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Index: Public School Issues - Transgender / Transvestite / Transsexual - Lesbian  &  Bisexual Women - Homo-Negativity / Phobia - Identity Formation  &  Coming Out - Counseling  &  Therapy - Professional Education  - Bisexuality - Religion   &  Spirituality - Homosexuality:  Biological  or  Learned ? - Male  Youth Prostitution - - HIV-AIDS - Gay & Bisexual Male Suicide Problems - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction  -  - Drug / Alcohol Use / Abuse / Addiction  -  - GLBT  History - Community Attributes  &  ProblemsCouples / Families / Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence - The Elderly - Race/Ethnic Minority Issues: U.S., Canada, Europe,  New Zealand & AustraliaLatin America / Africa - Middle East / Asia

Public  School  Issues
See: More Than 200 Papers and Documents Related to GLBT Suicidality.

"Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 150 Studies!
At Another Website (Includes Transgender Study Results)
Page Index: - General Information. - USA: General Information. - USA: By State. - Canada: General Information. Canada: By Province. - Europe: General Information & By Country. - United Kingdom Ireland. - Australia & New Zealand. -Other Countries. - Videos. - Bibliographies. - Books. - Full Text Papers.
A Page Alert! Generally, all issues related to homosexuality in public schools is discussed in "white" terms, with people of color and their issues often ignored. See: Further Comments.

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The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!


Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. - Why Canada can't stop bullies (2009).

Homophobia in Schools: Is It Getting Better? (2011)
What does the latest research say about homophobia in schools?

Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
It Gets Better Project. - Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.


Social Policy Report: Safe Schools Policy for LGBTQ Students (2010, Alternate Link).
California Needs to Fight Gender Bullying (2011).
Powerful Irish Anti-Gay Bullying Ad (2011, Video).
Get That Freak: Homophobia and Transphobia in High Schools - 2011 - by Rebecca Haskell, Brian Burtch
 (Excerpt) (Review)
(Review) (Author Interview: Rebecca Haskell) (Radio Interview: Brian Burtch)
(Global TV News Interview With Authors) (City TV Interview with Rebecca Haskell).


Schools accused of abandoning thousands of gay children to classroom bullies (2005). 
Gay teenager who alleged unchecked bullying settles with NY school district, to get $50K (2010).
Study examines sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents (2010).
The 'Faggot' Factor: The Chickens Came Home to Roost at Columbine High (1999) (Alternate Link).
Bullying homofóbico nas Escolas [Homophobic Bullying in Schools] (2008) by James T Sears - in English PDF.

 "Faggot! Sissy! Queer!" (2007): Oh, there’s nothing like the sounds of children playing on the school playground. Sadly, increasingly, it is the sound of hatred,
as gay-oriented and homophobic taunts have risen to a level that has school officials taking notice. Well, some school officials, anyway.

Think Before You Speak- Homophobia in High Schools (Video). - Silent homophobia.
The Risk of Suicide, the Safety of Sexual Minorities in High Schools, and the Response of Gay-Straight Alliances.
L’homophobie frappe les hétéros ! (2009, Translation):
Les deux tiers des jeunes collégiens victimes d’incidents homophobes se définissent comme hétérosexuels. [Two-Thirds of high school students subjected to homophobic abuses in Quebec are heterosexual identified but are deemed to be "different"]. Information from: Journal L'UQAM (March, 2009).

A report issues by Quebec's Human Rights Commision in 2007 found little evidence of systematic school uptake
of what resources were available to combat homopobia in schools in Montreal. let alone in other regions of the province.
(Rayside, 2007: Queer Inclusions, Continental Division: Public Recognition of Sexual Diversity in Canada and the United States: Google Books)

What does it mean to teach for social justice? ... It Means Working to  End the Cycle of Oppression (2004).

Silence is the Voice of Complicity: Addressing Homophobia in Schools.
 “The role of the teacher is always political, because what is emphasized and what isn’t [in the curriculum] is very deliberate.” (Kelly, 2007)
Trouble For LGBT Teens of Color (2009): It's scary to see our youth going through the same mess we went through .
The harrasment, violence and abuse needs to stop. Change must come for next generation's sake.

Sexuality Policy Watch (2008): Position Paper on the Language of “Sexual Minorities” and the Politics of Identity.

Presumed Innocence: (Hetero)Sexual, Heterosexist and Homophobic Harassment among Primary School Girls and Boys.

Book shows how homophobia starts in the schoolyard: "Dr Plummer found that homophobia peaks in the mid to late teens, with boys in years 8 and 9 reporting that they use the word 'poofter' 25 to 50 times a day. These attitudes, he said, were often an exaggerated expression of heterosexual identity, and thus effected everyone. 'Boys who aren't targeted by others observe what goes on and make sure they don't do anything that might be considered suspect or that would make them stand out.'" - How Do People Treat You? (Related Information) (Related 2005 Report: Writing Themselves In Again: PDF Download) "Young men were more likely to be targeted for verbal abuse, and 46% of participants overall stated they had been verbally abused. Thirteen percent of participants had been physically abused. Almost 70% of the abuse disclosed had taken place at school, which means that school is a more violent place for these young people than the streets." - Variations of this Australian situation exists in many countries of the world. - Gay-Rights Groups Draft Guide To Laws on Harassment [in US Schools] (2002). - Who's looking after gay teenagers? (1998) - Is homophobic bullying a problem in schools? - A Hostile Hallway: GLBT Teens in High School. - Perceptions of homophobia and heterosexism in physical education (2003): "These data indicate that homophobic and heterosexist behaviors are common in secondary schools, that teachers intend to provide a safe space, and that teachers fail to confront heterosexist or homophobic behaviors and take proactive steps to create an inclusive environment." - Reaching Out to the Out: Kids and educators battle homophobia in schools. - The Necessity of Gay-Straight Alliances in Middle Schools (2007). - Terminology of homosexuality (Wikipedia) (Related). - Understanding Gender Identity in K-12 Schools (2007). - Lonely road: Why school is hell for transgender pupils (2008). - TransAmerica: Coming soon to a school near you. Should a male student be allowed to dress as a girl and use girls’ restrooms? (2009). - Kids Pulled From Transgender Teacher's Class (2008).

Anti-gay slurs common at school: Some say insults increase as gays visibility rises (2001). - Lesbian and gay students subjected to slurs, shoves in Oregon schools, survey says (2013). - Report says most gay and lesbian students in New York City are harassed because of their sexuality (2013). - How the Homophobic Climate in the United States Affects GLBTQ Youth. - John Cloud: The Battle Over Gay Teens (2005). - Homophobic Bullying 'Getting Worse' (2007): High-profile homophobic bullying initiatives are failing to make a significant impact in preventing homophobic bullying according to the Queer Youth Network (a national organisation by by and for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered young people). It argues the very nature of schools themselves need to be looked at in order to eradicate all forms of bullying. Tackling homophobic bullying alone is creating a distraction from dealing with a much larger problem. - A study of former high-school American Football players has found that more than a third said they had had sexual relations with other men (2007). - Lesson Plan: What Do "Faggot" and "Dyke" Mean? (2001): It seems that for quite a long time, "faggot" has been the slur of choice for people wishing to insult or harass gay men, men they perceive to be gay, or men they simply wish to humiliate regardless of their targets sexual orientation. Similarly, "dyke" has been used to target lesbian women, women perceived to be lesbian, or, in a common scenario, women refusing, for whatever reason, the sexual advances of men. - High school counselors say they lack skills to assist gay, lesbian students (2005). - Study: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender middle school students harassed more (2009). - It’s always open season on gay kids (2008). - Homophobia in schools remains major problem (2008). - Fighting Back Against School-wide Homophobia (2009). - The Impact of Homophobia and Racism on GLBTQ Youth of Color. - Shared Differences Examines LGBT Students of Color Experiences in School (2009). - Creating a safer school environment for lesbian and gay students (1992).

Does It Get Better? A Roundtable on LGBTQ Youth (2011): But does it get better? When it comes to the lives of LGBTQ people, recent history offers a more complex reality... But that’s only part of the story. Every step forward seems to be threatened by a push backward; progress is by no means inevitable.. For queer youth, especially, such prejudice is still a powerful barrier to progress. Those of us who work in the LGBTQ community—especially those of us who grew up as closeted, questioning, or queer kids ourselves—know that bullying is not a new story. Study after study confirms that LGBTQ youth are more likely to be harassed or homeless, more susceptible to substance abuse and public health risks, and more prone to depression and suicide than their straight and gender-conforming peers.1 Epithets like “gay,” “fag,” and “dyke” are still widely deployed and accepted - in classrooms and locker rooms, on playgrounds and athletic fields - and young people whose actions and appearances don’t conform to normative gender expectations are often teased for being “tomboys,” “sissies,” “trannies,” and the like. Such bullying, which can take both verbal and physical (and now virtual) form, is especially rampant among adolescent boys whose conceptions of “manhood” and “masculinity” are contaminated by homophobia, trans-phobia, and sexism that often go unchallenged by teachers, coaches, religious leaders, and family members. In a recent speech on bullying, one of my Kennedy School of Government students presciently noted, “children often learn words like ‘fag’ and ‘dyke’ in the same place where they learn to say ‘mommy’ and ‘daddy.’” And as the award-winning lesbian writer Sarah Schulman documents in her haunting memoir, The Ties That Bind: Familial Homophobia and Its Consequences, for many queer kids, the bullying begins at home. And it doesn’t end there. As the recent suicides and studies demonstrate, the world is still a treacherous place for many LGBTQ kids.

Shutting LGBT Students Out: How Current Anti-Bullying Policies Fail America’s Youth (2011): Every student deserves the opportunity to go to school without fear of being harassed. While students remain protected on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, and level of ability, there remains no federal law that protects gay and transgender students from being harassed, discriminated against, or intimidated in the classroom. In this article, I outline how fragmented bullying laws result in disjointed school district policies that not only affect gay and transgender students in the classroom but also have larger public policy ramifications... In the absence of a federal mandate that bars school yard bullying or a law that requires states and school districts to incorporate comprehensive anti-bullying legislation to protect all students, states that have elected to institute generic anti-bullying laws most certainly deserve to be commended for their initial efforts. But the successes of states with comprehensive anti-bullying laws should be recognized and should help states with generic laws to understand that more can be done to protect students. Students, categorically, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, sexual orientation, or gender identity, deserve equal access to an education and an equal opportunity to be their best selves. This can only be achieved if every student can go to school free from victimization and hallway terrorism.

LGBT Suicide and the Trauma of Growing Up Gay (2011): One gay high school student disclosed to me that on average he hears more than twenty homophobic remarks a day. Schools can feel like concentration camps for LGBT children or any child who gets scapegoated as queer. For the most part, LGBT kids do not get any protection from school officials, and this is a form of child abuse on a collective level. Mistreatment of LGBT youth and a lack of protection are contributing factors to the issue of LGBT teen suicide.The feeling of differentness as it relates to being gay or lesbian is too complex for any child to process and make sense of especially when coupled with external attacks in the form of homophobic, derogatory name calling. Unlike a black child whose parents are typically also black or a Jewish child with Jewish parents and relatives, the LGBT youth typically does not have gay or lesbian parents or anyone who would mirror his or her experience... The stress of trying to come to terms with a complex matter such as same sex attraction, family’s rejection as a result of finding out about same sex attraction, and becoming victimized through verbal and physical abuse by peers due to being different are contributing factors to the trauma of growing up gay or lesbian. Such traumatic experience can explain why lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning youth are up to four times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual peers.

Teachers Never Intervened - homophobia in South African schools (2007). - Hidden, Invisible, Marginalized, Ignored: A Critical Review of the Professional and Empirical Literature (or Lack Thereof) on Gay and Lesbian Teachers in the United States (2008). - Out Gay and Lesbian K-12 Educators: A Study in Radical Honesty (2007, PDF). - Teacher education generally ignores transgender issues (2009). - Gay and lesbian issues are often silenced in teacher education programs (2008). - LGBT Parents Involved in, Excluded from K-12 Schools; Children Often Harassed (2008). - Gay High Schools Offer a Haven From Bullies (2008). - Protecting Gay, Lesbian and Gender Variant Teens (2007). - The Washington Times' anti-gay war on Kevin Jennings (2009). - Conservatives Seek To Remove Openly Gay Safe Schools Czar (2009). - For Those Who Need to Know: Anti-Gay Site Posts Details on Fisting (2009). - Combattre l'homophobie à l'école et ailleurs / Fighting Homophobia at school and everywhere else (2008, With 2 Downloads: Combattre l’homophobie, pour une école ouverte à la diversité (Belgique, 2006) & OUT Smarting Homphobia (Australia, 2007). - The Rights Of Lesbian and Gay Teachers and Education Personnel: 2001-2004 Triennal Report (2004). - Downloads for Roman Catholic Schools and GLBT Related Issues: Gay Adolescents in Catholic Schools: Avoiding the Topic Won't Make It Go Away (2004) & Gay Adolescents in Catholic Schools, Part II: Guidelines for Providing a Safe, Supportive Environment (2004). - RC Schools Not Tackling Homophobic Bullying (2007, UK). - Homophobic Teachers Refuse to Declare Classes Safe for Gay Students (2006). - Teaching Transgender (2009). - Fighting Back Against School-wide Homophobia (2009).

