locked the door and forced him onto the desk for sex. Let's see how good you are at it," the teacher said, according to Gurirab, now 25, who recounted the story through tears. The ordeal left his legs and arms with red bruises. The next day, distraught and confused, he had sex with a female classmate. "I wanted to change so badly and not be gay . . . but I couldn't," he said. "I knew I liked men. I decided I would kill myself. . . . I was so desperate I called a lifeline in London. They saved my life... From Uganda, where homosexuality is punishable by life imprisonment, to Sierra Leone, where a lesbian activist was raped and stabbed to death at her desk last year, homophobia has long trapped gays in a dangerous, closeted life. With no places to meet openly, no groups to join, it seems sometimes that gay men and lesbians in Africa don't exist at all. But in Namibia, a growing national debate about homosexuality has followed a period of harsh condemnation, and gay rights groups now operate openly in the capital, Windhoek. One of them is the Rainbow Project, where Gurirab works as a suicide prevention counselor..." (Related Blog) - Namibia's Rainbow Project votes for change (2003). - The Rainbow Project: a lesson in pride (2006). - African AIDS Awareness Campaign: The Rainbow Project (To 2007).

Currier, Ashley McAllister (2007). The Visibility of Sexual Minority Movement Organizations in Namibia and South Africa. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract: The South African state has responded favorably to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movement organizations’ (SMOs) efforts to protect and extend sexual and gender minority rights, whereas Namibian state leaders have verbally attacked LGBT organizing and threatened to arrest sexual and gender minorities... I engaged in intensive, continuous ethnographic observation of four Namibian and South African LGBT social movement organizations for approximately 800 hours and analyzed my ethnographic fieldnotes. I also analyzed more than 2,100 newspaper articles and LGBT SMO documents and conducted 56 in-depth interviews with staff, members, and leaders of LGBT SMOs. In this dissertation, I explore the varied strategic dilemmas of visibility and invisibility that Namibian and South African LGBT SMOs faced...

Namibian leader in new attack on queers (2005): “Gay and lesbian Namibians are being scapegoated for the country’s problems and demonised as the enemies of the state,” according to Peter Tatchell of the UK-based LGBT human rights group OutRage! ”The homophobic slurs by Namibia’s Deputy Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration, Ms Theopolina Mushelenga, are the latest in a long series of attacks on Namibian lesbians and gay men by senior government officials. “We echo the condemnation of this vilification made by Gays & Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ). See their statement below. “The Namibian President, Sam Nujoma, has for years echoed the anti-gay hate speech of neighbouring leader, President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe. He has denounced and threatened queers, encouraging a climate of prejudice, discrimination and violence.

A Crisis Corps Assignment in Namibia (2003):  Gay Life in Namibia: Through the gaydar web site, I’d met a handful of gay men in Windhoek, all colors, and the unanimity of opinion was total: gay life in Namibia sucked. It’s not completely non-existent, even though there’s no gay bar; it’s just weak, fearful, and fragmented. Only a handful of gay men are “out” in any sense of the word. Namibia’s semi-hidden gay organization is called The Rainbow Project, known among gays as TRP. The name expresses the hopeless desire to unite Namibia’s races under the banner of gay pride. There’s precious little pride and even less racial tolerance. If the whites ever participated, they pulled out long ago, retreating to private parties and social cliques. The Rainbow Project is now a Black and Coloured organization. I’m told that there are tribal differences in the acceptance of homosexuality. Among the Ovambo and the Herero, it’s absolutely verboten; the Coloured and Damara communities are much more tolerant. One Saturday, The Rainbow Project sponsored an HIV/AIDS fundraising dance in Khomasdal, the formerly Coloured township where I lived. That I wasn’t going to miss! As it ended up, I was pretty invisible, but it was an interesting anthropological experience: a slice of pre-Stonewall gay life. About 40 young Black and Coloured men and women pitched up at a plain room that was sparingly decorated with red hearts and red balloons. There were a fair number of cross-dressers, tall young men in spiked heels and bare midriffs, and flapping wrists everywhere. Nobody was older than mid-30...

Nujoma attacks homosexuals (1998, Must Scroll). - A small Namibian gay group, the Rainbow Project, challenged Nujoma on the remarks. - Namibian Court Grants Partner Rights (1999). - Court rebukes government over gay rights (1999). - Court knocks down Namibia gay victory (1998). - Namibia: Prime Minister Blasts Plan for Gay Castrations (1998). - Namibia gay rights row (2000). - Nujoma's "gay purges" cause international outrage (2001). - Namibia, The Bermuda Triangle of African Homophobia (2001). - Homosexuality is all-african: (2000, Alternate Link) "September 1999: Thanks to the efforts of a group of Norwegian researchers homosexual behaviour amongst members of a tribe in the north of Namibia, a tribe that has not been influenced by Christianity, has been recorded."  

Namibian president announces purges against gays (2001). - Namibia: Gays and lesbians under attack (2001). - Namibia-homosexuals: Arrest, deport and imprison gays and lesbians: Namibia's Nujoma (2001). - Namibia’s homosexual detection teams (2001): "Following the banning not only of homosexuality but homosexual persons in Namibia, the government there have decided on a Deportation-on-entry policy at state borders. This has prompted the forming of a special task team to spot homosexuals from ‘normal’ people in the passport queue..." - ILGA's Open Letter to President Sam Nujoma (2001). - Statement by The Rainbow Project, April 2001. - Namibia and EU in dispute over gay rights (2002, Alternate Link) - Namibian President backs down on gay attacks (2002). - Politicians Accused Of Failing Gay Community (2003, Alternate Link). - Sexual Health and Rights in Namibia (2003).

Men, HIV & AIDS: (2003, Alternate Link) "The wall of silence is finally crumbling around the last taboo topics in Africa - male rape and male-to-male sex. Some political and religious leaders have denounced gay men and women as un-African although 19th century ethnographic research documents sex between men in Africa. Politically constructed homophobia has a negative impact on public health because it excludes homosexuals from prevention and awareness campaigns, making them vulnerable to HIV infection... Regional Conference 2003 Report: "With HIV prevalence of 27-30% in its crowded prisons, Namibia offers counselling to prisoners but not condoms because it could be seen as encouraging sodomy, which is a criminal offence. Male rape, possibly the last frontier in public debate, was brought into the conference by Men United, a South African group dedicated to breaking the silence about male rape, providing support and care for survivors and their families, and educating youth to speak out against all sexual abuse."

Nujoma's war on gays and lesbians is nothing new (2001): "The Republic of Namibia does not allow homosexuality or lesbianism here. Police are ordered to arrest you and deport you and imprison you," Nujoma told students during a speech at the University of Namibia on Monday, as reported by state television.  Nujoma's comments follow similar statements made by Home Affairs Minister Jerry Ekandjo last year, when he told new Police recruits at Ondangwa to "eliminate" gays and lesbians - whose conduct he equated to "unnatural acts" such as murder - "from the face of Namibia"." - Homosexuals 'To Be Barred From Entering Namibia (2001, Alternate Link). - Gays 'fearful' in Namibia (2001). - Threatening Homosexuals in Namibia (2001): Violence and oppression of the others/of those who are different - a comment on the newly risen harassment against gays and lesbians. - Gay-Bashers Run Riot in Parliament (2000. Alternate Link). - Nujoma afirma que los extranjeros extienden la homosexualidad por Namibia (2002, Translation). - International confidence in Namibia damaged by anti-gay attacks (2001). - Nujoma's "gay purges" cause international outrage (2001).

Gay al bando in Namibia: Secondo il presidente Nujoma, i comportamenti omosessuali sono vietati dalla Costituzione. Ecco perché ha ordinato di arrestare e deportare dal Paese gay e lesbiche (2001, Translation). - Homosexuality: dimensions of the issue in church and society in Namibia - Homosexuality: Some Elements for an Ecumenical Discussion (1998). - Namibia:  Gay rights (cont'd): II - Namibia (1997).

People in Namibia's slums: Lesbian love. - The lesbian men: "The ostracising of homosexuals leads to secret lives, but in the Namibian township of Katatura, a lesbian football team - the Rainbow Warriors - has been formed. Members wear men's clothes, openly try to pick up women and visit gay-friendly shebeens. They call themselves the "lesbian men", their partners are "the ladies". - Becoming visible in Namibia (1999). - Being a public lesbian in Namibia. (2001, Alternate Link)

Challenging heteronormativity in the post-colonial nation building of Namibia (2009): Abstract: Examined in this thesis is how heteronormativity is challenged in a country recently independent from colonial power. By making focus group studies with black LGBT-people in Namibia around effects of heteronormativity as well as activities of change, the study examines how social, legal and civil citizenship of LGBT people is affected. The results show that LGBT-people in Namibia are limited in their civil, political and social citizenship, as post colonial nation building has excluded LGBT from the identity of Africans and Namibians. However, using queer feminist and post colonial ideas, it is possible to see that LGBT-people do have agency and actively do perform resistance, which in one way give them a social citizenship. To participate in societal change and demanding acceptance from the community is a way of reaching social citizenship before a civil or political one is there. Further on, the thesis shows how high reflexivity in methodology has an impact of the results when using focus groups interviews.

Political Homophobia in Postcolonial Namibia (2010): The South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO) delivered Namibia from South African apartheid rule in 1990. Namibia’s democratic future began with the promise of equality. In 1995, however, SWAPO initiated a campaign of political homophobia. In this article, I make a case for viewing SWAPO leaders’ deployment of political homophobia as a gendered political strategy. I draw on a qualitative analysis of 194 articles from Namibian newspapers published between 1995 and 2006. My analysis illustrates two features of political homophobia. First, I demonstrate how political homophobia stifled political dissent and enhanced SWAPO leaders’ masculinist position and legacy as liberators. Second, I show how SWAPO leaders used political homophobia to expel gender and sexual dissidents from official accounts of history..

Namibia's prisons sit on AIDS 'time bomb' (2006, Alternate Link).

Arnott J, Crago A-L (2009). Rights Not rescue: A Report on Female, Male, and Trans Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa Sexual Health and Rights Project, Open Society Institute. PDF Download.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Namibia Information. Namibia Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Namibia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Namibia Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Namibia News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Namibia. - LGBT rights in Namibia. - Sodomy Laws. - Sister Namibia. - Sister Namibia: Fighting for all human rights for all women.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Namibia

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

NIGERIA -  Nigeria's gay church is reborn amid a climate of fear (2011): House of Rainbow church offers underground prayer and preaching to Christians ostracised by rampant homophobia. - A Lesbian in Nigeria: Disowned By My Family. - Gay Nigerian activist Bisi Alimi shares his compelling story (2010): Bisi Alimi was born in Nigeria in 1975, grew up and went on to attend the University of Lagos (Nigeria) pursuing a degree in theater. While as a student in 2003, he was outed by the university's student newspaper during student government elections. - Gay Nigerian Footballer Deported from Austria Now in Hiding (2010): LGBT Asylum reports on the case of a Nigerian footballer who was deported to his home country by Austrian authorities and now lives in hiding in fear for his life. - Homosexuals Storm National Assembly (2009). - Nigeria's attack on human rights has no virtue: Gay people in Nigeria are having their human rights violated, and this will ultimately damage morality and national wellbeing (2009). - Men And Homosexuality (2010): Our society has gotten so infiltrated that we have suddenly accepted the things we used to see as madness in the western world... Whatever your defence is for getting involved in such a barbaric relationship, homosexuality, be it lesbianism or gay (as we call it for men), is foreign to the African culture. We shouldn’t let civilisation destroy us and our good moral heritage.

The constitutionality of criminalising homosexuality in Nigeria (2010): The Director of Strategic Alliance for Minority Equality Nigeria, Gbenga Asawaj, presents the argument that contrary to popular opinion based on notions of morality, the Nigerian constitution did not make any provision for “banning homosexuality”. - Gay and God Fearing in Nigeria (2009, Video). - Sexuality vs. Spirituality: Can Nigerian Gay Church Stand? (2008, Video). - Homosexual priest to 'marry' Nigerian male model (2010): A homosexual Church of England priest has announced plans to "marry" his Nigerian male model boyfriend, who is 40 years his junior. - Anglican Primate Vows to Fight Homosexuality (2010). - Homosexuality is totally unacceptable -Clerics (2008). 

Nigeria gay activists speak out (2009): Nigerian gay rights activists have told the country's lawmakers that a new bill to outlaw same sex marriage would lead to widespread human rights abuses. - Gay Nigerian tells of death threats (2008): Davis Mac-Iyalla is an Anglican from Nigeria - nothing unusual about that - but he is also gay and the death threats he has received since being open about his sexuality led him to seek asylum in the UK. - Deportation of Nigerian woman temporarily deferred: But bisexual still facing return to country where she says she was persecuted (2008).

Homosexuality And The Nigerian Society (2009): Until sometimes in late 2003 right after my youth service in Port Harcourt, the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender/Transsexual) or the so called alternative lifestyle is something I only hear about in passing comments, whispers from the dark closets of society.  Until this new guy joined our company, I forgot dude’s name but I remember he’s an Ekpeye guy from Rivers State. I just couldn’t figure why this guy in my office walked, talked or stare the way he does, until someone unintentionally ‘outed’ him to the entire office one afternoon after lunch (I guess it was the okasi soup!). I still remember how from that afternoon everything changed for my Ekpeye guy; we all just thought he was weird before, now we all mostly avoided him totally. In hindsight, I thought we could have been more tolerant and accommodating, but in my defence I haven’t met a gay person until then! The whole LGBT worldview was strange to me, not to talk of very awkward. The mere thought of a man ramming it into another man’s behind, I found (and still find) not only disgusting, but also very outrageous! I ultimately spent 2 and half years in Port Harcourt before relocating to Lagos, and as it turned out, it was during those years that I came into the reality of homosexuality in Nigeria...The test for the Nigerian society, as it is for every society is in how well it engages those outside its mainstream. It is also in the interest of those outside society’s mainstream to understand that, right or wrong, societal cultural evolution takes time and not force change. The homophobic mainstream can disapprove of homosexuality without resorting to hate and verbal or physical attacks. The latest bill as everyone knows, will not spell the end of homosexuality in Nigeria, but it is our society’s way of saying, “we just are not comfortable with this yet” .

Confronting misconceptions about homosexuality in northern Nigeria (2009): However, the “homosexuality” in northern Nigeria does not square with contemporary Western conceptions of the term. Northern Nigerian “homosexuality,” that is, the kind that is uncritically celebrated as evidence of the presence of a “homosexual culture” among the Hausa, is not the consequence of some inescapable, biochemically predetermined homo-erotic predisposition, as Western homosexuals describe their sexuality; it is mostly spiritual, even occultic, and is undertaken, majoritarily, by people at the upper end of the social scale because it is believed to bestow power, prosperity, symbolic capital, and influence on people who partake in it. The lowly yan daudus with whom the rich, big guys consummate homosexual liaisons, often for a price, were and are not primarily male prostitutes; they are, historically, merely male cross dressers and intercessors between female prostitutes (karuwai) and their prospective clients. Studies have documented that the yan daudu are first and foremost an occupational category of transvestites who entertain(ed) people with their weird and wildly funny ways (“wasa” or “iskanci”). In a culturally conservative northern Nigeria, the yan daudu/bori subculture provides a “safe space” for (nonthreatening) cultural transgression... Again, because northern Nigerian “homosexuality” is NOT the product of a homoerotic libidinal indulgence in the sense in which it is in the West, most male “homosexuals” in northern Nigeria are not only often married to more than one wife (Islam allows men to marry up to four wives); most of them, in fact, have concubines. So men who engage in same-sex liaisons in northern Nigeria can at best be described as “bisexuals” or, more properly, ritualistic bisexuals... So homosexuality is not a self-contained sexual identity in northern Nigeria the way it is in the West, although homosexual lobby groups in the West are aggressively encouraging some desperate Africans to lie that they are exclusively homosexual.

Denying Rights in Nigeria (2007): Homosexual acts between consenting adults are already illegal in Nigeria under a penal code that dates to the colonial period. This new legislation would impose five-year sentences on same-sex couples who have wedding ceremonies — as well as on those who perform such services and on all who attend. The bill’s vague and dangerous prohibition on any public or private show of a “same sex amorous relationship” — which could be construed to cover having dinner with someone of the same sex — would open any known or suspected gay man or lesbian to the threat of arrest at almost any time. The bill also criminalizes all political organizing on behalf of gay rights... - Gay Nigeria Christian Leader Narrowly Escapes Death in Brutal Attack (2008): A shocking story of mob violence has emerged which almost culminated in the death of one of the leaders of the Changing Attitude Nigeria (CAN) group in Port Harcourt..- Nigerian blogger tackles taboos (2005).

Nigeria's anti-gay bill causes protests (2007): Human rights and gay activists until now have kept a low profile regarding the attempt by Nigerian lawmakers to promote Africa's most draconic bill limiting the rights of sexual minorities. They did not want to give the promoters publicity. But now, as lawmakers are getting serious on the bill, a wave of protests is reaching Nigeria. - Nigeria's anti-gay witch-hunt: This African country claims to be a democracy but its persecution of gay people is pure tyranny (2007). - Nigeria Bans Same Sex Relationships (2006). - Nigerian laws that have banned same-sex marriages and dictate five-year jail sentences for anyone who has a gay wedding (2006). - Homosexuality blamed for rising HIV rates (2006). - Many Nigerian Pastors Are Gay - Bishop Ighele (2010, Alternate Link). - The Constitutionality of Anti-Gay Laws in Nigeria (2010).

Nigeria- Integrated MSM HIV Prevention Program (IMHIPP) (2009): Heartland Alliance for Human Needs & Human Rights launched the Integrated MSM (men who have sex with men) HIV Prevention Program (IMHIPP) in Nigeria in November 2009, a five-year, USAID-funded initiative to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS among MSM and their sexual partners... To date, many MSM HIV efforts in Africa have worked through, rather than with grassroots MSM organizations, using these organizations to access MSM networks, but rarely investing in the capacity of those organizations to design, manage and evaluate HIV programs. IMHIPP will mobilize MSM in Nigeria at the grassroots, investing in local capacity (individual and organizational) to develop a meaningful and sustainable response to HIV among MSM. IMHIPP is both a service delivery and multiple-level capacity development program, simultaneously responding to unmet needs for prevention, care and support programming for MSM in Nigeria and developing grassroots and policy-level change to create an enabling environment for sustainable MSM HIV programming. - Promoting HIV/Aids Intervention Programs for The MSM Community in Nigeria (2008). - MSM and the Internet in Nigeria (2010). - HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men having sex with men in Nigeria (2011).

Nigerian Closet (Produced by Eric Beauchemin): As in many countries homosexuality remains an enormous taboo in Nigeria. Many gay men face intense social and family pressure. Homosexuality is regarded as a Western import but activists point out that it has always been an integral part of the culture. There are no laws regarding same sex relations between women, but lesbians have also suffered persecution. Producer Eric Beauchemin reports on the perils of being gay in Africa's most populous nation. - Listen to Nigerian Closet. - Challenges for the sexual health and social acceptance of men who have sex with men in Nigeria (2007): Little research exists regarding men who have sex with men and sexual risk in Nigeria... Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 58 men... Same-sex community networks were hidden, with social activities taking place in non-commercial, private venues. Socially ostracized by culture, religion, and political will, the risks embodied within same-sex activity are high...

18 gay Nigerians remanded (2007): A Sharia judge in Nigeria’s north-eastern state of Bauchi, Malam Tanimu, ordered the remand in prison of 18 suspected gay Nigerians. The men will be stoned to death if they are found guilty by the Shariah courts. The men reportedly hailed from a neighbouring state. Dressed like women, they stormed Bauchi to celebrate a gay wedding. The State Prosecutor, Tadius Boboi, said the men acted against Sharia, a system governing Bauchi and other Muslim-dominated northern Nigerian states. Since the introduction of Sharia in Nigeria seven years back, a dozen of Muslims have been sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery or sodomy. However, no single person was stoned to death... - Gay Anglican accuses Africans of slave language (2007): The homosexual Bishop Robinson of the Episcopal Church of the US says his African critics use language used in his country to justify slavery. Nigerian archishop Akinola reportedly refers to homosexuals as worse than animals.

Death sentence for homosexual act in Nigeria (2005): A Shari'a court in northern Nigeria has handed down a death by stoning sentence for a man admitting to have engaged in homosexual acts. The middle-aged man has been on death row for several months, awaiting his execution. A human rights spokesman of the UN today urged Nigerian courts to give the man a milder sentence...  - Homosexual - 18 Accused Persons Escape Death (2007). - New law and old prejudices threaten Nigeria's gay community (2006): In the Muslim north of Nigeria, Bisi Alimi could be stoned to death for having gay sex. In the south, he could face three years in prison. Now, a proposed law would make it illegal just to share a meal at a cafe with gay friends... - Anglican Church in Nigeria Welcomes Ban on Homosexuality. - Nigeria's anti-gay witch-hunt: This African country claims to be a democracy but its persecution of gay people is pure tyranny. - Nigeria gay law 'risks democracy'. - Members Of Congress Protest Nigeria Gay Death Sentences (2005): Twenty-two Democratic members of Congress have protested death sentences handed out to men convicted of "sodomy" in Nigeria.

Historic first meeting for gay Nigerian Christians (2005): The first general meeting of a new network of lesbian and gay Christians took place in Nigeria this past weekend - defying harassment from the authorities and condemnation from church leaders like the outspoken Nigerian Anglican primate, Archbishop Peter Akinola. Around a thousand delegates were due to attend the gathering at the National Art Council in Abuja including 100 lesbian and 900 gay members of Anglican churches from every part of Nigeria. The meeting from 25-27 November 2005 constituted the largest gathering of lesbian and gay people ever held in Nigeria and the first gathering of gay Anglicans. - Homosexuality Does Exist in Nigeria  (2003): My name is Rowland Jide Macaulay. I was born to Nigerian parents. I have a good understanding of our culture and traditional values -- the expectation of an African child and the African family. Tolerance remained at an angle to cultural expectations, and homosexuality is not one that is accepted in Africa, especially in Nigeria. I spent my teenage years in Nigeria, where I first experienced my sexuality, although in great fear: the fear of being caught, the fear of sin, of commitment of an abomination. I grew up with a lot of guilt in my heart, I often prayed for forgiveness, sanctification and purification..

Anti-lesbian rapes in Nigeria (1997, Alternate Link). - Gay Nigerian Sentenced to Death by Stoning (2001). - The Nigerian Closet. (2002, Alternate Link, Alternate Link) - Natural gestures: How women get together in Nigeria. A personal view by Buchi (1989): Young girls growing up in Nigeria easily engage in forms of physical contact that might be labelled ‘lesbian’ in the West. Yet African society is deeply hostile to homosexuality, says Buchi Emecheta. She gives a personal view." - Gay murder in Jigawa (2002). - Nigerian Anglicans denounce gay bishop (2003). - La Iglesia Anglicana de Nigeria ataca a sus compañeros del Sur de África (2003, Translation). - Nigeria leads anti-gay protest (2007): A proposed Nigerian law banning same-sex marriages is a threat to democracy, says Human Rights Watch..

In Africa, homophobia goes beyond church (2004): (Alternate Link) "I think homosexuality is becoming more rampant here," said Bisi Tugbobo, deputy country director of Pathfinder International in Lagos, a non-governmental organization working to combat HIV/AIDS. "You hear about it. You read about it in the papers. But people don't want to talk about it. Not in the churches. Not in the mosques. Even some NGOs are reluctant to discuss homosexuality." There is little outward evidence of Nigeria's gay community. Not on crowded city streets, or in public schools, where memories linger of the 2002 killing of a gay university student in northern Jigawa state. Alliance Rights Nigeria, a fledgling gay rights group, advertises no office address. Efforts to reach members by phone proved impossible. Those giving rare interviews to the media use pseudonyms. Gays are certainly not welcome in Nigeria's 17-million-member Anglican church, the world's largest Anglican "province." Nigeria's Anglican primate, Archbishop Peter Akinola, has condemned Robinson's consecration as a "satanic attack on the church of God." ...In the north, where a dozen states have adopted Islamic Sharia law, Sharia council head Hakeem Baba-Ahmed said accepting homosexuality "will lead to a further erosion of our accepted principles of morality." ...  Out of sight, African homosexuals are unable to shed new light on the virus -- as did their counterparts in the West. "By pushing these people underground, African countries lose the chance to learn from homosexuals," Kahramanoglu, of the international gay association said. "And in the case of AIDS, ignorance equals death.""

Persecuted gay community cautiously seeks voice (2004): "Homosexuality is a criminal offence in Nigeria, but gay rights groups made their first ever appearance at the country's fourth national AIDS conference in the capital Abuja this week. They called on their fellow countrymen to recognise and protect Nigeria's gay community, pointing out that it has been hit hard by the AIDS pandemic. In Nigeria, homosexual practice can carry a 14-year jail sentence under federal law. In 12 northern states that have adopted Islamic Shari'ah law, adults who are found to have engaged in homosexual intercourse can be stoned to death. However, most of the time, people deny the existence of "MSM's" - men who have sex with men - as male homosexuals are generally known in Nigeria..." - UN cautiously seeks a voice for gays in Nigeria (2004). - Nigeria: Persecuted Gay Community Cautiously Seeks a Voice (2004).

Nation's Homosexuals (2002, Alternate Link): "Homosexuals who used to hide their faces, have of late, become more brazen in their acts. Their influence pervades the public and private sectors in Nigeria... The recent trend is that homosexuality, which used to be a carefully guarded secret by the practitioner, is graduating into an open level. Gays abound in the armed forces, in the bureaucracy, among politicians and the private sector... Homosexuality also abounds in Abuja, Kaduna, Kano and other cities in the country... Low class gay brothels can be found along Abedi, Freetown, and Sani streets, all inside Sabon Gari... The high-class gays, incorporating Nigerians and some of their Lebanese friends do their own at guesthouses where they keep their lovers. Such guesthouses are along Sultan Road, Nassarawa, G.R.A, Kundila Estate and Maiduguri Road. They are also found at Hausawa quarters and Sabongari. Among the top gays in Kano is the Galadima Kano, Alhaji Tijanni Ashim. Although, he has several wives, at the same time he has sexual peccadillo for his gender. Ibrahim Dan Kabo, who died last week, was also reputed for being a bi-sexual... Meanwhile, just as environmentalists and human rights activists have their own pressure groups, so also are Nigerian homosexuals. They now have an NGO known as "Alliance Rights" to fight for gays and lesbians in Nigeria..." - Nigeria: Gays of Nation Unite! (2002).

Nigeria Country Report (2004, PDF Download): "Homosexuals: Nigerian law prohibits male homosexual conduct, and homosexuals can be subject to prosecution. The penalty for convicted homosexual behaviour varies from 3 months to 14 years imprisonment or a fine and/or corporal punishment. [82a] 6.118 Homosexual males in Nigeria are likely to face discrimination and occasional violence if they are overt about their sexual orientation, but not on an organised or systematic scale. Society is not openly hostile but homosexuals can be subject to ridicule. There are some areas in Nigeria where it is possible to live openly as a homosexual - such as in a large city like Lagos. There have been instances of homosexuals being subjected to violence, but they usually keep themselves to themselves and are usually left alone. [82b] 6.119 In February 2002, the Shari'a code in Gusau, Zamfara State, was used to sentence a man to one hundred strokes of the cane and one year imprisonment for sodomy. The Shari'a code, as applied in some Nigerian states, has specifically proscribed homosexuality, both male and female. It is possible that these laws will be strictly applied, as other laws governing personal conduct are being enforced in states with a Shari'a code. [84]"

Preliminary Survey of Homosexuality in Nigeria (2000, PDF Download, PDF Download): Informal presentation at “Obstacles to Organizing for Sexual Rights” panel at the Commission of the Status of Women March 7, 2000. Given by Cesnabmihilo Dorothy Aken 'Ova. "Some people -- including some government officials -- argue that homosexuality was brought into Nigeria through colonialism. But this idea is easily challenged. As one of my respondents said, the fact that there is a name for it in various languages in Nigeria indicates that the practice existed well before colonialism... The environment is very homophobic or at least appears to be. There is an outward expression of homophobia in the dominant culture, although among the general population, there is greater tolerance and understanding that the practices exist. It is difficult for gays and lesbians to come out and admit to others that they are gay or lesbian or bisexual. They are therefore forced into heterosexual relationships. They marry to give a semblance of belonging to the widely accepted sexual orientation - heterosexuality - while they continue to meet their same-sex partners secretly." - A Primer on Homosexuality in Nigeria (1999).

Natural gestures (1989): Young girls growing up in Nigeria easily engage in forms of  physical contact that might be labelled ‘lesbian’ in the West. Yet African society is deeply hostile to homosexuality, says Buchi Emecheta. She gives a personal view. "Most of us remained sexually virgins but we knew how to play with each other as young girls. To us it was nothing. To us it was one human being comforting another. For instance in my culture, we do not kiss, but we do hug each other, we hold hands openly, all natural gestures for us. Nobody ever made it into a ‘problem’ - lesbianism - as you do in the West." - The Emerging Lesbian Voice in Nigerian Feminist Literature (2002).

Friends Unite Nigeria: For the rights of Young gay Nigerians: "FUN is a gay organisation set up by the Nigeria young Gay community with the sole aim of fighting HIV/AIDS, Discrimination. Criminalisation of Gays in Nigeria. FUN tends to create this awareness through the use of fun and education with entainment, this will include lectures, seminars, workshops, and even party and social engagement like beauty pagaent etc. Fun desires to work vigorously to eradicate the stigma attached to gay person in Nigeria through education of the masses most espcially our parents and friends who are straight and also members of our immediate society like friends in school, at home and even in the club. FUN also sets to encourage open living where it is possibly as this will boost the morale of young gays in Nigeria. Presently FUN has a membership base of 150 young gay men in Lagos and works with organisation like Alliance Rights Nigeria the foremost gay rights organisation in Nigeria. - Changing Attitude Nigeria holds successful first General Meeting (2005). 

Words By Bisi ,LGBT activist. Alliance Rights Nigeria (2003): " The gay issue in Nigerian, I will be very frank with you. No matter what you had heard about the Nigerian situation I think it is more horrible than what people think ---- some people try to illustrate a very sweet story but in real life the fact is that the nigerian gay experience is for those who care to have the courage to survive. In 2003 a student of the university of Lagos was set up to be beaten and almost killed by fellow student for being gay -he managed to break away  and had to run away from school. His friend staying in the same room with him was beaten up and greatly molested, the case got to the school authority and and the school constituted a panel to look into the case but despite the innonce of the two gay boys, the school withold justice on the ground that the gay guys are immoral and so the school can not prosecute the violent students. In early january, a young boy of 20 was locked up by his parents in a police cell in Lagos for being gay and he was kept behind bars for 4 days without food or water and was constantly beaten up to confess that hes gay so they can prosecute him, he was so emanciated when he was brought to me and was almost losing his head and was in a state of great depression because of the fact that he was ripped off his rights as a citizen of his country. 3 weeks ago a group of boys in a bid to "cleaned" their environment almost set ablaze a house that accommodate a gay boy .The boy  was eventually picked up and locked up and beaten  up by the police for being gay. I  have also had problems for  being gay and on sereval occasion the parents of the gay boys have thretened my life for protetcting their children and giving them support both morally and financially when they have been sent out of their house for being gay..."

'Sagba's organise in Nigeria Alliance Rights N/A (2004): "Nigeria is a gay welfarist association and was formally launched on the 2nd of July, 1999 in Lagos, Nigeria. Since inception last year, ARN have been engaged in organising seminars and lectures in various high schools within the Lagos metropolitan area which is their present base of operations. Their lectures focus mainly on AIDS, STD's and safer sex. They also encourage LGBT pride as a means of achieving freedom within their society."

Alternative Lifestyles Foundation of Nigeria (2000, ALFON): Nigerians Organize and Vocalize. (By Joe Murnan, Co-Chair, Lesbigay SIG): "Under the fear of imprisonment and legal persecution, gays and lesbians in Nigeria have been prevented from seeking equality. With the installation of a civilian government this past spring, gay and lesbian activists have formed ALFON to push for recognition and equality for gays and lesbians. ALFON's mission is to organize gays and lesbians into a formidable pressure group; to engage in activities that would enhance, promote, protect, advance the interest and integrity of its members to expand membership to include the continent of Africa; and to break the social taboo associated with being gay or lesbian...."

Azuah, Unoma (2011). Extortion and Blackmail of Nigerian Lesbians and Bisexual Women. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 46-59. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Nigeria: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

E-mail scam targets gays: Appeal offers new twist on Nigerian ‘419’ scheme (2004, Alternate Link).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Nigeria Information. Nigeria Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Nigeria. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Gay Nigeria

Global Gayz: Africa: Nigeria News Reports from 2002 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Nigeria. - LGBT rights in Nigeria. - Sodomy Laws.- Friends Unite Nigeria: For the rights of Young gay Nigerians. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Nigeria Individual Documents since 2004. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Nigeria

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

UGANDA  - Scott Mills: ‘Gay hatred is everywhere in Uganda (2011).- Uganda gay rights activist killed (2011). - Uganda gay rights activist David Kato killed (2011). - Gay Activist Murder Part of Trend of Deteriorating Rights (2011). - Ugandan gay activist was killed by sex partner (2011). - Uganda: Murdered gay activist insulted at his own funeral (2011). - Ugandan lesbian wins temporary reprieve from deportation (2011): MPs and MEPs demand urgent review for Brenda Namigadde after the killing of gay rights activist David Kato. - Fear grows among Uganda’s gay community over death penalty draft law (2010). - Uganda anti-gay bill likely to drop death penalty (2011). - Zimbabwe police arrest gay rights activists (2010). - Anti-Homosexual Bill In Uganda Causes Global Uproar (2010). - Uganda drops anti-gay bill (2011).

Uganda Ruling Small Victory in Gay Struggle (2011): Gay people in Uganda continue to face threats and discrimination despite a court ruling banning local media from publishing the personal details of alleged homosexuals, rights activists and lawyers say. - My life as a gay Ugandan (2011): In January a judge ruled in favour of a group of gay individuals stating that all Ugandans, regardless of their sexual orientation, have a right to privacy and dignity. One of the plaintiffs recounts her story. - Even Lesbian Youths or Those Presumed to be Lesbians Are Protected by the Constitution of Uganda—But to a Limited Extent: Rules the High Court (2009). - Orombi: a child of empire? (2008): The Bishop of Uganda's dismally homophobic views must not be viewed as anti-colonialist: in fact they come from a deeply colonised mindset.

Anti Gay Conference In Uganda (2010, Video) - Amidst International Pressure, Anti-Gay Ugandan Pastor Resigns from College Board (2010): For several weeks now, there's been a stepped up effort to call attention to the fact that Oral Roberts University, the stalwart Christian college in Oklahoma, has an anti-gay pastor from Uganda on its prominent Board of Reference. That pastor? Martin Ssempa, a leading anti-gay minister in Uganda who has traveled the country showing graphic pornography to people in attempts to whip up violent anti-gay sentiment. - Gay activists attack Ugandan preacher's porn slideshow (2010). - Americans' Role seen in uganda Anti-Gay push (2010, Alternate Link).

Gay in Uganda (2011): Not long after a Ugandan tabloid newspaper demanded that he be hanged for being homosexual, activist David Kato was found beaten to death at his home last week. Kato, who served as advocacy officer for the country’s most prominent gay-rights group, Sexual Minorities Uganda, had complained of intense harassment after a tabloid called The Rolling Stone (no relation to the American magazine) published the names, addresses, and photos of Ugandans whom it had identified as gay. The words “Hang Them” were on the front page, and the article alleged both that gay Ugandans were infected with a deadly disease and that they were “recruiting” children. Though a high court had issued an injunction against the newspaper, forbidding it from publishing more articles that targeted gays, activists and gay Ugandans have received an onslaught of intimidation since late last year. And while police are investigating the murder, officials claim that it was only the result of a robbery, despite the death threats against Kato.

Inside Out 2010: The Kuchus of Uganda - Documentary - A sobering peek into one of the most homophobic places on earth (2010). - YouTube: Kuchus of Uganda pt 1 of 5. Part 2 of 5. Part 3 of 5. Part 4 of 5. Part 5 of 5.- Being Gay in Uganda: One Couple's Story (2010). - The fear of being gay and Ugandan (2010): Despite the latest calls in Uganda for gays to be hanged, we have come through the fire and are tougher because of it. - Uganda's Bishop Christopher on gay suicide, gay genocide and Article 13 (2010). - Uganda tabloid urges "hanging of homos" (2010). - IFSW Statement - Human Rights and Social Work in Uganda (2010): ‘The proposals before the Ugandan Parliament concerning homosexuality and gay rights are a violation of international human rights conventions and should be withdrawn’, said Dr David N Jones, President of the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), as he prepared for the annual United Nations Social Work Day in New York. He was supporting statements already made by UN global leaders and eminent human rights spokespeople...

Ugandans hold anti-gay sex rally (2007). - Ugandans defend gay sex ban: Thousands of Ugandans took part in anti-gay rally in the capital Kampala, asking the government to sustain the ban on gay sex, despite immense pressure from the international community. - Anti-Gay Group Hits Back At Rights Activists (2007): A COALITION of religious groups has lashed at the Human Rights Watch (HRW), accusing it of promoting homosexuality. The anti-gay group said the letter the HRW's director of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights programme, Scott Long, wrote to President Museveni was based on a false assumption that homosexuals were 'born that way'. In the August 23 letter, Long called for the reform of existing laws against homosexuality and an end to what was described as 'a long record of harassing' lesbians, gays, bisexual and trans-gender people. However, the Interfaith Rainbow Coalition against Homosexuality in Uganda (TIRCHU) insisted that homosexuality is illegal and against Ugandan family values...  - Uganda rejects a gay rights call (2007). - Ugandan gays demand freedom (2007): The quest for gay rights is a challenge to Uganda's increasingly authoritarian church and state. - Sexual minorities Uganda condemns Homophobic threats (2006).

Activist: "Uganda is the new Zimbabwe" (2006). - Ugandan government accused of "state homophobia" (2007). - Uganda's anti-gay witch hunt escalates (2006). - Gay rights group OutRage! exposes the 'outing' of 45 gays by a Ugandan newspaper (Red Pepper) in a witch-hunt against lgbt people. arrests have followed (2006). - Uganda gay-baiting raises persecution fears (2006).- Ugandan gays in email row with minister (2007). - Ugandan Rights Group Slams Gay Ban Law (2007). - Uganda's gay community demands equality (2007). - Ugandans seek deportation for writings on gays (2007): Protesters in conservative nation call U.S. journalist’s articles ‘immoral’: Hundreds of people held an anti-gay protest in Uganda’s capital Tuesday, denouncing what they called an “immoral” lifestyle and demanding the deportation of an American journalist writing about gay rights in the deeply conservative country. - Ugandan Gays, Lesbians Launch Campaign: “Let Us Live in Peace” (2007): “We have had enough of the abuse, neglect, and violence”.

Why the fuss about homosexuality in Uganda? (2007) Everyday i wake up to a different story about homosexuality on the Ugandan air waves. I don’t know if this has got anything to do with the fourthcoming common wealth heads of state meeting slated for kampala come November this year. The Queen of England is expected here, and like you and me know, most of these common wealth countries are positive about gays back home.So this confrerence,or CHOGM as it is known locally here, may have a hand in this All of a sudden, gay people are out to claim for their rights “openly”and with vigour. On the other hand society is threatening to go all the way even if it means helping the police in identifying and helping arrest these so called homosexuals. I heard on radio this morning that the muslim tabliq sect is ready to help police on this (arresting gay people) in all ways.

Lesbians Want Protection (2007): Two Ugandan lesbians are suing the government for trespassing, theft of property, illegal arrest, and inhuman and degrading treatment. The case has been in court since December 2006 and a verdict is expected when the court session resumes in August. Victor Mukasa, a 31-year-old gay rights activist and Yvonne Ooyo, a 24-year-old Kenyan, claim that on July 20, 2005, LC1 Chairman John Lubega from Kireka Kamuli zone illegally raided and searched and their home without a warrant and proceeded to arbitrarily arrest Ms Ooyo who was alone in the house at the time.

Intimidation of lesbian and gay activists (2005). - Same-Sex Marriage Ban Deepens Repression (2005). - Gay and lesbian rights activists intimidated, and same sex marriage criminalised (2005). - On the road to legalizing homosexuality in Uganda (2006). - Being Gay in Uganda (2004-06):  There is a very hidden underground community of gay people in Uganda now; mostly in the capital. I have even heard of many young men engaging in sex (even when they are not gay) because they heard that there is money to be made there. So the lines continue to be blurry. I can only wish the best for the few gay people I met there. It is such a sad situation because there are not a lot of places where they can go for support. - Ugandan churches demonstrate against gay acceptance (2005). - Ugandan LGBT community speaks out against gay hate (2007). 

Uganda Homosexuals Ordered Arrested (1999, Max Penalty is life in prison) - Arrests of gay men have begun in Uganda (1999). - Unafrican? Why The Hunting Season Has Been Reopened? (1999  President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda recently ordered his secret service to arrest all homosexuals in his country. Uganda Criminalizing Homosexuality - A Licence to Torture: "Look for homosexuals, lock them up and charge them...” President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, 1999 (PDF Download N/A). - Church Backs Museveni Against Homosexuality (1999). - Ugandan Church attacks gay community. - Uganda Bishops Condemn Integrity/Uganda. - Integrity/Uganda. - Integrity Uganda: Prophets or Profit? (2001) - Gay doctor flees Uganda (1999). - Homosexuality in Uganda (Radio). - How Uganda's President Museveni Created Kill-The-Gays Mentality (2011).

Uganda queer activists write the president (2003): "The Gay And Lesbian Association (Gala) of Uganda have sent a letter to President Museveni demanding rights and threatening to form a political party and it has caused a rash of debate in the east African press...  After years of homophobic rhetoric from President Museveni and a life lived under the shadow of prosecution for being gay, the letter is putting the message and the issue on the agenda following the cabinet's non-inclusion of sexual orientation in the Constitutional review process...The boldness of the letter is striking, it calls for the decriminalisation of homosexuality, the redefinition of marriage to include same-sex couples and advises the president to read a selection of books which will help disprove the theories that homosexuality is unnatural and unAfrican. The letter also emphasises that gay rights are human rights and that homophobic legislation is contrary to Uganda's own constitution. Whether the call will be successful in changing the minds and attitudes of Uganda's parliamentarians is debatable..." -  Uganda Gays To Gov't: Give Us Civil Rights Or We Form Our Own Party (2003).

John's story: "It wasn't easy trying to set up a meeting with John. He was very worried about his own security as well as the safety of the other gays and lesbians he was going to bring along. Fear has been a constant factor in John's life ever since he was detained and tortured in October 1999..." Homosexuality in Uganda (Radio Netherlands, 2004). - 'My life as a gay Ugandan Christian' (2003). - Interview with Ugandan Lesbian wins Award (2004).

Uganda Has Many Homos (2002): "Mukasa said failure to acknowledge that homosexuality is a reality would deny Ugandans an opportunity to solve a major problem in mono-sex schools." - Uganda has no gays, says president (2002, Alternate Link): "After accepting an award for his government's successful campaign against AIDS, Uganda's president declared Sunday that his country has no homosexuals, one of the groups most threatened by the global epidemic." - African Scholar Opposes Ugandan Stance on Homosexuality (2001). - Mazrui Attacks Museveni Over Homo Arrests (1999). - Prejudice in Uganda (2004): "Nonetheless, gays and lesbians in Uganda are fighting to obtain recognition and acceptance..."

Tamale, Sylvia (2003). Out of the Closet: Unveiling Sexuality Discourses in Uganda. Feminist Africa, 2. Full Text.  The issue of homosexuality took centre stage in Uganda during the month of February 2003, with the media being dominated by emotive views and opinions from the public. This wave of homophobia was triggered by a recommendation emanating from a section of the women's movement that urged the proposed Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) to address the rights of homosexuals as members of the category of marginalised social groups in Uganda. [1] The newspaper report that activated much of the homophobic furore was entitled "Makerere [University] Don Defends Gays." [2] I had come out strongly in support of homosexuals and articulated my position in the national and international media. For this reason, I was caught in the eye of the homophobic storm, and became a "punching bag" for the public to relieve its pent-up rage. It is impossible to describe the depth of the ugliness, rage, revulsion, disgust and malevolence exhibited by the vocal homophobic public. The few voices in support of homosexual rights were drowned out by deafening homophobic outcries...

The Flames of Namugongo: Postcoloniality Meets Queer on African Soil? by Kenneth Hamilton: Presented to the American Academy of Religion, "Gay Men's Issues," Toronto, Canada, November 22, 2002: "The story of the 1886 martyrdom of Charles Lwanga and his companions takes me to the intersection of diaspora studies, queer theory, critical race theory, performance studies, and radical Catholic historiography. It is the founding missionary narrative of Christianity in Uganda, East Africa which equates that founding with the uprooting of same sex practice on the "Dark Continent." It raises suspicions around the demonization of "darkness", which includes "Africa", African male same sex, African traditional religions and Islam, African masculinity, and the feminized African land. Moreover, the sublimation of this narrative into Roman Catholic canonization further defines same sex desire as that which is not Christian and not Ugandan..."

Kajubi P, Kamya MR, Raymond HF, Chen S, Rutherford GW, Mandel JS, McFarland W (2008). Gay and bisexual men in Kampala, Uganda. AIDS and Behavior, 12(3): 492-504. PDF Download. PDF Download. Abstract. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects gay and bisexual men around the world; however, little is known about this population in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a respondent-driven sampling survey of gay and bisexual men in Kampala, Uganda (N = 224). Overall, 61% reported themselves as "gay" and 39% as "bisexual". Gay and bisexual men were 92% Ugandan; 37% had unprotected receptive anal sex in the last six months, 27% were paid for sex, 18% paid for sex, 11% had history of urethral discharge. Perception that gay and bisexual men are at risk for HIV infection was low.

Hollander, Michael (2009). Gay Rights in Uganda: Seeking to Overturn Uganda’s Anti-Sodomy Laws. Virginia Journal of International Law Association, 50(1): 219-266. PDF Download. This Note presents a comprehensive legal argument for overturning these anti-sodomy laws using both a national constitutional framework and an international framework that includes treaties, other international agreements, and a developing international consensus that persecution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex (LGBTI) individuals is a human rights violation. Like their statutory counterparts in the United States prior to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Lawrence v. Texas, the Ugandan antisodomy laws are rarely, if ever, enforced. In fact, they are enforced so rarely that interviews with activists in the LGBTI community reveal that a constitutional challenge to such a law is not a current priority of the movement. As Victor Mukasa, an outspoken gay rights activist and transgender Ugandan, said, these laws are “not even on the radar right now; we just want to live in peace.”6 Why, then, attack these laws? What purpose will it serve to attack a set of laws that are never enforced and therefore not used to directly harass or to violate the rights of the LGBTI community? ...

Nyanzi, Stella (2010). Politicising 'the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah': Examining Christian Rightists' war against homosexuality in Uganda. Draft Concept Paper prepared for the The Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR), Uganda. PDF Download. The Anti-Homosexuality Bill (2009) proposes to re-criminalise same-sex relations in Uganda with punishments ranging from monetary fines, to periods of detention, mandatory testing for HIV and even the death penalty for "aggravated homosexuality". The main proponents of this bill are fundamental conservative Christians including clergy, politicians and elite professionals. Their strategies are initiated, informed, and influenced by American Christian Right authorities and ideologies based on interpretations of biblical scripture against same-sex practices. This research will critically examine the effects of the politicisation of the literary construction of homosexuality as 'the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah' based on biblical scriptures, upon local individuals who identify as sexual minorities in Uganda...

ScotMUN 2011: Human Rights Council: Position Papers: The Rights to Asylum for Homosexuals: Uganda: Over the past years, the topic of homosexuality and whether asylum should be offered to those suffering from it has become a top priority for human rights activists, especially regarding Uganda's laws and procedures towards it. It is Uganda's belief that this should not be the case and that we should be allowed to proceed as we wish to as a sovereign country. As it is, Section 40 of the Ugandan penal code penalizes the "carnal knowledge of any person against the order of nature" with imprisonment of up to 14 years. We believe this to be right because homosexuality should be punished - it is not natural and therefore should not be condoned. ... By following Section 40 of the penal code and trying to introduce the Anti-Homosexuality Bill (otherwise known as the Bahati Bill), Uganda is simply trying to make the country safer for its population. The Anti-Homosexuality Bill, proposed in October 2009, is attempting to introduce the death penalty for people suspected of aggravated homosexuality - that is, homosexuality that has proved to be a threat to society. This means homosexuals would be tested for HIV, and if they were positive and still proved to be a threat, they would be prosecuted. The bills main aim is to provide a 'comprehensive and enhanced legislation to protect the cherished culture of [our] people... legal, religious and traditional family values of [our] people... against the attempts of sexual rights activists seeking to impose their values on sexual promiscuity..." Homosexuals are a threat to Ugandan society, especially as it has been proven that they are more likely to be criminals or paedophiles.

The Rape of Men (2011): I've come to Kampala to hear the stories of the few brave men who have agreed to speak to me: a rare opportunity to find out about a controversial and deeply taboo issue. In Uganda, survivors are at risk of arrest by police, as they are likely to assume that they're gay – a crime in this country and in 38 of the 53 African nations. They will probably be ostracised by friends, rejected by family and turned away by the UN and the myriad international NGOs that are equipped, trained and ready to help women. They are wounded, isolated and in danger. In the words of Owiny: "They are despised." But they are willing to talk, thanks largely to the RLP's British director, Dr Chris Dolan. Dolan first heard of wartime sexual violence against men in the late 1990s while researching his PhD in northern Uganda, and he sensed that the problem might be dramatically underestimated. Keen to gain a fuller grasp of its depth and nature, he put up posters throughout Kampala in June 2009 announcing a "workshop" on the issue in a local school. On the day, 150 men arrived. In a burst of candour, one attendee admitted: "It's happened to all of us here." It soon became known among Uganda's 200,000-strong refugee population that the RLP were helping men who had been raped during conflict. Slowly, more victims began to come forward..

Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Uganda Information. Uganda Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Uganda. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Uganda News Reports from 2002 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Uganda. - LGBT rights in Uganda. - Sodomy Laws. - Gay Rights Uganda. - Gay Uganda.- Gay Uganda Forum. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Uganda Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Uganda.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

BURKINA FASO - Coming Out in Burkina Faso: "Eventually, he introduced me to the entire Gay community of Burkina Faso: about twelve guys." - The (Unexpected) Men in My Life (2001, Peace Corps Volunteer, Burkina Faso): "As all the brochures promised, people here do, at least verbally, abhor the very notion of homosexuality. And yet, homosexual acts are taking place in mud huts (and health centers) across the country at this very moment. Boys will be boys. Shame on me for every doubting, eh? Intriguingly enough, each ethnic group has a unique, mostly unspoken code dictating which acts fall short of the feared homosexual dividing line. Draga  boys indulge in mutual masturbation, while the Bissa have a strict above-the-waist rule. Men in the Gulimance district are very hands-oriented and prone to kissing, and pretty much anything goes for the chancy, lucky Mossi, the nation’s ferocious, predominant ethnicity (Related Information). - Gay Burkina - Le Burkina Gay (2010, Video). - «Le retour d'Abdou», ou la difficulté d'être gay au Burkina Faso (2010, Translation).

HRBA and the Rights  LGBT Persons in Burkina Faso (2011): This brief aims at providing Sida country teams with brief information on the situation of LGBT persons in Burkina Faso as well as concrete advice on how LGBT issues can be included in dialogue and programming...  During the last few years, LGBT persons in Burkina Faso have begun to come out publicly in the media. This has created debates on the topic that have shown a reluctant and homophobic attitude among the public. However, the media space that the question has received has by some been interpreted as a sign of a loosening of the taboo surrounding the issue of homosexuality. Aggressive statements against homosexuality in Burkina Faso come mostly from religious leaders. Statements in public media forums opposing the human rights of LGBT persons have been based on religious motivations and the idea of homosexuality being “unafrican”... In countries where the legislation does not recognise LGBT rights, people usually live and act in secrecy, which is an obstacle to organised human rights work. In Burkina Faso there is an LGBT group called LAMBDA. Due to fear of persecution from the authorities it is not registered as an LGBT organisation, but as an organisation that works ‘for protection of marginalised and estranged individuals’. LAMBDA’s activities include work against HIV/Aids and support to marginalised and discriminated people such as homosexuals and transgender persons. The main challenge for the LGBT community in Burkina Faso is the attitudes of the general public. LAMBDA is primarily working with counselling and support, helping people to deal with senses of guilt (caused by the stigma from the rest of the society)...

Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2006, Alternate Link): The South African decision to legalise same-sex marriages has caught much of Africa by surprise.... In Burkina Faso, far, far away from South Africa, the nation's first encounter with the issue was more accidental. A Burkinabe living in France told about his homosexuality on 'TV5', criticising double moral standards in his home country. The interview got picked up by the press in Burkina Faso, advising that the issue was loosing from its inherent taboos. In the latest issue of 'Bendré', Burkina Faso's leading independent weekly, journalist Jean-Paul Bamogo goes into a larger discussion about homosexuality based on the new South African legislation. In his article "Homosexuality - evolution or regression", he presents - in decent manners of course - the history of homosexuality from male sex preferring Socrates to the "at least 800,000" homosexuals killed in Nazi Germany's concentration camps. Recognising that homosexuality is a reality in Burkina Faso, he however warns that many gays, means society will not reproduce. Also 'Le Pays', a leading privately-owned Burkinabe daily, last week philosophised whether South Africa's gay marriage law was "luxury or a necessity" and whether one could still call South Africa an African country. The rather balanced article brought few conclusions, except one: "One thing is sure, Africa cannot anymore close its eyes on the phenomenon of homosexuality." While calling the new marriage law "superfluous and premature," 'Le Pays' demonstrated admiration of South Africa's development and indignation over a recent "homophobia campaign" in Cameroon.

Niang CI, et al. Edited by Kees Kostermans and Aissatou Diack (2004). Targeting Vulnerable Groups in National HIV/AIDS Programs: The Case of Men Who Have Sex with Men: Senegal, Burkina Faso, The Gambia. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series. PDF Download. All local languages differentiate between "penetrating" and "receptive" MSM identities ("tops" and "bottoms"); ... The terms most frequently used to identify MSM describe those men who are perceived to occupy the receptive position in sexual relations. Those terms usually designate parts of the body, physical traits or mannerisms usually associated with the female gender... Terms used to designate receptive males usually do not apply to penetrating males. In Wolof. the term goor jigen would not describe the penetrating partner. He may sometimes be called faaru goor jigen, literally meaning “lover of a man-woman.” That term refers more to the relationship than to his ontological identity. The receptive goor jigen is defined essentially as a man-woman, whereas his partner is characterized viewed as masculine. The researchers did not find terms that encompassed both the concept of receptive and penetrating partner in any of the local languages. Understanding the distinction between these identities is essential in formulating messages that specifically target each identity... In several communities in Senegal, the Gambia and Burkina Faso, a male-to-male sexual relationship is considered a highly personal and private affair that requires the highest level of protection, privacy, discretion and "veil." ... "Everyone knows that such person has sexual relationship with another person of the same sex but no one would openly mention it." ... In Burkina Faso and the Gambia, data suggest in most cases that families tend to ignore an MSM family member. Even when family members heard about incidents, they would continue to feign ignorance until confronted by tangible and irrefutable proof. But, when such proof surfaces, the MSM’s family becomes the first source of homophobic violence. The level of violence is equated with the degree to which the family views its honor as having been disgraced by the behavior of one of its members. In Burkina Faso, reports exist of MSM having been beaten, publicly disrobed or otherwise humiliated by members of their own families. One informant revealed: "Someone sent an anonymous letter to my mother telling her that I was prostituting myself to men. My own mother threatened to kill me with her own hands to preserve the  honor of the family if it turned out to be true."

Burkina Faso : Key actors against Hiv sensitized on MSM issues (2011): Aware of the lack of knowledge and understanding of the rights of men who have sex with other men (MSM) regarding access to health care, Reseau Africain de Formations sur le VIH/SIDA (the African Network of Training on HIV and Aids) RAF-VIH, conducted a workshop on 14 to 18 April 2011 in Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, to sensitize key actors in the fight against the disease and to improve their involvement and skills to better work with MSM..

Thee Dagara tribe of Burkina Faso (east of Nigeria and north of Ghana): The "gatekeeper" 'gay' concept embodying a "save the world" role- an interview with Malidoma Somé, author of the book, Ritual: Power Healing and Community. - Homosexuality: The Gatekeepers. - (Related Information 1, 2) - Information about female homosexuality in the Dagara tribe obtained from the book, The Spirit of Intimacy by Sobanfu Somé. - Information about the Dagara tribes.-   Welcome to The Great Debate on Homosexuality in The Black Community. - Stolen Heritage: Reclaiming Our Birthright. - Wisdom from West Africa.

La question de l'homosexualité chez les Lyéla (1997, Translation). - The Africa Question: Did They or Didn't They? - Philippe Gosselin hides his sexual identity to serve as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Burkina Faso. (Alternate Link). - Situation analysis of prostitution in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso and vulnerability of the sex workers in the context of the HIV epidemic (1998). - Men who have sex with men in Burkina Faso, Senegal, and The Gambia: The multi-country HIV/AIDS program approach. (2004).

Homosexuality now debated all over Africa: (3006, Alternate Link) In Burkina Faso, far, far away from South Africa, the nation's first encounter with the issue was more accidental. A Burkinabe living in France told about his homosexuality on 'TV5', criticising double moral standards in his home country. The interview got picked up by the press in Burkina Faso, advising that the issue was loosing from its inherent taboos. In the latest issue of 'Bendré', Burkina Faso's leading independent weekly, journalist Jean-Paul Bamogo goes into a larger discussion about homosexuality based on the new South African legislation... Also 'Le Pays', a leading privately-owned Burkinabe daily, last week philosophised whether South Africa's gay marriage law was "luxury or a necessity" and whether one could still call South Africa an African country. The rather balanced article brought few conclusions, except one: "One thing is sure, Africa cannot anymore close its eyes on the phenomenon of homosexuality." While calling the new marriage law "superfluous and premature," 'Le Pays' demonstrated admiration of South Africa's development and indignation over a recent "homophobia campaign" in Cameroon.

Men who have sex with men in Burkina Faso, Senegal, and The Gambia: The multi-country HIVAIDS program approach: (2004, Alternate Link) "This paper summarizes issues involved in reaching MSM, and recommends strategies for meeting the needs of this target group in the three countries. The paper outlines knowledge gaps about HIV/AIDS and VCT services among MSM, and provides suggestions on how to address these problems. The paper also describes the main features and lessons learned from prevention and treatment programs serving MSM, and lists experts and institutions in the public and private sectors working or interested in the target group. Conclusions: MAP increased access to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, support, and treatment programs with vulnerable and at risk groups, especially MSM and boys and men who have sex with men in exchange for money or gifts."

Pas facile d'être homosexuel au Burkina Faso (2010, Translation): La réalisatrice du court-métrage "Le retour d'Abdou" raconte ses difficultés depuis le tournage du film. Il s'appelle Abdou et revient voir sa famille au Burkina Faso. Mais chez lui, quelque chose a changé: Abdou arbore maintenant maquillage, vernis à ongles et vêtements de femmes. Son père, imam, ne l'entend pas de cette oreille. - «Le retour d'Abdou», ou la difficulté d'être gay au Burkina Faso (2010, Translation): Lorsqu'Abdou revient au Burkina Faso après une longue absence, il porte un top et un jean moulants, des bijoux, du maquillage, du vernis à ongles… Ce qui rend fou de rage son père, qui est imam. Zi-Yaanbo («se donner un surplus de liberté», en mooré), sous-titré Le retour d'Abdou, est le premier film de Sophie Kaboré. Elle veut montrer à travers ce court-métrage la difficulté d'être gay dans ce pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Pour le réaliser, cette réalisatrice autodidacte de 29 ans installée à Ouagadougou, la capitale burkinabè, a pris elle-même un risque. Faute de financement, le court-métrage n'est diffusé que sur Dailymotion et YouTube, en attendant de trouver des moyens supplémentaires. Elle raconte à TÊTU ses difficultés pour monter son film et faire connaître le calvaire de ses compatriotes homosexuels. Car si elle n'est pas pénalement réprimée, l'homosexualité est très stigmatisée au Burkina Faso, comme on le voit dans son film...

Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Burkina Faso Information. Burkina Faso Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Burkina Faso. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Burkina Faso News Reports from 2002 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Burkina Faso- LGBT rights in Burkina Faso. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Burkina Faso Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Burkina Faso

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

BOTSWANA - Gay activist sues Botswana over anti-Gay law (2011). - Justice Makhwade to hear gay case (2011). - Lawsuit stirs gay debate in Botswana (2011).- Gay issue finally brings Botswana together (2011): It has one of the fastest growing economies and a high Hiv/Aids prevalence rates in the world but that is not all. Today, in a bid to tackle what is seen as a growing issue, Botswana is increasingly getting more open about gay issues. On the streets, public transport even media, you hear a country speaking with itself, on these issues, and this has attracted a lot of attention- approval and criticisms in equal measures. Gays and lesbians in Botswana appear surprisingly emboldened, coming out to announce their sexual preferences in public. More liberal views about gay and lesbian rights have been heard from some of the top religious and political figures in Botswana. To crown it all, Botswana gays and lesbians have mustered the courage to challenge laws outlawing same sex relationships in court... - Botswana's Laws Criminalising Homosexuality Offend Bill of Rights Enshrined in Constitution (2011). - Botswana's Landmark Decriminalisation of Homosexuality Case Begins (2011).

Botswana Politician Defends Anti-gay Comments: Botswana Politician Defends His Comments That Homosexuality Is 'culture Away From Our Culture' (2011). - Botswana Inmate Advocates for Gay Rights Before Members of Parliament (2011): The Deputy Speaker of the Botswana National Assembly, Mr. Pono Moatlhodi, replied that "if he had power, he would have those who practise homosexuality killed." He defended his statements today in the Associated Press. - Botswana Goes Anti-Gay (2011). - Lesbian Couple Comes Out in Botswana (2010, Alternate Link): Marriage is the next social hurdle the two have plans to take on in the near future. “It’s simply a matter of going to Jozi and signing the document. Early next year we intend to move in and live together, and later in the year get legally married.“It will be a marriage made in heaven,” they say with a giggle and cuddle of contentment.

Setuke, Lorraine (2011, Vice Chair, Lesbians, Gays & Bisexuals of Botswana (LeGaBiBo)). Report on the factors contributing to the marginalization of lesbian, bisexual and women who have sex with women (LBWSW) community in Botswana. In: Kirey, Anna (2011). Oral history of activism, formal and non-formal organizing by women-loving women and transgender organizing in Central Asia.Den Haag. PDF Download. PDF Download. From the ground it seems LBWSW women face many difficulties and feel marginalized.Clearly, there is a sign of confusion characterized by awareness of sexuality and internalconflict over identity coupled with feelings of further alienation and isolation. In theBotswana context, the persons I interviewed gave the impression that they assumed there wastolerance of their identities but at the same they accepted that they would never be fullyrecognized. This hinders the first step in actually coming out to one’s self. This realization isstrongly suggested and reflected on the basis that the respondents find it difficult to come outto families, instead revealing their sexual orientation to friendship groups. These individualsimmerse themselves in friendships and LBWSW communities to try and separate themselvesfrom the heterosexual normative community due to stigma and discrimination. They are notable to integrate their sexual orientation with their overall identity. It is easier for bisexualsand WSW to belong to the larger society than it is for masculine lesbians, simply becausethey are able to fit in without being noticed.Marginalizing factors arising from the need for individuals who are members of an oppressedor marginalized group have to come to grips with the oppression or marginalization; for LBWSW identity, development demands the person to deal with the process of coming out, both to themselves and their families, and addressing internalized homophobia.These findings indicate that most of the respondents earn between the range of P500 andP2000, suggesting that a majority of the respondents are students, resulting in a level of independence that is strongly reliant on family. This demographic indicates a fear to disclosetheir sexual orientation to family for reasons of possible loss of financial security. There wasa strong link between issues of security and finance and individuals being closeted. The fear of perceived homophobia from civil society was also a factor of internalized homophobia. 

Botswana Lesbian and Gay Community Celebrate their Pride (2008): Locked iron gates, entry by invitation, absence of the media and controlled noise behind one of Gaborone's town houses appeared to be an illustration of innate fear by Batswana lesbians, gay and bisexuals to be outed and recognised as homosexuals during a pride party hosted by the Lesbians, Gay and Bisexuals of Botswana (LeGaBiBo) recently. This second annual pride party by LeGaBiBo, a first Botswana lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex project run by Botswana Network on Ethics Law and HIV /AIDS (BONELA), attracted almost 200 members of the gay community to celebrate their existence with pride and to strengthen trust between them and LeGaBiBo. - Growing Up Gay In Botswana (2008). - There's nothing gay about 'gays' - Miss Botswana (2009): New 'Miss Botswana' queen, Sumaiyah Marope, 20, on her crowning night attacked same-sex relationships describing them as 'unnatural acts'.

The Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Botswana: A Shadow Report (2008).

Arnott J, Crago A-L (2009). Rights Not rescue: A Report on Female, Male, and Trans Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa Sexual Health and Rights Project, Open Society Institute. PDF Download.

Botswana's Church leaders denounce gay Bishop (2003): The Anglican Church in Botswana has joined a growing list of African Anglican dioceses that have refused to recognise the consecration of Revd Gene Robinson as Bishop-Coadjutor of the Diocese of New Hampshire in the United States, because of his sexual orientation.. - Bishop Mwamba looks to 'breakthrough' on homosexuality row (2007, Alternate Link): Anglican churches will soon return to their mission to alleviate poverty, disease and injustice and abandon a "fixation" with homosexuality, says Anglican Bishop Trevor Mwamba of Botswana, the recently-appointed dean of the Anglican Church of the Province of Central Africa. "Very few of us take the homosexual debate as a top priority issue because there are more pressing issues facing the African church," Mwamba told Ecumenical News International in a telephone interview from his office in the Botswana capital, Gaborone.

LeGaBiBo fights for welfare and voice (2007): Mothers Union – a Christian faith-based movement caring for welfares of families globally, at least will receive a letter of grievances from Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana (LeGaBiBo) of how the organisation was being ill-treated during a recent dialogue on homosexuality that took place in Botswana... LeGaBiBo was there to take part, and its representative – Skipper Mogapi – complained that she was gagged from talking positively about homosexuality. She further complained that the dialogue was one-sided as all panelists incessantly quoted the bible to reinforce their views condemning homosexuality... - Still oblivious battle after many years for Botswana gays (2006): Gays in Botswana – who founded Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana (LeGaBiBo), are being continuously frustrated by government in that country. - Botswana refuses to register gay advocacy group (2007).

Botswana Gays Rejoice As Opponents See Red (2006):  Early this week the South African parliament made history and passed a bill that ushers in a law that recognizes same sex marriages. This development, the first of its kind in Africa has generated a lot of excitement amongst the gay community and human rights organizations in Botswana. LEGABIBO, an organization of Gays and lesbians in Botswana has applauded South Africans for passing the law despite the fact that homosexuality and lesbianism remains a taboo in the country... "This is frustrating as homosexuality has always existed in Botswana. We suppressed it because we are such a secretive society," she said. She lamented that they cannot register LEGABIBO because the Constitution does not recognise them. " It is even difficult for homosexuals to access medical facilities as they are discriminated," she said. Moepi's sentiments have been echoed by the director of Botswana Network of Ethics, Law and AIDS (BONELA), Christine Stegling who emphasised the necessity of passing out a law that recognise gay and lesbian marriages. She said this would be an indication of Botswana's commitment to human rights and fighting discrimination.

Is there hope in vision 2016? (2004, Alternate Link) The government of Botswana has issued a bold vision statement for the nation called Vision 2016. It promises all citizens safety, security, freedom of expression and a tolerant nation, but how will this help LGBT people if they don't lobby around their rights within the framework of the vision...  These bold words of inclusivity would seem to be opening the doors for LGBT lobbying; laying the ground for successful change in legislation that outlaws homosexuality in Botswana. However, Legabibo, the country's LGBT group are dispersed and virtually none functioning. "It is very hard to get hold of them," one activist told me. "Because they have no office space and no permanent staff. The law prevents them from registering as an organisation, which has left them pretty helpless." At the All Africa conference in Johannesburg earlier this year, representatives from Botswana admitted that the registration issue was just one part of the problem. "Lesbian and gay people in Botswana are not really interested in organising. If we throw a party then they will all turn up, but try to stage a rally or a meeting to discuss serious issues and there will be no more than a handful." Activists working in the field of HIV/Aids in Botswana admit that accessing MSMs (men who have sex with men) is a big problem. "The government do not include same sex behaviour in their information. But how can they when homosexuality is outlawed - it is a catch 22 situation. They know there is a problem but there is no-one to deal with, not the government nor the LGBT community." One of the reasons sited for the lack of an effective LGBT lobby is insidiously personal according to another activist in Gaborone. "The gay scene is young, young as in not long established, but also young as in, populated by mostly young people - there is a lot of gossip, bitchiness and in fighting, usually caused by the fact that many of them have been in relationships with each other. It is a very small community."

Botswana: Homosexuality under Fire (1998): Church groups in Botswana last week launched a vicious attack on gays and lesbians, labelling homosexuality "animalistic and satanic." The attack came just weeks after an amendment to the Penal Code which makes lesbianism a crime. - Botswana Debates The Relaxation of Anti-Gay Laws (Alternate Link): Reverend Dan Hoffman made an appeal in a panel discussion at the University of Botswana recently for the SADC country’s anti-gay laws to be reviewed, but student bodies oppose his call for Christian compassion, the Botswana Gazette reports. All the panel lists called for a relaxation of legislation, but the mostly student audience opposed any changes and rejected homosexuality in Botswana society.. - The well-being of gays, lesbians and bisexuals in Botswana (Journal of Advanced Nursing: 2001 35(6): 848-56): "Results indicated that varying degrees of distress were experienced by 64% of the GLBs in this study. The GLBs identified a need for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and had concerns about their general health, discrimination against them and vulnerability to violence including sexual assaults." - Botswana human rights centre gets gay award (2000).

Ministers in Botswana Plead for Gay Tolerance (1999): The Johannesburg Daily Mail & Guardian reports an appeal made by the Botswana Christian Council for a relaxation of social and legal prohibitions against homosexuality was greeted with outright hostility by an audience of mostly students at the University of Botswana. In a panel discussion at the University, Reverend Dan Hoffman made a broad-based appeal calling for greater Christian compassion towards men and women who feel emotional affinity for members of the same sex.- Botswana president: 'Don't be judgmental on homosexuals (2000): President Festus Mogae of Botswana has urged that the people of his country may soon have to change their strong held views about certain members of the society in order for the nation to effectively stop any future HIV infections...The report urges the nation not to be judgmental of prisoners, homosexuals and commercial sex workers. Mogae informed his audience that if Botswana had no way of protecting the groups mentioned above, it would ultimately fail to protect the broader society in general. - Anti-Gay Laws Challenged in Botswana (2001). -  Alleged Gay Challenges Homosexual Laws (2001). - Botswana Wrestles with Implications of Gay Case (2001). - The well-being of gays, lesbians and bisexuals in Botswana (2001).

Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals of Botswana (2003): Currently the laws, and general societal attitudes, within Botswana prohibit ones' choice of sexual orientation. The Centre is actively involved in calls for national awareness-raising regarding the legalisation of same sex relations between consenting adults. - "Unnatural practises" law stands in Botswana (2003): In its ruling, The High Court in Botswana said that, "Gay men and women do not represent a group or class which at this stage has been shown to require protection under the constitution." Therefore the laws that forbid same-sex relations in Botswana, for both men and women, are constitutional and would remain unchanged. This just after the USA Supreme Court ruled the exact opposite, decriminalising same-sex sex in the USA.

Homosexuality is  forbidden, says Orebotse (2001, Must Scroll): Since the laws of Botswana forbid homosexuality, no prisoners have been given condoms and they would not be given any as that would be tantamount to encouraging homosexuality, says Commissioner of Prisons Joseph Orebotse.

Inside prisons’ dirty secrets (2011): “It is true that men have sex with other men in prison. These things do happen.” This is the reality in Botswana prisons, according to revelations by a former inmate. Lesego Matlhape only spent a year and three months behind bars, but he has seen it all. Consensual and non-consensual sex and prostitution – apparently all these happen behind the barred doors of Botswana’s prisons.  Matlhape was making a testimony at a workshop about HIV and AIDS in prisons. Another former inmate, who would like to remain anonymous, corroborates his story.. - Botswana: Condoms in prison debate rages (2010).

Dynamics of the HIV & AIDS epidemic in Botswana (2000, Chapter 2, Part 6: PDF Download): "Although HIV is transmitted mainly through heterosexual intercourse in Botswana, men having sex with men is a reality and a factor, albeit an apparently minor one, in the spread of the virus. How minor a factor it is remains unknown, thanks to homophobic laws and sentiments, as well as a shortage of reliable research. A 1998 study elicited mixed responses from young men on the topic of male homosexuality. Some were appalled at the idea of a man having sex with another man, but others admitted that it does happen in Botswana society, hence the noun "matanyola". Tswana culture abhors matanyola as an act of sexual perversion." - To be legal or not to be legal: Illegality of homosexuality in Botswana and the spread of HIV in prisions and the general community (2004). - Country Situation Analysis, Botswana, UNAIDS Global Report 2006 Data: In addition, the situation of marginalized groups like men who have sex with men and sex workers needs to be further addressed.

Bisexual concurrency, bisexual partnerships, and HIV among Southern African men who have sex with men (2010, Abstract): The sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men (MSM) in southern Africa has been little studied. We present here the first data on bisexual partnerships and bisexual concurrency among MSM in Malawi, Namibia and Botswana... 34.1% of MSM were married or had a stable female partner, and 53.7% reported both male and female sexual partners in the past 6 months. Bisexual concurrency was common, with 16.6% of MSM having concurrent relationships with both a man and a woman... The majority of MSM in this study report some bisexual partnerships in the previous 6 months. Concurrency with sexual partners of both genders is common. Encouragingly, men reporting any concurrent bisexual activity were more likely to report condom use with sexual partners, and these men were not more likely to have HIV infection than men reporting only male partners. HIV-prevention programmes focussing on decreasing concurrent sexual partners in the African context should also target bisexual concurrency among MSM. Decriminalisation of same-sex practices will potentiate evidence-based HIV-prevention programmes targeting MSM.

HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana (2009, Abstract): The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241); 20.0% (42/210) among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84) among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8). In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0), and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9) were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527) reporting at least one abuse. MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Botswana: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Botswana. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Botswana Information. Botswana Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Botswana. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Gay Botswana: Life Stories of Gays Living in Botswana.

Global Gayz: Africa: Botswana News Reports from 2004 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Botswana. - LGBT rights in Botswana. - Sodomy Laws. - DITSHWANELO, The Botswana Centre for Human Rights: Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals of Botswana. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Botswana Individual Documents Since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Botswana

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

IVORY COAST / CÔTE D'IVOIREReportage de Camille Chardon: Abidjan, la capitale gay d’Afrique de l’Ouest: (2010, Translation) Toutes les extravagances nocturnes semblent permises à Abidjan, figure de proue ultralibérale de la sous région ouest-africaine. Malgré que l’homosexualité demeure taboue dans la société ivoirienne, les gays y ont trouvé leur place : trois night-clubs sont spécialement dédiés à cette clientèle. - L'homosexualité : un tabou en Côte d'Ivoire (2010, Translation). - Homosexualité en Côte d'Ivoire: Doit-on Bannir, tolérer ou légaliser l’Homosexualité en Côte d’Ivoire ? (2009, Translation): Néanmoins, la pratique homosexuelle, de son côté, poursuit son chemin en Côte d’ivoire. Le phénomène qui, il y a seulement moins d’une décennie, n’était que l’apanage de la bourgeoisie, s’est repandu dans tous les rayons des grandes cités ivoiriennes. A Abidjan, San Pédro, Yamoussoukro, Bouaké, etc, on les voit partout, ces personnes surnommées " pédé", "bèèh"," woubi"," lélé", ou encore " bodacourou" ou "club rouge". Des homme-femmes, femme-hommes, qui assument leur choix et prétendent même parfois que cette tendance fait partie intégrante de leurs gènes (pour donner une explication scientifique à leur pratique), c’est-à-dire qu’ils ont été conçus comme-ça , c'est leur naturel!

Les coiffeurs africains sont-ils homos? Un journaliste ivoirien s'en inquiète (2009, Translation). - Mlle S.X. (lesbienne) - "L'amour entre femmes ne se raconte pas" (2008, Translation): Très détendue, presque provocatrice, Mlle S est une jeune fille qui ne cache plus sa préférence pour les femmes après avoir eu deux enfants d'aventures qui ont tourné court. En attendant de convoler prochainement en justes noces avec un homme qui accepte son statut, elle trouve son plaisir avec les femmes. Contraste !Comment êtes-vous devenue homosexuelle alors que vous avez 2 enfants ?. - Al Moustapha : Il en veut ! (2008, Translation): Une information qui nous est parvenue fait état du fait que Al Moustapha voudrait empêcher la tenue du concert de Fally Ipupa, ici en Côte d'Ivoire. Les raisons ? Je ne veux pas interdire le concert de Fally en tant que tel. Mais, j'ai décidé d'interdire désormais, le concert de tous les homosexuels en Côte d'Ivoire. Parce que notre pays n'est pas un pays de pédérastes. C'est une pratique qui est interdite en Côte d’Ivoire, alors, je ne vois pas pourquoi ce dernier viendra faire un concert ici. Ayant donc appris que Fally fait partie de ce cercle de vices, chose que je ne confirme pas pour autant. Mais, s'il s'avère qu’il est effectivement homosexuel, il ne se produira guère Côte d’Ivoire. Car nous ferons tout notre possible pour boycotter ce concert...

Rapport Pour L’examen Periodique Universel de Côte D’Ivoire (2009, Translaton): La liberté de pensée et d’expression dans les sujets liés à la sexualité - 28. En Côte d’Ivoire, les sujets liés à la sexualité ne sont pas encore totalement sortis de l’ornière du tabou. Ils sont traités avec beaucoup de prudence, de retenu, et surtout dans des cadres qui garantissent à la fois la discrétion et la pudeur. La liberté de pensée et d’expression dans les sujets liés à la sexualité n’est pas garantie pas les moeurs qui tiennent pour outrage tout propos sexuel iconoclaste. 29. Entre Décembre 2003 et Juin 2004, les éditeurs de ‘Heat’, ‘Réalités’ et ‘Journal Intime’, des journaux locaux spécialisés, dont les sujets principaux sont le sexe et l’éducation sexuelle, ont été traduit en justice pour attentat à la morale publique par des associations religieuses (catholiques et musulmanes) et le collectif de lutte contre le SIDA, cela, par le biais d’une plainte‐pétition qui a recueillit 3000 signatures. Ces journaux ont vu leur lectorat discret dépérir et ont fini dans leur grand ensemble à disparaître des étals des vendeurs de journaux. - 30. Pour avoir affirmé ouvertement son homosexualité lors d’une interview accordée au Journal ‘Top Visage’, le célèbre artiste chanteur et Disc Joker ivoirien LINO VERSACE, a essuyé le courroux des lecteurs et des mélomanes ivoiriens. Ses parents l’ont renié suite à ses déclarations. Il a dû fuir le pays pour se prémunir d’une éventuelle agression. - L’orientation sexuelle et la discrimination envers les minorités sexuelles (Lesbiennes, Gays, Bisexuels et Transsexuels) - 31. En Côte d’Ivoire, l’orientation sexuelle admise est celle de l’union d’un homme et d’une femme. Bien qu’il n’existe pas, dans le contexte ivoirien, des lois qui criminalisent la conduite homosexuelle et des sanctions pénales contre les personnes accusées de tels actes, toute ‘déviation sexuelle’ n’est ni admise par la société, encore est‐elle moins acceptée par les moeurs. Les minorités sexuelles (Lesbiennes, Gays, Bisexuels et Transsexuels) essuient du reste les diatribes de la population et sont constamment confrontées à une menace d’agression, de brimades, de marginalisation et au déni de leurs droits les plus élémentaires, la liberté d’association notamment et partant, tout droit d’existence légal. A titre d’exemple, en 2006 l’AIL (Association Ivoirienne des Lesbiennes Gays, Bisexuels et Transsexuels), présidé par Issouf Diomandé s’est vu refusé un récépissé de déclaration d’existence par le Ministère de l’Intérieur. Depuis, cette association mène de manière discrète et efficace un combat pour sa reconnaissance, en vain. Quoique très nombreux, les membres des minorités sexuelles, dans leur grande majorité, vivent leur sexualité dans la clandestinité et la peur de subir le courroux du reste de la population.

Jean-Hervé : "Une loi pour protéger et défendre les homosexuels" (2008, Translation) (Alternate Link, Translation): Jean-Hervé milite à Arc en Ciel + (AEC+) en Côte-d’Ivoire depuis 2003. L’idée de créer l’association est venue d’un groupe d’amis qui a constaté un "vide social" dans la vie des gays. Les membres d’AEC+ ont commencé par l’organisation de soirées festives, puis très vite, ils ont eu la volonté de répondre aux besoins de nombreux amis malades qui redoutaient de se rendre dans les centres de santé. Interview... L’homosexualité est-elle réprimée en Côte-d'Ivoire ? Non, la loi est muette sur l’homosexualité, mais ce vide juridique est ouvert à toutes les interprétations, surtout de la part des forces de l’ordre... Ta famille est donc au courant ? Est-ce un cas exceptionnel ? Oui, mes parents sont au courant. Ils ont accepté mon ami comme un membre de la famille. À vrai dire, quand ils l’ont appris, ils ont été plus indignés par le fait qu’un proche m’ait trahi que par la nouvelle en elle-même. J’ai de la chance qu’ils aient bien réagi, mais ce n’est pas si rare chez nous en Côte-d’Ivoire. Je dirais que dans un tiers des cas, la famille proche est au courant et l’accepte. Cependant, il demeure encore beaucoup d’incompréhension sur l’homosexualité de la part du grand public. Par exemple, l’idée qu’elle vient des blancs reste assez largement admise...

Ivorian gay community fights for right to life and love: (2006, Alternate Link) The tiny bar in Abidjan's Marcory neighbourhood... But for one young man, who prefers to be known only as Yann, this place serves as a kind of lifeline. 'I can feel completely at ease here,' he says. 'It is one of the only places.' ... Yann came to Abidjan from one of Ivory Coast's smaller cities 14 years ago to study at the university and live his sexuality more freely. 'In the village, there are pressures from family. Society is small. They say being homosexual is against religion, against nature,' he says. 'People are more educated here. In Abidjan, you can be anonymous.' Ivory Coast, unlike some of its more conservative neighbours, has no laws banning homosexuality. The country even boasts a gay and lesbian association, Arc-en-Ciel Plus, that has gained official recognition from the interior ministry. - L'homosexualite: Expression de la liberté, ou fléau social? (2004, Translation)

Interview - Après le rejet de leur demande de récépissé par le ministre Dja Blé (2006, Translation). Issouf Diomandé, porte- parole de l’Association des homosexuels de Côte d’Ivoire: « Nous avons le droit de nous associer comme tout citoyen ». Je viens au nom de l’Association ivoirienne des lesbiennes, gays, bisexuels et transexuels, ( AIL ), pour dénoncer le refus du ministre de l’Intérieur de nous autoriser à former une association, au motif que notre sexualité est contraire aux bonnes mœurs. Nous sommes des citoyens ivoiriens comme les autres, nous ne comprenons pas les raisons de ce refus, nous nous élevons contre cette forme d’exclusion. - Pour l'acceptation des différences sexuelles en côte d'ivoire (2003, Translation).

Lino Versace (2007, Translation): " Je Suis Homosexuel " - La Jet Set, Fally Ipupa, Douk Saga et Plus .... Si on dit que je suis un homosexuel. Moi, je suis fier d’être homosexuel. Pourquoi pas ? Aujourd’hui on est dans un monde où tout est possible. On est au XXe siècle où chacun vit sa vie. Je suis homosexuel. Je suis fier de l’être. Oui, je sors avec un garçon. Et puis quoi ? Ce n’est pas la fin du monde. - Rapport: Les droits sexuels en Côte d’Ivoire (2009, Translation).

Jimmy Leon Interviews Carlos (2005, Alternate Link): Carlos Idibouo. works as the association chairman of"Arc-en-Ciel" (Rainbow in English). Arc-en-Ciel is Ivory Coast's first association dealing with sexually transmisble diseases (STD) such as HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis. They also fight against homophobia in the country... Personally, I've been living openly my homosexuality because I've been able to get myself through in Abidjan  society. I do not have serious problems with my parents because we clearly discussed once thereabout and they were very comprehensive to me - but my situation is not so usual for most homosexuals who are persecuted by parents, friends and workmates. I've to say, I'm mostly very satisfied with my life, excepting my professionnal career that's not so solid... Homosexuals discrimination happens in every part of social life. But these are the police forces who are the first and hardest discriminators in assaulting homosexuals. They also excercise sexual abuses on travesties. For homosexuals living in such circumstances, this discriminations have demolishing consequences on psychological life. Many homosexuals are keeping themselves hidden from society in getthoising together and having unprotected sex with each other... - Côte d'Ivoire: Situation of homosexuals, particularly their treatment by government authorities and the general public (September 2005).

A l’occasion de la Gay Pride, la chaîne de toutes les cultures a prévu une soirée thématique, "Le Monde selon Gay", consacrée aux homos. Au programme, "Woobi Chérie" (Translation), le génial documentaire sur les gays ivoiriens réalisé par Christophe Brooks et Laurent Bocahut. - Woubi Chéri: the first film to give African homosexuals a chance to describe their world in their own words. Often funny, sometimes ribald, but always real, this documentary introduces us to gender pioneers demanding their right to construct a distinct African homosexuality...  The film introduces us to a cross-section of Abidjan's woubi community. Vincent, an immigrant from Burkina Faso, is a traditional griot and sage. Laurent defied his father's wishes that he become an auto mechanic to open a patisserie in Abidjan. Bibiche and Tatiana are cross-dressing prostitutes. Barbara, a glamorous more mature transvestite, is the leader of the tight-knit group and President of the Ivory Coast Transvestites Association. Laurent recalls this community was like a new family. "Your real family was the one you created. Nobody had to hide anything."... - Woubi Cheri: the first film to give African homosexuals a chance to describe their world in their own words. Often funny, sometimes ribald, but always real, this documentary introduces us to gender pioneers demanding their right to construct a distinct African homosexuality. One needs a new language to create a new world; therefore this film begins with a vocabulary lesson. The main characters explain for us that a woubi is a male who chooses to play the role of "wife" in a relationship with another man. A yossi, is a bisexual man, perhaps married, who accepts the role of a woubi's husband. A toussou bakari is a lesbian. Controus are homophobes who oppose the woubia lifestyle... - Homo d’Afrique / Homo Africains en France : le film et le débat (En attendant le festival Chéri-Chéries...) (2009, Translation).

Shadows and eye shadow: Abidjan, Ivory Coast...  am about to give up, when I notice two figures in skirts sitting on a concrete block a few yards away. I am not certain they are what I am looking for, but one of them has made an encouraging noise and I reckon that no respectable Ivoirienne would sit in semi-darkness and call to strangers. I walk over. “Bon soir, les filles,” I say, respecting the wigs and stuffed bosoms and ignoring the masculine arms and faces...As we talk, they are pulling on and adjusting clothes, wigs, make-up. A transformation is taking place in these shadows that I can barely see. What clients do they get, I ask. Both Ivoiriens and foreigners, some white, mostly African. And do the girls protect themselves? Of course, they always use a capote. The worst customers are Nigerians, although whether this is because they are most demanding, refuse to use condoms or are poor payers is not clear. As everywhere else in the world, the price of the service depends on how much the customer is willing to pay. Tina always asks for at least 10,000; sometimes she asks that amount and is rewarded with 20,000 or 30,000...

Intervention by Martine Ago, Ivory Coast (2007): The United Nations General Assembly High-Level Meeting on HIV/AIDS:  am Martine Ago, representative of sex professionals, from the Ivory Coast... I am a peer educator and president of a group of HIV-positive sex workers, called Blety. We work with Clinique de Confiance, which is dedicated solely to male, female and transgender sex workers, and which offers prevention services, testing for sexually transmitted infections and HIV, as well as ARV treatment...

MSM law in francophone Africa and the fight against AIDS: the hypocrisy of certain countries (2010 Abstract. PDF Download): Hypocritically, some countries have pledged to fight discrimination while continuing to support legislation  that criminalizes homosexuality. Drawing on the testimony of local MSM organizations, this analysis of criminal legislation concerning MSM and priorities related to MSM in four francophone sub-Saharan African countries (Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal) seeks to show the disconnect of government health strategies directed toward MSM incountries where homosexuality isillegal. The aim is to help develop an strategy that highlights the of criminal laws against homosexuality and to fight more effectively against them, especially in countries that receive foreign aid. We will also consider the relationship between religion, homosexuality and criminalization, since these appear to be key factors in understanding the policies of countries that criminalize homosexuality.

Libéralisme et vécus sexuels a Abidjan (Translation), par Marc LE PAPE et Claudine Vidal, Cahiers internationaux de Sociologie, vol. LXXVI, 1984.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Ivory Coast Information. Ivory Coast Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Ivory Coast. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Ivory Coast News Reports from 1998 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Ivory Coast. - LGBT rights in Côte d'Ivoire. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Ivory Coast Individual Documents. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Côte d'Ivoire

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

SENEGAL / SÉNÉGAL - Fatou Kiné Camara, la femme qui demande la légalisation de l'homosexualité au Sénégal (2010, Translation) (Alternate Link, Translation). - Homosexualité au Sénégal: Homosexualité : Le Sénégal face au dilemme de la dépénalisation (2009, Translation).- Sénégal : les homosexuels traqués (2008, Translation): Plusieurs personnes ont été entendues, lundi, par la police sénégalaise après que des menaces de morts ont été proférées contre Mansour Dieng, le directeur de publication du magazine people « Icône ». Lors d’un précédent numéro, le journal avait dénoncé la pratique de l’homosexualité. - Sénégal: "Homophobie et manipulation politique de l’Islam" (2008, Translation).- Sénégal : libération des 24 hommes interpellés pour « activités homosexuelles » (2009, Translation): La police sénégalaise a relâché, vendredi, les 24 personnes dont deux Français, arrêtées pour « activités homosexuelles » après une descente dans une villa privée de Saly Niax-Niaxal (80 km au sud de Dakar), a appris AfriSCOOP de sources policières dans la capitale sénégalaise. Une enquête est, cependant, ouverte par la justice.  - Dossier Vidéo : L'homosexualité au Sénégal (2009). - Dakar from Africa’s gay capital to centre of homophobia: Senegalese gay couple Baba and Baidy had to flee the country after a local newspaper printed their photo (2010, Alternate Link). - Senegal's Gay Men Suffer Violence  (2010, Audio).

A mort les gays! (2010, Translation): Craindre pour sa vie, violence contre les hommes gays ou perçus comme tels au Sénégal. C’est le titre d’un rapport de Human Rigths Watch présenté de façon restreinte du 30 novembre au 4 décembre 2010 à quelques organisations non gouvernementales œuvrant dans la réponse au VIH SIDA et la défense des droits humains. (2010).- Gay Men's Bodies Desecrated In Senegal (2010): Even death cannot stop the violence against gays in this corner of the world any more. Madieye Diallo's body had only been in the ground for a few hours when the mob descended on the weedy cemetery with shovels. They yanked out the corpse, spit on its torso, dragged it away and dumped it in front of the home of his elderly parents. - Activists Criticize Senegal for Anti-Gay Persecution (2010). - Anti-Gay Violence on the Rise in Senegal, Rights Group Says (2010). - Dakar, Senegal: Gay Capital Becomes Repression Capital  (2010). - Anti-Gay Violence in Senegal and Throughout Africa (2010). - The once happily pro-gay atmosphere of Senegal.... Homophobia came with colonialism (2010). - Homosexualité à Dakar : la peur d’être découvert (2009, Translation): D. est sénégalais, musulman et homosexuel. Entre la crainte d’être lynché par la population et celle d’être interpellé par la police, quand on est gay à Dakar, mieux vaut se faire oublier.

Homosexualité au féminin: dans l'intimité des lesbiennes (2011, Translation): Aujourd'hui, les pratiques lesbiennes atteignent des proportions insoupçonnées dans la société sénégalaise en pleine mutation. Ce phénomène est devenu monnaie courante dans des milieux jusque là non atteints. Même, certaines femmes mariées n'y échappent pas. Elles s'adonnent à cette pratique durant les séances de retrouvailles périodiques qu'elles organisent dans des milieux clos. Même le monde estudiantin voire professionnel est touché de pleins fouets par ce phénomène passé sous silence. La nommée Fanta B. Samaké est responsable dans un magasin qui vend des produits cosmétiques américains au Sénégal. Divorcée, mère de deux enfants, elle est lesbienne. Elle se laisse aller à des confidences « Je le suis devenue depuis le collège. A l'époque, j'étais dans un établissement exclusivement réservé aux jeunes filles. Je faisais également partie d'une équipe de basketteuses..

Shock at Senegal gay jail terms (2009) - Senegal gay convictions quashed (2009). - Neuf homosexuels sénégalais condamnés à huit ans de prison par un tribunal de Dakar  (2009, Translation): Neuf hommes sénégalais ont été arretés le 19 décembre 2008, à Mbao, une ville située dans la banlieue de Dakar. La police a fait une rafle dans l'habitation du président de AIDES Sénégal, une organisation de prévention du VIH auprès des hommes ayant des relations sexuelles avec d'autres hommes. Le 7 janvier 2009, ils ont été condamnés à huit ans de prison par le tribunal de Dakar pour homosexualité. Il s'agit de la plus lourde peine jamais infligée au Sénégal contre des homosexuels. - Sénégal : des gays, militants de la lutte contre le sida, condamnés (2009, Translation): Condamnés à 8 ans de prison pour "homosexualité" le 6 janvier, neuf Sénégalais, dont certains sont des militants de la lutte contre le sida dans leur pays, ont décidé de faire appel du jugement. Cette condamnation, la plus lourde peine jamais infligée au Sénégal contre des homosexuels, mobilise les associations des droits de l'Homme et de lutte contre le sida. Retour sur cette affaire.

Dépénaliser l’homosexualité au Sénégal est une insulte monumentale au peuple ! (2011, Translation) (Alternate Link, Translation). - Sénégal: la torture pour obtenir les «aveux» des gays présumés (2010), Translation). - Gays under threat in Senegal (2009): Senegal — A mob gathered near a mosque outside Dakar. They were there to hunt down and kill nine men accused of homosexual acts. Earlier this week the nine Senegalese AIDS activists were freed from eight-year-prison terms for alleged homosexual acts, but they went into hiding because of death threats from Muslim religious leaders and the general population. “The homosexuals will not escape lynching. They will be fish food,” Dakar newspaper L'Observateur quoted a local youth leader as saying. “Gay men will never be free in Senegal. They expose us all to danger,” said Imam Mbaye Niang, a prominent religious leader and member of parliament. “The judges should understand that Senegalese people need to protect their children, their families from homosexuality.”

The Seeking Asylum Project collects the stories of LGBT Africans who left their home countries to seek asylum or refuge due to persecution because of sexual orientation or gender identity (2007, Audio):  “The president in Gambia said, ‘I know the gay is in my country. I give them 24hours to leave’. He said he would slaughter us like lamb.” Pape Mbaye talks about being outed in the Senegalese newspapers and the countrywide manhunt that ensued. Pape Mbaye is a popular singer from Senegal. In 2007, he was outed by a gossip magazine in Dakar, Senegal. He currently has refugee status in the United States. He lives and performs in New York City. - Persecuted in Africa, Finding Refuge in New York (2008).

Le mal de vivre des lesbiennes noires N/A. (Alternate Link) (Translation) (Alternate Link) (Translation). - Confidences d’un homosexuel de Saly Portudal: « Mon copain que je partage avec sa femme » (2006, Translation). - En prison, on devient facilement un homosexuel: La face cachée de la prison de Rebeuss (2006, Translation). - Dossier homosexualite au Senegal et en Afrique (2004, Translation): - Regroupement des homosexuels : Le refus de la marginalisation (2004, Translation). - Témoignage d’Eléonore : «Je suis bien dans ma peau» (2004, Translation) - Dispositions juridiques au Sénégal: Parlez plutôt d’acte impudique ou contre nature! (2004, Translation). - El Hadj Abdoulaye Niang, sociologue : «L’homosexualité se définit avant l’adolescence» (2004, Translation). - La plaidoirie d’Amnesty international (2004, Translation). - Islam et Homosexualité : A l’origine, était Sodome  (2004, Translation). - Etre homosexuel en Afrique: Behind the Mask, l’adresse des gays et lesbiennes du continent (2004, Translation, Alternate Link) (Translation).

De retour du Sénégal, un internaute nous a alerté (2005, Translation): « Que faire pour alerter les gens au sujet de ce qui se passe au Sénégal ? » c'est la phrase qui est revenue constamment au cours de l'appel que nous avons reçu d'un internaute, profondément choqué par la situation de ce pays. Plus que jamais, le mal-être d'un gay ou séropositif au Sénégal est intolérable, tant le climat d'Homophobie et donc d'insécurité y est grand... Pire : Pour des raisons légales ou religieuses, de nombreux médecins refusent de soigner ces malades. En outre l'implication dans la lutte contre le Sida constitue une sérieuse prise de risques : Serigne, un homosexuel de 27 ans, qui tient à son anonymat, a fait ainsi l'objet de plusieurs attaques en pleine rue. «Ils ont commencé à me battre, ils m'ont jeté au sol et m'ont donné des coups de pied. Ils m'ont blessé au bras et au visage et m'ont averti que si je n'arrêtais pas de défendre la cause gay, ils finiraient par me tuer» a-t-il raconté en larmes. - Hidden Homosexuality in Senegal Presents Challenge to HIV Prevention (2007, Alternate Link): Across Africa, HIV infection is significantly higher in some groups. In Senegal, homosexual men are 10 times more likely to be HIV positive than the rest of the population. - Men who have sex with men (MSM) and factors associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse with a man and with a woman in Senegal (2010). - Les confidences d'un homosexuel sénégalais à un journal canadien (2010, Translation).

Circumcision message could confuse gay community: (2007. Alternate Link) The HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Senegal is an estimated 21.5 percent, according to the French Institute for Applied Medicine and Epidemiology (IMEA), compared to a national average of 0.7 percent. AIDS campaigners worry that the preliminary data on male circumcision could lead to reckless sex and an even higher HIV prevalence. Circumcision is almost universal among Senegalese men... - La communauté gay réservée sur la circoncision (Translation). (Alternate Link) (Translation) - Homo hysteria: Senegalese media in an uproar over a heterosexual delegate to the Outgames conference: Two weeks ago, Cheikh Doudou Mbaye began experiencing the unfortunate repercussions of his recent visit to Montreal. The Senegalese man, who participated in the Outgames’ International Conference on LGBT Human Rights at the end of July, where he led a workshop about discrimination against homosexuals in the Senegalese workplace, is an HIV-specialist social worker assisting the Senegalese gay community. After the conference, Mbaye headed back to Dakar, Senegal’s capital, and an unforeseen media circus...

Senegal's gay community confronts social taboos (2005). - Gay community plays it quietly in face of social taboos. (Alternate Link). - Senegalese Debate S. Africa's Same-Sex Marriage Bill (2006): In Senegal, almost everyone identifies with a faith that forbids same sex relationships. It is no surprise, then, that public Senegalese response to South Africa's same sex marriage bill is almost uniformly negative. But a number of private conversations reveal a more nuanced reaction... In Senegal, it was only six years ago when a local university conducted the first large scale study of male homosexuals. Gary Engelberg, co-director of ACI Consultants, an American NGO based in Dakar, participated in the study's working group. "Senegal woke up to the fact that there is, in fact, a gay community operating in Senegal on a mostly hidden and clandestine basis because of fear of reprisal in a basically homophobic, very religious society," he noted.

Transnational Senegalese cinema between natioalism andglobalisation: the case of Karmen: The main female role was played by a Senegalese actress, Djeïnaba Diop Gaï, and her female lover Angelique was interpreted by the Canadian Stephanie Biddle. The film was shot in Dakar ... However, these were not the reasons to demand censorship for the film. It was even more serious to present the poem of the national and religious hero Ahmadou Bamba in the context of a lesbian relationship. As a consequence of the protest, the film’s screening was restrained, and banned temporarily in the whole country for the sake of "public order". The ban turned out to be permanent, and Karmen has not been publicly screened in Senegal since September 2001. Domestic films have often been targeted by Senegalese film censorship, but Karmen was the first film banned due to the demands of a religious pressure group and not because of the authorities’ decision. This turned the film into front-page news and raised a public debate regarding respect for religion and freedom of expression in Senegal.

Meeting the Sexual Health Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Senegal (2002, PDF, French PDF, Related Link): "MSM have distinct identities and social roles that go beyond sexual practices. Broadly defined, Ibbis are more likely to adopt feminine mannerisms and be less dominant in sexual interactions. While society may formally reject homosexuality, this does not prevent Ibbis from occupying positions of high regard in certain circles. For example, Ibbis often have close relationships with women who have political or economic power for whom they carry out important social ceremonies and functions. In several neighborhoods, Ibbis enjoy the protection of the entire community. Yoos are generally the insertive partner during sex and do not consider themselves to be homosexuals. Beyond these broad categories, there are additional subcategories based on age, status, and type of relationship. However, identification with a particular group is not a good predictor of an individual’s sexual practices. The first sexual experience often occurs with an adult during adolescence... The lives of many MSM are characterized by violence and rejection. Forty-three percent of MSM had been raped at least once outside the family home, and 37 percent said they had been forced to have sex in the last 12 months. Thirteen percent reported being raped by a policeman. Nearly half of the 250 men surveyed had experienced verbal abuse (including insults and threats) from their family (Table 1). Many also reported physical abuse.. The vast majority of MSM have had sex with women..." - Résumé de la recherche: Satisfaire les besoins de santé des hommes qui ont des rapports sexuels avec d’autres hommes au Sénégal N/A.

Surprising Senegal: France meets Africa in this land of music and mysticism: (2004, Alternate Link) Senegal is one of the most tolerant Muslim societies on earth, with wide religious freedoms, a taste for sexy fashions, and even legal prostitution. But when Senegal's first gay organization, Groupe Andligeey (the latter word translates as "walking together"), tried to arrange a meeting of some of its 400 members in 2001 at a Dakar hotel, the nation's Interior Ministry immediately moved to thwart the gathering "so that such a demonstration is not organized on national territory," the ministry said in a statement. When I talked to the soft-spoken president of Andligeey (who didn't want his name published), he told me about a law that makes homosexuality illegal in Senegal, even though gay sex is very common for married men. "As long as Andligeey sticks to AIDS education, we stay out of trouble." ... Although it may not seem like a gay mecca today, Dakar has quite the homo history. In the 1930s French anthropologists observed among the Wolof tribe "men-women" called gor-digen, who "do their best to deserve the epithet by their mannerisms, their dress and their makeup; some even dress their hair like women. They do not suffer in any way socially, though the Mohammedans refuse them religious burial." (The word gor-digen is still widely used today to mean gay men in Senegal.) ...

Activités homosexuelles Un Français de 70 ans s’accouplait avec deux jeunes Sénégalais dont un mineur (2007, Translation): La consternation et l’étonnement étaient les sentiments les mieux partagés hier au tribunal des flagrants délits de Dakar. Un Français de 70 ans, Lucien Antoine Tauzin et deux jeunes hommes, dont un mineur, comparaissaient pour avoir entretenu entre eux des rapports homosexuels. Le Français qui est au centre de l’affaire, puisque c’est dans son domicile que les faits se sont déroulés, a été condamné à 2 ans ferme. Tandis que les deux autres ont écopé d’une peine plus clémente, 1 an pour le premier et 6 mois pour le mineur...

Les pratiques homosexuelles en afrique: Le scandale du déni (Translation): Ca aurait dû faire l'effet d'une bombe. En décembre 2005, une étude publiée dans la revue AIDS annonce que sur une cohorte sénégalaise de 453 hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec des hommes (HSH), 21,5 % sont infectés par le VIH, pour une prévalence nationale de 1,5 %. Il aura fallu 25 ans de sida pour obtenir cette donnée épidémiologique dramatique sur la vulnérabilité des HSH au VIH/sida dans un pays d'Afrique subsaharienne ! Cette absence de statistiques reflète avant tout le rejet complet dont les HSH sont victimes... Selon l'enquête sénégalaise précitée, viols, agressions verbales et physiques sont le lot de beaucoup des HSH interrogés : 43 % d'entre eux ont été violés au moins une fois en dehors du foyer familial et 13 % l'ont été par des policiers. « La violence provient aussi de la famille – ajoute Thomas Lax. Les personnes qui sont soupçonnées d'avoir des pratiques homosexuelles sont battues et généralement rejetées. » ... « Du fait des violences familiales, beaucoup de jeunes sont rejetés. Et s'ils viennent de familles pauvres, ils ne sont souvent pas outillés pour trouver du travail légal, les discriminations au niveau professionnel étant elles aussi nombreuses », poursuit Thomas Lax à propos du Sénégal. Cette vulnérabilité économique oblige un certain nombre de HSH à pratiquer le commerce du sexe, tant au Sénégal qu'au Burkina Faso et en Gambie....

Pour une lecture revue et corrigée de l'homosexualité dans la pensée doxique africaine : Impacts, dérapages et risques (2006, PDF Download): Résumé: Du point de vue de la théorie constructiviste qui sert ici de cadre de référence, le comportement sexuel est perçu comme étant nécessairement labile et fluide, au gré de l’histoire de chaque individu et des cultures (Dorais, 1994). Dans cette perspective elle s’inscrit en faux contre la vision essentialiste et déterministe d’inspiration biomédicale qui ne perçoit le comportement homosexuel que pour « normaliser » et couvrir d’un vernis de supériorité morale l’hétérosexualité. Tout se passe dans le discours homophobique Africain comme si l’enfer c’est les homosexuels et que le seul fait d’être hétérosexuel est une garantie de probité morale. Dans cette logique doxique généralisée au Cameroun, l’on postule très vite, un peu trop vite que les compétences et les incompétences des individus sont essentiellement fonction de leur comportement sexuel et partant, que si tout va mal dans la société cela est imputable à l’invasion homosexuelle. De tels discours entretenus, quand on sait ce que parler veut dire, ne peuvent qu’être à l’origine de nombreux dérapages symboliques et physiques sur le plan humain et social. Le constructivisme se refuse de participer à la marginalisation et à la stigmatisation de l’homosexualité et questionnera l’homophobie pour que l’homosexualité dans les représentations s’inscrivent pour ce qu’elle est : une orientation sexuelle parmi tant d’autres dans le champ des sexualités humaines, et non plus seulement ce que l’on s’imagine qu’elle serait. 