"Faggot! Sissy! Queer!" (2007): Faggot. Sissy. Lesbo. Queer. Gay-boy. Dyke. Lezzie. You’re so gay. Oh, there’s nothing like the sounds of children playing on the school playground. Sadly, increasingly, it is the sound of hatred, as gay-oriented and homophobic taunts have risen to a level that has school officials taking notice. Well, some school officials, anyway. .. Many kids argue that the slurs have nothing to do with sexual orientation, instead meaning “bad” or “stupid”. For years, a similar argument has been made about the “N word”. Many of those who use it claim that it’s not a racial slur, but a slam against anyone who is lazy or shifty, regardless of race. But that lame rationalization doesn’t make the word’s use any less hurtful or malicious. Language based on a demographic characteristic and used to be hurtful causes psychological harm to the members of that demographic group, regardless of the context in which the language is used. Yet it’s not just the word “gay” that is heard as an epithet in schools throughout the US. GLBTQ, an online encyclopedia for gay culture, notes that “fag” is one of the most frequent insults used in high schools and all of the slurs listed at the beginning of this essay are commonly heard. In approximately 80 percent of cases, the target of the insult isn’t even homosexual or bisexual, according to the National Education Association...  - Homo-syllabus: Attending School for Gay & Lesbian (2002). - Understanding Sexual Minority Adolescents (2006). - Challenging homophobia: Developing a Whole School Approach. - Breaking the silence around bullying (2009). - Bullied for Being ‘Gay’ (2009). - Providing a Lifeline for LGBT Youth: Mental Health Services and the Age of Consent (2010). - How to Improve Mental Health Care for LGBT Youth: Recommendations for the Department of Health and Human Services (2010).

Higdon Michael J (2011). To Lynch a Child: Bullying and Gender Nonconformity in our Nation's Schools. Indiana Law Journal, 86(3): 826-878. PDF Download. Indeed, the student who fails to conform to generally accepted gender stereotypes frequently finds him or herself among the chronically victimized. In essence, these children are isolated and demonized for their failure to adhere to our society’s unwritten “code” of what is required of boys and girls. As such, I contend that the treatment these students are subjected to frequently goes beyond bullying and instead becomes a form of lynching. After all, just as the violence that befell African Americans like Emmett Till was often the result of perceived violations of that society’s racial hierarchy, the bullying I focus on in this Article is predicated on the child’s “violation” of our society’s rather rigid gender roles. Further, just as the violence used during the civil rights era was designed to produce compliance through fear, such bullying likewise operates to create fear in those who are bullied, sending them the powerful message to either conform to their expected gender role or face continued bullying. In addition, just as the entire community participated in and supported the practice of race-based lynching, gender-based bullying goes far beyond the individual perpetrator(s). As discussed below, such bullies operate with relative impunity and often, in fact, with the explicit approval of school administrators and the larger school community. Even in the absence of explicit approval, however, it is largely the community standards of appropriate gender roles that drive this form of bullying. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, this bullying often results in death, either at the hand of the bully or by suicide. However, even when physical death is not a direct result, a number of studies have shown that the psychological harms that typically result from such bullying, like those harms suffered by African American children during segregation, are tantamount to death given the destructive role these harms can play throughout the remainder of the bullied student’s life...

New efforts made to fight anti-gay bullying (2009): Debra Chasnoff interviewed teens across the country for her new documentary "Straightlaced: How Gender’s Got Us All Tied Up." She found that teens--whether straight, gay or just perceived as gay--have to maintain the stricted self-discipline at all times."Just about everybody was aware of how a person cannot be perceived as gay," she says about her extensive teen-age sources. "In terms of how they dress, activities they participate in, how much affection to show their friends -- they constantly need to prove their heterosexuality." ... To increase awareness, Chasnoff’s sponsoring organization, Groundspark, is taking her film on an 80-city road trip. The film will also be available fordistribution in schools. - GroundSpark creates visionary films and dynamic educational campaigns that move individuals and communities to take action for a more just world: Straightlaced: How Gender’s Got Us All Tied Up. - Straightlaced—How Gender's Got Us All Tied Up! is on Facebook. - Straightlaced--How Gender's Got Us All Tied Up (YouTube). Related Google Search. - Why are so many school libraries reluctant to embrace gay teens? (2006). - Gay teen incarcerated in 'restorative' boot camp Rules prohibit speech, dreams, Calvin Klein (2005).

Transgendered Children in Schools: a critical review of Homophobic Bullying: safe to learn – embedding anti-bullying work in schools. - Research Shows Lack of Support for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Youth in U.S. School Systems. - Guidance on Combating Transphobic Bullying in Schools. - Transphobic Bullying in Schools. - Lonely road: Why school is hell for transgender pupils. - Trans Youth at School. - Harsh Realities Finds Transgender Youth Face Extreme Harassment in School. - Harsh Realities: The Experiences of Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools (2009): "Societal norms of gender expression - masculinity or femininity - pervade American culture, on television, in advertising, at sporting events and in school hallways nationwide. Children hear words like “sissy” or “tomboy” or expressions like “you throw like a girl” from their first days on the playground. Name-calling and bullying based on gender expression are among the first forms of harassment that young people learn and experience. And as transgender and gender nonconforming students enter middle and high school, they can face far harsher realities than name-calling, including harassment and physicalviolence." - Using Music to Teach Against Homophobia.

Meyer, Elizabeth J (2008). A Feminist Reframing of Bullying and Harassment: Transforming Schools through Critical Pedagogy. McGill Journal of Education, 43(1): 33-48: What is Gendered harassment? Gendered harassment is a term used to describe any behaviour that acts to assert the boundaries of traditional gender norms: heterosexual masculinity and femininity. It is related to, but different from, bullying. Bullying is defined as behaviour that repeatedly and over time intentionally inflicts injury on another individual (Olweus, 1993), whereas harassment includes biased behaviours that have a negative impact on the target or the environment (Land, 2003). Forms of gendered harassment include (hetero)sexual harassment, homophobic harassment, and harassment for gender non-conformity (or transphobic harassment). I link these three forms of harassment because the impact of the harassers’ behaviour is linked to norm-setting and policing the performance of traditional (heterosexual) gender roles (Larkin, 1994; Martino, 1995; Martino & Pallotta-Chiarolli, 2003; Renold, 2002; Smith & Smith, 1998; Stein, 1995).

Himmelstein KE, Brückner H (2011). Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: a national longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 127(1): 49-57. Abstract. PDF Download. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents who were in grades 7 through 12 in 1994-1995. Data from the 1994-1995 survey and the 2001-2002 follow-up were analyzed. Three measures were used to assess nonheterosexuality: same-sex attraction, same-sex romantic relationships, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) self-identification. Six outcomes were assessed: school expulsion; police stops; juvenile arrest; juvenile conviction; adult arrest; and adult conviction. Multivariate analyses controlled for adolescents' sociodemographics and behaviors, including illegal conduct... Nonheterosexuality consistently predicted a higher risk for sanctions. For example, in multivariate analyses, nonheterosexual adolescents had greater odds of being stopped by the police (odds ratio: 1.38 [P < .0001] for same-sex attraction and 1.53 [P < .0001] for LGB self-identification). Similar trends were observed for school expulsion, juvenile arrest and conviction, and adult conviction. Nonheterosexual girls were at particularly high risk... Nonheterosexual youth suffer disproportionate educational and criminal-justice punishments that are not explained by greater engagement in illegal or transgressive behaviors. Understanding and addressing these disparities might reduce school expulsions, arrests, and incarceration and their dire social and health consequences.

Weidler, Rebecca (2011). LGBTQ Youth Experience in Schools: A Review of the Literature. PDF Download. LGBTQ youth experience secondary school differently because of their sexual orientation and gender identity. These students face greater risk for mental health issues, and can struggle to succeed personally and academically as they face bullying and harassment from peers and mistreatment and non-responsiveness from teachers and administrators. This review of the literature on research on LGBTQ students traces the branches of this very young branch of academic interest. The research has grown from focusing on the role of adults in the education of young LGBTQ people to including and eventually centering student experience. Many researchers focus on mental health, bullying, and academic issues. Few studies adequately address intersectionality, and work must still be taken in fully conceptualizing the sociological dynamics within a school setting. Researchers must continually readdress issues as the sociopolitical context changes, and they must pioneer new ways of thinking about school youth that emphasize students as experts on the interactional aspects of the education system. Researchers repeatedly assume that young people only have basic insight about their experiences, but in order to call for policy changes, researchers must acknowledge and solicit the considerable policy insight that LGBTQ students have.

Do Schools Fail Gay and Lesbian Youth? (2001, Alternate Link) - Gay and Lesbian Teens (1997). - GLBTQ Youth: At Risk and Underserved (2003). - Worst days of their lives (2000): "School is usually a nightmare for gay and lesbian pupils, writes Greg Callaghan. 'FAGGOT! Pooftah! Fairy!' They kept yelling it at me, as I left the school yard..." - Homosexuality and School Superintendents: A Brief History (2003). -  Gay Teens at Risk. Fastback 357 (1993). -  Gay Youth in American Public High Schools: Invisible Diversity (1992). - The Needs of Lesbian and Gay Young People - Exploring the Possibilities for Change in Schools (1996, UK). - Gay Proms: Separate but Equal? (2001) - More high school proms opening doors to same-sex couples (2000). - Healthy Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students Project (2001). - Gay-lesbian support groups in US public high schools. - Making Schools Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students: A Resource Guide (2002). - Creating Safe Schools for Lesbian and Gay Students: A resource guide for school staff (1997). - More than 100 PFGAG chapters active in PFGAG national safe schools program (2001).

People For the American Way: The Truth About Gay and Lesbian Issues in the Public Schools (1995). - Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: Understanding available support systems in the high school environment (2000). - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth - Pressing Needs and Promising Practices (2002) (Funding List, to 2012). - Gay Teens: Preventing Self-Harm (1997, School Nurse). The author concludes: "The health care provider, whether in a school-based clinic, a primary care clinic, an emergency department, an inpatient unit, a specialty clinic, or a shelter for homeless youth, is unquestionably in a position to assist these struggling adolescents to reduce self-harm and to increase self-acceptance." - Social Work with Gay and Lesbian Adolescents (1993, by  Deana F. Morrow).  - Fighting to Allow Gay Clubs at Schools (2003). - Gay Teens Ignored by High School Sex Ed Classes (2002). - Lessons on Homosexuality Move Into the Classroom (2007). - Bishop says faith schools must tackle homophobic bullying (2009).

Why We Need to Address Lesbian and Gay Issues in Our Schools. - American Psychological Association's resolutions re: GLBT Youth in Schools. - Healthy, Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students Project. - Research on Health Education Needs of LGBT Youth. - The Needs of Lesbian and Gay Young People: Exploring the Possibilities for Change in Schools. - Anderson, J. D. (Phi Delta Kappan, 1994): School climate for gay and lesbian students and staff members: "In every class in every school throughout our country there are students who are not being given an equal education." - Demystifying Homosexuality in Schools in the Chaudière-Appalachia Region: An Aid to Intervention (PDF Download). - Gaybashing in Schools. - Gay-Bashing in Adventist Schools. - Muslims' fury forces schools to shelve anti-homophobia storybooks for 5-year-olds (2008). - Scared Not to Be Straight: Harassment of LGBT Teens Prompts Antibullying Initiatives (2008). - Owning His Gay Identity -- at 15 Years Old. Youths Coming Out Sooner, but Protections Against Harassment Lag (2008).

Les garçons, toujours les plus mal à l'aise face à l'homosexualité au secondaire et au cégep. - L'homosexualité à l'école: toujours taboue. - L'école n'aide pas les jeunes homosexuels à sortir de leur silence. - La place de l'homosexualité dans l'éducation sexuelle en milieu scolaire. - Combattre l’homophobie à l’école : un dossier pour les enseignants. - École: gais et lesbiennes en terrain hostile. - L'homosexualité et l'école: Discrimination et ignorance augmentent le risque de suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels. - L’école semble être un espace plus accueillant pour les jeunes homos et bi. - Homophobia high: Classrooms become labs for a multi-university study on attitudes towards LGBT students (Quebec, 2009).- Homophobic bullying in schools can and does kill: Walk past any schoolyard at recess time and what do you hear? Kids as young as five calling each other "gay" and "fag." At the junior and senior high school level, the word "gay" has become a universally pejorative term: "You're gay," kids sneer at each other, or "That is so gay!" I've even heard "Gay it all!" as an expression of annoyance over some triviality...

Holebi's, le dossier homosexualité de "Klasse" (2000): L'homosexualité à l'école, traduction du dossier "Holebi's" (Homosexuels, lesbiennes et bisexuels) rédigé par l'équipe de "Klasse", projet de communication du Département de l'Enseignement du Ministère de la Communauté flamande. Comment aborder la question de l'homosexualité à l'école? Quels sont les préjugés qui y circulent? Comment lutter contre les discriminations dont sont victimes élèves et professeur(e)s gays et lesbiennes? Quelle approche de l'homosexualité au niveau de l'établissement scolaire, de la classe et au niveau individuel? Témoignages et réactions sont également présentés (PDF). - La perception de l'homosexualité chez les jeunes de 13 à 21 ans: Enquête réalisée par la Fédération des Centres de Planning Familial des FPS (2002). - Attitude des Québécois à l’égard de la sensibilisation des jeunes aux réalités de l’homosexualité et notoriété de Gai Écoute (2000).