L'homosexualité dans les représentations sociales camerounaises: esquisse d'une anthropologie à partir des Beti.(PDF Download. Download Page): Résumé: Cet article tente de réfléchir sur la productivité des comportements « anti-homosexuels » en prenant appui sur les représentations et imaginaires de la sexualité entre personnes de même sexe au Cameroun. A partir de la perspective des Béti du Cameroun (un des principaux groupe ethnique du pays), il s’agit d’esquisser une anthropologie de l’homosexualité dans cet espace particulier. Cela, en prenant soin de déconstruire toute la stigmatisation qui entoure cette pratique sociosexuelle. Le recours au mythe, au fantasmagorique fait émerger toutes les représentations qui entourent cette réalité ainsi que la genèse de la culture de prohibition qui la travaille au quotidien. Cette lecture est importante. Elle nous permet de répondre à quelques questions pertinentes : qu’est-ce que l’homosexualité dans les représentations sociales au Cameroun ? Quelle est la matrice de ces imaginaires ? Comment ces derniers se reconstruisent-ils en temps de crise ? -

It était une fois ... l'homosexualité contée aux journalistes camerounais (PDF Download. Download Page): Dès le début du mois de février 2006 le paysage médiatique camerounais s’est vue marquée par des faits jusqu’alors inédits : la publication par une certaine presse de la liste d’un top 50 des homosexuels, par ailleurs personnalités influentes du pays. Les ‘journalistes’, pour certains, s’y sont livrés à coeur joie, croisant l’encre à coup d’injures, de quolibets et d’affirmations ignorantes sur les acteurs présumés homosexuels indexés et sur une réalité qu’ils ont vite associé à l’homosexualité. Toute cette jouxte scripturale n’avait d’égale que la surdimension de l’obscurantisme qu’ils brandissaient tel un bouclier, cachant mal la nuit sombre obscure de leur ignorance morbide d’une réalité sociosexuelle dont ils n’avaient aucune maîtrise, aucune autorité, à moins de se l’approprier par les moyens et techniques de la connaissance. Le journalisme du sensationnel a fait place à la nécessité de l’information. Vive la bêtise ! Voilà pour le début de l’histoire... - Ce que parler veut dire : essai d'analyse de contenu de 10 rumeurs circulant dans les milieux gais au Cameroun (Translation).

Gays in Senegal Fight To Be Included in Anti-AIDS Campaigns (2005). - Senegal's gays fight for AIDS campaign funds. - Evidence for increasing of HIV infection in a prisoners population, Senegal (1998). - Lutte contre le sida : les homosexuels, des malades comme les autres (2003). - Senegal gays seek HIV prevention grant (2005). - Gays in Senegal Fight To Be Included in Anti-AIDS Campaigns (2006, Alternate Link). - HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Senegal (2005). - Antigay Taboos Threaten Senegal's Successful AIDS-Prevention Campaign (2005). - HIV-positive gays face double stigma (2006, Alternate Link).

Homosexualité et bisexualité au Sénégal : une réalité multiforme (2009, Translation): Abstract: The first surveys on men who have sex with men (MSM) carried out in Senegal in the context of the fight against AIDS, revealed high rates of bisexuality. In 2007, a new epidemiological and behavioural survey (ELIHoS) approached the question of bisexual practices in greater depth. That survey is used here to depict the plurality of forms that bisexuality may take in Senegal. A six-group typology of current modes of sexual activity was constructed based on the characteristics of sexual partners over the past year and at the time of the survey. Various factors in the respondents’ social and sexual life event histories were then analysed according to their current mode of sexual activity. It showed that these modes correspond to different sexual practices and characteristics of first sexual intercourse with a man. However, the systematic use of a condom for similar sexual practices did not depend on the mode of sexual activity. Fewer men who engaged in regular intercourse with women and only occasionally with men were infected with HIV because they less frequently engaged in high-risk anal intercourse.

Same-Sex Sexuality in Africa: A Case Study from Senegal: Furthermore, this flexibility indicates a greater variety of sexual behaviors than the extensive prior work on heterosexual transmission of HIV suggests. Secrecy is a key to understanding the variation; much diversity is not obvious because it is kept from public scrutiny. Long-term ethnographic investigations of sexual identities and behavior are invaluable to discovering and interpreting this diversity in African societies. - Gay Community Plays It Quietly in Face of Social Taboos. - Senegal's gay community confronts social taboos. - Surprising Senegal.

Larmarange J, et al (2009). Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Senegal: A Multiform Reality. Population, 64: 635-666. Full Text.  [The authors] present the results of a new survey carried out in 2007 on 501 men aged 18 years and over, both married or single, but with experience of sexual relations with other men. Using a detailed description of the many types of bisexuality in Senegal, the authors identifed six major "modes of sexual activity" based on the characteristics of the respondents' sexual partners during the preceding year and at the time of the survey. This typology demonstrates the diversity and complexity of behaviours in terms of age at first sexual intercourse, sex of the first partner, number of partners and type of sexual practice. The differences in HIV prevalence and exposure to violence between the various modes of sexual activity open up new scope for preventive action...

MSM law in francophone Africa and the fight against AIDS: the hypocrisy of certain countries (2010 Abstract. PDF Download): Hypocritically, some countries have pledged to fight discrimination while continuing to support legislation  that criminalizes homosexuality. Drawing on the testimony of local MSM organizations, this analysis of criminal legislation concerning MSM and priorities related to MSM in four francophone sub-Saharan African countries (Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal) seeks to show the disconnect of government health strategies directed toward MSM incountries where homosexuality isillegal. The aim is to help develop an strategy that highlights the of criminal laws against homosexuality and to fight more effectively against them, especially in countries that receive foreign aid. We will also consider the relationship between religion, homosexuality and criminalization, since these appear to be key factors in understanding the policies of countries that criminalize homosexuality.

Broqua C (2004). Vulnérabilité des hommes ayant des pratiques homosexuelles à Dakar. Transcriptase, 117. Full Text. Translation. C’est que ses résultats permettent à tout le moins de mesurer les besoins des hommes ayant des pratiques homosexuelles, tant du point de vue des enjeux de santé (publique) que des situations d’exclusion. Sur le premier aspect, il s’avère urgent de conduire des actions qui incitent à la fois aux comportements préventifs et à la prise en charge médicale. Mais les résultats de l’enquête suggèrent aussi que si l’on veut satisfaire pleinement aux besoins de santé, il convient en même temps de s’assurer que soient dissipés tous risques de discrimination. Sur ce point, dans la plupart des pays d’Afrique, la route promet d’être longue.

Sappe, Robin (2003). Le SIDA et les rapports sexuels entre hommes en Afrique Noire. Observatoire socio-épidémiologique du Sida et des Sexualités. Facultés Universitaires Saint-Louis. Bruxelles. PDF Download. Translation.  Synthèse de la littérature scientifique. - État des lieux et pistes de réflexion pour un accès égal à la prévention du Sida et aux soins des Hommes ayant des relations Sexuelles avec des Hommes/ -Rapport de Mission exploratoire, Sénégal - Printemps 2002.

Male to Male sex in Senegal: Issues and Priorities (PDF Download): Conference presentation.

ScotMUN 2011: Human Rights Council: Position Papers: The Rights to Asylum for Homosexuals: Senegal: Thus Senegal recognises the importance of asylum for political purposes. However, the question of granting asylum for homosexuals is a sensitive one since homosexuality has been illegal in Senegal since 1965.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Sénégal. Senegal Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Sénégal. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - LGBT Senegalese Speak Out (2009, Videos). - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Senegal Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Senegal News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Sénégal. - LGBT rights in Sénégal. - Sodomy Laws: Senegal. - Senegal News Hub

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Senegal

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

EGYPT / EGYPTE - The curious case of Egypt’s first gay magazine (2012): The closing down of an online magazine catering for the gay community in Egypt, believed to be first of its kind, has stirred concerns from rights activists about the status of homosexuals in the country. Ehna, which translates from Arabic to “us,” halted its online circulation earlier this year in hushed circumstances, with an abrupt statement, after launching its first issue. On the magazine’s Facebook page, once abundant with empowering slogans, links and screenshots from the magazine’s web pages, a lone message posted on May 27, reads: “We have been forced to shut down the online magazine due to security reasons. We apologize for the inconvenience and thank you for your patience.” ... The magazine’s online, mainly social media, presence remains masked in ambiguity since May 27: Ehna’s creators are anonymous and appear to be isolated from homosexual rights organizations in the country. - Egyptian Gay Rights Magazine 'Ehna' Goes Dark After Single Issue (2012, Issue Download). - Egypt bans gay film from festival (2012): Censors of the Cairo International Film Festival have banned a gay themed film from being screened in this year's festival... ‘In regards to homosexuality, I can see no hope under the current government or any kind of improvement. Quite the opposite, I fear that they may legislate against, and continue to persecute LGBT people (like during the Mubarak years).’

LGBT rights window closing in Egypt (2012):  Long before Tahrir Square captured the imagination of the world as the stage for Egypt’s revolution, it was an infamous, clandestine meeting place for gay Cairenes. Gay men could be seen in Tahrir cruising with knowing glances as they leaned against the guardrails, Cairo’s traffic swirling around them. They were hidden in plain sight. In many ways, the huge demonstrations of early 2011 that took place in Tahrir Square and led to the toppling of President Hosni Mubarak inspired Egypt’s gay community to join the call for a new, more democratic nation. But now more than a year into the revolution, Egypt’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community has stepped back out of the public eye and retreated into the shadows once again... - Egypt’s new president: Slim pickings for gays in the final election race (2012): GSN asks LGBT Egyptians who they will choose in the second-round presidential vote and finds neither candidate appeals. - Egypt’s fading LGBT movement (2012): As Islamists gain power, the gay community's hopes for a more open post-revolutionary society are being crushed.

Lesbian Life in Egypt (2012): In January, almost a year to the day after the Egyptian revolution began, Busk received a message from Nasreen* in Cairo. She wanted to know if there was a way to pay for films with total anonymity, anxious that any card transaction could be traced back to her... In Egypt, homosexuality is not in itself illegal. However, many LGBT individuals and groups are targeted under laws based on euphemistic terminology, such as those that outlaw “debauchery” and “public immorality”. Following the uprisings of the past 14 months, which led to the resignation of dictatorial leader Hosni Mubarak, there are signs that Egyptians are embracing a more democratic regime. The ruling military council has promised to turn over power to civilians by the end of June 2012. Yet, so far it seems unlikely that this will have any significant affect on LGBT rights in the country. The issue was omitted from a provisional Constitution endorsed by voters last year, while UN pressure to condemn homophobic discrimination has been staunchly resisted. We asked Nasreen if she would be willing to offer us some personal insight to her life in Cairo. This is her reply: As a lesbian living in Egypt, I have to keep everything under wraps. Nobody should know anything about my sexual orientation or else I will get into trouble. People don’t look so good at people who are homosexuals, due to religious reasons...

Egyptian diplomat suggests gays are ‘not real people’ (2012): Egypt’s chief diplomatic representative to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva declared last week at a meeting about the universal right to association that gays do not warrant protections and are considered not to be “real people” in the Middle East... - Egypt: Leader of “gay sex network” arrested by police (2012): Police reportedly raided beach huts in el-Arish in order to find and arrest the man, but further details and the charges he could face were not given. Being gay is not illegal in Egypt, but there have been reports of other laws being used to imprison gay men... - Freedom to Love in Egypt: One year on from the start of the Egyptian revolution, Manoj Dias-Abey talks to a gay activist about his involvement in the protests and the prospects for sexual freedom in Egypt. I met Hassan on Grindr when I was travelling around North Africa late last year. Egypt has a chequered and complicated past when it comes to the persecution of the LGBTI community. Homosexuality is not an offence per se but practicing gay men are subjected to state-sanctioned harassment and have been periodically prosecuted for a range of related offences, including debauchery and contempt of religion. This makes online forums and social media tools such as Grindr essential devices for gay men to meet each other and form the semblances of a community...

A  [Gay] Voice From Cairo (2012): “Many of my gay friends and I were a part of the demonstrations,” he told me, “but we absolutely never identified ourselves as gay people. Things feel different for me as an Egyptian, but not necessarily as a gay man. This revolution is still in its political phase, not a social phase. I don’t believe that people who identify themselves as gay will have an opportunity to be a part of our new government. It’s upsetting.” Yet, amidst this disappointment, Adam evinced an inner strength; a belief that while certain aspects of cultural shift had not yet arrived, they eventually would, and that he would be a part of it. “With what’s gone on, I’ve decided that I’ll not be that closeted again, that I’ll be almost out. I’ll be proud and fighting for who I am. It could take 10 or 20 years for the Egyptian community to really accept gays, but I don’t care any more about what people say. It’s not a general change yet, but it’s a personal change for me.” “Gays in Egypt have not learned to organize yet, but maybe they can learn from this moment. During the protests I received e-mails and Facebook posts from so many people I’ve met. From Spain, Sweden, Lebanon, Tunisia, and many other countries. And I felt solidarity and support. I felt that I was not alone.” When I told Adam that I thought Passport’s readers would want to offer further support to him and his gay compatriots, he told me that he felt unsafe publishing any contact information that could be tracked to him. “The revolution is not over yet,” he wrote. “We still have a lot to do.”

Gays in Egypt join anti-gov’t protests (2011). - For Egypt’s gays, sexual harassment is an untold problem (2011) - Gay community in Egypt calls for change (2011). - Being Gay in Egypt: ‘Some of my best friends do not know me’ (2011). - Elton John, 'A Gay,' Faces Egypt Ban (2010). - Elton John Banned in Egypt for Pro-Gay, Anti-Religion Remarks? (2010). - Egypt Imprisons Gay Men For "Debauchery" (2008). - Gay in Egypt – the plight of acceptance (2010). - Gay community in Egypt calls for change (2011).

Gay and Muslim in Egypt (2008, Radio Netherlands): "I'm gay and I'm Muslim," says 28-year-old Mazen, an Egyptian who had to flee his country because of his homosexuality. "I'm a creation of God and He chose to make me homosexual." Homosexuality is not specifically prohibited in Egypt, but gays are regularly arrested and charged with ‘debauchery' or ‘offences against public morality and sensitivities'. - "In the country of boys": new book on gay life in Egypt sends shockwaves through Egyptian society (2009): A few days ago, the controversial book of Egyptian journalist Mostafa Fathi on the lives and struggles of homosexual men in Cairo hit book stands in the Egyptian capital. Expectedly, Fathi’s novel has created a stir in Egyptian media and among conservative Egyptian society. MENASSAT called up the author in Cairo to speak about his groundbreaking novel.  - Gay in Egypt – the plight of acceptance (2010).- Gay Journalist Miguel Marquez Badly Beaten In Egypt (2011). - The Egyptian Protests and LGBT Rights (2011): Michelangelo Signorile talks with activist and scholar Rasha Moumneh about the protests in Egypt and what they mean for LGBT rights throughout the country.

Why Egypt Is Targeting Gays (2001). - Throwing Gays to the Fundamentalist Wolves (2001). - One Man's Tale (2002): A Gay activist in Egypt describes the nightmare of the government's crackdown on homosexuality. - Egypt gay trial: 23 jailed - November 14, 2001 - Gay Men Convicted in Politically Motivated Trial. -Worldwide protests against Egypt's "gay" trial. - The cost of being gay in Egypt - World Voices Norge (2001). - Egypt's gay society terrified by witch hunt (2001). - Homosexuality on trial in Egypt (2001). - Egypt: Overturn Boy's Conviction for Homosexuality (2001). - Trial shows culture clash on homosexuality (2001). - Moral Panic Grips Egypt. - Gays Guilty in Cairo (2001).

For gay Egyptians, life online is the only choice (2007): Adam Aboul Naga, a twenty-something media professional also raised in the delta, felt the same way the first time he found a gay Egyptian website during his university days... - Egypt's fearful gays shy from HIV testing (2005). - Miss Mabrouk of Egypt: Pepy, the first Egyptian Gay Blogger (2005). - Egypt confronting HIV (2005): Like other Muslim cultures with strictures against promiscuity and drug use, Egyptians have been slow to admit to a problem. - Risky behaviors for HIV/AIDS infection among a sample of homosexuals in Cairo, Egypt (2004). - A glimpse behind the screen (2006): A novel about a gay newspaper editor was a hit in Egypt - but its movie release has caused a stir. - Call to censor 'immoral' Egyptian film (2006): Egyptian MPs are demanding cuts in a popular new film, claiming it defames their country with its gritty portrayal of corrupt politicians, police brutality, terrorism and homosexuality...

UN panel rebukes Egypt's anti-gay trials (2002). - Jailed homosexuals have little sympathy in Egypt (2001). - Egyptian "gays" found not guilty (2002). - 4 Egyptians Suspected as Gay are Acquitted - Arrests Continue (2002). - Egyptian rights group 'cannot protect gays' (2002). - Egypt Uses Web to Bust Gays (2002). - Explaining Egypt's Targeting of Gays (2001). - Egyptian Gays Go Deeper Underground (2002). - Homosexual Prosecutions Overturned: Internet Arrests, Harassments Continue (2003). - Acquittal of eleven men is not enough (2003). - Torture of Egyptian gays turns systematic (2004).

Egypt cracks down on homosexuals (2002): "Homosexuality itself is not technically illegal in Egypt but it is a serious taboo - culturally, socially and now politically. Gay men are vilified by the press and the public... Until last year, the government denied that homosexuality even existed. No one knows why it changed policy and decided to begin its crackdown... The chief government spokesman, Nabil Osman, is not willing to explain or apologise. "What we did was not a breach of human rights," he says. "But actually an interpretation of the norms of our society, the family values of our society. And no one should judge us by their own values. And some of these values in the West are actually in decay." - The Hunt Against Homosexuals Continues (2002). - A Gay activist in Egypt describes the nightmare of the government's crackdown on homosexuality (2002). - The Perils of Postmodernism (1995). - Egyptian Intellectuals: Vicious Killers of Same-Sex Love (2002).

Report: Egypt entraps, tortures gay men (2004): Rights group says hundreds have been affected (2004): "Egyptian authorities have entrapped, arrested and tortured hundreds of men thought to be gay, a New York-based human rights group said in a report Monday. - A new report accuses the Egyptian authorities of systematically entrapping, arresting and torturing homosexual men (2004). - Not just the Queen Boat: HRW is asking the Egyptian government to stop persecuting homosexuals and commit to reform. - 2004 Report (Full Text): In a Time of Torture: The Assault on Justice In Egypt’s Crackdown on Homosexual Conduct.

Hiding themselves in the crowd (1999): "Many girls at Alexandria University have fallen for the charms of 22-year-old Michael, an Egyptian art student with delicate features and green almond-shaped eyes. But he has lost count of the number of times he has refused to go out on dates - and not because he likes playing hard to get. He is just more interested in spending time with his French boyfriend. "I tell the girls straight away that it's not personal and that I am gay," he explains with a shy smile. "They are shocked in the beginning, but then we become friends." Michael started having homosexual intercourse when he was 12 but his first steady relationship happened when he was 16. After it was over, he got depressed and had to be medicated for a year - which was when he told his family about his sexual orientation. "Homosexuality is becoming more apparent in the Egyptian society," says Dr.Josette Abdalla, assistant professor of Psychology at the AmericanUniversity in Cairo (AUC). "This is in part the result of more exposure tomass media, western influences and more access to papers, satellite dishesand TV."..."

Women Who Love Women Who Love Men (1998): Some Egyptian "lesbians" say they're just practising for the real thing... In North America we like our sex the way we like our clothes ­ with labels. Perhaps reducing sexuality to categories makes us feel safe. Maybe we hope that by naming something we can understand it. But can we? What if the picture blurs? Those are the kind of questions which interest education professor Didi Khayatt. She is conducting a six-year study of how "lesbian" desire is expressed in Egypt. "In the West, we've come to believe in the existence of discrete sexual categories, and use them to describe our identities as if they were immutable, and understood and accepted by everyone," says Khayatt. Curiously, Arabic has no words for homosexuality or heterosexuality, although there are words in the language for acts considered to be perversions (such as sodomy or bestiality). "Arabic recognizes same-gender sex for men, but there is no equivalent recognition for women...

Narratives of Lesbian Existence in Egypt: Coming to Terms with Identities (2009): This Bachelor thesis deals with the sexual identity of Egyptian women who love and have relationships with other women. I theoretically study the state of existing literature on homosexuality in the Middle East, and I do this from a gender perspective. By looking closer at four recent books on this topic I derive two main, and contradictory, theories. The first is put forth by Joseph A Massad in his book Desiring Arabs, where he rejects the existence of homosexuality in the Middle East, declaring that same sex acts in this region don’t constitute identities, as in the West. The second theory, best represented in Samar Habib’s work Female homosexuality in the Middle East, sees past and present histories of same sex love as representations of homosexuality. The empirical basis for my analysis is five in-depth interviews with Egyptian women having sexual relationships with women. Examining my material I find a negation of Massad’s theory and a confirmation of Habib’s, the women indeed describe sexual identities.

Gay cultures in Cairo, Egypt. - Gay Egypt - A guide to Egypt's gay scene. - In search of gay Egypt (2002). - Newspaper Report on "Gay Undeground" in Egypt in 1990s. - Activist Fights for Gay Rights in Egypt (2002). - Gay Oppresion in Egypt. - Fear and loathing keep Egypt's gays in the closet (2002). - Officially, homosexuality does not exist in Egypt (2001). - Egypte et homosexualité (Translation). - European Parliament Calls on Egypt to Stop Persecutions (2002).

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Egypt: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Egypt. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

History: - The Tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khanumhotep. - Same Sex Desire, Conjugal Constructs and the Tomb of Ni-ankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep. - History of Sex: Ancient Egypt. - Third Genders in Egypt. - Gay History Articles. - Queer Chronology. - "Born Eunuchs": Homosexual Identity in the Ancient World. - Homosexuality in Ancient Egypt. - A Mystery, Locked in Timeless Embrace

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Egypt). - Unlocking the Arab Celluloid Closet Homosexuality in Egyptian Film. - Egypt Eases Restrictions on on-Screen Sex (1996).

Pratt N (2007). The Queen Boat case in Egypt: sexuality, national security and state sovereignty. Review of International Studies, 33: 129–144.  PDF Download - Abstract. "The government’s targeting of homosexuality in May 2001, following years of ‘turning a blind eye’ to Cairo’s gay scene, is studied here in terms of the links between the sphere of interpersonal relations and notions of national security within international relations. The persecution of men for alleged same-sex relations not only filled newspaper columns and created a spectacle to divert people’s attention away from the government’s failings. More importantly, the event represented an opportunity for government officials, the media and other civil society activists – both within Egypt and abroad – to ‘perform’ a discourse of national security through which national sovereignty was (re)produced and political order was maintained. However, this national security threat was not only posed by the external threat of Western governments, international NGOs and other transnational actors concerned with respect for human rights within Egypt. More importantly, this threat was constructed as originating with those people failing to conform to the ‘norm’ of heterosexual relationships..."

El Menyawi H (2006). Activism from the closet: gay rights strategising in Egypt. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 7.  PDF Download.  PDF Download. Abstract: "Recently the Egyptian Government has been systematically attacking gays by putting them on trial, detaining and torturing them. The author suspects that there are two reasons behind the Government’s attacks of gay men: firstly, as a strategy to divert attention from its failure to address the declining economic situation in Egypt, and secondly, to increase the perception that it takes the Islamic faith seriously. The latter is particularly important to the Egyptian Government as it owes its increasing popularity largely to the Muslim Brotherhood. By attacking gays, the Egyptian State successfully distracted the public’s attention from its woes, while also shoring up the State’s Islamic credentials. The author also considers mistakes made when engaging in gay rights activism before his ultimate exile from Egypt. The author, who used the language of gay identity and of ‘coming out of the closet’ as part of his activism, examines the problems associated with such language. In particular, the author points out that by deploying the language of gay identity, he played into the hands of the Egyptian State, which then successfully appropriated the same language to distract the Egyptian public from its own problems. The author considers the problems with his activism to be his engaging in a ‘Stonewall’ model of gay rights in which one openly comes out of the closet and declares one is gay. The author concludes by considering a new form of activism that is not open, but hidden, which he calls ‘activism from the closet’. The hope behind the article is to allow LBGTQ groups to express their sexuality, as well as engage in activism, while reducing potential threats directed at them..."

Egyptian 'lesbian' film courts controversy  (2009, Video). - All My Life,Toul Omry(Egyptian Gay Movie Trailer), A Film By Maher Sabry (YouTube Trailer, 2011): Maher Sabry's film Toul Omri, aka "All My Life" graphically details the story of 26-year-old Rami, a gay man, an accountant and dance student living in Cairo, Egypt. His boyfriend, Waleed, dumbs him in order to get married to a woman. His best girlfriend Dalia leaves Egypt for San Francisco to finish her Ph.D. and escapes the new conservative atmosphere. And his pal Kareem, a successful doctor, is pressuring him to be more involved in the city's semi-underground gay community. Kareem is almost arrested in a police raid on a floating discotheque called the Queen Boat (based on an actual incident in 2001, which catalyzed gay Egyptians and a variety of international human rights organizations into action.) ...

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Egypt. Egypt Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Egypt. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - LGBT rights in Arab countries: Links.

Global Gayz: Africa: Egypt News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Egypt. - LGBT rights in Egypt. - Sodomy Laws: Egypt. - GayEgypt.com  - GME: Egypt. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Egypt Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Middle East & North Africa: - Egypt

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

MAGHREB (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania): - L'homosexualité au Maghreb, un désastre des libertés. - Gerard Brazon (2011, Translation). - Les homosexuels maghrébins font de la résistance (2010, Translation): Longtemps tue, honteuse et persécutée, la revendication homosexuelle se proclame désormais ouvertement dans le monde arabo-musulman, et particulièrement au Maghreb. Elle passe de la clandestinité douloureuse à l’affichage militant. Avec le soutien de la communauté gay international. - Bloggers debate homosexuality and democracy (2007). - Destins de l'homosexualité masculine maghrébine: entre unions 'imposées', prostitution et mort sociale? (2006, Translation)

Compte rendu des Université d'été homo à Marseille sur l'état des gays au Maghreb (2002, Translation). - Homosexualité dans le monde Arabe (2003, Translation): L’homosexualité est illégale dans 26 pays islamiques. - Un Maghreb très gay (2001, Translation) (Alternate Link) (Translation): Le site Filou Mektoub est dédié aux homosexuels arabes et principalement maghrébins. Mais pas seulement. Le créateur du site, une sorte de gentil petit malin, a en effet le sens de la communion. - Militantisme homosexuel au Maghreb: Quelles formes et avec quels moyens? (Translation)

Cités: le malheur d'être homo (Translation): (Alternate Link Humiliations, insultes, passages à tabac, viols... Dans certains quartiers, les homosexuels vivent un calvaire. Surtout les jeunes d'origine maghrébine. - Blacks, blanc, beurs (2000, Translation). - L'association Kelma (la parole, en arabe) est née en1996. Son objectif (et la tache est loin d'être facile) est de " fèdèrer autour d'activités culturelles et conviviales des homosexuels franco-maghrebins et du Maghreb"(Translation). - Maux d'homos.

Amour au Masculin et Culture Arabe Francophile: Bibliographie (Translation).  - Gay beur culture et maghreb. .- Documents gays Maghreb (Translation). - Livres Gays et Gays Arabes en français (Translation). 

Africans on the Internet: Maghreb most sex obsessed (2006): Even homosexuality, which is illegal in most Muslim and African countries, spurs much interest in Muslim Africa. While the search word "gay" is dominated by Latin Americans, it is mainly Filipinos and Saudi Arabians looking for "gay sex". The African "gay sex" list is topped by Kenyans, Tanzanians, Namibians, Zimbabweans and South Africans. In the francophone world, however, Algerians and Moroccans by far top the world's search for "la homosexualité". Algerians also by distance top the search for the "sexe gay", with the French and the Moroccans being somewhat more timid on the issue.

Bloggers in the Maghreb debated homosexuality and its place in society and online, and discussed the state of the upcoming elections in Algeria (2007):  In a post about intolerance, Hou-Hou blog wrote, "what I found paradoxical and sad is that the communities that suffer the most from intolerance, discrimination, racism, marginalisation, incomprehension, xenophobia… are themselves the most intolerant, racist and ignorant when it comes to differences. When an Arab is categorised as a terrorist, when he is discriminated against or stigmatised by others (which happens a lot), he thunders indignantly against injustice, intolerance and racism. However the same people are the first to proudly declare themselves homophobes and scream loud and strong: 'death to gays'." ...

Le pouvoir de l’homosexualité dans la littérature maghrébine de langue française. A propos d’Eyet‐Chékib Djaziri (2006, Translation): Mon article se penche sur les rapports entre pouvoir et (homo‐)sexualité dans le diptyque fortement autobiographique Un poisson sur la balançoire (1997) et Une promesse de douleur et de sang (1998) de l’écrivain franco‐tunisien Eyet‐Chékib Djaziri. J’y analyse la manière dont est mis en récit le processus de subjectivation du narrateur‐protagoniste Sofiène dans un contexte maghrébin où les pratiques homosexuelles sont punies par la loi et violemment réprimées par la tradition et la morale séculaires. Les récits soulignent d’une part les processus de normalisation et de régulation des genres et des sexualités de l’ordre dominant hétérosexiste et les violences ainsi générées dans les conceptions et le vécu des pratiques homosexuelles.

Maghreb (Algérie, Egypte, Libye, Maroc, Tunisie): Homosexualité et prostitution (2000, Alternate Link): Pourtant, l’homosexualité a toujours été tolérée en pays d’Islam, lorsqu’elle est pratiquée dans la clandestinité. Cependant, les habitants des grandes villes sont souvent plus compréhensifs à l’égard des homosexuels que ceux des villes et villages du pays profond. Au Maghreb, l’homosexualité se vit seul - non représentée de manière associative comme en Occident16 - et dans la plus grande discrétion. Cela n’empêche toutefois pas la prostitution homosexuelle dans les grandes métropoles maghrébines.

Notes de lecture : Valérie Beaumont et "les Amitiés particulières au Maghreb" (2011, Translation): Le CNRS et l’IRENAM ont publié leur « Année du Maghreb 2010″ bien avant la révolution tunisienne. C’est pourtant à la lumière des événements qui secouent actuellement ce que l’on a coutume de nommer « le monde arabe » que beaucoup prendront connaisance du large dossier  »Sexe et sexualités  au Maghreb »  et notamment  l’article que Valérie Beaumont* y consacre aux « Amitiés particulières au Maghreb : sociabilités et discours homosexuels »... « Le choix des mot est ici crucial, écrit Valérie Beaumont. Doit-on chercher à définir une homosexualité maghrébine ou à décrire des homosexualités au Maghreb, qu’elles soient placées en opposition, en comparaison ou complémentarité avec les cultures homosexuelles occidentales ? » Et de préciser qu’ au Maghreb,   »la dichotomie actif/passif prend le pas sur la dichotomie hétérosexuel/homosexuel mais cette dernière notion n’est pas absente du terrain maghrébin, notamment en milieux bourgeois et urbains ».

Arabi e noi. Amori gay nel Maghreb - 2002 - by Patanè Vincenzo (Italian, English Translation(Review, Translation). - LGBT rights in Arab countries: Links.

Queer Nations: Marginal Sexualities in the Maghreb - 2000 - by Jarrod Hayes (Google Books) (Review) (Review, Must Scroll).


ALGERIA / ALGÉRIE  - Being gay in Algeria today (2010). - Algerian gays lit candles for recognition (2010): The gay and lesbian movement in Algeria is slowly daring to become more visible. This week, they lit thousands of candles in public to mark their fight for decriminalisation and respect.The Union des Gays et Lesbiennes en Alg érie (UGLA) is determined to seeks its own way towards liberation, well within the Muslim culture and tradition of the North African country. Copying Western models just would not work in Algeria... Since 2005, Algerian gays and lesbians have marked 10 October as their day of protest against articles 333 and 338 of the Algerian penal code, criminalising same-sex relations. And each year, the event becomes larger and more visible. - Être gay en Algérie aujourd’hui (2010, Translation). - Double Combat : Une Femme Lesbienne en Algérie (2011, Translation). - Journée Nationale des LGBT Algeriens – National Algerian LGBT Day (2010, Translation).

Algerian transsexual's memoirs reveal life of discrimination (2010, Altrenate Link): An Algerian transsexual has published her memoirs, describing the discrimination she faced in her home country, which culminated in death threats that forced her to flee to Lebanon. - Memoir sheds light on the life and struggles of Arab transsexual from Algeria (2010).- Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Law and Rights in Algeria (2010): In Algeria same-sex sexual acts are illegal for both males and females. Anyone who is found guilty of a same-sex act in Algeria can be punished with a prison sentence that can last anywhere from two months to two years... However many people in Algeria are becoming more accepting of homosexual people. The President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika stated at one point that if homosexual people behave well they will be given freedom and remain unharmed. - Algerian gay man facing deportation from France (2010). - Gay Imam gets two-year jail sentence in Algeria (2010, Alternate Link). - Two-year jail sentence for homosexual imam (2010).

L’homosexualité en Algérie (2009, Translation). - Etre lesbienne en Algérie (2008, Translation). - L'homosexualité en Algérie (2007, Translation). - La communauté homosexuels algerienne parle!! (2007, Translation). - La tragica situazione dei gay in Algeria (2007, Translation). - Death to Deviants; My escape from homophobic hell in Algeria (2005, Alternate Link). - Gay Algerian Faces Deportation After 10 Years in UK (2005). - Home Office loses gay Algerian deportation case (2007): The ruling has infuriated the tabloid press, with The Sun reporting that: “A FAILED (sic) asylum seeker had his deportation halted yesterday – because he is too CAMP to go home.” The judge stressed that this case was exceptional, and that he was satisfied that B is gay and would not be able to conceal his sexuality.

La communauté homosexuelle algérienne fait parler d’elle (2007, Translation). - Communauté des homosexuels en Algérie (2007, Translation). - Les gays quittent le pays (2002, Translation). - Être gai en Algérie (2005, Translation): M'hamed, 15-17 ans: L’homosexualité est un tabou majeur en Algérie. Entre amis(e) on en parle très librement mais ça ne suffit toujours pas. Il y a des amis à qui j'ai confié mon secret et ils ont très bien pris la nouvelle. Ils m'ont soutenus et ont été avec moi dans tous les moments, mais...

L’homosexualité des femmes en Algérie (2001, Translation). (Alternate Link) (Translation).- Filou Mektoub: Algérie (Translation). - Gays en algérie (Translation): l'homophobie retournée contre soi! Je suis un jeune algérien qui a presque tout dans sa vie pour être complètement épanoui et totalement heureux, sauf que mon homosexualité tout en vivant en Algérie, ne me le permet pas. Car il y a une partie de ma personnalité qui ne s'exprime pas librement et qui doit être toujours cachée de peur que la société me juge et me répudie à jamais. Comme je vis dans cette société et je communique avec elle, je dois la suivre et jouer devant tout le monde le parfait hétéro. Malheureusement une majorité des gays algériens (et maghrébins) vivent le même calvaire... - Blog: un gay algérien (2011, Translation).

Etre gay en algérie (Translation): Bonjour , moi c'est pinou ,je suis algerien ,j'ai 26 ans mon probleme est que je suis gay et j'en souffre beaucoup car je vis dans une societé qui ne tolére pas l'homosexualité,la séxualité est un tabou dans les société musulmane alors imaginer etre homosexuele dans ses société... Aujourd'hui j'ai décidé d'en parler et de me confie mon secret pour la premier foie de ma vie car j'en peut plus et je pense beaucoup au suicide pour en finir et s'est aussi un autre péché dans notre religion l'islam mais j'en ai pas d'autre choix car l'enfer je le connais déja,mais j'aime trop ma famille pour le leurs faire du mal et leurs causer du chagrin ,mais croyez moi top au tard je passerais a l'acte...

Nadir d’Algérie (2000, Translation): toute ma vie: c’était vers l’age de 17 ans alors j’ai réalisé, même si c’était tardif, que j’était gay, franchement j’y croyais pas, j’ai admis sans vraiment l’admettre, moi qui 3ans auparavant avais regardé sur une chaîne française, une émission traitant l’homosexualité et m’étais dit « c’est quoi cette folie là, mais c’est inconcevable », mais je tiens à dire qu’à cette époque, donc avant mes 15ans, c’était ambigu et mélangé dans ma tête pour ce qui est de la sexualité, je veux dire avec les filles, je ne me sentais pas bien à l’aise, enfin j’ai oublié un peu ce qui se passait dans ma tête, c’est pas ça l’important. Je vais à présent m’étaler sur mon après 17ans, l’ère homosexuelle, mais de cette ère homosexuelle y’avait que le nom, puisque en ne m’assumant guère, je me refusais catégoriquement tout coming-out ou passage à l’acte ou presque, puisque, de l’age de 17 à 20ans je n’ai eu qu’une petite relation d’une journée avec un jeune voisin, j’avais vécu l’enfer, la solitude, le trou noir, personne à qui avouer ma vraie identité, mille et un fantasmes se succédaient, la peur de passer à l’acte et l’absence de tout mouvement associatif de soutien...

En Algérie, l'homosexualité a toujours été un mot interdit.(Translation) Comme d'ailleurs, parler de sexualité au grand jour est un sujet tabou. Les homos sont contraints depuis toujours a la clandestinité,au mépris,à se taire, à la honte de soi-même. Les hétéros baisent des homos car ils ne peuvent aller avec les femmes conformément aux règles religieuses et morales, les jeunes fiancés, par exemple. La société et la religion exigent que la jeune fille préserve sa virginité jusqu'au mariage. Alors, en attendant, ils se rabattent sur les homos. Pareil pour les types sans le sou. L'homosexuel joue gratuitement le role de " prostituée " du pauvre. Les homos n'ont que très rarement des relations homosexuelles entre eux. l'amour et le sexe forment deux planètes distinctes. - Ce que vous devez savoir si vous voulez voyager en Algérie. - Gay Algerian granted Asylum in France. - Gay Algerian Faces Death If Deported Group Says (2004).

Le Soleil Assassine: Un Film de Abdelkrim Bahloul (2004, Translation): " Dix ans après l'indépendance de l'Algérie, le poète pied-noir Jean Senac qui a choisi d'y demeurer, est surveillé par la police du régime. Ses prises de position en faveur des minorités, sa défense de la langue française et son homosexualité affichée irritent le nouveau régime.... Son homosexualité gênait aussi… Ce fut moins la cause que le prétexte de sa disgrâce, son talon d'Achille. Ses ennemis s'en sont servi contre lui pour tenter de le discréditer auprès de la masse de la population algérienne. A l'époque je pouvais lire des articles dans les journaux universitaires sur « Sénac, ce chantre de la pédale ». Tout cela devait être orchestré en sous-main par des politiques. Paradoxalement Le Soleil assassiné est un film optimiste..."

Seconde grande population de la prostitution masculine, les “Algériennes” ont fui un pays où elles risquent la mort (Translation).: "Elles sont travesties dans un pays qui condamne l'homosexualité de deux mois à deux ans de prison, transsexuelles dans un pays musulman. “En 1996, les groupes armés ont tué une copine à cause de ses seins. Elle était hormonée, beaucoup trop voyante elle est morte dans son quartier à Bab El Oued.”" - Les gays quittent le pays (2002, Translation) (Alternate Link, Translation: "Pour moi, être homosexuel et musulman équivalait à un suicide psychologique." - Les gays algériens ont maintenant leur site web! (Translation) - Algerigay. - A la barbe de tous (2000, Translation): L’homosexualité des femmes en Algérie : un phénomène mis sous le boisseau des tabous les plus sévères. Mais de par la séparation qui règne entre les sexes, la société algérienne le favorise singulièrement. Portrait d’une Maghrébine qui aime les femmes.

Témoignages nationaux - Algérie (2002, Translation): "L'homosexualité en Algérie est quelque chose de tabou. C'est quelque chose dont on n'a pas le droit de parler. C'est quelque chose qu'il ne faut pas dire aux parents, à ses amis hétéros. C'est impossible de leur dire. L'homosexualité est un pêché de premier degré. Le dire, c'est risquer d'être exclu. C'est ce qui m'est arrivé avec des amis lorsqu'ils ont su que j'étais homosexuel..." - Un homosexuel algerien a paris (Translation).

Viva Laldjérie (Translation), le deuxième film de Nadir Moknèche, brise les nombreux tabous qui rongent encore l’Algérie. Il filme sans concessions le sexe, l’homosexualité et la vie quotidienne pas toujours rose de trois femmes d’Algérie et d’aujourd’hui. Un tournant dans le cinéma du pays.

ScotMUN 2011: Human Rights Council: Position Papers: The Rights to Asylum for Homosexuals: Nigeria: Homosexuality is illegal in Nigeria, with varying penalties. Within the 12 states that adopted Shari'a law, it is an offence punishable by death by stone; in the remaining, homosexual acts between men are illegal and may be punished by jail terms of up to 14 years under Chapter 21 of Nigeria's Criminal Code, entitled "Offences against Morality". Female to female sexual acts are illegal in the 12 northern states, the maximum punishment for such acts are whipping and/or imprisonment. Most recently, a bill outlawing same-sex marriage and establishing criminal penalties for witnessing or assisting same-sex marriages was passed in 2008. The implementation of these laws is in dispute and even after investigation, human rights groups cannot say with precision how many sentences were handed down. Despite the emergence of various interest groupings, Nigerian citizens still hold a very conservative view on sexual orientation, with a strong 97 % of residents rejecting homosexuality, according to the 2007 "Pew Global Attitudes Project". Not surprisingly, treatment by authorities and society is reported as hostile and marked by acts of violence, forcing many homosexuals to hide their identity or to flee the country.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Algeria. Algeria Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Algeria. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Homosexualité en Algerie (Video). - Gay en Algerie: Ce blog va être une fenêtre sur mon âme et ses états mais aussi un écho de se qui ce passe pour les gays d'Algérie. - “Abu Nawas”: a group working for LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) rights in Algeria. A group that fights for the most basic right: to live in dignity and irrespective of their sexual orientations and gender identities. - LGBT rights in Arab countries: Links.

Global Gayz: Africa: Algeria News Reports from 2007 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Algeria. - LGBT rights in Algeria. - Sodomy Laws: Algeria. - Gay Algeria News Hub. - Gay Algeria. - La Journée Nationale des LGBT Algériens (2010, Video). - TenTen 2010 : Journée Nationale des LGBT Algeriens (Video).- Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Algeria Individual Documents since 2005 [both S/O and HIV] (To 2011). - Persecution of Homosexuals (Algeria). - Algeria: Country of Origin Information (COI) Report (2011): "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender" section related to laws, penalties and fines. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Algeria Individual Documents since 2005 [both S/O and HIV]. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

In Algeria, a gay blog breaks boundaries (2011): Pioneering Algerian blogger ZIZOU runs and writes ZIZOU’s Magazine, which is one of the most prominent and popular Arabic-language blogs for the LGBT community, focusing on everything from human rights and politics to entertainment (http://zizoumag.blogspot.com/). As part of an ongoing series highlighting creative tools used by sexual rights activists globally, IGLHRC asked ZIZOU about the importance of blogging for LGBT activism... A blog for me is an investment in freedom that benefits from the World Wide Web, which is beyond government censorship. Blogging allows me to discuss political, social, and frank personal issues that don’t otherwise reach people through other channels in a simple and funny (sometimes cynical) way..

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Middle East & North Africa: - Algeria

MOROCCO / MAROC - Being gay in Morocco (2010): Samir Bergachi is unstoppable. Barely 23 years old, the young Moroccan is simply not content to live his homosexuality openly in a country where it is considered as a crime. For the past 6 years, Samir has been running the first Moroccan gay association, kif-kif. And only a month ago, he caused a real stir: the launching of Mithly, the first gay magazine in the Arab world. Some find his initiatives inadmissible. Others admire his courage. - Des lesbiennes fondent une association au Maroc (2010, Translation). - 'Fight or flight' for lesbians in Morocco (2010). - Des lesbiennes fondent une association au Maroc (2010). - Morocco’s gays come out of the shadows (2009). - Les homosexuels marocains sortent de l’ombre (2009, Translation). - Homosexuality in Algeria : Dawia is a brave algerian homosexual (2011, Video, Arabic).

A Boy to Be Sacrificed (2012): In the Morocco of the 1980s, where homosexuality did not, of course, exist, I was an effeminate little boy, a boy to be sacrificed, a humiliated body who bore upon himself every hypocrisy, everything left unsaid. By the time I was 10, though no one spoke of it, I knew what happened to boys like me in our impoverished society; they were designated victims, to be used, with everyone’s blessing, as easy sexual objects by frustrated men. And I knew that no one would save me — not even my parents, who surely loved me. For them too, I was shame, filth. A “zamel.” ...

Moroccan Queers Observe National LGBT Day (2010): The following is a report on the observance of national LGBT day in Morocco, written by Karim Al-Samiti, an active member of the Moroccan LGBT group Kifkif and one of its founders. Karim is also on the editorial board of Mithly, a Moroccan LGBT monthly publication in Arabic and French (http://www.mithly.net/). The Arabic version of this report is posted on Kifkif’s website (http://www.gaymaroc.net/ar/national/5140–19-). As part of our ongoing effort to promote the work of our partners, IGLHRC presents an English translation of the report. On October 23, 2010, LGBT Moroccans held a ceremony in the capital city, Rabat, to observe Moroccan national LGBT day, which is usually celebrated on October 19. This year’s ceremony was attended by Kifkif members from across the Kingdom, and several members of the group from overseas. The ceremony continued throughout Saturday evening and was packed with various activities. The highlight of the event was a panel discussion, open to all participants, to discuss problems and challenges individuals face because of their sexual orientation, which prevents them from living in peace and safety, free from fear of symbolic or actual violence. All participants also expressed hope that the government of Morocco would allow the Kifkif group to work on the ground, given that the group represents an important segment of the Moroccan population. Based on the discussion of the panel, it was decided that three members of the group would draft a letter for submission to the authorities. The letter will alert the officials to the widespread human rights violations of the citizens due to their different sexual or emotional orientation and will remind them of standards set forth by various international treaties on human rights to which the Moroccan government is a signatory... - Defiant gay and lesbian activists gather in Morocco (2010): Members of Morocco's nascent gay group, Kifkif, held activities for their national LGBT Day in the capital, last week.

Morocco’s gays come out of the shadows (2009): Going against the advice of the authorities, a Moroccan association is organising a conference on homosexuality in Marrakesh. Moroccan society might be on the move, but the government is finding it hard to follow. In February a French feminist NGO called Ni Putes Ni Soumises (Neither Whores Nor Submissive) was banned from setting up a branch in the country, causing outrage amongst activists. Today, it's a homosexual association that's in trouble. Members of "Kifkif" (which literally means "same same" in both Arabic and in French slang), are attempting to get homosexuality recognised in Moroccan society. The organisation, based in Spain, is planning a conference in Marrakesh on April 15. In response, the minister of the interior has sworn to fight all acts which "aim to undermine our religious and moral values", adding that the authorities and the police will be on watch to repress any "demonstration of an immoral nature". Kifkif however plans to go ahead with the conference... even if it has to take place behind closed doors... - Les homosexuels mettent à l'épreuve la démocratie marocaine (2009, Translation): Après quatre ans de clandestinité, l’association des gays marocains « Kifkif » (Egaux), basée à Madrid, veut aujourd’hui sortir du placard, comme le laisse entendre son coordinateur général, Samir Bergachi.

Mithly, le premier journal gay marocain (2010, Translation) (Mithly). - Etre homosexuel au Maroc (2010, Translation): Interview de Samir Bergachi, fondateur du premier magazine homosexuel marocain : "Mithly". - Gay magazine launched in Morocco: Homosexuality is illegal in Morocco but the publishers of a gay magazine feel its launch is a sign of progress (2010). - Moroccan gay magazine pushes limits of expression (2010). - Gay in Morocco: a statement (2008, Video). -  Gay Moroccan writer takes on homophobia: With his novels, Abdellah Taia has become poster child for gay rights (2009). - Gay Moroccan Author Seeks Acceptance in Muslim World (2009). - Homosexuality in Morocco & in Islam (Part 1 of 5) (2007, Video). Part 2 of 5. Part 3 of 5. Part 4 of 5. Part 5 of 5. - Salah, jeune gay marocain, a obtenu l'asile politique en Italie (2007, Translation). - Marocain, gay, et en arabe: KIFKIF (2009, Translation).

Homosexualité au Maroc : un sujet loin d’être apaisé (2009, Translation). - Quand un gay marocain défie son pays (2009, Translation): Abdellah Taïa, un doux jeune homme, n’a pas du tout le profil d’un iconoclaste. Mais le premier artiste ouvertement gai du Maroc s’est donné comme mission de sensibiliser la communauté musulmane à l’homosexualité. - Un journal gay diffusé sous le manteau (2010, Translation): C'est à Rabat, dans la plus totale clandestinité, que Mithly, le magazine des homosexuels marocains, a été imprimé en cachette des fous de Dieu. Il est le premier du genre dans le monde arabe. - Homosexuality in Morocco: Between cultural influences and life experience (2010). - Le Maroc enfin sur la voie de la modernité ?! (2010, Translation): Coup de tonnerre dans la presse marocaine : TÊTU-Maroc, une version marocaine du célèbre magazine gay français, voit le jour, et sera distribuée dans la totalité des kiosques du royaume ! .

Premier Marocain à Assumer Publiquement son Homosexualité (2007, Translation). - Rencontre de la Communauté gay et lesbienne du Maroc (2007, Translation).- Être homo au Maroc (Translation): "Vivons heureux, vivons cachés". Tel pourrait être l'adage des homosexuels marocains. À la nuance près que se cacher n'est pas un choix mais une obligation et qu'ils sont loin d'être heureux. (Related Information) - L'association Kelma (Translation) (la parole, en arabe) est née en 1996 (PDF Download): Son objectif (et la tache est loin d'être facile) est de " fèdèrer autour d'activités culturelles et conviviales des homosexuels franco-maghrebins et du Maghreb ". Cette jeune association veut aussi " porter la parole dans les pays d'origines, Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie, pour que les gays et les lesbiennes de l'autre coté de laMéditerranée puissent trouver un relais, une écoute et un échange fécond"... - Le Maroc dément l'existence de mariages homosexuels N/A. - Maroc, un célèbre reportage de l'hebdomadaire TelQuel au sujet de l'homosexualité au Maroc (2003, Translation). - Prostitution masculine : Les travailleurs du sexe (2007, Translation):  Un reportage de "La Gazette du Maroc" au sujet de la prostitution masculine au Maroc.

Anti-Gay Sentiment in Morocco Can't Stop Elton John (2010):  Music fans around the world love Elton John -- even in Morocco, an Islamic nation where being gay has been punishable with jail time. But when John, 63, headlined at Morocco's largest music festival on Wednesday night, he created some serious tensions in the North African nation. Morocco has the same sort of anti-homosexuality laws as most Islamic countries -- "homosexual acts" can be sentenced with up to 3 years in prison -- although authorities are reportedly not strict about enforcing them. Still, the country's largest Islamic political group wasn't shy about voicing their disapproval of the "Rocket Man" singer. "We're a rather open party, but promoting homosexuality is completely unacceptable," a spokesman told the Associated Press. He added that an Elton John performance could be a bad influence on Moroccan youth, by encouraging homosexual behavior. (Like playing the piano and singing? Seriously, it's not like he's making out with his boyfriend onstage. But we digress.) While conservative officials pushed for a ban against Elton John, the show's organizers refused to change their line-up..

Être homo au Maroc (2007, Translation): L'homosexualité au Maroc est frappée d’un double H : Hchouma (honte) et Haram (péché)... Ce café, depuis quelques années déjà, est l’un rares endroits que les homosexuels ont investi pour en faire un lieu de rencontres et de drague, une sorte de quartier général où ils peuvent "se retrouver entre eux". Yassir explique : "Cela ne veut pas dire qu’il n’y a que des homosexuels ici. Mais seuls les homosexuels peuvent savoir qui l’est et qui ne l’est pas"... Minuit trente. Nous sommes dans une boîte de nuit de la ville. C’est la seule où, depuis plusieurs années, les homosexuels viennent faire la fête entre copains, draguer ou se prostituer... "Je n’ai absolument aucun problème à vivre ma sexualité normalement au Maroc et je n’ai jamais pensé à quitter le pays".,, "Imaginez un jeune garçon habitant une petite ville ou un village et qui découvre son homosexualité. Il ne peut en parler à personne, se renferme sur lui-même, se croit malade et seul au monde. C’est en cela qu’Internet a été une révolution... - Les homosexuels entre résignation et optimisme (2003, Translation): A écouter: L'homosexualité au Maroc, un reportage de Bruno Daroux (30/06/2003).

Les homos débarquent (2007, Translation): Le tout Tétouan en parle. Durant le mois d’août 2006, la ville devrait accueillir les homosexuels, provenant de Marrakech, Agadir, Casablanca, Rabat et Tanger, pour tenir un congrès national et créer leur première association. Dès que l’information a circulé dans la presse locale, précisément Assura Assahifia, journal arabophone, la rue s’inquiète. Et les discussions vont bon train. Dans un forum de Tétouan, la Colombe blanche, les avis divergent. Ceux qui sont contre sont plus nombreux que ceux qui sont pour... Là encore, le Maroc peut être fier de sa souplesse et de son ouverture par rapport aux autres pays arabes et musulmans, même s’ il est targué d’être un pays homophobe. En Iran ou en Arabie saoudite, les homosexuels sont décapités ou lapidés jusqu’à la mort. Contrairement à la Tunisie, le Maroc ne censure pas les sites gay...  Le congrès national des homosexuels n’aura sûrement pas lieu à Tétouan en août prochain, les autorités concernées ne peuvent l’autoriser. Car, si c’était le cas, elles reconnaîtraient d’une manière formelle l’existence de l’homosexualité au Maroc. Et cela reste impossible et inimaginable.

Between the Parc de la Ligue Arabe and Cybermen.com: Being Gay Offline and Online in Urban Morocco (2006). - Babylone: Maroc Tunisie, Gays en danger (2006, Translation). - Outreach prevention of HIV/AIDS infection among sex workers having sex with men (2000). - Un avant-poste de la prévention au Maghreb (Translation): Premier pays du Maghreb à avoir réagi à l'épidémie du sida, le Maroc est aujourd'hui encore en tête des initiatives en matière de prévention. Menacé, comme les autres pays de la région, par une forte progression du sida, il commence, malgré les tabous persistants, à cibler dans ses campagnes les populations vulnérables, grâce à une mobilisation associative efficace qui pondère les carences du système de santé...- Homosexualité Féminine au Maroc (2004, Translation).

Homosexualité au Maroc: Et si on en parle! (2005, Translation): Au Maroc le phénomène existe, mais reste encore un tabou, les homosexuels sont là, nous les croisons dans la rue, nous les évitons, nous les tolérons, nous les marginalisons, Mais rares sont les moments ou nous les affrontons pour mettre à nu leurs orientations sexuelles. Ici, on parle aussi de tourisme sexuel, que certains marocains et étrangers inscrivent dans le cadre de la fameuse habitude d'expression selon laquelle le mal vient toujours d'ailleurs...Alors si quelqu'un souhaite faire l'exception pour les homo en les acceptant, et donc en allant dans leur sens, il doit faire de même pour un fou, un malade contagieux, bref envers toutes les anomalies de la terre et ce non pas en essayant de guérir le mal mais en le vulgarisant ».  - Homosexualité au Maroc (2004, Translation):  L'homosexualité ne se vit pas de la même manière partout... Il existe malheureusement encore des régions du monde où le coming-out "n'existe pas". Kal28, âgé de 29 ans en 2004, vit dans une petite ville du maghreb. Son coming-out n'est que virtuel, via le net, ne pouvant pas l'annoncer chez lui...Eh bien moi, je ne suis pas européen ! Je suis marocain ! Dans un pays arabomusulman ! Le coming-out pour moi, c'est comme se jeter dans les enfers ! Ni famille, ni amis, ni personne ici ne pourra comprendre ce que c'est d'être homo... ! Alors... ne trouvant aucune lueur d'espoir, en 1997, alors que j'avais 22 ans, et en plus du stress quotidien qui gonfle terriblement quand on est déjà mal dans sa peau, j'ai tenté de me suicider... et j'ai frôlé la mort...

Sexual Values in a Moroccan Town (1993): In Zawiya, various forms of homoerotic play, including nude swimming and group masturbation, were reported as fairly common for boys in the early teen years. Older males sometimes engage in homosexual acts, sometimes including interfemoral and anal intercourse, but these young people do not think of themselves as homosexuals but rather as going through a phase. Homosexuality in adulthood seems to be rare and is still considered shameful by most Moroccans. Separate terms are used for the partner who plays the active and the passive role in intercourse, and the term for the passive participant (zamel) is an insult and a frequently seen graffito on walls near Moroccan schoolyards. In contrast to what we heard from young men, most young women in Zawiya seemed never to have considered the possibility of female homosexuality, and both sexes stated that lesbian relationships were very rare.

Under Morocco's sheltering sky: the timeless magnetism of the desert lures modern travelers into the mysticism of an ancient North African land: The king is rumored to be homosexual--but since it is a crime to speak ill of him in any way, don't expect to hear much above whispers... Marrakech has surpassed the sordid port of Tangier as the contemporary gay capital of Morocco, thanks mainly to the influx of Westerners who open up riads (guesthouses) in the city...

Homosexualité au Maroc: Religion, Famille. Société (Translation). (Ce texte, développé, accompagné d’un sondage sur l’homosexualité au Maroc et d’une nouvelle intitulé : "Joseph" va être publié en 2002.) - Gay Morocco: Myths and Realities (2010). - Iran: Morocco 'gay association' irks hardliners: An Iranian news agency linked to the country's hardline Islamist establishment has assailed Morocco for what it says is the North African state's "promotion of homosexuality and paedophilia". In an editorial, Taghrib criticised what it said was the Moroccan government's failure to prevent a group of homosexuals from forming an association. "In Morocco, an Islami country, homsexuality has become an accepted reality to such an extent that it risks becoming a secular state without faith like Western nations". "Morocco risks becoming a new Sodom”, the Taghrib editorial said...

Rachid O. Jeune écrivain marocain parmi les plus prometteurs: Né en 1970, après des études à Marrakech, il séjourne à Paris. En 2000, il a été accueilli comme pensionnaire de la Villa Médicis gérée par la Fondation de France à Rome. Le Maroc qu’il raconte dans ses romans est celui de l’homosexualité décrite de la façon la plus candide. - New prison sentence for editor in Morocco: Mr Tadili has been convicted for reporting in a 9 April article headlined "Homosexuality and the political class in Morocco" that police surprised a government Minister in a homosexual act in a beach resort in the north of the country. He did not name the Minister, but it was clear he was alluding to the Economy Minister. The article was questioning the morality of the Minister. While homosexuality is widely practiced in Morocco - in particular in holiday resorts, where men-to-men encounters are openly displayed - it remains a social taboo and is generally considered bad moral... - L’éventuelle homosexualité d’un ministre déchaîne les passions au Maroc (Translation): Cet outing qualifié par le ministre concerné de diffamation rappelle deux choses: l’homosexualité fait l’objet d’un sérieux tabou au Maroc..

Témoignages nationaux - Maroc (2002, Translation): "Car au Maroc, il n'existe pas d'association pour les homosexuels. Cependant, l’ALCS a toujours choisi d'intégrer dans ses programmes de prévention de s'adresser aux homosexuels et aux prostitués. Au Maroc, l'homosexualité, ou plus exactement le fait que les hommes aient des rapports sexuels entre eux n'a pas de droit de cité, au moins dans la culture dominante. Ceci constitue non seulement un délit du point de vue social, mais également au niveau pénal. C'est ainsi qu'une personne convaincue d'homosexualité risque une peine d'emprisonnement pouvant aller de 6 mois à 3 ans..."  - Briton Jailed for Gay Sex in Morocco.

Bousfiha S, Fdaïl M, Mekouar (2006). Male Prostitution in Morocco. PDF Download. The purpose of this project was to determine what Moroccan people think of male prostitution... Surveys were distributed randomly in order to collect people’s perceptions and opinions about the issue. The surveyed population was divided into two sub-samples, thirty AUI students and thirty outsiders. The difference between these two sub-samples helped the team to compare the perceptions of highly educated people with ones of ordinary Moroccans who are statistically less educated than AUI students. The interviews were conducted to provide the team with the physical and psychological and social effects of male prostitution on male sex workers. The results illustrate people’s perceptions and demonstrate that they are quite inaccurate.

Etre Lesbienne Aujourd'hui au Maroc (Translation): "Sur les plans politique et associatif, il n’y a aucune lueur d’espoir car on parle d’un féminisme féminin et non d’un féminisme féministe. Pour nous, pays arabes et musulmans, pas question qu’un lesbianisme soit un choix politique, pire encore, il n’y a aucun soutien de la part des lois aux femmes en dehors de son statut d’épouse et de mère. La condition de la femme en étant "vieille fille "ou divorcée pèse encore dans notre société, voire même mère-célibataire ou lesbienne. Même les féministes fuient cette responsabilité."

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Morocco: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Morocco. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

Être homo au Maroc - Dossiers et récits - Za-gay - Le site des jeunes et ados gays (Translation).

Homosexualité au maroc part 1 (Video). - Homosexualité au maroc part 2 (Video).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Morocco. Morocco Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Morocco. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Mithly, le premier journal gay marocain (2010, Translation) (Mithly).

Global Gayz: Africa: Moroco News Reports from 2007 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Morocco. - LGBT rights in Morocco. - Sodomy Laws: Morocco. - Droits de l'homme au Maroc. Gay MoroccoMithly: Morrocco's first gay magazine. Gay Maroc: The Portail Gay et Lesbienne du Maroc. - LGBT rights in Arab countries: Links.

Homosexuality in Morocco & in Islam (Part 1 of 5) (2007, Video). Part 2 of 5. Part 3 of 5. Part 4 of 5. Part 5 of 5. - Gay Maroc (2009, Video). - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Morocco Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Middle East & North Africa: - Morocco 

TUNISIA / TUNISIE - Homosexuality in Tunisia (2006): The independent French-language Tunisian weekly magazine Réalités dedicated a series of articles to homosexuality - an uncommon initiative in the Arab press. The articles include the personal stories of homosexuals and lesbians, information on their legal status in Tunisia, and a medical assessment by Dr. Kamel Abdelhak, a psychologist specializing in sexual matters. In addition, renowned anthropologist Malek Chebel [2] is quoted as asserting that homosexuality is tolerated in Arab culture. Poems on bisexual love by 10th-century Persian-born Muslim poet Abu Nawas are cited as an example. The following is a review of the series: ... In an article describing the lives and feelings of gays in Tunisia, Réalités journalist Nadia Ayadi reports, "The education system, the traditions, and the religious and cultural myths present homosexuality as a perverted and abnormal attitude." She says it is "a painful problem," adding that "everybody remembers the collective lawsuits of homosexuals in Egypt, or the stoning of homosexuals in Iran." Regarding the policies of Arab and Muslim countries toward homosexuals, she says that Tunisia is more lenient than many other Arab countries, and tolerates homosexuality as long as it is not openly displayed... - Etre Homo en Tunisie... (2006, Translation).  - Babylone: Maroc Tunisie, Gays en danger (2006, Translation). - Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Tunisia: A Shadow Report (2008) - «En Tunisie, le vrai interdit c'est de se dire homo, pas d'avoir des pratiques homos» (2011, Translation): Mais alors, qu'est-ce qui est toléré? Qu'est-ce qui est réprouvé? Le problème en Tunisie, comme au Maroc, c'est la prise de parole. En quelque sorte on nous dit «Faites ce que vous voulez, mais foutez-nous la paix!» Le vrai interdit, ça n'est pas d'avoir des pratiques homosexuelles, c'est de se dire homo. Ça n'est tellement pas dans les mœurs qu'ils ne voient pas les gays qu'ils ont sous le nez. Deux hommes qui vivent ensemble, ça ne choque pas. Mais ils ne doivent rien revendiquer. Se taire! C'est assez étrange..

Homosexuality, Tunisian Style (2009): In Tunesia, the issue of gay identity is complicated by the country's long history of European tourism, including sexual tourism. Thanks chiefly to some earlier Western travelers, young Tunisian men tend to assume that any single guy of European heritage is looking for vacation sex and is willing to pay the going rate. Many of these men might be called, in a Western expression, "gay for pay." The fact that they're willing to have sex with a Westerner for money does not disturb their heterosexual identity in the least--particularly if they're going to play the active role. The presence of hustlers on the streets and beaches of Tunisia is so prevalent and remarked-upon, including by Tunisians, that it has become the subject of a Tunisian film, Nouri Bouzid's Bezness (1992)... The Cafe de Paris was largely frequented by men and had a reputation for being a place for Westerners and Tunisians to connect. I frequented the establishment because it was one of the only places in Tunisia where I could experience some semblance of a gay culture, but I had to learn to cope with the daily propositions. The pitch usually began with "Bonjour!" and progressed to a request for a coffee, ending with me either paying my check and fleeing or simply ignoring the harmless if sometimes annoying intrusion. Even when my partner came to visit me in Tunis, we still found ourselves being propositioned--as a couple. (I learned eventually not to make eye contact with any man on the street, as it could be mistaken as an invitation.)... When visiting the resort city of Sousse, while walking along the beach one afternoon, I was approached by a boy who seemed no older than fourteen. Instead of simply ignoring him, this time, I scolded him (in French), saying that I was old enough to be his father. I then asked him what other Tunisians would think of me--and him--had they seen us together sitting at a cafe... One of my colleagues at the university, now a grandfather, once confided to me that, in his youth and even young adulthood, he had in fact had sex with other men--even Jews! (Afraid of where the conversation might lead, I never disclosed to him my gay identity.) To my colleague, as he further disclosed, a beautiful body is a beautiful body, whether it belonged to a man or a woman, and availing oneself of sensual pleasure with a person of either sex was as natural as eating Tunisia's succulent succulent (sŭk`yələnt), any fleshy plant that belongs to one of many diverse families, among them species of cactus, aloe, stonecrop, houseleek, agave, and yucca.  figs, oranges, dates, and pomegranates... While living in Tunisia, I had a visit from a Parisian friend, Jacques, who had no qualms about renting hustlers. As a result of his visit, I learned of another cafe on the avenue, one even more active than the Cafe de Paris. I also learned that there are hotels that rent by the hour, where the management is fully aware of what's going on What's Going On...

Interview : vivre son homosexualité en Tunisie (2011 Translation) (Alternate Link): La rédaction de Za-gay a accueilli pour vous Walid, un tunisien âgé de 19 ans qui a accepté de répondre aux questions des membres de Za-gay.org autour du thème de l’homosexualité en Tunisie... Dire « je suis homo et je l'assume et c'est comme ça » est extrêmement rare en Tunisie, se cacher est tellement devenu une habitude que l'assumer ne devient plus nécessaire, car l'habitude d'être caché est là, donc revendiquer un droit de quelque chose d'illégitime est insensé pour les homosexuels tunisiens... La plupart des rencontres se passent au centre ville de Tunis, mais ces rencontres sont basées sur la connaissance par internet et certains prennent ce risque. Dans mon cas, je connais pas mal d’homos que je considère comme des amis alors pour m’engager dans une relation, c’est par internet que je peux faire de nouvelles connaissances... Je pense que je suis homo depuis ma naissance. C’est à l’âge de 15 ans que j’ai compris ce que signifiait le mot « homosexuel », à l’âge de 17 ans j’ai eu des problèmes dans mon lycée à cause de ma sexualité et j’ai été obligé de le révéler à quelques amies mais heureusement « elles » ont été compréhensives..

Le fil de Mehdi Ben Attia, des homos à la sauce tunisienne ! (2010, Translation): Le 12 mai 2010 verra la sortie en France du premier film long metrage de Mehdi ben Attia intitulé /le fil/. Tourné en en Tunisie, le film parle de Malik, fils unique d'une famille riche en Tunisie, qui a passé quelques années à l'étranger. De retour auprès de sa mère (Claudia Cardinale), il voulait lui avouer son homosexualité. S'en suit, des histoires d'attirance, d'amour, de révélations, de disputes, d'hypocrisie sociale, de mensonges etc... - Homosexualité en tunisie... Je suis homo.. (2008, Translation). - Polémique autour de Gay-Tunisia: briser le tabou et les stéréotypes (2007, Translation)

Gays in Tunisia (2005): In Tunisia the subject is taboo ! I mean publically , i have never heard about a Tunisian gay movement, event or structure ? "Miboun" ( gay in tunisian) is perceived as an offending bad word. Im really curious to know about the gay situation in Tunisia? I tried to do some research on the subject asking the few( self proclaimed) gays that i know or have met. The majority is facing discrimination and rejection mainly from their families. It's also interesting to see that people in Tunisia make big difference between the active and the passive ones--passives are more subject to discrimination or rejection. I also know few places where Tunisian gays meet ( such as some cafés on the Bourguiba avenue or medina hammams or the existence of a Tunisian gay yahoogroup. In the touristic cities you can also see some gay prostitution ( young tunisian with older european men). I also discovered that many gays have wives and children and that they are having a secret life in parallel. In my opinion being homosexual is a sexual orientation and nothing else... in order to satisfy this orientation gays may follow a different lifestyle but they should not be subject to any discrimination or stigma... - Tunisie : un Français raconte son incarcération pour homosexualité (Translation).

Tunisie: mirage d' un pays ouvert...: (2002, Translation) "La communaute gay maghrebine rencontre les mêmes types de difficultés que les défenseurs des droits de l'Homme dans les pays du Maghreb. Peut-être plus encore, ils se heurtent au tabou de la sexualité et de la discussion politique libre, mais ils ont trouvé dans Internet une échappatoire à la censure, mais cela ne leur est d'aucun secours face à la répression, qui est le fait aussi bien des autorités civiles que d'une partie non négligeable de la population...." - Etre homosexuel en Tunisie (2005, Translation). - Être lesbienne en Tunisie (2007, Translation). - Homophobie et SIDA (2003, Translation). - Maux d'homo (Translation).