No Sex, Please, We’re Gay Teens: (Alternate Link)... The GLBT movement is seriously failing queer young people in matters of sex.... Young queer people today are growing up in a world where gay and mainstream culture give them mixed signals about sexuality and sexual behavior. The two historical circumstances that made growing up gay so unique for those born in the mid-1980s and after—the fight for marriage equality and the AIDS epidemic—are also making it almost impossible to have informed, healthy, and sane discussions about sexual desire and sexual activity. That’s because in recent years the clanging of wedding bells and the insistent bad news about HIV transmission (much of it fueled by anti-gay hysteria in the mainstream media) has distorted how the gay and lesbian community talks about sex. Over the past five years, safe sex education, seen from the mostly gay-run AIDS non-profits, has shifted from promoting healthy sexuality and sexual behavior to the “be afraid to have sex” scare tactics of the 1980s. Moreover, the fight for marriage equality—and the elevation of marriage as the idealized pinnacle of appropriate and healthy homosexuality—has moved front and center in gay politics and, to a large degree, in the imaginations of young gay people, much to their detriment...  In almost all the community discussion of marriage equality, the word “sex”—even the idea of “sex”—is glaringly absent...  The connection between AIDS and marriage here is not incidental or accidental. When the AIDS epidemic exploded, one of the first responses to it, both within and outside the queer community, was to urge gay men to stop having sex and to enter into monogamous relationships. Even after the specifics of AIDS transmission became known, much AIDS education focused on curtailing sexual experience altogether. For many gay male commentators, such as Larry Kramer, Bruce Bawer, and Gabriel Rotello, the curtailment of sexual activity was the only “cure” for the AIDS epidemic. ..  Most of us—excluding a significant part of the religious right, which favors abstinence-only sex- ed—know that people get better at sex not only by having a range of sexual experiences, often with different people, but also by thinking and talking about sex. That is the conversation that gay men and lesbians as a community are not having and that is being stifled by the power and the enormous consequence that the same-sex marriage debate—drained of sex—has assumed in our politics and lives.

Why schools must address gay issues - by Dan Woog - author of School's Out: The Impact of Gay and Lesbian Issues on America's Schools. by  Dan Woog  - Homophobia in High School. -  Challenging Homophobia in Schools: A Critical Review. (Part of the web page: "Opposing the Pro-Homosexuality Agenda" - High schools' gay-straight clubs draw fire: Students join to fight antigay harassment, while critics charge that school isn't the place for such groups. - My Queer Life: Prom Queen: As if teen years weren't hard enough, then comes the prom. What's a gay kid to do? - Gay Issues, Schools, and The Right-wing Backlash. - Gay students want help at historically black schools: Anti-gay sentiments and homophobia long have plagued the gay and lesbian community, but students and activists say that it's a different ball game among historically black colleges and universities. Cultural traditions, religious ties and previous racial oppression are among numerous factors cited for a large discrepancy between treatment of homosexuals at HBCUs and predominately white institutions. - Homophobia: How prevalent in our schools? (2008) “That’s so gay!” Is homophobia an issue in Atikokan schools? Perhaps a better question might be whether deer are walking our streets, or whether bears sleep in the woods, because there is no question that the worst epithet that can be applied to a kid is that he is gay and the word is reserved for anything deserving of contempt.

The GLSEN (Gay Lesbian Straight Education Network: The Studies/Reports) "Safety Report Card" ratings of major school districts in the United States. GLSEN: 2003 National School Climate Survey (on Gay Harassment). - Release of 2003 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light on the Experiences of LGBT Students in America’s Schools: "At the same time, more than 4 out of 5 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students report being verbally, sexually or physically harassed at school because of their sexual orientation. “This year’s findings clearly demonstrate that despite modest measurable gains, violence, bias and harassment of LGBT students continues to be the rule, not the exception, in America’s schools,” said GLSEN Executive Director Kevin Jennings. “This research reveals what must be inherent to so many educators and parents: harassment has a negative impact on LGBT students’ academic performance and college ambitions. To ignore these numbers is an irresponsible message to all students that any promise of equal access to education remains forged and fictitious.”- Grading Our Schools - homophobia (Last Article). (Related Information) - GLSEN's 2005 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light on Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: "75.4% of students heard derogatory remarks such as "faggot" or "dyke" frequently or often at school, and nearly nine out of ten (89.2%) reported hearing "that's so gay" or "you're so gay" - meaning stupid or worthless- frequently or often." - The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief - 2007 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Harassed. - From: "Growing Up Gay: Are Schools Doing Enough to Support Gay Students?": "Eight U.S. school districts received the highest grade of "A"... More than twenty of the 42 large U.S. school districts received failing grades." What is an "A"? "Everything is relative," Cimino told the Herald. "If you're going to put it on a normal scale of what we should have, we're a D-. But when we're compared to what's going on in other school districts, we're an A." - 2009 National School Climate Survey. - GLSEN Article on Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Gay Youth Published. - Silence is the Voice of Complicity: Addressing Homophobia in Schools (Abstract). - GLSEN's Anti-Bullying Resources. - GLSEN" Safe Space Kit: What you can do to make your school safe for LGBT youth. - GLSEN" Tools to Develop and Implement a Safe Schools Campaign: Launch and sustain effective campaigns. - GLSEN's Jump-Start Guide for Gay-Straight Alliances: Download guides for students and gay-straight alliances/gsa. - Teaching Tolerance: Meet the Teacher Who Started Gay-Straight Alliances (2010). - The 2001 National School Climate Survey by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network Summary (PDF Download).

Blackburn MV, McCready LT (2009, PDF). Voices of Queer Youth in Urban Schools: Possibilities and Limitations. Theory Into Practice, 48: 222-230. We acknowledge the significant activist efforts by LGBTQ youth in the forms of professional development, official curricula, and GSAs, but we are concerned about how GSAs, in particular, seem to be inadequate for LGBTQ youth of color. The importance of this shortcoming is underscored by the GLSEN finding that even though LGBT students attending schools in cities were less likely than those in schools in suburbs, small towns, or rural areas to hear homophobic remarks and to experience victimization based on sexual orientation, they were more likely to experience victimization based on race or ethnicity.

Syracuse University Students in CFE/QSX 300 (2010, Under the direction of Elizabethe Payne). 2010 Report on Queer Youth in the Syracuse City School District. PDF Download. One issue with Syracuse area GSAs is their insistence on providing a “safe space” for youth – without actually improving the overall climate of the entire school. In an interview with a guidance counselor at Syosset High School, Zack noted that the members of the school’s GSA want more than just a specified “safe space”. “I think [the GSA] is…a place of comfort. [The club members] would like to be more activist. It’s discussed a lot about what could we do as in terms of activism” (Z. Beal, personal communication, November 17, 2010). In the larger sense, a “safe space” identifies the rest of the school as unsafe: "Having safe spaces on campus where students feel that they can have a temporary reprieve from harassment is important…but the establishment of these spaces, rather than being an answer to the problem…only make the problem more apparent. The larger problem is…that students do not experience the entirety of their school as 'safe' and therefore require these zones." (Payne & Smith, 2010, p. 16)  Although designated safe spaces bring about queer visibility and give queer kids a sense of safety, the larger problem of the overall “unsafe space” of the schools needs to be addressed and dealt with effectively. Another main concern of the high school GSA is that it becomes an arena for mostly white students, excluding and alienating students of color. In describing the participation of students of color in high school GSAs, Lance T. McCready (2004) writes that it is “more difficult for guys…of color to come out and feel comfortable attending a queer support group,” especially one made up of “the…4 or 5…white female students who participated in [a GSA]” (p. 139). Schools need to make sure that their GSAs are inclusive and that all people, regardless of identity, feel comfortable attending. The title of a GSA can speak volumes about its function within a school. A faculty member at Northern Pine High expressed confusion about his school’s GSA based on its title. “It’s called ‘Alphabet Soup,’” he exclaimed, “which is kind of a strange group if you ask me…It’s kind of a very childish name.” When allocating a name for a queer student group, there needs to be a balance between being informative and inclusive. Simply calling a club a Gay- Straight Alliance is, in some ways, counterproductive, as it separates queer youth from the rest of the school into a specified space. It also implies that there are two contrasting sexualities, gay and straight, and that this club is the one opportunity for them to bridge their differences. Thirdly, it reinforces the space as “white” by alluding toward the word “gay”, which has traditionally been associated with white, middle class, men. These ideas need to be taken into consideration when creating a name for a school’s queer student group.

Syracuse University Students in CFE/QSX 300 (2010, Under the direction of Elizabethe Payne). 2010 Report on Queer Youth in the Syracuse City School District. PDF Download. With the recent rash of LGBTQ suicides, many people have begun to question why queer adolescents feel so lost and hopeless. The media and news programs discuss bullying, and the LGBTQ community sets up support programs (It Gets Better and the Trevor Project). The real reason for these suicides is one that is not addressed by the media or the LGBTQ community. No matter how many anti-bullying programs are started, no matter how many support initiatives are created, and no matter what television programs are aired, the bullying will not stop until the root of the problem is dealt with. The problem is the overwhelming silence which smothers LGBTQ youth. This silence forces all non-normative, gender non-conforming and non-heterosexual adolescents into a position of non-existence. Bullying and suicide cannot be addressed until the silence is shattered and the LGBTQ youth are given a legitimate space within schools.

First National Climate Survey on Homophobia in Canadian Schools (Canada, 2008). - Schools full of homophobia: researcher Says many kids bullied, fearful (2009): "Kids are being tormented and terrorized, and very little is being done about it," she said. Taylor says the findings of their first phase are not surprising -- the vast majority of gay and lesbian students who responded to the survey reported verbal homophobic attacks in their high school, sometimes physical abuse, and could identify areas of their school where they don't feel safe, such as washrooms, gym change rooms, and hallways. The result was hardly surprising when teenagers freely use as pejoratives words such as "fag" and "queer" in an environment where few students are brave enough to step forward and say such terms are wrong, said Taylor. As well, "A lot of straight kids are bullied homophobically at school," she pointed out... - Catholic School Board Refuses to Conduct Survey on 'Homophobia' (2008). - Bullying and Homophobia in Canadian Schools.

Revolving Doors: LGBTQ Youth at the Interface of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems (2011): Given their capacity to mask, mute, and bureaucratize the human voice, institutional settings remain particularly potent spaces for the interpersonal and systemic enactment of homophobia and transphobia. Tremendous obstacles exist in providing effective, high-quality services to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adolescents in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. This article reviews and critically analyzes the small body of literature pertaining to LGBTQ youth in the foster care system within the United States. It identifies systemic biases shared between the child welfare and juvenile justice systems and argues that they have jointly become warehouses for LGBTQ youth trapped within their midst. The article concludes with suggestions for policy reform and argues for the need to embrace an intersectional lens in child welfare and juvenile justice research, policy, and practice... Part I: LGBTQ Youth in the Foster Care System: As explored in this section, tremendous obstacles exist in providing effective, high-quality services to LGBTQ adolescents in the child welfare system... Part II: The Revolving Door: Onto the Streets and Into the Juvenile Justice System: Strong parallels between the child welfare system and the juvenile justice system indicate that many of the stereotypes, biases, discriminatory practices, and structural barriers that shape the lives and experiences of LGBTQ youth are shared across both systems, with projections indicating the likelihood that LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in both (Estrada and Marksamer 2006; Majd et al. 2009; Sullivan et al. 2001). Juvenile Justice Systems and LGBTQ Youth: Specific manifestations of the criminalization of LGBTQ youth within the juvenile justice system include the increased likelihood that youth will be detained prior to sentencing and a pathologizing of their sexuality that at times results in inappropriate “sex offense” (e.g., lewd conduct) charges. These charges then impact not only hearings and sentencing but also eventual disproportionate placement of LGBTQ youth in juvenile justice systems (Estrada and Marksamer 2006; Majd et al. 2009; Sullivan et al. 2001; Laver and Khoury 2008)...

Young , gay and homeless with few places to turn for help (Boston): " They come from throughout New England and range from age 17-30. Outreach workers say that up to 60 percent of them are either gay, bisexual or questioning their sexual orientation. Social care providers estimate that between 5-20 percent of them are HIV-positive. Many have been kicked out of their homes because they are gay, only to find themselves trapped in life on the street where the only rules that apply are doing whatever it takes to survive: even if it means selling their bodies in order to do so. Often times, these street hustlers exchange sexual favors for drugs and alcohol..." - For Young Gays on the Streets, Survival Comes Before Pride; Few Beds for Growing Class of Homeless (New York, 2004): "With just two dozen beds available for gay, lesbian and transgendered youth, they endure violence in the city's shelters, camp out in doorways in Harlem or pass the night at a 24-hour Internet café, where some trawl the Web for men who will pay for sex. ."You've got to do what you've got do to survive," says Murray, who has been a prostitute since he was 15... The number of homeless teenagers is growing, Siciliano says, inadvertently fueled by the identity-affirming pitch of gay rights advocates and the feel-good wit of television shows like "Queer Eye for the Straight Guy" and "Will and Grace," which encourage adolescents to declare their sexuality to parents, who often respond by throwing them out..." - L.G.B.T. youth are feeling left out in the cold by lack of funds. - Homeless Queer Youth: "Queer street youth may have difficulty accessing services to obtain food, shelter, social services and medical attention.  When they are able to access these services, many queer youth find that they do not adequately meet their needs.  Physicians, mental health professionals, and social workers often assume that the adolescents they work with are heterosexual.  Once a queer young person realizes that this assumption has been made, s/he is unlikely to reveal that s/he is gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender.  If the adolescent does not reveal her/his sexual orientation, service providers may be unable to accurately assess that individual’s needs and provide appropriate information and services." - Study Examines Homeless Gay Youths. - Resources, Reports, Guides and Other Tools for Lawyers, Social Workers, and other Providers Working with LGBTQ Youth in Out‐of‐Home Care.