Papier thématique, Maghreb (Algérie, Egypte, Libye, Maroc, Tunisie): Homosexualité et prostitution (2000, Alternate Link): Tunisie: Située à mi-chemin entre une application libérale et répressive des dispositions légales à l’égard des homosexuels, la société tunisienne tolère l’acte homosexuel, pour autant qu’il demeure secret. Dans les milieux ruraux, la révélation d’un tel comportement peut toutefois conduire à la honte, au rejet, voire à des drames humains lorsque la famille se sent déshonorée.

La sexualité des hommes tunisiens (Translation): Il ressort de notre étude que le poids des traditions reste lourd avec 83,7 % des hommes qui pensent qu’une femme doit préserver sa virginité jusqu’au mariage et 77,3 % qui pensent que l’homosexualité est la pratique sexuelle la plus mal acceptée par la société. 85,6 % des hommes se sont masturbés et un homme sur trois reconnaît avoir eu une relation homosexuelle et avoir pratiqué les rapports anaux avec leur partenaire. L’âge du premier rapport était de 28,1 an et la durée moyenne du coït était de 1min et 13 sec. En conclusion nous dirons qu’il existe en Tunisie deux sexualités à deux vitesses : La première, accablée par les tabous et les traditions, se retrouve surtout chez les hommes mariés, âgés, d’origine rurale, alors que la deuxième, un peu plus libérée, se retrouve surtout chez les jeunes, célibataires, résidant dans le milieu urbain.

HIV and gay in Tunisia: A twin taboo (2008): Karim first learned he had HIV when he returned to his native country from France in 2005. He was infected during an eight-year relationship with a French man... He lives with his Tunisian boyfriend, who is uninfected. They have protected sex. "I was sincere. I told him the truth and he accepted. His attitude really moved me," said Karim.. Karim, one of 1,428 Tunisians who live with HIV, has learnt to keep his status a tightly guarded secret in a society where fear, prejudice and ignorance about the disease prevail...

Film explores being gay in Tunisia (2009): A film, set to be released on the 7 April 2010, has brought the topic of homosexuality back in the agenda in Tunisia. The first feature film by Tunisia’s Mehdi ben Attia titled “Le Fil”, tackles the issue of homosexuality between men within a male chauvinistic society where men are supposed to be men and ancient traditions still rule... Now that he is back home, living with his mother, he wants to “get out of the closet” and tell her that he loves men. But unable to do so, he lies and just gets himself into deeper and deeper water until he falls in love with Bilal. With his young lover, everything becomes possible; Malik breaks taboos, comes clean about his homosexuality and in the heat of Tunisian summer finds the happiness he has always desired.... - Le Fil: Breaking Boundaries in Tunisia (2009). - L’homosexualité libératrice, rencontre avec Mehdi Ben Attia , réalisateur de Le Fil (2010, Translation): Pourquoi avoir choisi le thème de l’homosexualité? Je voulais d'abord raconter une histoire d'amour entre gars. C’est un thème qui m’est cher et qui ne me paraît pas avoir été beaucoup traité dans le cinéma arabe en général, et tunisien en particulier. Et quand il l’a été, il ne l’a pas toujours été avec la finesse et la bienveillance requises. Mais je n’ai pas voulu parler de l’homosexualité avec un grand «H», de la situation des homosexuels en général en Tunisie. Si je dois être provocant, je dirais que j’ai voulu en faire une solution pour Malik... - Le réalisateur tunisien Mehdi Ben Attia s'attaque au tabou de l'homosexualité (2010, Video, Translation). - .Mehdi Ben Attia : "Je n’ai pas voulu traiter l’homosexualité comme un problème, je dirais presque comme une solution" (2010, Interview, Translation). - Ciné Gay : Le fil (extraits). - Coming Home (2010): Once upon a time, a positive love story between two men (or two women) was a cause for celebration. This scenario has become so common that today's queer filmmakers need to find new ways to make this material fresh or risk getting lost in the shuffle. The String (Le Fil, 2009), the debut film from director Mehdi Ben Attia, mostly rises to the challenge.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Tunisia. Tunisia Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Tunisia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - LGBT rights in Arab countries: Links. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Tunisia Individual Documents Since 1999. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Tunisia News Reports from 2006 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Tunisia. - LGBT rights in Tunisia. - Sodomy Laws - Droits des personnes LGBT en Tunisie (Translation).

L.G.B.T.T.: Lesbiennes, Gay, Bisexuels & Transexuels Tunisiens (To 2008, Translation): Blog, Articles, Videos, Temoignages... Continues as: LGB3T: Lesbiennes, Gay, Bisexuels & Transexuels Tunisiens (Translation).

Gay Tunisia (Translation): Ce blog se veut être une plate-forme fédérative de bloggeurs gays (ou gay-friendly) tunisiens, qu’ils soient en Tunisie ou à l’étranger. L’objectif étant d’offrir une meilleure visibilité à notre communauté et de montrer que nous ne sommes pas différents des autres, que nos envies, nos asiprations, nos ambitions sont légitimes et défendables. L’objectif est donc de donner un nouvel éclairage sur la communauté gay tunisienne ainsi que son mode de vie. Ce blog se veut à la fois un espace de discussion, d’information et de militantismes pour la cause gay en Tunisie.

Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Tunisai: A Shadow Report (2008): Tunisian penal code article 230 criminalizes same- sex acts with a punishment of three years imprisonment. In criminalizing same-sex acts, Tunisia is perpetuating a social stigma, and the inevitable societal and legal discrimination of LGBT individuals. The penal code creates a discriminatory environment for LGBT individuals and perpetuates harmful stereotypes, whether or not the law is systematically enforced. Under Article 26 of the ICCPR, Tunisia has undertaken to guarantee to all persons protection from discrimination. The Tunisian Constitution guarantees “all citizens have the same rights and the same duties. They are equal before the law.” By failing to recognize LGBT rights, and criminalizing same-sex acts, individuals are not equal before the law based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, and are not guaranteed the same rights... Homosexuality in Tunisia exists, but remains hidden out of fear and the attachment of social stigmas. Realites, a Tunisian newsmagazine, coined the homosexual Tunisian’s motto as, “Vivons heureux, vivons caché,” live happy, live hidden... Additionally, the government “routinely monitored the activities, telephone, and Internet exchanges of opposition, Islamist, human rights activists . . . and also placed some under surveillance.” The government also blocked many of the domestic and international human rights web sites, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch.27 By denying access to human rights information and organizations, the realization of LGBT rights continues to be denied. LGBT individuals in Tunisia are not only blocked in assembling their own organizations, but they are also denied information and access to global organizations who could provide help in their struggle for rights...

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Middle East & North Africa: - Tunisia  

ANGOLA - Angola : la communauté gay, invisible et vulnérable (2008, Translation, Alternate Link, Translation): Society is not yet ready to accept gays. Living his homosexuality remains perilous in Angola, as in most African countries. Because society rejects them, homosexuals choose marriage as a cover but continue to have sex with other men. Sometimes unprotected.. - Angola: Invisible and vulnerable (2008): Social psychologist Carlinhos Zassala explained that many Angolan gays use marriage as a way of avoiding stigma, but once married, continue to have occasional sex with other men. In many cases, the casual sex does not involve the use of condoms. In Angola, a commonly-held assumption that only men with feminine mannerisms are homosexual means that many who have sex with other men do not self-identify as gay, pointed out Roberto Campos, an official with UNAIDS. "If the person fails to recognise himself as such, the message of safe sex doesn’t reach him. The fact is that unprotected anal sex presents a high virus transmission risk.”... Because they are an invisible population, gays are ignored in government AIDS policies, such as the 2007-2010 National Strategic Plan for the Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV and AIDS. - Angola : La société n'est pas encore prête à l'homosexualité  (2008, Translation): Luanda - Vivre son homosexualité reste périlleux en Angola, comme dans la plupart des pays africains. Parce que la société les rejette, des homosexuels choisissent le mariage comme couverture mais continuent à avoir des relations avec d’autres hommes. Parfois sans protection...

Herança colonial pesada para gays (2010, Translation): [In the same week that there were three marriages between same sex in Portugal, four more were killed in Brazil gay, gays are still not included in health plans to combat HIV in Mozambique and Angola in recent constitutional amendment deletes the right of non-discrimination according to sexual orientation...  Por Angola o cenário é bem pior. In Angola the scenario is much worse. "O Código Penal é do tempo da monarquia portuguesa e considera a homossexualidade um crime. Mas há tolerância, daí não existir acusação", relata José Patrocínio, da Omunga, organização humanitária não governamental. "The Criminal Code is the time of the Portuguese monarchy and considers homosexuality a crime. But there is tolerance, hence there is no charge," says José Sponsorship of Omunga, non-governmental humanitarian organization. À falta de colectivos LGBT, é de Patrocínio a visão da homossexualidade angolana: "Estão inseguros [gays] e quando são agredidos não recorrem à polícia com receio de ser gozados". In the absence of collective LGBT Sponsorship is the view of homosexuality Angolan: "They are unsafe [gay] and beaten when they do not resort to the police for fear of being enjoyed."

Migrating from Africa due to Sexuality, Partnership and Poverty (2006): Damiyano talks about his views of his life and how he’s very much prepared to leave his country, to africanveil. I’m 25 years and gay not that I don’t like my country no, I’m about to leave my country for couple of reasons and looking at poverty and sexuality for me these are the main issues... a lot of people are suffering in Luanda and that includes me and other gay people here. Being gay here is even worse so as looking at the whole Africa excluding south Africa... I have a partner from the west and we have been together for 2 years, and within these 2 years I have travelled to the west a couple times and now we are getting married which now allows me to live there, but my main point here is there are a lot of reasons why as gay young Africans will go to extremes just to migrate all because of Poverty, Sexuality and Partnership... - Homossexualidade em Angola (2010, Translation).

Angola: AIDS stigma pervasive: "For many Angolans, AIDS is a problem of others, of marginalised groups, of sex workers, of soldiers and truck drivers, of Congolese traders, of Zimbabwean UN peacekeepers, of gay European aid workers, of anyone but themselves..." - Angola: HIV/AIDS training for journalists: "Topics included confronting journalists' own fears and prejudice about the disease; gender awareness of how men and women are vulnerable in different ways; lifting the silence on male homosexuality; identifying the main problems in HIV/AIDS coverage and finding solutions..."

Kurt Falk, a German anthropologist wrote about the same sex life among "some Negro tribes of Angola", in 1923.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Angola. Angola Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Angola. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Angola News Reports from 2008 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Angola. - LGBT rights in Angola. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Angola Individual Documents[both S/O and HIV]. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Angola.


BENIN / BÉNIN  Promotion de l’Homosexualité au Bénin : Un Gérant d’Hôtels Privés Impliqué (2008, Translation): Le doute ne doit plus être permis aujourd’hui et les patents doivent encore multiplier leur contrôle sur leur progéniture. L’homosexualité se développe actuellement chez nous au Bénin avec une vitesse qui donne l’effroi et le comble est l’implication très active de certaines personnalités qui n’hésitent pas à soutenir un gérant d’hôtels privés promoteur de cette horreur morale. - L'homosexualité au Bénin (2009, Translation). - Homosexualité au Bénin : mythe ou réalité ? (2005, Translation).

L’homosexualité à Parakou (2004, Translation): Un phénomène qui se crée: A Parakou chaque jour du week-end, en début d’après midi, des centaines de personnes (hommes et femmes), habillés à l’occidentale, s’allongent inlassablement sur les côtes pour se distraire. Zénabou est l’une d’elles. Assise dans un coin, elle sirote tranquillement une sucrerie, tout en causant avec une femme blanche assez forte. Ces deux femmes ne font que s’adresser des compliments. Pendant ce temps, la blanche touche les cheveux et palpe les doigts de sa compagne. Ses mains se baladent même sur les cuisses de Zénabou qui éprouve assez de plaisir. Comme Zénabou ; nombreuses sont ceux qui s’adonnent à l’homosexualité. Il n’est pas rare de voir de jeunes filles et de jeunes garçons, même de grandes personnes, attirés par des personnes du même sexe et de tenter certaines pratiques sexuelles... - Making the Best of it in Benin N/A.

Is There Gay Life in Benin? Keeping in mind that homosexuality is illegal in Benin and that any involvement with such issues could endanger my place as a volunteer, I set out to find a sign of its existence. Over the course of my first six months at post, I deftly posed non incriminating questions to my colleagues and to the people I met… ‘What is the urban view of homosexuality?’ ‘How does it differ from that of the village view?’ ‘Does HIV/AIDS prevention material address homosexuality?’ ‘What’s the word for homosexuality in Fon?’ ‘Do you know any homosexuals?’ The majority of responses were rather vapid and noncommittal, quick shrugs. For them, homosexuality was such a non-entity in Benin—something that exists in Europe and America but had not ‘infected’ Africa. Some responses indicated beliefs that homosexuality was a gene only found in white people. Although men walked hand in hand down the street, this union was entirely nonsexual; locals were quick to identify this as completely normal, entirely replete of any homosexual undertones. I was not quite so sure... Then, when I least expected it, I found it. Or rather, I found a trace of it, with promises that there were more. While at a housewarming party for a fellow American, I met a Beninese guy and his, ‘shhh’ boyfriend. I was elated.  Finally, a glimpse. Unfortunately, that was all that was to be provided to me. I learned that their secret was so hidden, that not even their closest friends knew...

Homosexuality. Why all the fuss? Benin, West Africa. The year is 1976. Two women get chatting on a bus. One is a local woman, the other a European. Towards the end of their journey the African invites the other to stay with her large family. That night they sleep together in one bed. They talk for a while, then, responding to each other's gestures, they make love. The next morning the European woman asks her new friend whether she often has such experiences with other women, and how she feels about being a lesbian. Astonished, the African woman answers that it is quite usual for her to let a friend comfort her in this way...

Comportements sexuels, connaissances et attitudes des etudiants de l'universite du Benin face au sida  et aux maladies sexuellement transmissibles. (1999. Abstract): Une étude a eu lieu auprès d’un échantillon de 954 étudiants (800 hommes et 154 femmes) représentatifs des 10 319 étudiants de l’Université du Bénin afin de déterminer les comportements sexuels... Il s’agit de relations sexuelles péno-anales (9 %) de l’homosexualité (1 %) et de l’usage intraveineux de drogues (6,1 %).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Benin. Benin Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Benin. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Angola News Reports from 2008 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Benin. - LGBT rights in Benin. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Benin Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Benin.

BURUNDI - Burundi: Repeal Law Criminalizing Homosexual Conduct (2009). - Burundi: Gays and Lesbians Face Increasing Persecution (2009). - AIDS activists condemn new anti-gay law (2009). - EU "shocked" by Burundi's gay criminalisation. - Burundi: President furious as Senate rejects anti-gay law (2009). Au Burundi, le Sénat rejette la pénalisation de l'homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality (2009). - Burundian Homosexuals Suffer Under New Anti-Gay Law (2009). - Le Burundi criminalise l’homosexualité dans son nouveau code pénal (2009, Translation). - Rama Yade: la criminalisation de l'homosexualité au Burundi (2009, Video). - Action alert: save gay Burundian Alvin Gahimbaze (2011). - Burundi Gay Activist Dies: Georges Kanuma (2010, Memorial). French Interview with George Kanuma: Rencontre avec un homosexuel burundais à l'ICASA (2008, Translation). - Religions et Homophobie au Burundi (2010, Translation).

Pas facile d'être gay au Burundi (2010, Translation). - L'enfer d'être gay au pays de Paul Biya (2010, Translation). - L’église Burundaise se coalise contre l’homosexualité au Burundi : Une manifestation des fidèles est planifiée ce dimanche dans toutes les provinces (2009, Translation). - Burundi: un défilé contre l'homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Au Burundi, on manifeste contre l’homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Burundi: 10.000 manifestants pour une criminalisation de l'homosexualité (2009, Translation). - Berundi gay grapple with HIV (2008). - Forbidden: Gays and Lesbians in Burundi (2008).

Après le rapatriement, alexandra se sent enclaver (2006, Translation): Le climat hostile pousse Alex à retourner au Burundi où il lui reste quelques amis et famille.Mais Alex veut devenir une fille où il se sent bien dans sa peau et n'hésite pas à la montrer mais les Burundais lui jettent des pierres et il se réfugie en Ouganda où il fut jeter en prison de BASIMA. Alex fut successivement emprisonné à Zanzibar, à Dar es Salaam ou il fut  même violé. Ramené de force au Burundi il fut emprisonné... Alex décide d'aller vivre en Aventure au Kenya pour de bon. Très vite Alex découvre une vie nouvelle.Bien dans sa peaux de jeune fille il mène une vie très excitante car il rencontre des hommes qui l'aiment pour ce qu'il est, il dis: "J’avais plein d'amants, il étais impossible pour moi d'avoir un seul copain car beaucoup d'hommes me désiraient et pour moi le fait d'être désirée, aimée et cou risée était une chose très excitante et tellement nouveaux"... - 2 men flee muslim law enforcers (2004).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Burundi. Burundi Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Burundi. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Burundi- Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Burundi News Reports from 2004 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Burundi. - LGBT rights in Burundi. - Sodomy Laws: Burundi.

CAMEROON/CAMEROUN Leading Cameroonian Gay Rights Activist Fears Arrest (2011). - Cameroonian gay activist under pressure over EU grant (2011): Cameroonian gay rights activist Alice Nkomo has come in for sharp criticism over a European Union grant meant to provide health training for sexual minorities in the conservative country. - Homosexualité au Cameroun : un long chemin à parcourir (2011, Translation). - Cameroon's Gay Crusader (2010): In a country with strict antigay laws, Cameroon's Steave Nemande is working to ensure that LGBT citizens have the basics - like money for rent and food to eat in prison. - Cameroonian Man Sentenced to 36 Months in Prison for Homosexuality (2011): Cameroonian human rights organisations Association for the Defense of Homosexuals (ADEFHO) and Teenagers Against HIV/AIDS (SID’ADO) are reporting that Mbede Roger Jean-Claude has been sentenced to 36 months in prison for homosexuality. He was entrapped and then arrested by police. - Report: Cameroon among worst of anti-gay African nations (2010). - Cameroonian men detained for “homosexuality” (2011).

" Cameroun: sortir du Nkuta" (placard), l'Afrique face aux gays (2010, Translation). -  Cameroon denies homosexuals face persecution (2010). - Cameroon: Same-Sex Relations Bring Attacks, Arrests (2010). - Cameroon: Fighting to free those found 'guilty' of homosexuality (2009). - Fighting for gay rights in Cameroon (2009, Video). - Homosexuality in Cameroon (2008): In Cameroon, homosexual acts are punishable by up to five years in prison and/or a fine. Over 30 people have been arrested in Cameroon over the past two years on charges of homosexuality. The number may sound small for a country of 16 million people, but the arrests have created tremendous fear among the Central African nation's gays.

Homosexualité au Cameroun : un long chemin à parcourir (2011, Translation). - Association Nationale de Lutte contre l'Homosexualité au Cameroun, un autre délire réactionnaire (2011, Translation). - Une marche contre l'homosexualité à Yaoundé (2011, Translation). - Homosexualité au Cameroun: Polémique autour d'un financement de l'Union européenne (2011, Translation). - Manifestation contre l'homosexualité au Cameroun (2009, Translation). - Fighting for gay rights in Cameroon (2009, Video).

Cameroon releases nine men jailed for being gay (2006):  The freed men were part of a larger group of 17 men arrested in May 2005 at a Cameroonian nightclub believed to be popular with gays and lesbians. Eleven men remained detained held on suspicion of sodomy who were too impoverished to hire a lawyer or find a way to be released...  - Cameroon refuses to release acquitted homosexuals (2007). - Cameroon High Court Orders Release of Man Jailed on Sodomy Charges (2007). - Row over Cameroon 'gay' witchhunt (2006). - 50 public figures named in gay witchhunt by Cameroon's papers (2006). - Cameroun : trois journaux publient une liste d’homosexuels présumés (2006, Translation). - Homophobic Witch Hunt At Cameroon Schools (2006). - Appel en faveur de la dépénalisation de l’homosexualité au Cameroun (2006, Translation). - Condamné pour homosexualité (2007, Translation): Suite d’une remise de peine présidentielle, Patrick Yousse,  jeune camerounais de 24ans, vient d’être libéré de prison ou il a passé près d’un an pour homosexualité. - L’homosexualité à l’assaut de la Civilisation Africaine - Cameroun - Rejetés, les homosexuels revendiquent leur intégration dans la société (2004, Translation). - Arrêtez la répression homophobe au Cameroun ! (2006, Translation).

La question homosexuelle en Afrique: Le cas du Cameroun  (Translation) - 2006 - Charles Gueboguo (Author Interview) (Translation): Après les enquêtes qui ont duré près de deux ans, nous avons constaté que l’homosexualité telle que vécue dans les deux grandes villes du Cameroun se manifestait par une visibilité de plus en plus marquée, ce que nous avons appelé « visibilisation », pour indiquer un processus en cours et pas tout à fait établis. Des lieux de rencontre étaient mobilisés dans les bistrots, les boîtes de nuit, les restaurants ou cafés pour en faire ce que nous avons appelé des « small g » (g en miniature) à la suite de la romancière Patricia Highsmith, qui désigne des lieux fréquentés par des homosexuel-le-s mais pas de manière exclusive. Ensuite une sous-culture gaie est en construction avec des codes gestuels et langagiers de reconnaissance et d’auto-identification. Comme exemple, les homosexuels dans les deux grandes villes se désignent par le néologisme « Nkouandengué », néologisme que nous avons essayé de décrypter. Il y a également des regroupements plus ou moins formels à caractère associatif ou semi-associatif pour une certaine reconnaissance publique... - Charles Gueboguo (Translation): Quel est le quotidien d’un homosexuel en Afrique et plus particulièrement au Cameroun ? J’aurais tendance à dire que vivre son homosexualité est synonyme de suicide : insultes, passages à tabac, vols avec violences sont le lot quotidien des homos. Nombreux sont ceux qui optent pour la « stratégie du camouflage » : mariage et paternité. Leur vie reste très dure...

Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2006, Alternate Link): The South African decision to legalise same-sex marriages has caught much of Africa by surprise....In Cameroon, many media worked to improve their coverage of homosexuality as the South African decision sparked a second national debate on the issue within only one year. The last time Cameroonian media looked into the issue, public debate degenerated into an "outing" campaign of prominent politicians and officials, accused of being gay by the tabloid press. More serious media had resisted joining the campaign, which saw sales records for Cameroonian tabloids. In an article - illustrated with a sensual photo of two kissing men - 'Le Messager' on Tuesday revealed South Africa as "the gay nation". In recognising "leadership role that South Africa legitimately aspires to play in Africa," the newspaper foresees that other countries will soon copy its legalising of gay marriages. While speaking out against homophobia, author Ambroise Ebonda warns that such legislation could lead to the "sacrificing of institution of marriage."

Suicide et homosexualité en Afrique: le cas du Cameroun (Translation): Si de manière générale il est établi que les homosexuels à travers le monde connaissent une certaine marginalisation, au Cameroun, ils le sont plus encore... Face à l’obstacle social qui empêche tout épanouissement des homosexuels au Cameroun, ceux-ci ont développé une stratégie de camouflage de leurs activités sexuelles réelles. C’est ainsi que, bien que s’identifiant et s’acceptant comme homosexuels, certains d’entre eux, pour faire bonne figure sociale, ont également choisi d’entretenir des rapports factices avec des partenaires de l’autre sexe. D’autres sont même allé jusqu’à établir des unions officielles avec ces partenaires de circonstance, tout en ayant une activité sexuelle intense avec leur partenaire habituel ou autres. C’est ainsi qu’au cours de notre première recherche dans les villes de Yaoundé et de Douala, notre échantillon était de 81 enquêtés, et parmi eux, 47 soit 58 % se sont reconnus comme homosexuels exclusifs. Mais, fait remarquant, parmi ces 47 homosexuels exclusifs, 20 ont en même temps affirmé avoir des partenaires de l’autre sexe, soit 42,6 % de l’effectif des 47 homosexuels exclusifs. 34 des 81 enquêtés ont dit être bisexuels, soit 43,2 %. Nous avons alors pu constater que ce qui semble être un paradoxe, n’est en réalité qu’un moyen, une astuce pour tromper la vigilance de l’entourage proche, et ça marche toujours. A Yaoundé, les homosexuels désignent ce type de partenaire de façade sous le terme de « nfinga ». C’est la désignation dans l’une des langues locales, de la couverture, et cette expression révèle bien qu’il s’agit d’une mascarade pour se couvrir et assurer ses arrières, pour ne pas sortir du « nkuta » comme ils disent... De tout ce qui précède, il ressort que l’attitude sociale réprobatrice vis-à-vis de l’homosexualité, peut être un facteur majeur, mais pas principal, de suicide chez les homosexuels. Cependant, le Cameroun a ceci de particulier que face à cette hostilité, les homosexuels ne pensent pas au suicide. A la place ils préfèrent jouer au jeu que la société aime observer...

La problématique de l’homosexualité en Afrique: l’expérience camerounaise (Translation): {This essay is the result of four years of sociological reseach in the midst of same sex lovers in the towns of Yaoundé and Douala (Cameroon). Research tools have joined both qualitative (story life, interview) and quantitive one (survey through questionnaire). The results show that homosexuality in the society is still discriminated although same sex lovers as subject invest public area to colonize them. Homosexuality in Cameroon despite the prohibiting law begin to grow as a subculture inside a community « en devenir. » Sociological explanatories factors of the public visibility of this reality have been discovered. There are crisis, media and african politics.] Au Cameroun, les lieux de rencontre se sont multipliés, surtout dans les grandes villes : il s’agit le plus souvent de bars, restaurants, de boîtes de nuit  dans les quartiers de Bastos, Essos, Akwa. Ces lieux de rencontre constituent des « Small g » qui sont des lieux fréquentés par les homosexuels et les lesbiennes, mais pas exclusivement par eux.  On est donc loin des espaces « hétérotopiques » (TAYLOR, 1997 : 3-19) foucaldiens qui désignent littéralement des places de différence. Ici, il s’agit des espaces où certains jours de la semaine et à certaines heures, les probabilités pour rencontrer un grand nombre de personnes homosexuelles sont élevées. Les rencontres à ce niveau vont jouer un rôle de socialisation au milieu homosexuel se constituant. L’homosexualité dans le milieu gay au Cameroun est appelée « nkouandengué », et « mvoy » chez les femmes. Ce sont des néologismes désignant à la fois le concept et l’activité... En somme, malgré quelques soubresauts, il ressort de l’observation du paysage social camerounais, que l’homosexualité est toujours socialement mal appréhendée et stigmatisée, autant par les institutions traditionnelles, publiques que religieuses.

Twelve female students expelled from school on suspicion of being lesbians. - Douze étudiantes renvoyées car « présumées lesbiennes » (Translation). - Alice Nkom, l'avocate des neuf Camerounais acquittés d'homosexualité, parle à «Têtu» (Translation): (Alternate Link) (Translation) Ce n'est pas fini : quatre lesbiennes présumées, trois élèves du collège Eyengue Nkongo, qui ont d'ailleurs été expulsées pour lesbianisme, et une joueuse de l'équipe nationale de football, ont été arrêtées et suivent le même chemin que mes clients. Elles sont placées sous mandat de dépôt depuis le 30 mars. L'une d'elles m'a expliqué avoir été battue à son école et qu'elle a avoué des choses pour qu'on la laisse tranquille. Elle a cité les noms de jeunes filles, qui ont ensuite été arrêtées et battues comme elle par la police judiciaire, pour qu'elles fassent des aveux. Je travaille activement à leur libération et la procureure m'a dit qu'elle ferait tout ce qu'il faut pour régler cette affaire au plus vite. Je ne peux pas m'occuper des autres filles expulsées pour le moment, mais je compte défendre un homme incarcéré pour homosexualité depuis 2004 et qui reste complètement oublié... Douala : Une trentaine d’élèves exclus pour homosexualité (Translation): "Je sais depuis de nombreuses années que je n’ai plus enfants". Au bord des larmes, ce parent d’élèves vient d’apprendre que sa fille a été renvoyée du collège privé Eyengue Nkongo pour pratique d’homosexualité. Il tient entre les mains les aveux écrits de cette dernière et pousse un long soupir avant de prendre congé de ses interlocuteurs. Elève en classe d’industrie d’habillement, inscrite dans cet établissement depuis le début de l’année scolaire 2005-2006, E P est une fille ordinaire comme on en rencontre souvent dans les allées de nos lycées et collèges. Comme la plupart de ses dix autres camarades exclues pour homosexualité, elle est issue d’une famille dont les parents ont divorcé...

MSM law in francophone Africa and the fight against AIDS: the hypocrisy of certain countries (2010 Abstract. PDF Download): Hypocritically, some countries have pledged to fight discrimination while continuing to support legislation  that criminalizes homosexuality. Drawing on the testimony of local MSM organizations, this analysis of criminal legislation concerning MSM and priorities related to MSM in four francophone sub-Saharan African countries (Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal) seeks to show the disconnect of government health strategies directed toward MSM incountries where homosexuality isillegal. The aim is to help develop an strategy that highlights the of criminal laws against homosexuality and to fight more effectively against them, especially in countries that receive foreign aid. We will also consider the relationship between religion, homosexuality and criminalization, since these appear to be key factors in understanding the policies of countries that criminalize homosexuality.

Gueboguo C, Epprecht M (2011). Extortion and Blackmail on the Basis of Sexual Orientation in Africa: A Case Study from Cameroon. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 89-110. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Kalamar, Matthew John (2009). Exploring the factors affecting HIV prevention interventions for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cameroon : a case study of Alternatives-Cameroun, an NGO based in the city of Douala. Master's Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download. Download Page.

Report of fact-finding mission to Cameroon: PDF Download. - Cameroon: "Homosexuality is not widely accepted in central African society and some sexual acts between members of the same sex are illegal." - Moeurs: Prostitution, Homosexualité... (Translation) - Homosexualité en Afrique : l’expérience camerounaise (Translation)

My Gay Brother Was Condemned to Three Years of Imprisonment. - Stop the Deportation of Ebana Dieudonne (2004).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Cameroon. Cameroon Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Cameroon. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Cameroon Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: Cameroon News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Cameroon. - LGBT rights in Cameroon. - Sodomy Laws: Cameroon. - Droits des personnes LGBT au Cameroun.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Cameroon.

CAPE VERDE / CABO VERDE-  A hard bargain: A good dancer automatically commands respect. In my village the best dancer was a gay man. Although gay men in Cape Verde are traditionally shunned, this man's dancing prowess made him incredibly popular, especially with women. He was invited to every party. - As of 2004, homosexuality is legal in Cape Verde.

A homossexualidade em Cabo verde [Homosexuality in Cape Verde] (2010, Translation). - Casamento Homossexual? Porque não? (2009, Translation).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Cape Verde. Cape Verdi Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Cape Verde. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Cape Verde News Reports from 2007 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Cape Verde. - LGBT rights in Cape Verde. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Cape Verde.

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC / RÉPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE - There is no law against homosexuality (Note: Could be an error) : Homosexual behaviour is not mentioned as a criminal offence in the penal code. The age of consent is equalized. - Conseils Aux Voyageurs : République Centrafricaine  (2010, Translation): L’homosexualité est illégale. Les sanctions imposées peuvent inclure la peine capitale. [Homosexuality is illegal. Penalties may include he death penalty.] However, ILGA states: Male to Male relationships: Legal - Punishments for male to male relationships: No law Female to Female Relationships: Legal

Comportement sexuel des étudiants de l'Université de Bangui (PDF Download): Aucun étudiant et aucune étudiante n’avait signalé des pratiques d’homosexualité.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Central African Republic. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Central African Republic. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Central African Republic News Reports from 2007 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Central African Republic. - LGBT rights in the Central African Republic. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Central Africa Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Central African Republic.

CHAD There is no sodomy law in Chad: Homosexual acts are legal in Chad according to the Penal Code of 1967. Article 272 sets the age of consent for homosexual acts of both sexes to 21 years.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Chad. Chad Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Chad. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Chad News Reports. - ILGA: Africa: Chad. - LGBT rights in Chad. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Chad Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Chad.

COMOROS/COMORES - Homosexual sex is not illegal in Comoros. However, ILGA States:  Male to Male relationships: Not Legal - Punishments for male to male relationships: Imprisonment of less than 10 years - Female to Female Relationships: Not Legal

Témoignages : homos et musulmans (Translation): Mohammed, 20 ans... e n'ai encore rien dit à ma famille. A cause du poids de la religion et de la tradition, je sais qu'ils le prendront mal, alors j'attends de ne plus vivre avec eux avant de faire mon coming-out. Ce n'est pas toujours facile, car ils me parlent souvent de me trouver une femme. Mais je sais que j'ai la chance de vivre en France, et pas aux Comores, et que je pourrai vivre comme je le veux.

2010 Human Rights Report: Comoros: Homosexual acts are illegal. They can be punished by up to five years' imprisonment and a fine of 50,000 to 1,000,000 Comoran francs ($139 to $2,778). However, no case of this nature has come before the courts. No public debate on the issue has been held, and persons engaging in homosexual activity did not publicly discuss their sexual orientation due to societal pressure. There are no lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender organizations in the country.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Comoros. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Comoros. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Comoros. - ILGA: Africa: Comoros. - LGBT rights in Comoros. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:   - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Comoros.

DJIBOUTI - Illiberal Attitudes (2004): Djibouti gained independence from France in 1977 but unlike most former French colonies the attitudes of the public and the laws relating to homosexuality are far from liberal, which may be due to the influence of Islamic law. Horn of Africa correspondent, Faro interviews a Djiboutian.:. According to Kasdil (names have been changed) a man from Djibouti, there are many gay and lesbian people living in the country but they have little by way of a social life. "We are living undercover, unconfident and in fear... "Our general situation is very dangerous because we do not have an association which can represent us in a legal fight; we don't have much Internet, we don't have any services for health, education or fun. We look to worldwide organizations of human rights for helping us." - Djibouti: Situation of homosexuals in Djibouti; treatment by the public and by the authorities; state protection available (2002-2004) . -

LGBT rights in Djibouti: The U.S. Department of State's 2010 Human Rights Report found that "there were no known reports of societal violence or discrimination based on sexual orientation. Societal norms did not allow for the public discussion of homosexuality, and persons did not openly acknowledge having a homosexual orientation."

Global Gayz: Africa: Djibouti. - ILGA: Africa: Djibouti- Sodomy Laws: Djibouti. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Djiboutia.

MAYOTTE - Update on HIV infection in Mayotte (2007): [Contracting HIV was] heterosexual for 71% of the adult cases, homosexual in 13% and transfusional in 3%..

Forum: Mayotte et les Gays (Translation). - Mayotte Gay:Forum d'entraide pour les rencontres gay et lesbiennes à Mayotte (Transkation).

Les mœurs sexuelles à Mayotte - 2005 - de.Bacar Achiraf.

CONGO / CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE  /  RÉPUBLIQUE DU CONGO (The Republic of the Congo) There is no law against homosexuality: Homosexual behaviour is not mentioned as a criminal offence in the penal code. The age of consent is equal. - Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2006, Responses to the South African decision to legalise same-sex marriages): In Congo Brazzaville, authorities were caught by surprise when recently asked about the liberalisation process in South Africa. The Brazzaville government could not come up with another answer than saying "homosexuality does not exist in Congo." The press has so far not tried to prove government wrong.

Quand les lesbiennes et les pédés «dérangent» la stabilité des familles classiques (2011, Translation): Dans tous les quartiers populeux de Brazzaville, de Pointe-Noire, de Dolisie et de la plupart des villes du Congo,  il n’est plus rare de rencontrer des homosexuels qui, sans gêne et sans peur, se livrent à tout : embrassades, baisers, gestes intimes, etc. L’homosexualité a atteint ces dernières années des proportions inestimables dans notre pays au point de bousculer et de mettre en péril nos us et coutumes  séculaires.

L'homosexualité féminine au Congo (2010, Translation): Le Congo a un système de gouvernement laïc et fonctionne en principe comme une démocratie. Malgré des changements prometteurs, beaucoup de groupes marginalisés, dont la minorité homosexuelle (lesbienne), qui se voit toujours refuser un droit à la visibilité. Les lesbiennes sont sûrement nombreuses à Brazzaville, la capitale, mais beaucoup souffrent de ne pouvoir exprimer leurs sentiments. «Les gens pensent à la partie sexuelle, [mais] il ne s'agit pas de sexe , pourrait nous expliqué Véronique une jeune femme d’une vingtaine d’années. Il s'agit d'attirance, d'amour, de la même chose que ce qui se passe dans les relations et les amitiés hétérosexuelles.».

L'homosexualité à Kinshasa! (2099, Translation): L’ homosexualité à Kinshasa est devenue chose courante même pour les jeunes filles comme les jeunes garçons. Congomikili.com a tenu à interroger les kinois pour savoir comment et pourquoi ce phénomène qui était avant caché au Congo est devenu quelque chose de normale qui s’ étale et s’ expose en plein jour, suivez ce reportage na temps toujours!

L’Homosexualité, un phénomène qui prend de l’ampleur à Kinshasa (2006, Radio, Translation): « VW », « lesbiennes », « Pedé », des termes qu’on entend et qu’on connaît. Termes souvent utilisés pour les homosexuels. A Kinshasa, le phénomène prend de l’ampleur. Jadis, considéré comme un sujet tabou, voire même une malédiction, aujourd’hui, être homosexuel, n’est plus un drame. Comment vivent ces personnes un peu particulières ? Qu’en pense la société ? Qu’est-ce qui est à la base de ce problème ? Nicole Ngaka reçoit le Dr Mapunza, doyen de la faculté de médecine à l’université de Kinshasa..

Homosexuality now debated all over Africa (2006, Alternate Link): The South African decision to legalise same-sex marriages has caught much of Africa by surprise... Also in French speaking Africa, not all first reactions to the South African legislation were positive. In Congo Brazzaville, authorities were caught by surprise when recently asked about the liberalisation process in South Africa. The Brazzaville government could not come up with another answer than saying "homosexuality does not exist in Congo." The press has so far not tried to prove government wrong.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Congo. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Congo. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Republique du Congo  News Reports from 2005 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Republic of the Congo. - LGBT rights in the Republic of the Congo. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Republic of the Congo [also known as Congo-Brazzaville] Documents. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Congo.

CONGO (The Democratic Republic of the Congo) There are no specific laws against gays in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Homosexual behaviour is not mentioned as a criminal offence in the penal code, thus gay sexual activity is de facto legal. However, articles 168-170 and 172 of the Penal Code punish "crimes against family life". These articles are used to punish homosexuals. A prison sentence for those punished under these articles can be from 5 to 20 years. - Congolese Anglican Church condemns homosexuality (2008): The Bishops of the Anglican Province of Congo Kinshasa (DRC) have issued a statement, strongly condemning homosexuality and warning Congolese Church members from supporting gay and pro-gay networks. Kinshasa Archbishop Dirokpa Balufuga Fidele, presiding over the Anglican Province of Congo, has signed a strong statement, issued by the Bishops of his Province, that goes further than his African colleagues in condemning homosexuality.

Symbol of Unhealed Congo: Male Rape Victims (2009): According to Oxfam, Human Rights Watch, United Nations officials and several Congolese aid organizations, the number of men who have been raped has risen sharply in recent months, a consequence of joint Congo-Rwanda military operations against rebels that have uncapped an appalling level of violence against civilians. Aid workers struggle to explain the sudden spike in male rape cases. The best answer, they say, is that the sexual violence against men is yet another way for armed groups to humiliate and demoralize Congolese communities into submission.. - Democratic Republic of Congo Still Hostile To Homosexuality (2009). - Criminalising homosexuality in the Democratic Republic of Congo (2010). - Congo’s Sex Practices Against Nature Bill will criminalize homo sex and animal sex (2010). - Homosexuality an Abomination (2010): A Democratic Republic of Congo bishop and lawmaker said Monday he had put forward a bill that would make homosexuality a punishable offence, as being gay was an "abomination". "We would like the law to punish homosexuality, bestiality and necrophilia. Morally, homosexuality is a deviation, and spiritually, it is an abomination," Ejiba Yamapiale told AFP. - Groups mobilise against DRC’s anti gay bill (2010, Alternate Link). - DR Congo: lack of funds impede fight against DRC’s anti homosexuality bill (2011). - Congo homosexuality criminalisation bill delayed, not dead (2011).

L'homosexualité en Afrique, un tabou persistant: L'exemple de la RDC (2009, Translation)... L'homosexualité reste encore très mal acceptée dans la majorité des pays du continent. La République Démocratique du Congo n'échappe pas à cette règle. Dans cet immense État d'Afrique centrale dominé par la culture bantoue les réactions sont toutes très négatives quoique assez variées. Absence de virilité pour les hommes, sorcellerie et mauvais esprits, passage obligé pour s'enrichir ou avoir le pouvoir, tous les stéréotypes y passent. Pour d'autres, l'homosexualité est un phénomène importé de l'Occident, introduit durant la colonisation. Par la suite, la modernité et le développement des médias avec son corolaire d'images prônant l'homosexualité aurait continué à "corrompre" les mentalités sur le continent noir. - In Congo, a young lesbian "nearly lynched" (2010).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by CountryDemocratic Republic of Congo. DRC Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Democratic Republic of Congo. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Republique Democratique du Congo  News Reports from 2005 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Democratic Republic of the Congo. - LGBT rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Congo [DRC] Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Democratic Republic of the Congo


EQUATORIAL GUINEA 2009 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Societal stigmatization and discrimination against homosexual persons was strong, and the government made little effort to combat it. - Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Equatorial Guinea:  may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Equatorial Guinea, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available as opposite-sex couples..

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Equatorial Guinea. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Equatorial Guinea. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Equatorial Guinea  News Reports from 2009 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Equatorial Guinea. - LGBT rights in Equatorial Guinea. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Equatorial Guinea

ERITREA -  Eritrea: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2006): Homosexuality is illegal, and homosexuals faced severe societal discrimination.  - UPR Statement on LGBTI health in Eritrea (2010): UPR Statement on criminalization of same-sex relationships in Eritrea and urgent required measures to recognize and protect the rights of sexual and gender minorities, and extend HIV intervention programs to include same-sex practicing people. - Homosexuality "against Eritrean values" (2010): Eritrean government officials for the first time have answered to rights activists' questions about the country's tough anti-homosexuality laws. Legalisation was out of question, the official said. At a recent UN review of the human rights situation in Eritrea, Rowland Jide Macaulay of the Canadian HIV AIDS Legal Network challenged the Eritrean government to "repeal all legislative provisions which criminalise sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex." According to the Canadian rights activist, the criminalisation of consensual homosexual acts was a threat to public health as it "frustrated creating access to HIV prevention and awareness programmes for men who had sex with men." Moreover, it was contrary to international law, human rights and "likely to exacerbate incidents of harassment, abuse, arbitrary arrests and unlawful detentions.".

Eritrea questioned over anti-gay laws (2010): At a recent UN review of the human rights situation in Eritrea, Rowland Jide Macaulay of the Canadian HIV AIDS Legal Network challenged the Eritrean government to “repeal all legislative provisions which criminalise sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex.”... According to Mr Abraham, the Eritrean government rejected the demand to legalise same-sex activity between consenting adults, which was “in direct contradiction with the values and traditions of the Eritrean people.” Homosexuality is illegal in Eritrea, according to the 1957 penal code, which is an inheritance from colonial times. The penal code strictly prohibits “sexual deviations,” among which is performing sexual acts with someone of the same sex. So-called “unnatural carnal offences” can be punished with imprisonment of between 10 days and 3 years. Little is known about the practical use of this law as the state-controlled Eritrean press does not report about homosexuality at all. But according to a report from the British Embassy in Asmara, people who participate in “such an act are prosecuted and punished whenever found guilty.” In 2004, authorities reportedly expelled a number of foreigners from Eritrea on the basis of their sexual orientation.

Legal but not accepted (2003): ... the Minster of Justice said, "There is no homosexual person in my country, that's why homosexuality is legal. That means, still we have a responsibility to defend our people from this kind of cultural aggression from Europe." BtM: What is the problem facing individual gays, governmental homophobic behaviour, as well as discrimination? M: Some of them who I meet are HIV positive, they don't have any awareness as gays that they should use a condom, they think condoms are only for heterosexuals. Most of them are in confusion, they don't have interest to accept who they are. One of my close friends goes to church to get cured. Another one killed himself a year ago. But, no one, not even his family knew on what grounds he committed suicide. Only me and other friends of mine knew... Soon I will do my effort to establish an Eritrea gay group on the site. It will be a good opportunity to exchange our experiences and to share our common problems. - 6 men arrested in Asmara. - Eritrea Expels Three Hotel Employees for "Immorality" (2004): An unnamed source close to the three employees said "one of them at least was homosexual and did not try to hide it." A diplomat in Asmara, who asked not to be named, said: "It is the first time such a reason is put forward, homosexuality is not forbidden by the law, but it is not accepted by tradition."

Doing things together (2002): “I love everyone,” Peter tells us for the fourth time. “Especially Jerry. I love him most of all. I want to marry Jerry.” The laughter increases, some genuine, some embarrassed. A couple of his friends frown and try to calm him down. For a while, he does so, but he continues muttering how much he loves everyone, especially Jerry. Curious, I leave Ed, promising to return. Peter smiles at me "Enjoying yourself?" He nods. “Why do you like Jeff?” I ask. “Because we do things together,” he tells me. I'm tempted to ask more, but we're in public and it's easier to put two and two together without further evidence. “We do things together!” he repeats loudly enough for others to hear and turn. Among them Jerry, now arm in arm with another young man. Again Jerry's only response is a quiet smile... The next morning, Peter appears at the near-empty hotel where I am staying. We sit in the bare hall and exchange pleasantries. I assume he has come to apologise for the previous evening. Some form of apology is indeed lurking in the back of his mind, but foremost is the belief that I still have the key of his car. I describe the friend I gave it to. His face falls; the man concerned will not be free until the afternoon... As we walk, I begin my spiel of the importance of condom use, not specifying the sex of the partner. He confirms that he has a partner and uses a condom. Another question elicits the pronoun she. Further gentle questioning reveals that all his partners have been women. A whole hypothesis begins to falter. It crumbles when Peter asks if I am married. I repeat what I had said earlier, about living with a man and add “I prefer men.”  He is nonplussed, does not at first believe me. Then the conversation dies. Where was the faultline? I wonder. How did this misunderstanding begin? Did I imagine too much, is he telling me too little, surely Jerry is gay, what is the meaning of Peter's "love", do the embracing arms only embrace? I want to ask all these questions but remain silent...

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Eritrea. Eritrea Archive.- African Veil: Countries Covered: Eritrea. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Eritrea  News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Eritrea. - LGBT rights in Eritrea. - Sodomy Lawa: Eritrea. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Eritrea Documents. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Eritrea.

ETHIOPIA - Secretive lives for gays in conservative Ethiopia (2009, Alternate Link): It's nearly an hour before midnight in a street in one of Addis Ababa's bustling districts and less than a dozen young men can be spotted below the glow of half-lit street lights. In near-slow motion, a handful of vehicles pass by over potholed roads while gay men and male prostitutes hold discreet conversations on cracked pavements.  - Ethiopian clerics seek constitutional ban on homosexuality (2008). - Ethiopian gays threatened as clerics seek homosexuality ban (2009): She further highlighted that even though homosexuality is illegal in the country the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) community congregates at secluded places. “For those of us who live here we make and build our communities. We get together and we have places to go in the evenings however nothing is out in the open, it’s a hidden community”, Casuist said.. - Homosexuality in Ethiopia (2010). - In Homophobic Ethiopia, new website for gays launches (2010): “Peace [Selam] seeker” (pseudonym), an Ethiopian gay asylum seeker, has written to us to announce his new website, set up for Ethiopian LGBT around the world.

Revelation of Homosexual Life in Ethiopia – Part 1 (2011, Alternate Link): We follow Abiye as he moves to Addis Ababa and almost inevitably sinks into a life of male gay prostitution. He was warmly welcomed into a sub-culture that is almost impossible to believe exists in the Addis Ababa we know and live in. The community of male homosexual prostitutes has its own leaders, code names, protocols and etiquette. Clients encompass the gamut of society from all rungs of the economic ladder, religious affiliation and educational background. In the homosexual world, which Abyie inhabited in his time as a male sex worker, gender is fluid, no longer a distinguishing characteristic. Male prostitutes engage in various acts of sex, including orgies, oral and anal intercourse with paying clients during the night. During the day they search for romantic partners with whom they pursue monogamous relationships extending to and including a form of marriage. The overarching rule is complete and absolute secrecy as clients, and to an extent even the male prostitutes, have separate lives that can be irreparably damaged by exposure. Abiye chose to break this rule after years of shame and guilty when he was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. His diagnosis accompanied by the similarly tragic fates of his friend’s made him see the importance of saving others.Below is a short interview with Abiye and Atelele, one of the leaders in the homosexual prostitute world... - Revelation of Homosexual Life in Ethiopia – Part 2 (2011, Alternate Link): In an interview for the DVD, Ato Seifu Hagos summarized his findings which is featured in a publication of the Ethiopian Public Health Association. His research discovered that homosexuals in Addis Ababa congregate in gay owned bars and cafes as well as designated streets. He says that homosexuals are not an external entity to our society but very much a part of it.

Homosexuality in Ethiopia (2011, 2009): This paper analyses the concept and the construction of homosexuality in relation to the issue of gender and feminism in Ethiopia. While female homosexuality is simply overlooked, male homosexuality has been criminalised under Ethiopian law with imprisonment up to three years. The media and the elite has been creating homophobia in discourse and linguistic terms; however, it is the church which has been effectively campaigning for hatred and abhorrence against homosexual persons in the county. My hypothesis is that besides the campaigns by the church and the media, gender relation and the absence of feminism have much to do with the status of homosexuality in the country today. My intention is to understand the concept and the construction of homosexuality by the elite and the church, and how this process has shaped the views ordinary citizens currently hold against homosexuality. By analysing media discourse, earlier empirical studies and primary data from interviews, I have come to the understanding that there is a discrepancy between the concept of homosexuality as defined in the west and the concept of homosexuality in Ethiopia. Homosexuality is the least understood subject because it is mostly viewed as only men‟s behaviour or disease, which is contagious due to association. Generally, Female homosexuality is unknown to ordinary citizens, and it is less active than male homosexuality. Despite the oppressive environment however, homosexuality is under transformation from being taboo to the issue of public debate due to attitude change induced by the process of globalisation. - Balcha, Daniel Iddo (2009). Homosexuaity in Ethiopia. Master's Dissertation, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Lund University. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Holding Hands (2005):  It was an easy mistake to make. If you see two men holding hands in the UK or the US, it is a reasonable assumption to make that they are gay. Here, of course, it means no such thing... It is ironic that this acceptance of public displays of male affection does not actually go along with an acceptance of homosexuality. People I've spoken to about it in Addis tend to have two attitudes on the subject... If any Ethiopians were gay, she said, it was a condition they had "caught" from visiting foreigners. The other attitude I have come across it straight-out hostility. [Many commentaries on homosexuality]. - Beware of gays (2003): Sources in Addis Ababa report that local government officials recently called meetings in the various suburbs and villages of Addis Ababa to warn parents about the hazards of homosexuality. Concerned that homosexuality is becoming more visible in the city local authorities are reacting to a recent spate of people coming out as gay or lesbian in the city. . - A tale from Addis (2002): I tried to mention in the last edition that there are so many gays and lesbians living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - but they live undercover, unconfident and in fear. Speaking to fellow Ethiopian gays who live in South Africa I tried to get a picture of life back in Addis - my own experience there being so limited. One man shared with me his sexual experiences as well as telling me about other gays, lesbians, bisexual and transgender people in Ethiopia..

GayEthiopians.com (To 2009): created for Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual and Trans-gendered Ethiopians by a group of Ethiopians who feel our community needs a proper venue to express itself. We hope that this site will bring about change and in the process open up a dialogue of acceptance and respect. GayEthiopians.com also aims to bring together fellow GLBT Ethiopians from all over the world to create a safe-haven where we can find information on various issues that concern us. The site is dedicated to the advancement and awareness of Gay Ethiopians in Ethiopia and the Diaspora... - Our Stories (To 2008). - Links (To 2008). - Addis Gay Cafe: Ethiopian GLBT blog.

Ethiolgbt.com: History tells us that the Agaw people who are the ancestors of the Agame tirgre and the Adgi(amhara) practised same sex marriages until late 17th century. Now was it globalization that led them to do so?  I recall a Ugandan Gay rights activist saying “It is thought the white man brought homosexuality to Africa but, it is  the white man that brought Homophobia" referring  to an American evangelical preacher shouting on a loud as mad megaphone ''death to the homos''... Though this site really is no more than a drop in the ocean in terms of work that needs to be done to bring about the desired change in attitude at individual and societal levels to alter the very many misconceptions about our Community in general, I hope that it is to the very least a step in the right direction.A better, fairer Ethiopia free of hate, Prejudice and discrimination. Related: In Homophobic Ethiopia, new website for gays launches (2010): “Peace [Selam] seeker” (pseudonym), an Ethiopian gay asylum seeker, has written to us to announce his new website, set up for Ethiopian LGBT around the world... Until about late in my teens I was convinced that I am probably the only gay Ethiopian and that I was either cursed or am a result of some sort of witchcraft on my parents. Every single day of High School was anything but a happy growing period. I was very shy, very conscious of my appearance and did every thing possible to camouflage my self in some way or another but thinking back now I realize it was all in vain as almost every one around knew I was somehow different. Most just did not figure it out and some probably did but chose to hold back on it and use it for their own purpose, but that's all a different story... All in all, I was destined to perish without a doubt and for me it was all about when it would be. I knew for a fact that my sexuality would come out at some point and I would be stoned to death or languish in the filthy jails of Addis. Then only other option was to go quietly, end it! Take my own life. Every opportunity I analyzed to come up with the best means for suicide. I wasn't even 16 by the time I was trying to figure out how quietly and with minimum pain to my self and my family I could die, preferably with no corpse afterwards.

Behind the mask (2006): Who would have thought it? Ethiopia's most radical new publication is a fashion magazine. Myfashion is, as far as I know, the country's only home-grown glossy. Issue 2 has everything you would expect - a photo spread on Osman Mohamed Osman's new 'Ras Africa' leather line, an introduction to interior decoration for the Addis elite and an interview with the country's latest supermodel. And then from pages 38-40 there is a society feature on 'Gay Ethiopians behind the mask'.

‘Unrecognized victims’: Sexual abuse against male street children in Merkato area, Addis Ababa(2009): Quantitative data revealed that about 28.6% of male street children had been abused. Physical and mental immaturity of the children, secrecy and lack of awareness, use and abuse of drugs, the nature of street life, exposure to pornographic films and limited legal enforcement were found to be major reasons which predispose street boys to the risk of sexual abuse..

Hagos, Saifu (2006). Assessment of HIV/AIDS related risks among men having sex with men (MSM) in Addis Ababa. Master's Dissertation, Department of community health, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University. PDF Download. Related paper: Gebreyesus SH, Mariam DH (2009). Assessment of HIV/AIDS related risks among men having sex with men (MSM) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health Policy, 30(3): 269-79. Abstract.  We found that contextual factors, such as sociocultural background and politicolegal situation, predisposed to HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among members of the study subgroup. The infection might have been transmitted between the study population and heterosexual people in the community by many possible routes. The study showed that men have sex with men among a segment of Addis' population. The portion of the population involved is non-negligible. They are exposed to HIV/AIDS risks. It is, therefore, high time that the issue be openly discussed in the context of current efforts to control the HIV pandemic.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Ethiopia. Ethiopia Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Ethiopia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Ethiolgbt.com- Addis Gay Cafe: Ethiopian GLBT blog.

Global Gayz: Africa: Ethiopia News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Ethiopia. - LGBT rights in Ethiopia. - Sodomy Laws: Ethiopia. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Ethiopia Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Sub-Saharan Africa: Ethiopia.

GABON There are no sodomy laws in Gabon, homosexuality is legal in Gabon since 2000 and the age of consent is equal at 18 for all. - Un réseau d’homosexuel en milieu scolaire (2011, Translation): Cinq jeunes filles, NNMT (19 ans), AOB(20 ans), AL(21 ans), MBW (22 ans) et BNK (23 ans), toutes élèves en classe de terminale A1A du collège évangélique Nang Essono de Melen, se livraient au lesbianisme au sein del'établissement, et ce , depuis plusieurs mois... - Une violation des Droits de l’Homme au Gabon totalement inacceptable (2011, Translation): C’est en date du 08 mars 2011 que les gabonaises, les gabonais et les internautes du monde entier découvrirent avec grand regret un article à caractère homophobe qui présenta le Gabon comme étant un pays où le respect des libertés individuelles relève de l’utopie. En effet, l’article intitulé « Des élèves lesbiennes rattrapées par des clichés dans un lycée » (Translation) pourrait être la source des attaques dont devraient pouvoir répondre le Gabon si et seulement si des mesures urgentes ne sont pas prises quant à la réhabilitation des droits des paisibles citoyennes qui auraient été attaquées à tort par les autorités du lycée évangélique de Melen. - L’homosexualité et le hiphop gabonais (Translation). - Homophobie : le président gambien promet de couper la tête à tout homosexuel qu’il arrêtera dans son pays (2008, Translation): Il a sommé les homosexuels à quitter le pays, notant qu’une loi beaucoup plus sévère que celle en vigueur en Iran sera prochainement introduite pour lutter contre ce vice.

Une publicité soupçonnée d'homosexualité (2004, Translation): Une publicité pour un pack de deux téléphones mobiles, mettant en scène deux jeunes filles et baptisée « premier amour », a suscité ces dernières semaines une polémique au Gabon, pays qui tolère une homosexualité discrète. Ces affiches, qui font partie d'une série dont les autres mettent en scène des couples plus classiques et ont fleuri à Libreville depuis une campagne lancée à l'occasion de la Saint Valentin, ont fait réagir la presse gouvernementale. - Homosexualité et publicité (2004, Translation): Une petite polémique autour de l'homosexualité discrète au Gabon... L'homosexualité au Gabon, comme dans beaucoup de pays d'Afrique, est une pratique taboue mais elle ne relève pas du code pénal, contrairement à ce qui se passe au Sénégal, au Kenya, en Ouganda, ou même au Nigeria où elle est passible de la peine de mort. Selon un journaliste librevillois, l'homosexualité est ici souvent considérée comme une maladie. Il cite le cas d'un jeune Gabonais "efféminé", envoyé par sa famille à Lambaréné (230 km au sud de Libreville) suivre des rites initiatiques "pour affermir sa virilité". Lui-même, qui dit avoir des amis gays et "tolérer l'homosexualité", s'avoue choqué "qu'on en fasse la promotion". "C'est encore un tabou, c'est une grosse hypocrisie", estime Olivier. La plupart des homosexuels au Gabon sont mariés, ont des enfants, de peur de vivre ouvertement leur sexualité, affirme-t-il. L'homosexualité est tolérée quand elle n'est pas outrancière, explique-t-il. "On est agressé que si on est aguicheur, si on a des comportements qui choquent, si on fait la +grande folle+". De son côté, Servais, la quarantaine, également gay, estime que les mentalités ont beaucoup changé. "On s'exprime davantage qu'avant", juge-t-il. Lui-même assure vivre son homosexualité à découvert: tous ses proches sont au courant. "Je ne m'en cache pas. Je me sens libre ici", dit-il. A Libreville, il n'existe pas d'association gay et seuls quelques rares endroits sont fréquentés exclusivement par des homosexuels. - Advertisement gets Gabon talking about taboo gay topics (2004): A poster advertisement for a pair of mobile telephones, picturing two girls and with the slogan "first love", has got people in the west African state of Gabon talking about a big social taboo.

ScotMUN 2011: Human Rights Council: Position Papers: The Rights to Asylum for Homosexuals: Gabon: Recognizing that the life of homosexuals is often a difficult one, Gabon wants to express its sympathy for the people concerned. Gabon notes that homosexuality can exist in any country no matter what the background, religion or culture is. For more than 10 years homosexuality has been legal in Gabon and we are not thinking of changing this in the near future. The Gabonese society is still in the process of adapting to the acceptance of homosexuality but is trying its best to do so. Therefore we would like to remind all distinguished members of the Human Rights Council that Gabon was one of the countries to sign the United Nations Declaration on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in 2008. Gabon would like to point out that this declaration has been violated in November 2010 by all the states which proposed and voted for an amendment to legalise executions of homosexuals. We were one of the states which restored the original resolution in February 2011 to show our acceptance of homosexuals. We would however like to point out that although homosexuality is legal for those over 21 in Gabon, we do not offer asylum for homosexuals from other nations.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Gabon. Gabon Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Gabon. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Gabon News Reports. - ILGA: Africa: Gabon. - LGBT rights in Gabon. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Gabon Documents. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Sub-Saharan Africa: - Gabon.

GAMBIA - Gambia’s President declares war on gay community (2008, Alternate Link): Gay men and lesbians must leave the country within 24 hours or face “serious consequences,” the President of Gambia said on Thursday. - Gambia gay death threat condemned (2008): Gay rights activists have condemned Gambian President Yahya Jammeh's threat to behead homosexuals.. - UK updates travel advice for the Gambia (2008, Alternate Link): British tourists in the Gambia are being advised that the government there is “actively enforcing” laws against gay people. A Foreign and Commonwealth Office spokesperson told PinkNews.co.uk that their advice was updated today. Two Spanish men have been taken into custody by police in the Gambia after being accused of trying to solicit sex from male taxi drivers.The EU nationals were arrested on Friday after complaints from the drivers and remain in prison..

Md. man fights deportation to Gambia (2004): It is no simple feat to obtain a student visa and an airline flight in one month’s time. But at the point Yorro Kuyateh fled his native Gambia for the United States, the impossible seemed easier to face than what he said is the inevitable: a lifetime of periodic imprisonment and vicious beatings for his political beliefs and his homosexuality. - Men who have sex with men in Burkina Faso, Senegal, and The Gambia: The multi-country HIV/AIDS program approach (2004). - Imam calls for fight against homosexuality (2003). - Believing AIDS is Real (2003): In addition to those motives for being interested in working in the HIV/AIDS field, there were the more personal reasons. There was the issue of being gay... My work in The Gambia gave me the opportunity to see the epidemic from a different perspective. It put me in a place where the reality of the epidemic was still not understood. I was lucky to have the foresight when I worked in the Gambian villages that if people weren’t educated early on about the dangers and consequences of this disease, then communities there and around the world would continue to be unnecessarily hurt.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Gambia. Gambia Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Gambia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Gambia News Reports from 2002 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Gambia. - LGBT rights in the Gambia. - Sodomy Laws: Gambia. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Gambia Individual Documents since 2005. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Gambia

GHANA -  A Note from Ghana to Homosexuals: “Go Elsewhere” (2011): As you pass through immi­gra­tion at Accra Inter­na­tional Air­port, before you reach the bag­gage claim, there is a sign which reads “Wel­come!!  Akwaaba!!”  in large let­ter­ing at the top.  The tone of the seem­ingly friendly sign changes abruptly, how­ever, when you read the note high­lighted in red below the greet­ing: “Ghana does not wel­come pae­dophiles and other sex­ual deviants.”  The sign then pro­ceeds to assert that Ghana “imposes extremely harsh penal­ties on such sex­u­ally aber­rant behav­ior,” and that if you hap­pen to be one of these sex­ual deviants, then you should “go else­where” for “everybody’s good.” In Ghana, “sex­u­ally aber­rant behav­ior” includes homo­sex­u­al­ity, and for that mat­ter any kind of sex­u­al­ity other than het­ero­sex­u­al­ity.  Homo­sex­u­al­ity is socially and legally unac­cept­able in Ghana.  It is lumped together with bes­tial­ity in Sec­tion 104 of Ghana’s crim­i­nal code, oth­er­wise known as the “Unnat­ural Car­nal Knowl­edge” law.  The law defines unnat­ural car­nal knowl­edge as “sex­ual inter­course with a per­son in an unnat­ural man­ner or with an ani­mal.”  - Ghana:- Reggae star Blakk Rasta says being gay is "a mental/genetic disorder" (2011). - Ghana Drive to Limit Same-Sex Marriage Paves way for Gay Criminalization (2010). - Gay rights activist spreads his message in Ghana (2010).

Gay Life in Ghana--In Danger and In the Closet (2003-2011). - Coming out in Africa - or staying in (2004): In Ghana, a culture of silence exists around same-sex love, and Europeans and Americans are sometimes accused of enticing the locals to break their contradictory taboos. - One percent of Ghanaians are gay or lesbian (2011): More than 200,000 people or one per cent of Ghana's adult population regard themselves as gay or lesbian, according a study. - Catholic Bishops Condemn Pedophilia, Homosexuality in Country (2009). - GEC condemns attempts to promote homosexuality (2010): The Global Evangelical Church (GEC) has appealed to the government not to yield to the pressures to promote cultures that were inimical to the moral and spiritual health of Ghanaians in the name of human right. - Anglican Church in Ghana Condemns Homosexuality at Synod Meeting (2010). - Homosexuality gaining grounds in Ghana as two men wed in Kumasi (2011).

Homophobia in Ghana (Homophobia Plagues Africa) (2010): Monday’s statements by a prominent Ghanaian activist provide further evidence of the alarming homophobia that is sweeping across Africa.  Ms. Bernice Sam, National Programme Coordinator of WiLDAF (Women in Law and Development) in Ghana argued publicly for the Constitution Review Commission to limit Ghana’s definition of marriage to include heterosexual couples only.  Ms. Sam then went even further.  She was quoted as saying that it will be “almost impossible for the act of homosexuality to be considered criminal” if the constitution is not reworded in this way. These statements are just the most recent addition to a growing fervor of discrimination, paranoia, and hatred directed at sexual minorities in Africa.

John Dumelo Slammed In Nigeria For Acting In Gay Movie (2010): The film is entitled “Men In Love.” It features scenes where top Enugu-based actor Muna Obiekwe is romancing and hitting the back side of Ghana top actor John Dumelo who is facing down on the bed without any string of inner wears. In a larger way, the movie depicts how Muna goes about chasing any man and is ready to give anything to get them. While it will be explained to be a make believe, people are wondering the kind of lesson that the movie will teach the public, as it shows how a man can find delight in a fellow man. - Ghanaian Actor John Dumelo Denies Being Gay (2010). - John Dumelo Cries Foul “I Am Not Gay, Homosexuality Is Evil” (2010). - Ghana's Challenges With Homosexuality (2010).

Gay rights are human rights: Ghana's laws do not prohibit homosexuality! - Homosexuality In Ghana: An Increasing Growth In Numbers (2011): On the 1st of September 2006, Mr. Kwamena Bartels, Minister of Information in the Kufuor government, warned that government would like to make it absolutely clear that it would not permit a proposed gay conference anywhere in Ghana. He explained that unnatural carnal knowledge is illegal under the criminal ode in Ghana. Homosexuality, lesbianism and bestiality are, therefore, offences under the law... But attitudes are changing in Ghana too. Not long ago, there were no gay clubs, organisations, activities, etc. in our country. But now there are many with university students leading the way. Ghanaian youth have a more favourable attitude to gays than the old – the same trend found in other countries too. But it is today still difficult for prominent Ghanaian gays to come out and a politician who is known to be gay will never be voted for. - More men sleep with men (2009, Alternate Link).

Ghana’s gays condemn anniversary celebrations (2007): The 50 years anniversary milestone achievement of independence on 6 March this year in Ghana did not as such mean anything to homosexuals in that country... MacDonald’s political stance is assuring in that as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) leader, he also poses a challenge at the corruption turf of government. He used the day as the opportunity to confront corrupt officials saying they’re worse than colonials. .  - No to gay lesbian conference in Ghana (2006). - Male prostitutes practice openly in Accra (2008): Homosexual prostitutes, who were hitherto said to be operating under cover, have now hit the streets of Accra openly soliciting for men, The Mirror investigations have revealed. The gay harlots operate in and around Adabraka, especially the area around Henri's Place, a popular spot at Adabraka Official Town, known for hosting earring wearing men, suspected to be homosexuals. The homosexual prostitutes also operate in and around Osu and La.

Opinion: A Ghanian take on homosexuality (2007):  It is an extraordinary reflection on Ghanaian culture that as I sit and write this article, I have yet to speak, let alone see, a homosexual person. It is not difficult to understand why this might be the case in the backdrop of a society where religious creed reigns large and where, as Afrol News reports: "Unnatural carnal knowledge of any person," which is interpreted as homosexuality by Ghanian judges, "is a sexual offense comparable with bestiality, assault and rape in the criminal code… a relic of repressive British sodomy laws from the colonial age." While homosexuality is officially banned under Ghanaian law, the right to organize and form groups has allowed for a gay rights organization to take root. In an August 2007 Afrol News report, Prince MacDonald, the leader of one such group, commented on the plight of the homosexual in Ghana. "The police beat and punish people who are found to be gays… in our communities when found, you are treated as an outcast or lowered to beatings from people who call themselves straight," he said.

Media leads anti-gay witch-hunt (2006, Alternate Link). - Homosexuals and Lesbians in the Ghanaian Society (2006): There is no denying the fact that the practice in many mixed or even single-sex boarding schools where senior students sleep with junior students they call their sons and daughters or even where students at the same level frequently make intimate passes at one another. The problem with the Ghanaian system is that terminologies such as “gay, “homosexual,” or “lesbian,” had not caught on with the Ghanaian system, thus, in the mental dictionary, discussions bordering on recent developments have not been given the treatments they have been. If we will be honest with ourselves, such practices have gone on since Adam and because in the past there were not many media activities going on in some areas of the country, such practices were not reported and even when people were seen or caught in such acts, society quickly swept it under the carpet. With increasing level of education due to easy access to information in newspapers, and the internet, these terminologies have been common to the Ghanaian so when a Ghanaian sees two people in any intimate relationship, they know they are homosexuals or gay... - Ghana's secret gay community: (2007, Alternate Link) In deeply religious Ghana, homosexuality is seen as an imported foreign lifestyle choice and a moral aberration. Last year, a proposed gay and lesbian conference was banned. "Ghanaians are unique people whose culture, morality and heritage totally abhor homosexual and lesbian practices and indeed any other form of unnatural sexual acts," Information Minister Kwamena Bartels said in a statement banning the conference... There are gay bars in Accra and some organisations do work with the gay community, raising awareness about HIV/Aids, but mostly their work is underground...

MSM Research in Ghana: Revealing the Pandora Box or Playing the Ostrich? A Situational Appraisal of Men Having Sex With Men in The Accra Metropolitan Area and its Environs (2004).  Key Findings: MSM is real in Ghana with Ghanaians fully involved.  It is not a recent phenomenon being visited on Ghana and Ghanaians by ‘whites’ or foreigners. The youth is actively being drawn into it and most of them at a very young age by their peers and older colleagues and relatives. MSM in Ghana cuts across all social classes, religions, ethnicity and married men are involved. It is practically happening everywhere, particularly where people gather for celebrations and merry making in urban areas and in places most people will least suspect. There are many prevailing factors that make MSM attractive particularly to the youth including adventure seeking, poverty, ignorance, lure of older gays looking for partners and the belief that anal sex is safer than vaginal sex. Public’s reaction to gays and homosexuality, has driven it underground creating a safe haven for people to practise and making it difficult for services to be rendered to them. - Related article: Fighting HIV in Ghana requires addressing homosexuality (2004).  - Gay and Lesbian Health Initiative Launches in Africa (2005): Bold new program aims to help those who not only have few resources, but are also turned away from health providers... Recognizing that sexual minorities in developing countries often face a double setback from lack of resources and discrimination in accessing healthcare, the Health Equity Project (HEP), a New York based nonprofit group, has launched a new initiative to assist gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT) and commercial sex worker populations in the West African country of Ghana. HEP plans to expand the program to other African countries...