Sleeping on the street: Shout counts 1,000 homo kids [in Toronto]. - OUT in the Cold examines the lives of homeless gay youth (A documentary by Eric Criswell and Martin Bedogne). - Homeless Gay Youth: For Group of Young People, Village Piers Mean Home (New York). - A Forgotten Youth: New York City Queer Homeless Youth Survive at the Bottom of the Barrel (2009). - NYC Faulted for Inaction on Homeless Gay Youth. (Related Information) - NYC takes new action for gay youth (2009).  - Are we doing enough for GLBT youth, Newsletter, Spring 2001 N/A? - Growing Up Gay: Are Schools Doing Enough to Support Gay Students? - 20/20 reports on homeless gay youth. (Related information). - Homeless gay youth kicked to the curb by movement: "Amazingly, out of approximately 70 press releases posted on NGLTF’s Web site this year, only a handful are even related to gay youth and none on the issue of homeless gay youth." (Alternate Link: Homeless Youths:  Kicked to the Curb by HRC and NGLTF) - NGLTF's 2007 Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: An epidemic of homelessness (PDF Dowload). - Homeless LGBT Youth and LGBT Youth in Foster Care (The Safe Schools Coalition).

LGBTQ: On the Streets, In the Schools, Outside the System (2006, Radio): Thousands of Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queer (LGBTQ) youth are forced out on to the streets in the U.S. each year, and face harassment, homophobia and even violence in their high schools. In addition, there are many LGBTQs outside this country seeking an increasingly difficult path to political asylum in the U.S. On this edition, we'll hear from the LGBTQ community, on the streets, in the schools and outside the system. - America Needs to Tackle Rise in Homelessness Among Gay Youth. - Who is Advocating for Homeless LGBT Youth? (2009). - Interfaith Task Force for LGBTQ Homeless Youth.

Gay youths find safe haven in temporary housing program (Rosalind Bentley, Star Tribune, January 22, 2002): "It all became too much and she called her high school counselor for help. Many phone calls and much paperwork later, Kate, (who asked that we not publish her last name,) found herself in the Twin Cities Host Home Program, an alternative care program for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender youths who are homeless or living in untenable situations." - Shelter for Young Gays Gets an OK. - Helping Homeless Lesbian and Gay Teenagers UK. - School of Hard Knocks (Australia). - Another Black Experience: Gay Daddy: "The piers are gone now. AIDS decimated a generation, and is now hitting another hard, particularly young gay black men, who are being infected at the same epidemic rate as Africans. I asked Al if he thought more funding would help, and he sneered, "Not until the black community confronts homophobia head on. Not as long as parents throw their kids away." Al tries to redeem them, but for young gay black and Latino kids, not enough has changed." - Homeless Sexual Minorities at Greater Risk for Violence, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse (PubMed Abstract) -  Foster care needs to nurture gay kids N/A - by Deb Price, Dec. 2000, Detroit News). - Fact Sheet on LGBT Youth Health Needs and Issues, which schools presently fail to address. - Albert Kennedy Trust: U.K. organization helping homeless lesbian & gay teenagers. - Background on Gay Youth in Social Service Settings: Youth in social service settings are already more vulnerable than other youth. - Factors specific to GLBT Youth.

We Don't Exactly et the Welcome Wagon: The Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Adolescents in Child Welfare - 1998 - by Gerald Mallon (Review). - Lambda Takes on the Foster Care System (2001): "The incidents are almost too painful to imagine. A lesbian teenager was sexually assaulted in a group facility by a staff member who challenged her sexual orientation. A gay youth was severely beaten by eight fellow group home residents while staff ignored his screams. Another was forced by his foster family to undergo “conversion therapy.” The nightmarish anecdotes go on and on. They are devastating stories, of young people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, trapped in a foster care system that often refuses to give protection, support, or even acknowledgment of their very existence." - Class-Action Suit Filed on Behalf of Gay Teens N/A (1999): "A Federal class-action lawsuit was filed Friday on behalf of gay and lesbian teens in New York City's foster care system, alleging their sexual orientation routinely exposes them to physical violence and psychological abuse." - Suit Alleges Frequent Abuse of Gay Children in Foster Care. - Task Force to End Homophobia in Foster Care Unveils New Anti-Bias Tool And Recommendations- Gay Youth Struggle in Troubled Foster Care System; ACLU and Others Push for Change N/A: "...its recommendations on how to address the issue of homophobia in the foster care system.

Gay foster children face harassment: At the boys' homes he was sent to, he was repeatedly taunted for being effeminate. He couldn't tell staff members; they never asked. But because of his depression and the stress over hiding his orientation, Prozac entered his life, as did thoughts of suicide." - The Adolescent Alone The Experience of Loss and Depression. - Ban Discrimination in Foster Care. - Fostering shortage met by gay couples. - Overview of lesbian and gay parenting, adoption and foster care. - The Social Worker's Dilemma: "The debate goes on and will continue as long as there are conflicting views about homosexuality. Considering these different views, should social workers place children with gay men or lesbians? To make the best placement decision for children, social workers need to answer the following questions:..." -  The Influence of Competing Ideologies About Homosexuality on Nondiscrimination Policy: Implications for Social Work Education. - Homeless Gay Youth an "Epidemic" (2006) - The epidemic of gay youth homelessness (2009). - Agency seeks more gay parents. - Saving Our GLBT Homeless. - A Voice for Homeless LGBT Youth

Support for LGBT youth in foster care. Social workers should be trained to serve this over-represented group (2008). - Jacksonville's LGBT youth in crisis have people who help: Agency helps teenagers find foster care, and deal with sexual orientation (2009). - LGBTQ Youth in the Foster Care System: Fact Sheet. - LGBTQ Youth in the California Foster Care System: A Question and Answer Guide. - Supporting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth in Foster Care. - Foster Care (2008): It is undeniable that being gay, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgender is easier today than at any point in history. Despite the greater representations in the media and the availability of online resources, being an LGBT youth is still hard, sometimes even dangerous. This is especially true for the LGBT youth in foster care... - Homelessness & Gay Youth (2007): I hadn’t intended to post over the holiday, but when I wanted to share this. I’ve written before about the homelessness epidemic among gay youth before and the special programs some communities are creating to meet their needs. The problem hasn’t gotten better, but special programs and shelters for homeless LGBT youth can make a difference. - Pride flag welcomes gay homeless youth, Flag shows support for gay village proposal along Bank Street (2009). - A third of homeless youth are LGBT, report finds. - NYC Homeless Shelter for Gay Youth To Honor Bea Arthur.

Summary: GLBT issues in some American public schools (1995). - Just the Facts: On Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students and Schools (GLSTN). - Young gay men talking: school experiences.Exploring the plight of gay youth. - Teacher talk: "you fag..." (Alternate Link) -  "Over 80% of schools report homophobic verbal bullying according to Playing it Safe, the first-ever report on this issue..."  - Bullying and Sexual Harassment in Schools. - Safe Schools Are For Everyone - SSAFE. (Home Page) - National Association of School Psychologists: Position Statement on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (GLBTQ) Youth (formerly Sexual Minority Youth).. - Gay Teens Ignored by High School Sex Ed Classes. - If you only knew. - Touring Play Confronts Teenage Homophobia. - Suicide and Homosexual Teens: What can biology teachers do to help? (American Biology Teacher, March, 2001: Full Text) (Abstract). - Queer as Youth (2002, Radio): What's it like to be young and queer? Young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth are more likely to be harassed and victims of hate crime than their straight peers. They have high drop out rates from school. And studies show that LGBT youth are more prone to depression, drug abuse, and suicide. But as more young people are coming out, both lgbt and their straight peers are challenging the isolation and stigma of being gay. On this edition of Making Contact, we take a look at the hostile climate for LGBT youth, youth activism in schools, and a new radio show in Chicago for queer latino youth.

Vulnerability to Violence Among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. - Making School Safe for Sexual Minority Students. - Sticks and Stones: "Imagine yourself at 15, trapped for six hours every day at school dealing with the comments, the shoves, the beatings, and the vandalism. This is school, where life is lived in fear and isolation. At home, your parents make jokes about gay people on TV. On Sunday, your minister says you are an abomination. You can’t date, tell your friends, or express your feelings for another human.  “Faggot.” “Dyke.” School-aged children hear these derogatory, discriminatory remarks every day. Even “that’s so gay,” innocent as it may sound, harms by association. After all, “gay” is no longer synonymous with “happy,” and “that’s so gay” is hardly a compliment." - Lesbian and Gay Youth: Care and Counseling by Caitlin Ryan and Donna Futterman (1997) - (Chapter 3: Experiences, Vulnerabilities, and Risks.)

Siecus Report (Vol 29, No. 4, 2001): Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning Youth: This SIECUS Fact Sheet reviews research on sexual orientation during adolescence and presents the available  statistics on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. Many of the studies are regional or local. Much of the research focuses on samples of LGBT youth that are disproportionately at risk. - This annotated bibliography presents a cross section of available resources on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender sexuality and related issues. Readers are encouraged to seek out additional resources in bookstores and libraries and by contacting the organizations listed at the end of this bibliography. SIECUS: Homosexuality Resources: Questions and Answers: LGBTQ Youth Issues. - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth. - Educator Resources. - Homophobic Attacks on Schools and Libraries.

The Risks of Being a Gay Teenager: Consider this quote taken from a 16 year-old gay teen’s journal: "I can’t let anyone find out I’m not straight. It would be so humiliating. My friends would hate me, I just know it. I’ve heard my parents lots of time talking about gay people. They’ve said they hate gays, and even God hates gays. It really scares me now, when I hear my family talk that way, because now they’re talking about me... Sometimes I feel like disappearing off the face of the earth." Three years later, the writer of this passage killed himself by jumping from an overpass into the path of an on-coming truck. What’s so upsetting, however, is that this passage could have come from the journal of almost any randomly-selected gay teenager. - Students Protest Anti - Gay Bias. - Kids not the only source of harassment in school: It's not easy being gay in the nation's high schools, according to a national survey that assigns some of the blame to teachers and administrators

Should Harassment Policies List Specific Forms Of Prohibited Harassment? - Two commentators on the subject N/A. "Yesterday [Aug. 1999], Maryland State officials caved in to pressure. They dropped from their anti-harassment proposal to the state Board of Education the language that would have explicitly prohibited, among other things, orientation-based harassment." - Why We Need to Address Gay Issues In Our Schools. (From "Breaking the Silence" available as PDF Download) - School Boards Liable for Homophobic Harassment [in Ontario]. - NCCJ’s Straight Talk About Gay Issues. - L'homophobie à l'école : en parler et agir. - Famille et qualité de vie gais et lesbiennes: Homophobie à l’école. - La prévention du suicide et les problématiques des jeunes homosexuels en milieu scolaire : Un aperçu des initiatives de la Commission scolaire de Montréal. - Un nouveau document aborde la question de l'homophobie et de l'hétérosexisme dans les communautés, les écoles et les salles de classe.: Apercevoir l'arc-en-ciel (PDF Download N/A) (Related). - Démystifier l'homosexualité, ça commence à l'école: Dépliant pour les jeunes sous forme de carte postale. Cette carte résume les services offerts
par le Groupe de recherche et d’intervention sociale gais et lesbiennes de Montréal
.

Breaking The Boys Code: An Exploration of Bullying Behaviour. - Forcing boys to be boys: the persecution of gender non-conforming youth  (Bibliography). - Boys and violence in schools: everybody’s business (Word Download). - Violence experts warn that many boys are getting the wrong message. What About the Boys? & Safe Boys, Safe Schools (PDF Download). - Miles of Aisles of Sexism: ""You sure wouldn't know our society has experienced almost 40 years of significant changes in the area of gender equity in education after a trip to the mall... When young boys engage in dress up, pile on the necklaces, enjoy painting their nails or select other girl toys, cultural norms or homophobia often correct the behavior immediately. In fact, in Fisher Price Playlab studies where staff members observed children behind one-way glass, they found that boys will play with "girl" toys if they think they are in a safe environment..." - The tyranny of surveillance: male teachers and the policing of masculinities in a single sex school. - Maintaining the Hegemonic Masculinity through Selective Attachment, Homophobia, and Gay-Baiting in Schools: Challenges to Intervention.

Our Kind:  'We all knew that Ken was a "faggot."'Growing Up Normal In A Perfect World: A report on how most males are 'recruited' to abuse (includes shunning) known or suspected  'gay' adolescents. - The ‘Faggot’ Factor: The chickens came home to roost at Columbine High (Orange County Weekly, 1999) (Alternate Link). - "Boys Will Be Boys": How "masculinity" in American culture affects safety in our schools N/A. - The rumor that won't go away: "Whatever the truth about Harris and Klebold's sexual orientation, it's clear that "gay" is one of the worst epithets to use against a high school student in Littleton." - Teachers harassing students: Exception or the rule? (2009): On August 13, 2009, the Startribune.com reported that a Minnesota school district agreed to pay $25,000 to Alex Merritt after an investigation was conducted by the Minnesota Human Rights commission. The student and his mother filed a complaint with the commission stating that two teachers were subjecting him to anti-gay harassment. 

Columbine High School: "But parents and politicians both shy away from the major cause of April 20th’s shooting spree: the cruelty of children and the oppressiveness of the high school caste system in the United States." - The 'Faggot' Factor: The Chickens Came Home to Roost at Columbine High (1999). - Other side of Littleton story: anti-oddball hysteria. - Goths are dressed to kill: Every outsider gets called a fag. (Alternate Link) - The Price of Being Different: "Thousands of powerful e-mail messages have chronicled an educational system that glorifies the traditional and the normal, and brutalizes and alienates people who are or who are perceived as different..."(Alternate Link). - Teens Urge States to Protect Gay, Lesbian Students. - Why did the Columbine shooting happen:  " School "jocks" repeatedly harassed Harris and Klebold, calling them "faggots." However, in high school culture, the term "faggot" does not necessarily mean that the victim is perceived as gay; it is a generic term of hatred and derision." - Faggot = Loser. - Producing contradictory masculine subject positions: Narratives of threat, homophobia and bullying in 11-14 year old boys: The findings indicate that boys' experiences of school led them to assume that interviews would expose them to ridicule and so threaten their masculinity. Boys were generally more serious and willing to reveal emotions in individual than in group interviews. A key theme in boys' accounts was the importance of being able to present themselves as properly masculine in order to avoid being bullied by other boys by being labeled "gay. " The ways in which boys were racialized affected their experiences of school. - 'Real Boys' speak up about bullying and buried emotions.

Boy-code’ a factor in fatal school shootings? Gay Experts say masculinity standards overlooked in search for answers: "The perpetrators of random school shootings since 1982, all boys, were “overconformists” to the popular notion that being a “real man” means aggressively defending your manhood when it is challenged, such as through prolonged bullying, said Michael Kimmel..." - Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence: (Full Text) "Since 1982, there have been 28 cases of random school shootings in American high schools and middle schools. The authors find (a) that the shootings were not a national problem but a series of local problems that occurred in "red states" or counties (places that voted Republican in the 2000 election); (b) that most of the boys who opened fire were mercilessly and routinely teased and bullied and that their violence was retaliatory against the threats to manhood; (c) that White boys in particular might be more likely than African American boys to randomly open fire; and (d) that the specific content of the teasing and bullying is homophobia..." - Rehearsing Masculinity: Challenging the "Boy Code" in Dance Education. - When Men Dance: Communities of Privilege & Cultural Resistance in Dance Education. - 'Oi. Dancing Boy!' Masculinity, Sexuality, and Youth in Billy Elliot.

Young R, Sweeting H, West P (2006). Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ, 6;332(7549): 1058-61. Epub 2006 Apr 13. PubMed AbstractFull Text.  Commentaries: "Self harm in Goth youth subculture: Conclusion relates only to small sample." - "Self harm in Goth youth subculture: Study merely reinforces popular stereotypes." - Other Responses. - Goth subculture may protect vulnerable children. - Related Comments: "While I was never a self-harmer, I was definitely suicidal as a teenager, and have had suicidal tendencies throughout my whole life up until today... While I guess being goth reflected my depression, it didn't abate or help it after becoming goth, as the study suggests it did for self-harmers." "What is Goth? ...the goth scene has a large proportion of gays/bisexuals, and followers of non-mainstream religions and views..." - GayGothBoys.Tribe.Net: "

A History of homophobia abuses (including by teachers):  The debate over gay rights is never more heated than when it has to do with school.  - A University Professor's early life of abuse in school: Three parts - Part 6 - Part 7 - Part 8. - I Was A Gay High School Student. - Why is it so hard to say "gay"?! The word is freely substituted for "bad" by high school nimrods and rarely refuted. - "Quest for Excellence" portrays this struggle in "Gay Teens in School," showing what these students go through, and issues a plea for awareness that could save the lives of many teenagers (A television documentary). - Hostile Classrooms N/A: A Novato, CA, student was beaten in February when he told other students that he was gay. (The Advocate, April 13 1999 by Lisa Meyer). - School life tough for gay teens. (Wisconsin State Journal, 2000)  - This essay is about homophobia in my school.

A Few Angry Words From My Mind (Alternate Link): "At this school we do NOT support free thinkers. We are hidden under  a cloud of obliviousness. Half the people in my school are unaware of what  is really going on. They are too busy being concerned with the petty  goings-on of being teenagers. They are struggling soo hard just to be  accepted and to fit in with the "norm". They don't realize that what  they're really doing is following their peers blindly and without a thought. Most of us are one big sheep flock. Those few who have broken away from peers their age are usually the  ones who are actually being harassed.  I think we stick in the safety of  this cloning here because we are afraid we will be harassed if we show any  differences, which is why there's such a big problem with racism and  homophobia at my school." - "I went to high school in semi-rural texas. this was a time and a place where being gay wasn't exactly tolerated very well. I don't mention this because I was a gay high school student, but for reasons which will become apparent later. my freshman year of high school, I made a mistake.."

Gifted & Gay: Gifted and Gay: A Study of the Adolescent Experience (2000). Also published in: Twice-exceptional and special populations of gifted students - 2004 - edited by  Susan M. Baum (Google Books). - Young, gifted and gay (2010): Jack Frew was an openly gay 16 year old who dreamed of being a dancer for Cheryl Cole.  He looked like he just stepped off the set of High School Musical, though he actually lived in the town of East Kilbride in Scotland. Jack was killed last week as he walked along a local cycle path with a schoolfriend. A 17 year old has been arrested in connection with this incident... - To Be Young, Gifted and Gay (2003). - To be Young, Gifted and Gay at a Black College (2007).  - Gifted gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender annotated bibliography: a resource for educators of gifted secondary GLBT students (2006).

Homosexuality and body image issues: teacher awareness: "This paper explores the understanding of sexuality and body image in schools by heterosexual and homosexual teachers... The marginalisation of students who are perceived to be homosexual or whose body shape or mannerisms do not conform to the norm is evidenced as bullying and alienation, so the implications of this research have relevence for all schools. Exerpts from interviews with gay and lesbian teachers is included for analysis." - Texting Gender and Body as a Distant/ced Memory: An Autobiographical Account of Bodies, Masculinities, and Schooling. - Boys’ Bodies in School: Physical Education. - Boy as a Queer Male-Femme Gender.

"Protection of lesgay students," with info resources.  - Teachers must stop kids from targeting their gay classmates. - Gay Initiative Hopes to Halt Teacher Indifference N/A (1997).- Gay kids need more than court orders N/A. - More Gay Teachers Coming out, but Not without Controversy - AP 06 Apr, 98. (Related Item: Homosexual Teachers The Focus of Debate - Students React to Teachers Coming Out. - Students React to Teachers Coming Out. - Where Are the Civil Rights for Gay and Lesbian Teachers? - CNN Interview (2002): "As your kids head back to school, do you know what their teachers are telling them? Is it appropriate for their teachers to talk about their own personal lives, specifically if they have a girlfriend or a boyfriend who happens to be the same sex? One school district in California wrestled with the issue, ultimately passing a resolution allowing teachers to discuss their sexual orientation in class. But some parents in the Hayward School District believe that that has created a "Crisis in the Classroom." - GLBT Teachers: The Evolving Legal Protections.

Gay teens finding more support amid hostile school hallways (CNN). - When Kids Come Out of The Closet: What to say and do when a student tells you he's gay. - Anti-Homophobia Education in a Catholic Context. - Cultural diversity: managing same-sex orientation in the classroom.- Lesbian and Gay Studies for Toronto [public school] Staff. - Toronto Schools Ban Discrimination. - Under Attack: Emotional Abuse and Violence Against GLBT Youth in America’s Homes and Public Schools. - Building a Safe Space for LGBT Youth at School: How Teachers Can Combat Homophobia in the Classroom.

Raising Gay/Lesbian Issues in the Classroom. (PDF Download) - Improving the School Experience for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students. (PDF Download) - Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses. - What You Can Do: Ideas and Resources for Educators. - Working to End Homophobia in Schools. - Just the Facts: On Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students and Schools. - Just the Facts: Sexual Orientation and Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators, and School Personnel (PDF Dowmload). - Adolescents and AIDS. - Adolescents and AIDS: A Generation in Jeopardy. - Adolescents and HIV/AIDS. - The Unique Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth.

The Truth About Gay and Lesbian Issues in the [American] Public Schools: Congressional Hearing  - Public School Programs with the focus on San Francisco, California; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; The State of Washington; St. Paul, Minnesota. - A Response to Allegations Made by Traditional Values Coalition with a focus on Los Angeles; National Education Association; Fairfax County, Virginia Family Life Education; Des Moines, Iowa; Massachusetts; The State of Minnesota

The "It's Elementary: Talking about gay issues in school" 1996 Video: - Film Information. - Synopsis. Video "is a highly acclaimed film shot in first through eighth grade classrooms across the United States". - It's Elementary is a window into how teachers and school administrators can find age-appropriate, sensitive ways to teach children respect for all people, including gays and lesbians. - Review: It's Elementary: It's Slick, It's Alarming. - Negative Review. - It's Elementary: Promoting Homosexuality to Children. - Talking about homosexuality in the schools. - A Catholic Perspective. - Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools. -  Issues in Education: What Heterosexual Teachers Need to Know about Homosexuality. - A Door Half Open: Young People's Access to Fiction Related to Homosexuality.

Association for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues in Counseling: - Infusing Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual Issues into Counselor Preparation Programs. - Gloria as a Lesbian: A Revisitation of “Three Approaches to Psychotherapy.” - The Relationship between Gay and Lesbian Identity Development and Psychological Adjustment. - A Support Group for Gay, Lesbian,  Bisexual, and Questioning Youth: A High School-Based Approach. - Advocating for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Persons:  Overcoming Barriers and Resistances. - Counseling Issues With Sexual Minorities: An Invisible Minority School. Population. - School Counselors and Sexual Minority Students. - Competencies for Counseling Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered (GLBT) Clients. - AGLBIC Newletter.. - Sexual Minority Youth in the Schools: Issues and Desirable Counselor Responses (PDF Download). - The Elephant In The Locker Room:  UNH Professor Examines Homophobia In Collegiate Sports.

American School Health Association - Compendium of Resolutions: Gay and Lesbian Youth in School (2004). " the Association believes: 1) that all young persons should have an equal opportunity for quality education regardless of their sexual orientation;  2) that curriculum materials, teaching strategies, and school policies that do not discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation should be implemented in schools;  3) that sexual orientation should be addressed in the sexuality component of a comprehensive health instruction curriculum;  4) that school personnel should discourage any sexually oriented deprecating, harassing, and prejudicial statements injurious to students' self-esteem; and  5) that every school district should provide access to professional counseling by specially trained personnel for students who may be concerned about sexual orientation." - Sexual Minority Youth In Schools (2009). -  Toward Understanding Homosexuality: An Agenda for Adult Christian Education's Contribution to Human Wholeness.

Hatred in the Hallways: Violence and Discrimination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgerder Students in U.S. Schools (by Human Rights Watch): "To the more than two million lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth of school age living in the United States and to those who are questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity, Dylan N.'s story is all too familiar. It is a story of harassment, abuse, and violence; a story of deliberate indifference by school officials who disclaim any responsibility for protecting Dylan or ensuring his right to an education; a story of escalating violence; a story of the failure of legal protection; and finally, a story of a young man denied an education because of his sexual orientation. In this report, Human Rights Watch documents attacks on the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are subjected to abuse on a daily basis by their peers and in some cases by teachers and school administrators. These violations are compounded by the failure of federal, state, and local governments to enact laws providing students with express protection from discrimination and violence based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, effectively allowing school officials to ignore violations of these students' rights. Gay youth spend an inordinate amount of energy plotting how to get safely to and from school, how to avoid the hallways when other students are present so they can avoid slurs and shoves, how to cut gym class to escape being beaten up-in short, how to become invisible so they will not be verbally and physically attacked. Too often, students have little energy left to learn." (U.S. Gets "Failing Grade" Protecting Gay Students Widespread Bullying, Teacher Indifference in U.S. Schools.) - Report Says Schools Often Ignore Harassment of Gay Students (Must Register). - ABCNEWS.com : Abuse of Gay Students Rampant, Study Finds. - Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crime: A Guide for Schools (U.S. Department of Education, 1999).

Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in School (2001): (Full Report: PDF) "Sexual Harassment Widespread in Nation’s Schools, New AAUW Report Finds. "Four of five students—boys and girls—report that they have experienced some type of sexual harassment in school, despite a greater awareness of school policies dealing with the issue, according to a new report, Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in School by the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation.... According to the report, based on a national survey of 2,064 public school students in 8th through 11th grades conducted by Harris Interactive: ...Actions hurt but so do words. When given 14 examples of non-physical and physical harassment, students say they would be very upset if someone did the following: (3) Said that they were gay or lesbian (73%).... Boys are more likely than girls to report non-physical harassment in locker rooms (28% v. 15%) or restrooms (15% to 9%)." - Teasing and bullying: What can pediatricians do? (Contemporary Pediatrics, 2003): Homosexiality issues are ignored in this paper. - School of hard knocks (1997). - School of hard knocks (200?). - School of hard knocks (2009). - School of hard knocks: education of gays and lesbians in the future. - Gay straight revolution: an explosion of gay-supportive clubs at high schools across the country is helping a generation become crusaders for equality.

Hostile Hallways: The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment in American's Public Schools: "With regard to actual experience, there was a marked increase in the percentage of students being called gay or lesbian: 17% of all students in 1993 reported that they have been called gay or lesbian compared to 36% of all students in 2001. Boys today were more than two times likelier to say that they have been called gay or lesbian often or occasionally (9% in 1993 vs. 19% in 2001) and girls today were nearly three times likelier to have been called gay or lesbian (5% in 1993 vs. 13% in 2001). In both years, more boys reported having been called gay or lesbian than did girls: in 1993, 23% of boys vs. 10% of girls and in 2001, 19% of boys vs. 13% of girls." - GLSEN Troubled By New Report Saying Sexual Harassment A Problem for Most Students: "In 2001, 80% of students report having experienced sexual harassment at least once, and 25% saying they are sexually harassed often. Similar results were found in Hatred in the Hallways, a study by Human Rights Watch on the humans rights abuses against LGBT students. "We’re seeing a trend that sexual harassment is at record levels for LGBT students, with lesbian and bisexual young women being especially targeted," added Jennings. "The often sexual nature of anti-gay harassment can no longer be ignored, neither by schools nor policymakers."