MSM and HIV in Ghana (2004, Overview/Contents):  1. Background. - 2. Literature Review. -  3. Findings: 3.1 Background of Respondents. - 3.2 Areas of Operation / Known MSM Sites. - 3.3 Factors Influencing MSM in Ghana. - 3.4 STI/HIV/AIDS and MSM. - 3.5 Health Problems Associated with MSM. - 3.6 Bridging from Bisexual Men to Women. - 4. Conclusions and Recommendations. - 5. Appendix: Terms, Survey, References. - 6. Acknowledgements. - 7. Abbreviations and Acronyms. ...MSM and HIV in Ghana: Influencing Factors (2004): For love and money: Respondents engage in MSM for a number of reasons. Some of these include: Pleasure Versus Economic Reasons. The role played by money in MSM cannot be over-emphasised. A total of 137 respondents or 91.3% engage in MSM for pleasure while 80 or 53.3% do it for economic reasons, even though only 2 or 1.3% regard themselves as commercial sex workers. Almost half of the respondents (71 or 47.3%) do it both for pleasure and for economic reasons... Some 56 respondents or 37.3% do it for pleasure only, 6 or 4.0% do it for economic reasons only and a small number 4 or 2.7% find themselves in it neither for money nor fun. - Ghana: HIV/AIDS Hrealth Profile (2010):  Sex workers and their clients are most-at-risk populations in Ghana and drive the country’s epidemic. Female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) contribute disproportionately to the number of new infections... According to UNAIDS, a study conducted in three prisons in Nsawam and Accra revealed high HIV prevalence among inmates (19 percent), the most likely cause of which was sex between men, followed by injecting drug use. At 8.5 percent, HIV prevalence was also high among officers at the prisons.

Case Study: CEPEHRG and Maritime, Ghana: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been neglected in HIV programming in sub-Saharan Africa, frequently ignored in national strategies and hidden in the face of intolerance, stigmatization, and punitive laws. In Ghana, community-based organizations (CBOs) have been at the forefront of HIV interventions for MSM. Among the small number of CBOs working with this highly vulnerable population are the Accra-based Center for Popular Education and Human Rights, Ghana (CEPEHRG) and Maritime Life Precious Foundation (Maritime) in Takoradi. With the support of PEPFAR, these two organizations have been part of much-needed efforts to reach MSM with prevention messages, condoms, and lubricant and to increase uptake of HIV-related services using cell phone-based communications... Many African MSM are surprised to discover that the sex they have with other men puts them at risk for acquiring the virus. The media and most prevention programming in the region consistently describe HIV vulnerability in terms of heterosexual risk, and many African MSM do not realize that they too are vulnerable. The few programs that do target this population face significant challenges in reaching MSM with the information and services they need. Ghana, which like its neighboring states condemns homosexuality, is distinguished from most countries in sub-Saharan Africa by the level of activity addressing HIV among MSM. With the support of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), groundbreaking HIV programming for MSM has been developed in the country. Although the Ghanaian government has not publicly embraced these efforts, officials have also not prevented the development of these interventions despite the legal prohibition of homosexual behavior.

They Are Able To Speak To Us More Freely” - Cell Phone Technology Supports Stigma Reduction And Increased CT Uptake Among MSM In Ghana. HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting Windhoek, Namibia ~ June 12, 2009 - by Lydia G. Clemmons: PPT Presentation.

Gay in Ghana: From gay-bashings to AIDS (2004). - Gay Rights Dawn in Ghana: Faced with prison or blackmail, queers begin to organize (2003). - Ghana's gays organise to fight British criminal law (2005, Alternate Link). - Ghanaian Rule: Gays Be Silent (2003, Alternate Link). - Is Ghana Ready for Gay Rights? (2004, Alternate Link) - Ghana: Gay 'Rights' is an Affront to Public Interest (2007). - Gay in Ghana? (2006) - Media Leads Anti-Gay Witch-Hunt (2006).

Homosexuality in Ghana  (Access to Articles - 2003 to the Present): Why are Ghanaian women switching men for women? - Same Sex Wedding Held In Kumasi. - One percent of Ghanaians are gay or lesbian. - The Woes Of A Lesbian Ghanaian Woman. - GEC condemns attempts to promote homosexuality. - Gays have rights, they must be respected - Lithur. - Thousands Attend First Anti-gay Protests In Ghana. Gays, Lesbians Go Gospel. - Gays and lesbians invade Takoradi. Ghana's laws do not prohibit homosexuality - Law lecturer. - Gays To Boycott Elections? - Sodomy Cases Rise In Prisons - British sodomite to be deported. - Opinion: A Ghanian take on homosexuality. - Gays persecuted by criminal legislation in Ghana. - Gay Prostitutes Invade Accra. - Lesbian In Ghana To Lobby. - Gays address Kufuor in UK. - Ghanaian gays to meet Kufuor. - ‘Fa wo to begye sika’ syndrome rises. - 62% of Ghanaian Gays indulge in heterosexual activities. - Lesbians Meet In Accra. - Gays Target Kufuor's UK visit. - Gays Demostrate Against Ghana. - Stiff Opposition for Gays, Lesbians in Ta'di. - Gay leader asks: What is Ghanaian culture? - Gay Laws in Ghana And Around the World. - Thank You, Mr President. - Apostle Appiah's Take On The Lesbian-Gay Syndrome. - E/R Residents Rage Over Gays, Lesbians Issue. - The conference that never was! - Ordination of gay Anglican Bishops.  - 'Ghana cannot comment'- Gay Conference At Legon? = Ghana To Endorse Gay & Lesbian Practices? - Homosexuality in Ghana: The Great 'Coming out'- Presbyterian Church condemns homosexuality. - Why Should Kufuor Peep Into Our Bedrooms. - Ghanaian gay leader attacks media. - Charismatic churches support ban on homo conference. - Chief Imam supports homo conference ban. - Homosexuality: The Last Ghanaian Taboo? - Christian Council calls for aluta. - Muslims hail decision to stop homo conference. - Is it illegal to use a 'sex toy' in Ghana? - Research Showed Homosexuality Is Real In Ghana. - Gays Meet Opposition In Ghana. - Govt bans International Homo Conference. - Proposed gay conference still sketchy. - Is Homosexuality Really New In Ghana? - Ghana's gays battle AIDS underground. - Ghana Gay and Lesbian group concerned. - Gay, lesbianism against God's purpose for marriage - Bishop. - Students dismissed for homosexuality. - Ghana's gays organise to fight British criminal law. - CHRAJ Won't Advocate Gay Rights - Short. - Anglican Church Opposed to Any Form of Unnatural Carnal Behaviour. - Study Shows Homosexuality Hits High in Tema, Eastern Regions.

The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Returned Peace Corps Volunteers Web Pages: - Has Cher Come Out with Anything New? (1995): I felt the session was incredibly successful in that it opened up discourse on sexual orientation. The audience was extremely interested in the results of the questionnaire. Basically, the results indicated that the respondees perceived homosexuality as unacceptable behavior. 59% said they would feel uncomfortable about discussing it and 30% said they would refuse to discuss it entirely. This reflects the general climate in the country concerning the issue. Only two Ghanaian trainers didn't return the questionnaire. After my session, there was no difference in my interaction with the Ghanaians. This year I have handed out a slightly different questionnaire and have been involved in the entire training process. While it is apparent that my Ghanaian colleagues don't approve of homosexuality, I see it as a somewhat passive disapproval... This is not to say I would feel comfortable proclaiming my sexuality to the people in my town. But in contrast to a fellow volunteer who served in the West Indies, I have been fortunate enough to discuss homosexuality with some host country nationals without feeling any danger.  - Friends of Dorothy: A letter from Ghana (1998): I do not know if he recognized my Freedom Rings (Accra is a remarkably cosmopolitan city) or made assumptions about my long hair, which is a novelty to the Ghanaians. People will often reach out from nowhere just to stroke it. But I was thrilled to meet my first gay Ghanaian. The Ghanaian trainers in Salt Pond said at first that homosexuality does not exist in Ghana. When pressed, they conceded that it does exist in the larger cities, but insisted it was unheard of in the villages. In fact I had been in my very small, very rural village less than 24 hours after training was over when I had unambiguous advances made: middle finger scratching my palm during a hand shake, combined with eye contact and body language, and repeated requests that I visit the man’s house. He made similar advances again recently. I offered no response on either occasion, both because I do not find him so attractive and because I am frightened at the potential dangers of having a relationship in the village. At the same time I would like to ask him what it’s like to be gay here..

 Come for Two Years, Stay for Four (2002): It’s not that it was easy being a gay volunteer in Ghana. It was bloody difficult most of the time. I didn’t try to hide my sexual identity (much to my trainers’ chagrin during pre-service training), but there weren’t a lot of opportunities to be open about it either. There were people in my school and my community who knew. Whether they spread the word to everybody else I never knew and didn’t really care. - Finding Acceptance in Ghana (2009): No matter how tight our bond grew, I never shared one of my personal struggles with Maame. I joined the Peace Corps suspecting that I was gay, and with every intention of using my time in Ghana to come to terms with and accept my sexuality. After a year I came out to my fellow PCVs, who were supportive, and the Peace Corps Medical Officer, who advised me not to come out to any Ghanaians. She informed me that several LGBT PCVs who chose to come out to Ghanaians in the past had been molested or abused. That was enough to convince me to come out only to Americans. I spent the remainder of my service living the typical LGBT PCV double life, being open with Americans and closeted with Ghanaians. As time went on, I started having conversations with Ghanaians about LGBT rights, painted murals throughout the village featuring pink triangles and the Human Rights Campaign logo, and even flirted with a Ghanaian man who I thought, under a different set of cultural norms, might be openly gay. Even though I never came out to any Ghanaians in my village, I was pushing the envelope and life was good.

A Post N/A: - Let me not skirt around the issue here: Guys, when you travel to Africa, PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE do not treat the men like they are sex machines that are only there for your gang-banging jungle-fever fantasy. These are real human beings with feelings and a desire to be treated with respect and humanity. I have heard stories from my friends in Africa about the disgusting chats and vulgar requests and demeaning treatment inflicted by crass unthinking gays from the West. This only reinforces the poor image of gays throughout Africa. When people live in such crushing poverty, yes, they will do just about anything for money. It is offensive and morally wrong to exploit people because of this. If the words you type are not words you would say to a person's face, then they are not good words. When having sex chat with a guy in Ghana, the offer for group sex may be made relatively quickly. This is a learned behavior due to all the requests from Western gays. One of my friends there once stated to me very matter-of-factly that all Westerners like group sex because this is all they ask for online. While I have enjoyed group things too, please act in a culturally sensitive manner when chatting with people from other cultures. Sometimes I am embarassed to be a gay knowing how some guys are online... - Sex tourism as potential contributor to transmission of HIV/AIDS; case study of boys who have sex with men in Ghana (2002).

Cobbinah, Mac-Darling (2011). Because of You”: Blackmail and Extortion of Gay and Bisexual Men in Ghana. In: Ryan Thoreson & Sam Cook, Eds.. Nowhere to Turn: Blackmail and Extortion of LGBT People in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 60-73. Brooklyn, NY: International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Ghana: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

Mark S Luckie Articles (Access Page): - Somewhere over the rainbow: Homosexuality is considered evil and disgraceful to many Ghanaians and any public display of affection or accusation could mean swift arrest and jail time under Ghanaian law.- Gay for pay: Ghanaians are known for their enterprising spirit and using their resources to sustain themselves financially. For some men that means selling the only resource they have—their bodies.- Mixed messages: Homosexuality is illegal in the Ghana and many in the country blame gays for the spread of HIV/AIDS, yet there is no government agency that directly targets the prevention of the disease within the gay community.- Multimedia: Ghana's HIV advertisements: A look at the AIDS advertisements in Ghana and how they lead many gay men and women to believe HIV/AIDS is a heterosexual disease..

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by CountryGhana. Ghana Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Ghana. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has allowed countries to bring their response to HIV/AIDS to an unprecedented scale, resulting in innovative projects that reach otherwise underserved communities with HIV prevention, treatment, and care. But in regions and countries where sex workers, men who have sex with men, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons are criminalized or stigmatized, organizations that are led by or work with these groups face challenges participating in Global Fund processes and accessing funding. This article explores the potential of the Global Fund to create space for the participation of these groups in decision-making and to increase their access to resources; examines barriers that hinder their participation; and proposes measures to overcome them.

Global Gayz: Africa: Ghana News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Ghana. - LGBT rights in Ghana. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Ghana Individual Documents since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Gay and Lesbian Association of Ghana. - Gay and Lesbian Association of Ghana (GALAG, To 2007-2008). - MSM: West Africa Aids Foundation (Ghana) (To 2008). - GayGhana.org: Gay Ghana Online Community.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Ghana.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

GUINEA / GUINÉE - LGBT rights in Guinea: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Guinea face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Guinea.- L´homosexualité en Guinée: Un phénomène inquiétant (Translation).

Rapport 2008 sur les Pratices des Droits de l'Homme en Guinée (2008, Translation): La discrimination à l’encontre des homosexuels n’est pas interdite par la loi. Il n’existe aucune loi discriminatoire concernant les orientations sexuelles. Bien qu’il y ait de profonds tabous sociaux, religieux et culturels contre l’homosexualité, aucun cas n’a été officiellement signalé concernant la discrimination à l’encontre d’homosexuels. .

First African Movie about Homosexuality (1998): Manga and Sori are youngsters about to finish school. In the evening they meet, "to revise for exams", as they tell their parents. Actually, they share amorous moments of tenderness in Sori's car, or outside cafes. With Dakan, the first African movie about homosexuality , the Guinean actor Mohamad Camara tells a touching and humble love story, his first feature as a director and scriptwriter. - Coming out in Africa: Teenagers break the secret of their relationship in Guinea (1998, Alternate Link): In the film, however, the relationship is never consummated. For Camara this is a deliberate choice: "I'm not gay myself," says the 39-year-old director, who is married with two children. "I just felt it was important for Africans to speak about homosexuality. Maybe it'll help open the minds of the continent". But, after Dakan was first shown at Cannes, in May 1997, Camara faced an onslaught from African journalists. At home, in Guinea, he was cursed by a local imam after his appearance in a television debate on homosexuality. "I wasn't surprised," he says. "homosexuality is a dead-end in the African tradition, a taboo. Especially coming from a Muslim upbringing, like I do." - 1998 Tampa International Gay and Lesbian Film Festival (1998): Dakan, the first West African feature film to deal with homosexuality... Dakan (which translates to destiny) is the story of two men who, by coming out, disappear and become invisible to their families and society, because their society has no language which recognizes their love. Filmed clandestinely in Guinea, Dakan both challenges the idea that there is a universal gay culture and debunks the notion that homosexuality is non-existent or foreign to African societies. In director Mohamed Camara's words: I made this film to pay tribute to those who express their love in whatever way they feel it, despite society's efforts to repress it. Dakan (Destiny) (1997): "This fascinating film. . . . deals with homosexual love in contemporary Guinea. It allows us to see the dangers in supposing there can be a universal gay narrative and it is also a charming narrative.".

Legal Status of Homosexuality in Africa (1998): As for the legal status, the majority of West and East African nations that have law provisions on homosexuality have forbidden it, with some notable exceptions. In Guinea (Conakry), for example, where the law text outlawing homosexuality is not available, its illegality is known to the gay society. One source told Queer afrol; "Gay Guineans often told me that one could go to jail if ever caught having sex with another man." - Behavioral risk factors of HIV infection among patients at the psychiatric clinic: implications for AIDS prevention (1992): In 1991 a total of 116 consecutive newly registered patients (83% male), average 30 years, were recruited from the only psychiatric clinic of the university hospital Donka of Conakry. After informed consent a standardized questionnaire was administered by the same physician. Demographic characteristic, drug use, and sexual behavior were noted. Also blood was collected and sera tested for HIV1/2 antibodies by EIA; reactive sera were confirmed by W.B. Patient response included 116 heterosexual both male and female with multiple partners and 15 male patients with at least one antecedent of homosexuality...

Etat du VIH/ Sida en Guinée : Les séropositifs toujours entre stigmatisation et discrimination (2011, Translation): « La stigmatisation est un processus dynamique de dévaluation qui discrédite significativement un individu aux yeux des autres et à ses propres yeux (Parker). La stigmatisation associée au VIH s'appuie sur des pensées négatives déjà implantées notamment le commerce du sexe, la consommation des drogues, l'homosexualité et la transsexualité et les renforce », a-t-il expliqué.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Guinea. Guinea Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Guinea. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Guinea News Reports. - ILGA: Africa: Guinea. - LGBT rights in Guinea. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Guinea Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Guinea

GUINEA BISSAU - LGBT rights in Guinea-Bissau: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Guinea-Bissau face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female homosexual acts are legal... In December 2008, Guinea-Bissau was one of 66 nations to sign a declaration at the United Nations supporting decriminalization of homosexuality and transgender identity.

African Same Sex Sexualities & Gender Diversity: Highlights of the second day of the conference "African Same-Sex Sexualities and Gender Diversity" (2011):  It was the first time that research was presented at a conference about sex between men from Guinea Bissau and about the lives of lesbian women in Ethiopia. The study from Guinea Bissau showed that many MSM (men who have sex with men) engage in sex with men and women as well as in transactional sex, increasing the chances of HIV transmission..

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Guinea Bissau. Guinea Bissau Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Guinea Bissau. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Guinea Bissau News Reports. - ILGA: Africa: Guinea Bissau. - LGBT rights in Guinea-Bissau. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Guinea-Bissau

LESOTHO  - Lesotho reviewed by the UPR: refusal to decriminalise homosexuality (2010). - Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Lesotho face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Male same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Lesotho, but female same-sex sexual activity is legal.

LGBTI Sopport Group Registered (2010): In what has been described by activists as a significant milestone for the Lesotho Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, transgender and Inter-gender (LGBTI) communities, November 2010 saw the registration of MATRIX support group as a Non-Profit Organisation by the Lesotho Law Office. - ‘Implications of the many facets towards the LGBTI community in Lesotho’ by Motebo Ntabe. Independent (but will be there on behalf of Matrix support Group as well) (2010): Because of all these, all the services are geared towards heterosexuality hence the books, clinics and every other thing deal only with heterosexuality. The health care does not cater for MSM/ WSW population. Because these people are forced to hide, it is rather difficult if not impossible to deal with people who are unknown hence they remain vulnerable to a number of health risks. However, the reality of the HIV pandemic has prompted the National Aids Commission to call upon other stakeholders to engage with MSM and WSW population decisively. Our legal system barely addresses MSM/ WSW activity and when it does it only criminalises MSM activity. What pertains from all these are a string of grave human rights violations. It is in the face of these that the Matrix Support Group was formed. This is the only LGBTI support group in the country. Conclusion. The situation is not hazardous in Lesotho but a lot of improvement is certainly needed.

MATRIX Support Group: An association for LGBTI community in Lesotho: Mission: The mission of the association is to help build a society in Lesotho that is free from stigma, abuse, discrimination and oppression against LBGTI. To create a strong and proud LGBTI community whereby Gay and Lesbian community can be FREE to express their IDENTITY and to love each other in the relationship of their own choosing... Matrix Support Group is about to kick start a study survey in Lesotho which will be carried out mostly my the LGBTI community in Lesotho. The study is going to be by means of questionnaires . The results of this study will further be used in advocacy for the LGBTI Lesotho... It is not only homophobia that we are faced with in Lesotho. There is also a very strong but hidden transphobia that exists from the gays and lesbians. To challenge this we need to provide adequate information to the different sexual orientation groups...In families - In most cases we are confronted with homophobia in families whereby the so called STRAIGHT  MEMBERS reduce their Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgendered and Intersex  members to nothing but sexual perverts, sexually ill, sexually immoral, sexually confused, sexually cursed/or demonised... In churches - Lesotho has been seen as the Christian Country Yet in churches a great number of the LGBTI community experience homophobia at its best. In most churches this issue is not talked about except when it is to bash, crash and break the LGBTI community. If or when an LGBTI member is won by a ‘straight and holy’ believer  into church ... It is often to impose change from homosexual to heterosexual...

MATRIX Support Group (2010): Nothing About Us Without Us: Community-led HIV research for men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) in Lesotho. Conference Poster.

Homosexuals: a matter or morality that legality (2010). - Gay Priest Says Homophobia Kept Him From AIDS Mission Relief Group Says Concern Was About Africans' Feelings (2011): Roman Catholic priest Father Fred Daley, 59, was scheduled to be on an AIDS mission to Africa last Sunday.  He had undergone months of training and was preparing to spend more than a year in Lesotho, where one-third of the population suffers from AIDS. "The airline tickets had been sent," Father Daley tells ABC News.  "There was no condition to that." But it turns out there was a condition, and now Daley won't be going anywhere. On July 18, Daley was suddenly withdrawn from his mission to Lesotho, Africa by its organizers, Catholic Relief Services (CRS).  He says the reason is homophobia, because he is gay."This whole situation is surrounding homophobia," Daley told ABC News...

Human Rights Violations in Lesotho (2010): Sexual orientation and gender identity are neither protected nor overtly criminalised in Lesotho’s Constitution. Sodomy laws are in place that could be used to prosecute homosexual behaviour but reported sodomy offences are due to rape between men. Though there are no specific protections for sexual orientation or gender identity, there are general clauses talking to freedom from discrimination of any sort and the overall rights of equal treatment, fairness before the law and respect. These clauses could be gateways into explicit freedoms and protections for the LGBTI community in Lesotho. - Lesotho: Clash over gays (2010): Delegates attending the Lesotho Council of Non-Governmental Organisations (LCN) annual general conference last Friday clashed over the association’s decision to help an organisation advocating for the rights of homosexuals. Matters came to a head after the annual report which was tabled before the delegates revealed that the council had given technical assistance to Matrix Support Group, an organisation for lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals and intersexual people.

Rain on Tin (2010): Hi folks! Today I am in Maseru for a GAD meeting... We are focused on raising issues about gender discrimination in Lesotho. Domestic violence (or as it is more progressively known, intimate partner violence)is rampant in this country. It is considered normal for men to beat their wives, girlfriends, etc. We want to change that! Also we want to bring awareness to issues of homosexuality as well. Many of you may know that public displays of homosexuality are considered criminal acts in various countries in Afria. While that is not the case in Lesotho homosexuality is not discussed or looked upon favorably. We want to change that too!

African Homosexuality’ Imagined: Doing Sexuality in Contested Spaces: During her time in the northern region of Mozambique, one Danish anthropologist observed that unlike her own experiences learning about women’s sexuality in a European, Christian context, sexualities were openly discussed and expressed in Mozambique society. A woman’s sexuality was something of her own, part of her personality and identity as a woman, not defined in relation to, or ‘opened up’ by men. Although these women were bound by the heterosexual norms and cultural expectations of having a husband and children and playing the roles of wife and mother, she discovered that there was a space for women to have same-sex relationships where the lines between friendship and lover were blurred... The women in northern Mozambique and Lesotho are examples of same-sex relationships and sexualities located outside of the “heterosexual norms in Africa.” These relationships were socially and culturally accepted in Mozambique, and were celebrated by women and their husbands in the Lesotho context, maybe because they existed alongside women’s heterosexual relationships and were not disruptive to the gender power system. However, we must hesitate to label these relationships as homosexual relationships, especially in the Lesotho context where the women themselves did not identify themselves as lesbians or homosexual because “homosexuality is not a conceptual category everywhere… and the kinds of sexual acts it is thought possible to perform, and the social identities that come to be attached to those who perform them, vary from one society to another”...

Lesoto: HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis (2009): The importance of male-male transmission within Lesotho’s epidemic has not been systematically researched, and incidence modelling results are based on assumptions and regional default values...

Sodomy spreading Aids in prison (2005): At least one prisoner dies weekly and 52 die yearly due to HIV/Aids related diseases at Lesotho's largest prison, the Maseru divisional commander of correctional services said on Monday. Matete Mahao disclosed that the main contributing factor to the deaths and the spread of HIV/Aids at the Maseru Central Prison was sodomy, which, he said, was not a new phenomenon in Lesotho's male prisons. - Male-Male Sexuality in Lesotho: Two Conversations (2002). - "Mummies and babies" and friends and lovers in Lesotho (1985).

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by CountryLesotho. Lesotho Archive.  - African Veil: Countries Covered: Lesotho. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Lesotho News Reports From 2009 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Lesotho. - LGBT rights in Lesotho. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Lesotho Documents. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Lesotho.

LIBERIA - Out of Africa (2008, Alternate Link): If you thought you had it tough growing up, try being young and gay or lesbian in Liberia, says Jess Langley. Samuel has tears in his eyes as I drop him at home for the last time. He gives me a string of plastic beads, still warm from his chest, and says, “Until I met you I never thought I could be happy to be gay.” - New MSM Awards for HIV/AIDS Groups in Six African Countries (2009): The Liberia project is one of eight that will be supported by amfAR’s MSM Initiative in a new round of community awards for sub-Saharan Africa that was announced today. The remaining awards go to grassroots groups in Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya (three awards), and Nigeria. - In Liberia, a closeted life for gay men (2011): For many gay men in Africa, life is a constant struggle. Some men choose to hide their sexuality and are condemned to a life of secrecy. As a result, a significant number of African gay men are also married and in some cases have children. Men who choose to live an open life or who are exposed as being gay are often subject to unrelenting stigma and discrimination to such an extent that they can be denied a normal life. This can have profound effects on their life and general health. Attacks, random arrests, murder, and even the desecration of gay men after they have died have been reported across the African continent. Such an environment reinforces feelings of fear and insecurity among the gay community, which can prevent men who have sex with men from accessing HIV prevention, treatment and care services...

LiberianOnline Forum (2006): Isn't it amazing how many homosexuals are now in the Liberian community? I mean a few years back you could count on your hand the number of homosexuals,.......now if you throw a rock you're bound to hit one. And now there's this "down low" thing? Please do not use this forum for "bashing", I just want your insight on why the increase. And what factors attributed to it. And please no profanity! - Same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Liberia. The penalty is a fine.

No nation for gays (2004): Today is National Day in Liberia. The war torn West African country is engaged in a process of reconstruction and resettlement but same-sex issues are not yet on the agenda and perhaps need to be. There is conflicting information available on the Internet when it comes to homosexuality in Liberia. Some sources claim that homosexuality is legal - others that it is not. Our best information suggests that homosexuality is illegal and that Liberian society, as with many societies in Africa sees homosexuality as a social taboo.  - Bank executive accused of sexual harassment by his junior employees (2005): Two of the employees informed this paper that they have previously worked with this homosexual bank executive at a certain popular banking institution in Monrovia, where he is believed to have lured some young men with his homosexual activities. They disclosed that the bank executive is usually in the habit of hiring unqualified young men or giving promotion to those whom he has sodomized.

Liberia still backwards in gay rights (2003). Just walk a mile in the shoes of a gay Liberian. It's bad enough that Liberians must hide their political orientations for fear of torture and beatings. It's worse still that some Liberians must also hide their sexual orientations for fear of ostracism, ridicule and possibly imprisonment. Yet even with the looming threat of punishment there is an underground gay society in the country's cities. Bravely, the hidden denizens of this underground community satisfy the sexual desires that could land them in jail... - Homosexuality and the Episcopal Church. - A guide to Liberian cultural and social norms (2004, PDF Download): Homosexuality is both illegal and considered ‘non-existent’ in Liberia. A person involved in a homosexual relationship may be shunned for bringing shame to their family and community.

The Liberal Voice, The Anglican Church in Southern Africa (2007): They were of one mind in their desire to dialogue and facilitate such dialogue and listening among all their members. The bishops were particularly determined to ensure that members of both homosexual and heterosexual orientation (and practice) were included in such dialogue. They were of one mind in their belief that this is how Jesus would want them to handle this divisive, emotive, and as yet unresolved issue. - A Global Church Does Not Accept Homosexuality, Kulah Says (2000): Numerous challenges have bombarded the church over the years, but the issue of homosexuality is one of the “threatening challenges” facing the denomination today, said Liberian Bishop Arthur Kulah (left), preaching to the 2000 General Conference on May 3. Threatening challenges surface when the authority given to the church by Christ is abused, he said...  If the United Methodist Church is to be global church, it must continue its stance, he said. Both the Old and New Testaments condemn the practice of homosexuality, he said. "In fact, it was one of the consequences for the destruction of Sodom. May we not suffer the wrath of God because of the quest to satisfy unpleasant desires that contrive the loving purpose of God for his church." "It is against the background of such biblical imperatives that we, the global United Methodist Church, do not condone the practice of homosexuality and consider it incompatible with Christian teaching." He asked the denomination to adhere to its rule that self-avowed practicing homosexuals not be accepted as candidates for ministry nor appointed to serve in the United Methodist Church. "For to do so is to contravene the very faith we proclaim. For we cannot afford to ruin the hearts and lives of the church and hence the world by engaging in practices not even easily mentioned among believers,” he said... - Un évêque anglican contre le mariage homosexuel au Libéria N/A.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Liberia.  Liberia Archive.  - African Veil: Countries Covered: Liberia. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Liberia News Reports From 2008 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Liberia. - LGBT rights in Liberia. - Sodomy Laws: Liberia. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Liberia Individual Documents Since 2000. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Liberia.   

LIBYA / LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA - Libya: two men arrested for "indecent acts" (2010, Alternate Link): The police report said that the younger man dressed like a “girl”, called himself Jumana, and was wearing make-up. It  reported that the cab driver said he was "fooled" by the man’s appearance, thinking him a woman, despite that the two men confessed that they were having “indecent acts" in the car. - Being gay under Gaddafi (2011): In Libya, lesbian and gay sex are both illegal. Under Section 407.4 of the Libyan Constitution, both can be punished by five years imprisonment. There seem to be no established Libyan LGBT organisations, and any expatriates able to do so depart for Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, France or the United States..  - Liberal Lybia (2004): Moammar Gadhafi, the president of Libya, has made some anti-gay remarks in the past but may be pleased to know that his gay citizens regard Libya as liberal by comparison to neighbouring Egypt.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country:  Libya.  Libya Archive. - African Veil: Countries Covered: Libya. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Libya News Reports From 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. - LGBT rights in Libya. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. Libya Individual Documents since 2002. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - Libyanman.com.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Middle East & North Africa: - Lybia.

MADAGASCAR Homosexualité (2010, Translation): Les couples homosexuels se plaignent de l’existence d’une nouvelle pratique discriminatoire auprès des hôtels. D’après les explications, les hôtels  commencent à refuser les couples de même sexe, surtout les hommes. - L’homosexualité gagne du terrain… (2010, Translation): Ah, Madagascar, mon cher et tendre pays, serais-tu par hasard un pays homo refoulé? parce qu’autant d’homos dans tes prisons, si c’est à l’image de ton peuple… Ou parques-tu les « déviants dans tes prisons pour ne pas les voir dans tes rues? - Milieu carcéral L'homosexualité gagne du terrain (2007, Translation): Les prisons malgaches ne sont pas à l'abri des maladies sexuellement transmissibles. Vingt détenus par chambre sont homosexuels à Madagascar.

Vulnerable groups in Madagascar need specific and open services, says report (2007): Alliance-led research in Madagascar has identified characteristics, attitudes and behaviours of vulnerable groups such as sex workers, men who have sex with men and injecting drug users that impact on HIV prevention priorities and feed into Madagascar’s national strategic plan. - The future at stake (2007): The island nation of Madagascar, off the coast of Southern Africa, has so far been spared an HIV/AIDS epidemic, unlike its continental neighbours, but health officials have warned that the country cannot afford to be complacent...

Madagascar: Sida - l'homosexualité gagne du terrain (2008, Translation): Les efforts nationaux pour la lutte contre le sida auront dorénavant de nouvelles cibles. «Les homosexuels, les prostituées et les détenus figurent parmi les groupes à risques que nous voulons sensibiliser pour l'année 2008», souligne Le Dr Fenosoa Ratsimanetrimanana, secrétaire exécutif du conseil national de lutte contre le sida (CNLS).

The Mysterious Fiancée Halfway across the World (2003):  Furthermore, no problems concerning or resulting from one’s sexual orientation were ever made known to me. On the other hand, like in many third world countries, I feel it is best to be reserved at first concerning one’s sexual orientation until it is safe to disclose the information to trusted persons in the community. Another aspect of being gay in Madagascar was that many of the people, especially the men, told me that homosexuality didn’t exist in their country, and it was something that was invented by the vazaha (foreigner)...

USAID/ Madagascar- Success Stories: Research demonstrates that peer education is a powerful method for behavior change. John Snow International has trained more than 400 peer educators in Sexually Transmitted Infections prevention. Most are recruited from high-risk groups including commercial sex workers, homosexual men, men in uniform, and transport workers. Several groups include very high-risk sub-populations such as homosexual commercial sex workers. MOH data shows that condom sales in public clinics increased where the peer educators work.

Le SIDA dand le sud ouest de l'ocean indien (2008, AIDS in the southwest Indian Ocean, Translation): La Madagascar: Selon le rapport d’ONUSIDA publié en juin 2006 le nombre de séropositif était évalué à 49000, fin 2005. D’autres sources sont plus pessimistes et estiment qu’il y a de 100 à 200 000 personnes séropositives à Madagascar. On ne dispose que de peu d’informations sur le mode de contamination. La méthodologie choisie dans les études épidémiologiques recense surtout les transmissions hétérosexuelles. Il n’existe pas d’information sur les contaminations homosexuelles.

Resources: - Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: Madagascar. - African Veil: Countries CoveredMadagascar. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa

Global Gayz: Africa: Madagascar News Reports From 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Africa: Madagascar. - LGBT rights in Madagascar. - Sodomy Laws. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Madagascar.

MALAWI - Donors seize aid because of antigay laws - Malawi (2011): Following the recent proposed criminalisation of same sex sexual practices amongst women in Malawi, some international donors have decided to withhold financial aid amounting close to 400 million dollars, a move which might see the country reaching an economic meltdown... Steven Monjeza and Tiwonge Chimbalanga the first openly gay couple in Malawi to get engaged were arrested, prosecuted and convicted of indecent practices in 2010 and sentenced to 14 years in prison but later received a presidential pardon, but activists suggest that this might have sparked the introduction of the new law. “At first the penal code only criminalised sex practices amongst men but after the 2009/10 case involving Steve and Tiwonge, the issues were widely being discussed and I think this is what brought about the whole change and the women being included. Even after the pardoning of the two, the government has maintained its stand on the same sex relationships in Malawi and I feel that the new law is just coming in from the government to show its people that it is not succumbing to the international pressure”, said Kamba. - Malawi refuses ‘homosexuality’ aid condition (2011): Malawi government on Wednesday took a strong stand against bilateral donors saying it cannot compromise its sovereignty to legalise homosexuality in order to get aid. - A Perverse Equality in Malawi and Other Gay Rights News (2011): Early last month, a bill was passed in Malawi’s parliament criminalizing homosexuality between women. Evidently there was concern the prior law could be construed to only apply to men, and since Malawi is clearly dedicated to making all things equal, decided it was necessary consenting adult women sharing their love also deserved the right to go to prison. As far as I know, the bill has yet to be signed