Hill C, Kearl H (2011). Crossing The Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women (AAUW). Full Text. "Boys were most likely to cite being called gay in a negative way in person as their most negative experience of sexual harassment. Girls and boys were equally likely to experience this type of sexual harassment (18 percent of students surveyed), but 21 percent of boys and only 9 percent of girls identified being called gay or lesbian as their worst experience of sexual harassment." [National Survey, Grades 7 to 12]

Crowhurst M (2009). More Conversations with Queer Young People To Be Read Aloud. Australia: Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd. PDF Download. Introduction - A few thoughts on broad aims, on why I think this workbook is necessary, and on “Reading Aloud” as a change methodology.... The purpose of this collection of materials is multiple. I am very interested in the process of interviewing young people who identify as gay, lesbian, bi-sexual, transgender or intersex (GLBTI Young People or Queer Young people – QYP) about their life experiences – particularly about their school experiences. Further, I am also interested in transcribing and editing these conversations and in making these available to as wide a readership as possible in order to support change. Broadly, I am interested in doing these things primarily because it is my feeling, and it is reported in the literature (see below), that school settings are not always experienced as safe or welcoming places if you identify as a QYP and secondly because I feel that making available the stories of QYP, and asking people to read these aloud, is a very strategic way to generate change... Why are we talking about drugs, suicide, discrimination, rights and bullying all of the time? Why are we focusing on constraint and not on expansive potential? – says one side. When we focus on diversity, position subjectivity as fluid, and focus on the productive potential of deconstructive techniques, aren’t we ignoring the real problems that people face in the world as they brush up against power? Why are we wasting our time writing about such things, when in the “real world”, these things are irrelevant? – says the other... I am making a move in this collection of materials, to guard against pathologising, mainly through the use of a “multi-lifeworlds” framework (tapping into different aspects of participant’s lives). This being an attempt to ensure that where conversations move into arenas of constraint that these are balanced with stories of hope or expansion (Martino & Pallotta-Chiarolli 2005). Hopefully focusing on different life spheres will also amplify the diversity of the stories that are told across the group of participants.

Russell ST, Ryan C, Toomey RB, Diaz RM, Sanchez J (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: implications for young adult health and adjustment. Journal of School Health, 81(5): 223-30. PDF Download. Abstract. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related school victimization is strongly linked to young adult mental health and risk for STDs and HIV; there is no strong association with substance use or abuse. Elevated levels of depression and suicidal ideation among males can be explained by their high rates of LGBT school victimization... Reducing LGBT-related school victimization will likely result in significant long-term health gains and will reduce health disparities for LGBT people. Reducing the dramatic disparities for LGBT youth should be educational and public health priorities.

Davis, Katherine (2010). Application of a Leadership Approach to Address Suicide among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. Florida Public Health Review, 7: 4-8. PDF Download. Suicide, esepcially among youth, is a significant public health issue, ranking as the third leading cause of death among youth and young adults between the ages of 10 and 24. Suicide attempts and successful suicides are more frequent occurrences in the gay, lesbian,and bisexual (GLB) population. Despite this heightened risk, sexual orientation is omitted from important documents that detail suicide risk factors. Moreover, few schools have programs that address the unique needs of GLB youth that could create a more receptive or tolerant, and less threatening environment for them. In this paper, Kotter’s eight-stage framework for leadership is explored for its possible contribution to advancing dialogue and action about this public health and school health issue.

Clarke, Gill (2006). Sexuality and physical education. In, Kirk, David, McDonald, Doune and O’Sullivan, Mary (eds.) Handbook for Research in Physical Education. London, UK, Sage, 723-739 (Full Text). "This chapter discusses the practices of physical education in order to demonstrate how these continue to operate around stereotyped notions of what is to be ‘normal’, that is not lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (lgbt) but heterosexual. In doing so this review elucidates the ways in which (hetero)sexual identity is privileged, regulated and controlled. Further, how this intersects with restricted conceptions of gender, (hegemonic) masculinity and (hyper) femininity is revealed. Attention is also directed to considering how heterosexism and homophobia continue to be manifest within physical education." - Clarke, Gill (2004). Threatening space: (physical) education and homophobic body work. In, Evans, J., Davies, B. and Wright, J. (eds.) Body knowledge and control. Studies in the sociology of physical education and health. London, UK, Routledge, 191-203 (Full Text). "This chapter explores how space(s) shape pupils’ and teachers’ sexual identities in physical education. In doing so it reveals how spaces are not neutral, but shot through with power such that bodies are schooled along narrow and often homophobic lines. Spaces thus are also gendered, racialized, sexed and (hetero)sexualized such that some locations become hostile places for lesbian women and gay men. Although queer activists have begun to reclaim the largely heterosexual landscape and to extend the boundaries of sexual citizenship, schools in England and Wales largely remain sites of compulsory heterosexuality, where few have dared to cross the (hetero)sexual boundaries."

Wellstone Calls for [Federal] Study on School Harassment of Gay and Lesbian Youth: (Washington, D.C., 2001) - "Citing increasing evidence of harassment of gay and lesbian students in America's schools, Senator Paul Wellstone (D-MN) today announced legislation to conduct a federal study on the level of sexual harassment against gay and lesbian students by peers and school officials in schools. In 1997, the Office of Civil Rights at the Department of Education issued guidelines specifically stating that gay and lesbian students across America have the right to a school environment free of harassment and abuse. Despite these guidelines, two studies in recent months have found evidence of widespread harassment of gay and lesbian students nationwide."

Teaching Homosexuality in Public Schools: "The Christian position is clear: Homosexuality is an abomination, and we do not teach "tolerance" of a perverse criminal behavior, any more than we would teach "tolerance" of child abuse, pedophilia, rape, murder, cocaine dealing or embezzlement." - Anti-GLSEN Web Site N/A. (Archive Link)

Practice Update from the National Association of Social Workers: Promoting Positive School Environments For Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Students: Survey Findings. "As social workers know, adolescence can be a challenging time for many young people. Recent studies confirm, however, that adolescence can be a particularly hard time for youths that either identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or are youths questioning their feelings of same-sex attraction or desire for same-sex behavior (Reid & Tomaszewski, 2001). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths experience health and mental health concerns similar to their heterosexual peers, while also having to deal with the additional stressors of being identified as a sexual minority youth (stressors such as social isolation and stigma). (Ryan, 2001). Research has shown that, as a group, LGB youths appear to be at increased risk of a large number of health and mental health outcomes. For example..." (PDF Download)


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

 
United States: - Schools That Have Not Protected And Worked With Gay And Lesbian Students Have Been Sanctioned By The Courts (2000). - Anti-Gay Attacks Condoned In U.S. Schools, Report Finds (2001). - Lambda Legal: Defending Gay/Straight Alliances and Other Gay-Related Groups in Public Schools Under the Equal Access Act. - Safe Schools Coalition: Resources for K-12 Teachers & Curriculum Specialists. - Hate in the Heartland (by Kerry Lobel): - "Every town shared similar themes. As gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered and questioning youth come to visibility, their school districts have been ill-equipped to counsel them or ensure their safety." - Gay High Schools Offer a Haven From Bullies: But the schools in Milwaukee and New York also reawaken the debate over school segregation. - Number of Gay-Straight Alliance Registrations Passes 3,500 (2007). - The Queer Thing About School Shooters, Pt. 1 (2007). - THIS is Why We Need a GSA (2007). - Schools May Restrict Anti-Gay Speech, Judge Rules (2008). - 'Gay' day squashed on campus: School administrators refuse participation in pro-homosexual event (2008). - Children of LGBT parents are typically harassed in school. A new report proves need for anti-bullying policies (2008).  - Study: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender middle school students harassed more (2009). - Gay-Straight Alliances: Ground Zero for School Tolerance (2009): No other extracurricular activity has sparked the controversy and legal challenge the formation of Gay-Straight Alliance clubs has. What upsets communities so? - Students Nationwide Address Anti-Gay Bullying as GLSEN's Ally Week Kicks Off (2009). - Transgender Youth Face Extreme Harassment in School, Report Says (2009).

Russell ST, Ryan C, Toomey RB, Diaz RM, Sanchez J (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: implications for young adult health and adjustment. Journal of Schooll Health, 81(5): 223-30. Abstract. The young adult survey from the Family Acceptance Project included 245 LGBT young adults between the ages of 21 and 25 years, with an equal proportion of Latino and non-Latino White respondents. A 10-item retrospective scale assessed school victimization due to actual or perceived LGBT identity between the ages of 13 and 19 years. Multiple regression was used to test the association between LGBT school victimization and young adult depression, suicidal ideation, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social integration, while controlling for background characteristics. Logistic regression was used to examine young adult suicide attempts, clinical levels of depression, heavy drinking and substance use problems, sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnoses, and self-reported HIV risk...  Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related school victimization is strongly linked to young adult mental health and risk for STDs and HIV; there is no strong association with substance use or abuse. Elevated levels of depression and suicidal ideation among males can be explained by their high rates of LGBT school victimization. - Related Article: New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences (2011).

Culhane, John G (2011). A Population-Based, Public Health Approach to Bullying of LGBT Youth. Rutgers Law Record: The Internet Journal of Rutgers School of Law, 38. Download Page. This brief article looks at two approaches to combating bullying in the schools.7 Although my focus is on bullying that is triggered by the real or perceived sexual orientation of the victim, it is worth remembering that bullying takes place in a host of different contexts (including the workplace) and is used against people – not just kids – based on all kinds of “characteristics” that either cause discomfort in the bullier or can be exploited for social gain. Part I explores a few of the cases that have been brought against school districts and officials, typically for failing to prevent on-going bullying...  The limitations of lawsuits are substantial, however. Often, students do not come forward, or do so only after years of abuse. Even where they do have the courage and ability to file a complaint, though, substantial legal obstacles may impede not only recovery, but also the potentially ameliorative effect on subsequent acts of violence or threatened violence. Far better would be an approach that focused on all of the populations affected by the culture of bullying. Thus, in Part II, I expand the focus outward from the victim, and examine a statute that recognizes and addresses the effects that bullying has on every population within a school: the bullied; the bulliers; those who observe the bullying; and, indirectly, on every student and staff member because of the culture of tolerated violence and intimidation that impairs learning, and creates an atmosphere of fear and disrespect. These outcomes are good [from lawsuits], but do not address the problem in the kind of systematic way that is likely to result in permanent and positive change. While they deter, they do not reliably result in sustained, specific programs or initiatives likely to reduce bullying. Even those settlements that require certain remedial measures can be uninformed or ineffective. And even when they are carefully designed – not usually the outcome from litigation – they address the problem only at one specific site, or perhaps, in one district, and not more systematically. What is needed, instead, is a public health approach that considers the needs and interests of the specific populations identified earlier in this article: those bullied; the bulliers; those who witness the bullying; and the entire school community in which the conduct takes place...

Koehler. Elizabeth M (2011). The School Library Can Do More to Counteract Homophobia. Master's Dissertation, School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PDF Download. This paper discusses the pervasiveness of homophobia in our culture and its impact on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) teenagers. It argues that teacher-librarians can support LGBTQ teens by collecting and promoting young adult literature that portrays positive, realistic images of the LGBTQ community. It presents the findings of two studies—one that examined the library collections in North Carolina high schools for the inclusion of LGBTQ-themed titles and one that investigated the content of ten journals that are frequently read by teacher-librarians for articles about LGBTQ issues and collection development published since 2006. Results revealed that high school teacher-librarians are under-collecting LGBTQ-themed titles. Although 5.9 percent of American high school students identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, LGBTQ-themed collections in school libraries are minimal. Additionally, LGBTQ issues are rarely addressed in the scholarly journals. The paper concludes with recommendations to assist teacher-librarians in supporting LGBTQ students.

Bland, Frederick J (2010). Assessing Michigan school counselors' preparedness to meet the needs of attractional/sexual minority students. PhD Dissertation, Western Michigan University. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page. Overall, school counselors in this study believed that their graduate school counseling training programs did "not" adequately prepare them to competently work with attractional minority students. Participants believed they were better prepared to work with gay males and lesbians and less prepared to work with biattractional, transgender, and questioning youth. The 30-39 age group believed themselves to be better prepared than older groups, and the 60 and above age group reported being the least prepared to work with LGBTQ students. Participants indicated they were willing to participate in professional development activities in this area and rated the top three continuing education activities as taking a course, attending an in-service training, and reading professional literature on LGBTQ issues Implications for school counselor education programs and continuing education are presented, and recommendations for future research are offered.

Educators fail gay students of color (2009): n its groundbreaking report, "Shared Differences," the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network captures what school feels like for America's LGBT minority youth.. - Shared Differences Examines LGBT Students of Color Experiences in School (2009): The report documents the experiences of over 2,000 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) middle and high school students of color who were African American or Black, Latino/a, Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American, and multiracial, using 2007 data collected as part of GLSEN's biennial survey of LGBT students, the National School Climate Survey, along with results from in-depth individual and group interviews. - Shared Differences: Report PDF Download. Report PDF Download.

ACLU Marks Anniversary of Landmark Student Free Speech Decision With New Video: To mark tomorrow’s anniversary of Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District, the American Civil Liberties Union has released a video about one of the latest of many cases in which Tinker was relied upon to uphold students’ right to free speech. Despite the landmark ruling, school officials routinely ignore the rule of law and attempt illegal censorship to this day, especially against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students, the ACLU said. - The Cost of Harassment: A Fact Sheet for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender High School Students. - Rent Remains Too Gay In West Virginia and Texas, Just Fine In Mississippi and Missouri (2009). - Show Will Go on: California School Approves ‘Rent’ (2009). - Tamer 'Rent' Is Too Wild for Some Schools (2009). - Stage is set for controversy when schools put on 'Rent' (2009).  - You're So Gay: GLSEN Tackles Name-Calling (2009). - Gay marriage foes win with message about schools (2009). - Research: Anti-Gay Harassment in Childhood Leads To Poor Adult Health (2009). - Online LGBT school to launch in 2010 (2009). - How Well Can a Web-Based High School Teach Gay Kids? (2008). - 'Getting Real' About Bullying-Related Suicides (2009). - LGBT Students Remain Suicide Risks Despite Changing Attitude & Laws (2009). - State-by-State: Anti-Bullying Laws in the U.S. (2009).

Alabama: -The ACLU has intervened in the case of a lesbian high school student in Alabama whose principal has forbid her from attending prom with her girlfriend (2009). - Association of Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Issues in Counseling of Alabama: Proud But Not Safe (2008): Gay at 12: Young Teens Openly Express Sexuality. Many Middle Schools Don't Have Policies to Safeguard Against Anti-Gay Bullies. - Alabama School Reverses Decision To Bar Lesbian Student From Attending Prom With Her Girlfriend.

Alaska: - GLSEN Alaska. - Gay/Lesbian Support Groups in High School: Possible community problems. - Juneau Gay Straight Alliances. - Gay-Straight Club Activity At Eagle River High School. - An Anchor in Alaska: Being an Ally. - Alaska school district adds ‘gender identity’ to official policy (2009).

Arizona: - GLSEN-Arizona. - GLSEN Phoenix. - From Teasing to Torment Documents Student Experiences of Bullying and Harassment in Arizona Schools (2006).  - ACLU Tells Arizona School To Lift Rainbow Ban (2009).

Arkansas: - Arkansas School Is Accused Of Harassing a Gay Student (2003).

California: - California Safe Schools Coalition. - SAUSD Gay and Lesbian Education Commission (GLEC). - The Los Angeles Project 10 Handbook (abstract). - Project 10 L.A. - Educating for Diversity: Issues Facing Gay and Lesbian Students (Los Angeles Unified School District). Project 10. See: Project 10 Related PDF's (Must Scroll). - Haven for Gay Teens-- Education: Some people call Project 10 a bad idea, but the counseling program gives some homosexual students in L.A. the courage to stay in school (1989). - Petaluma Educators Get Lesson in Gay Awareness. -  Related debate & a suicide. - Rampant homophobia and 'racism' at San Ramon Valley High School - 1998). (Related Item 1998: "Students at San Ramon Valley High School in Danville, California forced officials to take down a display glorifying the homosexual "lifestyle" erected in the school's corridor. The exhibit was spat upon by students who yelled anti-homosexual slogans when they passed the glass-enclosed case. One youngster had circulated a petition demanding the display be sacked. He also distributed Straight Pride T-shirts which teens, in large numbers, wore.") - Teacher Gets Thousands Of Threatening Anti-Gay Emails. - School Safety & Violence Prevention for LGBT Students (PDF Download). - Fear of a Gay School: El Modena High has a nickname. Students at neighboring schools in Orange County, Calif., call it "Homo-dena," spitting out the syllables with all the cruelty and attitude that high school rivalry can disgorge. And a battle is being joined in El Modena, a battle over the right to form a student club on campus similar to ones that have become increasingly popular and controversial nationwide. - Do Schools Condone Harassment of Gay Students? - Raising Awareness Of Gay Harassment In Schools. - Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Students’ Rights in California Schools (2006).  Public schools become focus of gay marriage ban (2008). - Angry Parents Suing California Schools Over Mandatory Gay-Friendly Classes (2009). - Young, Gay and Murdered (2008). - Audit Will Hold Schools Accountable for Protecting All Students (2012).

The CTA (California Teachers' Association) Training Program - "Gay and Lesbian Youth: Breaking the Silence. - School's Gay Club Provokes Backlash  - Ads Attack Bill Outlawing Gay Bias in Schools. - California governor signs gay rights bill - 1999: "AB 537, prohibiting discrimination and harassment of public school students who are perceived to be gay or lesbian, was originally defeated by one vote in June in the state legislature, but was re-introduced and passed by the assembly in September... 'I have seen many incidents of anti-gay mistreatment in schools.' he said. UCLA, as well as the Los Angeles Unified School District, already include sexual orientation in their anti-discrimination policies." - Survey finds state's gay teens harassed in school. - NCLR - LGBT Students In California Public Schools. - ACLU Sues Rural California School for Anti-Gay Climate; Case Highlights National Epidemic in Rural Schools. - California Must Meet Commitment to Gay Youth. - Gay Teens Fight Back. - Scotts Valley Parents Protest Gay Tolerance. - A highly positive pro-gay/lesbian program at a San Jose's Lincoln High School. - Homophobia in Our Schools: Hate Crime Takes a Life (2008). - Appeals court rejects challenge to gay harassment ruling (2008): An appeals court has upheld a $300,000 judgment which held a San Diego school district responsible for not protecting LGBT students. - Largest Ever Study of Anti-Gay Harassment in Schools Shows the Problem is Widespread, Dangerous and Preventable: Study Proving That Schools Can Take Steps to Improve Student Safety Has National Implications for Addressing Harassment on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.

Largest Ever Study of Anti-Gay Harassment in Schools Shows the Problem is Widespread, Dangerous and Preventable: Study Proving That Schools Can Take Steps to Improve Student Safety Has National Implications for Addressing Harassment on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. (California Safe Schools Coalition). - Make schools safe havens for gay students.(Alternate link, Must Scroll) - Study Finds Anti-Gay Harassment in Schools Rampant. - Gay youth become movement's newest ambassadors as they lobby to stop discrimination N/A.  - Schools Cannot 'Out' Gay Students, Federal Judge Rules: Teen can sue district for revealing her sexual orientation to her mother (Alternate Link). - 'So Gay' Phrase Lands Santa Rosa Schools In Court N/A. - Common Phrase, "That's so Gay" Creates a Courtroom Battle. - School works to eliminate 'gay' as offensive taunt. -  Father sues school district over harassment of his son: Classmates taunted ballroom dancer, 12, perceived as gay (2004). - Anti-gay remarks common at SF schools (2009). - GLSEN San Francisco-East Bay: No longer Active. - ACLU of Southern California Stands Up For Gay and Lesbian High School Students Harassed By School Officials On Basis of Sexual Orientation (2004).

Gay high school students increasingly using the courts; Unlikely allies seek another way N/A: Gay high school students in California are increasingly using the courts and political activism to counter individual acts of discrimination and to promote tolerance. The moves, educators and legal experts say, come at a time of exponential growth of gay student clubs and an acceptance of homosexuality on high school campuses that would have been unheard of a decade ago. "It's a reflection of the students' desire to not just not be beat up, but to actually have full equality," says Carolyn Laub, executive director of the Gay Straight Alliance Network (GSAN). - Davis Student Fears More Harassment: It all happened at Harper Junior High. A student of gay parents has been harassed and called names. His parents say their car was torched and now they're threatening a lawsuit against the school if it doesn't take the anti-gay harassment more seriously. Harper Junior High School student, Zack, hasn't been to school in almost a month. He says after years of being teased because his father is gay, one day, it went too far. - High schoolers lend silent support to gay peers (2008): Enochs and Oakdale teens join in national on-campus protests- School Board imposes homosexual curriculum on classes (2009). - ACLU Sues Orange County School for “Cultivating Homophobic Environment. - ACLU/SC Settles Lawsuit over Orange County High School That Tolerated Homophobia and Sexism (2009).

Parent Services Project: The release of our groundbreaking new early childhood curriculum, Making Room in the Circle: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Families in Early Childhood Education. This curriculum has been developed to assist early childhood providers to create welcoming, high-quality environments that actively engage LGBT families, and diminish the silence, taboo and bias that target LGBT families and harm all children. - Overview. - Curriculum.  - Berkeley: Gay Friendly Schools. - Outrage over San Diego school's involvement in 'gay pride' parade (Alternate Link). - School's Homophobic Atmosphere Fostered Hate Protest, ACLU/SC Says (2009).

Fong, Sabrina (2010). Homophobic bullying and safety for queer youth in high school, a retrospective study. Masters' Dissertation, Social Work, California State University Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page. Study findings indicated that public high schools in Sacramento are failing to adequately protect their LGBTQ students from acts of homophobic bullying and are therefore, not providing a safe space for all students to learn. Queer youth are at-risk for suicide, substance abuse, mental health problems, and homelessness when schools do not adequately meet their needs. The researcher is demonstrating the importance of recognizing homophobic bullying as a public issue and making changes in schools, in school staff, and in greater society to assist queer youth in feeling safe in their environment.

Colorado: - Colorado Safe Schools. - Boulder Valley Safe Schools Coalition. - Bullying in Schools: Harassment Puts Gay Youth At Risk. - Gay leaders fear Littleton backlash: Police, the media and the Christian right continue to track reports that at least one of the killers was gay.  (1999).  - A prom of their own: Freedom of expression reigns at 'Queer Prom' (2003).  - Following ACLU Lawsuit, Colorado Springs High School Ends Second-Class Status for Gay-Straight Alliance (2005). - Gay, homeless teens at greater risk, study finds (2007). - Gay Teen Attacked By Fellow High School Students: Centennial High School Student Must Undergo Surgery For Wounds (2007). - Colorado Attack Illustrates Need for Schools to Address Anti-LGBT Bias, Behavior (2007): Days before the National Day of Silence, the brutal bias-based attack by six Pueblo youth against a fellow Centennial High School student last week because of his sexual orientation highlights a troubling and far too common problem in our nation’s schools. The six students drove past the 15-year-old several times as he walked home from school, yelling anti-gay slurs at him. Eventually, one of the students got out of the car and threw a Lysol can, breaking the 15-year-old’s nose and causing enough damage to require surgery. - Statement on Civil Rights in Colorado as they affect the GLBT Community (2009).

Connecticut: - Connecticut and Northeast Ohio: GLSEN Chapter Resources for Safe Schools. - Connecticut Bans Anti-Gay Discrimination in its Schools N/A. - Lesbians' Firings Fuels Outrage.  - Gay youth revolution - my perspective. - Gay Student Advocates Speak School Board Hears Of Name-Calling, Violence, Teacher Reactions: High school students who say they have been harassed and beaten up for being gay or befriending gay or lesbian students asked the school board Tuesday to take strong action to defend them in the schools. Speaking during the public comment portion of the school board meeting, students and adult advocates complained of name-calling and violence by other students. They accused teachers of sometimes suggesting that students who are victimized should consider dropping out and getting an alternative degree. - GLSEN Connecticut Tackles LGBT Issues in Schools (2009).

Florida: - Safe Schools South Florida. - Group says bullying sparks school violence - Coalition for gays blames harassment for recent problems (2001). - Florida Legislator Verbally Attacks Youth Lobbyists N/A: "God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, and he is going to destroy you and a lot of others." (Related News Item). - Florida Lawmaker's Attack on Gay Youths Criticized Widely. - Continuing Fallout Plagues Florida Legislator N/A. - Florida Congressmen Apologize to Gay Students N/A. - Teens Urge States to Protect Gay, Lesbian Students (2002): Gay and lesbian teen-agers, frustrated by the harassment they get at school, are asking their state legislators to step in and pass laws that would do what their teachers and principals are failing to do: protect them. - Gay students, cross-dressers face resistance (2002). - Clothes Pose Question: Are Gay Students Safe? (2002). - Florida school board vilifies gays (2002). - High school senior came 'out' - and was expelled (2003). (Alternate Link)

ACLU of Florida Warns Hillsborough County School Board to Honor Students’ Federal Right to Form Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) (2006).  - ACLU Sues to Enforce Equal Access for Gay-Straight Alliance at Okeechobee High School (2006). - Teens Urge States to Protect Gay, Lesbian Students (2005).  - Judge rules high school club can meet pending outcome of lawsuit (2007). - Gay-Straight Alliance can have club at school (2007). - Anti-Gay hatred rampant in Florida High School (2008). - ACLU: Fla. high school 'trampling on' rights of students who oppose anti-gay harassment (2008). - Florida High School v. Rainbows (YouTube, 2009). - Gay student banned from wearing rainbow. - Florida High School Wins Case for Pro-Gay Speech (2009).  - Florida High School Gay Straight Alliance Takes On School Board (2009). - Judge Gives Green Light to Florida High School Gay-Straight Alliance (2009). - Okeechobee, FL High School Gay-Straight Alliance Wins Groundbreaking Federal Lawsuit (2008). - Officials unclear whether 13-year old’s rape was gay harassment (2009).

Pridelines Youth Services: Dedicated to educate youth in a safe and nurturing environment and to promote dialogue that results in positive development and social change. - YES Institute (Education on Gender & Orientation): To prevent suicide and ensure the healthy development of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and all youth by initiating dialogue, providing education, and creating support systems. We work in dynamic partnerships with individuals and organizations that have a commitment to creating a safer world for all youth. Schools, parent groups, healthcare settings, justice departments, clergy, and non-profit organizations contact YES Institute seeking non-confrontational communication and innovative education and training on gender, orientation, leadership and communication.

Georgia: - Georgia Safe Schools Coalition (GSSC). - Gay club ignites controversy in North Georgia town (2005). - Anti-gay bullying common in Ga. schools: Gay-straight alliances help students cope, studies show. - Anti-Gay Bullying Common In Georgia Schools (2006). - Ga. school settles case over gay-straight alliance: Student clubs emerge as new target of anti-gay ‘family’ groups (2007). - High School Student Takes On Anti-Gay Harassment - And Wins (2009). - Cross-dressing student forced to drop out of school. What are the limits for student expression in schools? (2009). -

Hawaii: - "Hawai`i's schools, both public and private, are dangerous places for youths perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgendered." (1998).  - Hawaii Paper's Commentary Urges Protections for Gay Youth (1998). - School board to vote on gay harassment rule Thursday (2000): The controversial rules would ban harassment based on, among other things, sexual orientation. A politically charged vote on a controversial set of anti-harassment rules is now officially on the Board of Education meeting agenda for Thursday, just days before the Nov. 7 General Election. - 'O Au No Keia: Voices from Hawai'i's Mahu and Transgender Communities (2001). - Committee sponsors first prom for gay high-schoolers (2003). - School task force seeks solutions to harassment (2006): For "Shane," a transgendered high school sophomore, life on campus has been a school of hard knocks. At a previous Oahu school, he was taunted with every gay slang term there is and was even physically assaulted by his own friends when they realized that their girlfriend actually wanted to live her life as a male. "Being queer in high school here is really hard. It makes you scared, like you can't even walk down the hall without being thrown against a locker," said the 15-year-old student. Yet through a combination of fear and shame, Shane has left the harassment largely unreported.

Nanakuli Students Rally Around an Openly-Gay Teacher (2007): Some students at Nanakuli High School started this petition, calling for an end to a "discriminatory" atmosphere on campus towards members of the gay community. This after, they say, an openly gay teacher was targeted by other students and ultimately his bosses (Related, 2009). - Recommendations for Addressing Harassment in Hawaii Public Schools (2007). - School board to vote on gay harassment rule Thursday (2008): Those in favor of the change said the sexual orientation language is needed to protect gay and lesbian students who are frequent targets of harassment by other students and by school staff. - Hawaii's Racial and Sexual Minorities Bear the Burden of Teen Pregnancy and STIs (2008).

Idaho: - Idaho Safe Schools Coalition. - Eastern Idaho PFLAG: March Meetng (2006): Fifteen people attended the March meeting to hear a young man tell his story about being out at Hillcrest High School. He came out as a sophomore (he is now a junior) and started a gay straight alliance, which is now not organized due to the lack of a faculty sponsor. It is still not being easy being out in high school, he is still being harassed at school. - Idaho lawmakers kill discrimination protections bill for LGBTI’s (2009). - Amplify Report Card: Idaho: GLBTQ students in Idaho are at serious risk for harassment and discrimination.

Report on the 2003 Idaho lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Survey:  43% of male gay and bisexual youth experienced LGBT harassment and name calling at school and 32% of these boys experienced at least one threat of physical violence because of their sexual orientation or gender expression. The numbers of incidents for lesbians were lower but still hit 22% for LGBT verbal harassment and 12% for threats of violence. Perhaps not surprisingly 58% of gay and bisexual boys felt it was unsafe to be out at school and only 13% reported that they were out in school at all. Half of the surveyÕs queer participants said that their school did not try to make LGBT students feel safe. Less than 11% said that they reported an incident of harassment to school administrators. Interestingly violence was much more prevalent for male participants and even straight participants reported some incidents of LGBT threats and violence and a great many reported feelings that school was unsafe.

Illinois: - Illinois Safe Schools AllianceBully pulpit: Forum takes on school toughs. - Lesbian student couple signals school change (2002) N/A. - Kate Bornstein Urges Reversal of 'Bully Culture'. - Principal Gives High Heels on Boys the Boot. - The Coalition for education on sexual orientation N/A. (The Coalition for Education on Sexual Orientation (CESO) is now the Illinois Safe Schools Alliance.) - Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Issues in Schools: Local [Illinois] and National Facts and Statistics. - Hostile Climate: DuPage County: Parent, anonymous flyer complain about gay subject matter in classroom. - Chicago GLSEN N/A (Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network). - Chicago Students Stand Up for Gay Equality. - Judge OKs school ban of anti-gay T-shirt (2007). - School bus driver charged in homophobic attack on student (2008).  - Chicago may get 'gay-friendly' high school. - Gay-oriented high school plan dropped (2008). - Gay advocates upset at shelving of Chicago school (2008). - Students Deserve Better than Gay Chicago School CEO Huberman (2009). - Exposing Hidden Homophobia (2009). Research Shows Alarming Rates of LGBT Student Victimization in Illinois (2009). - School Dress Codes Homophobic?

Indiana: - Policy Not Enough to Curb Harassment in Local Schools: A report released Friday by a local gay advocacy group charges that many area schools are hostile climates for gay students... The Indiana Youth Group, a support organization for gay teens, collected reports from more than 250 of its members, ages 12 to 20, during the spring semester of 2001. The group found that Tech and Broad Ripple high schools in Indianapolis Public Schools lead the list for physical and verbal harassment from students... The complaints include everything from anti-gay comments to physical assaults, said Rob Connoley, director of the Indiana Youth Group. In almost all cases, students did not report the incidents to school officials, fearing repercussions... The report mirrors results of a national Human Rights Watch report released in May that found that gay students are subjected to near-constant verbal and physical bullying. School officials often look the other way, or even encourage it, according to the report." - Tension at high school over gay rights (2007) N/A: Tensions over a Day of Silence in support of gay rights led to a lockdown at New Castle Chrysler High School. - Tension Over Gay Rights Rally Leads To School Lockdown (2007): Rumors Of School Threat Prompt Lockdown. - Indiana Disgraces America (Homophobia) (2007): The sophomore, Megan Chase, wrote an article stressing the virtues of tolerance and respect for the differences between gay students and heterosexual students. As a direct result, the school newspaper adviser, Amy Sorrell, now stands to lose her job.

Indiana Schools Moving Toward Equal Rights for Gays (2007). - We are thrilled that K.K. Logan will have a day in court and that the school’s discriminatory policies can be challenged’ (2008): Late yesterday the United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana denied Gary high school’s motion to dismiss a case brought by transgender former student Kevin  “K.K.” Logan, a feminine male who was barred from prom because he wore a dress. - Indiana lesbian can wear tux to prom (2009).

Iowa: - For some, school is a place to learn to be afraid. - GLSEN Expresses Concern as Iowa School Postpones Disney Trip Due to "Gay Days". - Gay Students Deserve Protection. - The GLBT Forum: Making Schools Safe for Gay, Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender Youth. - Iowa Schools Get LGBT Friendly. - Iowa High School Students Protest Cancellation of Play.  - Iowa School Board Bans Gay Book From Classrooms (2004).  - Iowa parents protest high school "Laramie Project" (2006). - Straight Students Harassed for having Gay Friends (2006).

GLSEN Hails Signing of Comprehensive Safe Schools Bill in Iowa (2007). - Survey: Iowa Gay Students Face Bullying, Harassment (2009). - Study: Schools not up to speed on harassment (2009). - Survey: Iowa LGBT students still unsafe (2009). - Bullying, harassment prevails at high schools, survey finds.  - Iowa Safe Schools To Host 4th Annual Governors Conference on LGBT Youth (2009).

Gay penguins have a place in school libraries? "A picture book about two male penguins raising a baby penguin is getting a chilly reception among some parents who worry about the book’s availability to children — and the reluctance of school administrators to restrict access to it."

ACLU Marks Anniversary of Landmark Student Free Speech Decision With New Video: To mark tomorrow’s anniversary of Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District, the American Civil Liberties Union has released a video about one of the latest of many cases in which Tinker was relied upon to uphold students’ right to free speech. Despite the landmark ruling, school officials routinely ignore the rule of law and attempt illegal censorship to this day, especially against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students, the ACLU said.

Kansas: - GLSEN Kansas City. - PFLAG: Kansas City. - Kansas Equality Coalition of Topeka, Inc., formerly Equal Justice Coalition, formed in September 2002 after the Topeka City Council voted against expanding the Human Relations Ordinance to include protection from discrimination to all citizens based on sexual orientation and gender identity. - Gay Studies: Kansas City's chapter of the Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network teaches Respect 101 (2000): Educators in the Kansas City, Missouri, Shawnee Mission, and Blue Valley school districts told Pitch Weekly that either their nondiscrimination or student conduct and discipline policies or human rights statements adequately dealt with harassment and intimidation of LGBT students. Those policies "would apply from our perspective," says Dr. Steve McIlvain, deputy superintendent at Blue Valley. But none of the districts' nondiscrimination policies contain specific language covering "sexual orientation." The result is LGBT kids aren't really protected from harassment and potential violence, and teachers are ignorant of their students' situations. Sometimes, the really courageous kids take their estrangement to its risk-heavy yet self-freeing conclusion: They come out.

Kentucky: - Kentucky Fried Homophobia: This afternoon in Boyd County, Kentucky, a group of local ministers is holding a rally to protest a decision by the local high school to allow a gay-straight alliance to form. Last Monday, almost half the student body stayed home from school to protest the decision.- Kentucky High School Rejects "Safe Sex" Brochures, Pamphlets Targeting Gay, Lesbian Teens (2003). - Kentucky gay-straight group can meet at high school (2003). - Investigation under way in school divided over homosexual issue (2006): An English teacher in Kentucky is under investigation for showing her students a clip of "Brokeback Mountain," the controversial film about a homosexual relationship between two sheepherders. - Boone County High School in Northern Kentucky Approves Gay-Straight Alliance: Under threat of being sued by the Kentucky Equality Association for delaying the formation of a Gay-Straight Alliance, Boone County High School Official's give it a green light. - Kentucky Equality Federation supports gay and lesbian students protest at Franklin County High School (2009). - Kentucky School Bars Gay Students from Bathrooms? (2009).


Louisiana: - Boy says mom is gay; school rebukes him (2003). - Conflicting Statements By School That Harassed Son of Lesbian (2003). - Gay comment starts flap in Louisiana district (2004): The Lafayette Parish School District in Louisiana allegedly encroached on the free speech of a 7-year-old boy recently by punishing him for telling another student that his mother is gay. Last November, the then 6-year-old Marcus McLaurin Marcus McLaurin reportedly told a classmate that he had two mothers and explained that, "Gay is when a girl likes another girl," Hampton says. The teacher, Terry Bethea, chastised the boy in front of his classmates and sent him to the principal's office. The next day he was forced to repeatedly write, "I will never use the word gay again, Hampton says... On Dec. 12, the parish school board voted 5-to-3 to refuse to apologize. - Amplify Report Card: Louisiana (2009): GLBTQ students in Louisiana are at serious risk for harassment and discrimination.

Maine: - Gay Issues: Maine schools fail GLSEN test (July, 2004): "Maine’s schools are failing miserably when it comes to protecting gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender students — at least that’s what an exhaustive report from the Washington, DC–based Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSSEN) announced last week. They gave Maine and its pro-gay policies an "F," with an overall score of 35 (nope, that’s not even close to passing), snuggling the state at number 19 between Iowa and Virginia. However, there is a caveat — 41 other states failed, too, and, says Betsy Smith, the executive director of Equality Maine (formerly MLGPA), Maine would have gotten a better score if GLSSEN hadn’t relied on dated data." - Creating Safe Spaces for All Youth: Working with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning Youth (2004). - Discrimination Against Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Individuals in Maine (2005). - Bullying Prevention:  A Guide for Schools and Communities (2006, PDF). - State rules in favor of young transgender: The Maine Human Rights Commission ruled Monday that the Orono School Department discriminated against a transgender child by denying her access to the girls bathroom (2009). - Maine rules in favor of trans girl in human rights complaint against her school (2009).

Coming Out in Middle School (2009): A middle-school counselor in Maine summed up the view of many educators I spoke to when she conceded that her school was “totally unprepared” for openly gay students. “We always knew middle school was a time when kids struggle with their identity,” she told me, “but it was easy to let anti-gay language slide because it’s so imbedded in middle-school culture and because we didn’t have students who were out to us or their classmates. Now we do, so we’re playing catch up to try to keep them safe.”

Maryland: - Md. schools pull young-adult novel: After receiving complaints from about 40 parents, a Maryland school district has pulled a young-adult novel from its curriculum, in part because of its references to homosexuality. - Gay Friendly: Students and Teachers in City Schools Combat Anti-Gay Discrimination by Forming Gay-Straight Alliances. - Uproar as Maryland Pre-teen Expresses Gay Pride at School (2008). - Students pledge to address anti-gay bullying (2009). - Reporting Racial, Religious, Ethnic, and Sexual Orientation Incidents (Baltimore).

Massachusetts:  - Does It Get Better? A Roundtable on LGBTQ Youth (2011): Is This the Best We Can Do? After six years of marriage equality, many would say “the gays” are doing quite well in Massachusetts. But, too many queer youth are not. The Commonwealth that once boasted a state budget of some $1.5 million for LGBT youth support programs in education and in public health has suffered a retrenchment that risks the health and welfare of a still vulnerable population. Public health’s LGBT youth budget is now $250,000, and education’s is $0. Attributing this slippage to the economy doesn’t admit to the fact that the Safe Schools Program for Gay and Lesbian Students at the Massachusetts Department of Education (DOE)—now the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE)—had been virtually eliminated well before the great recession of 2009 took its toll. Prior budget constraints and a lack of commitment at the cabinet and commissioner’s level had rendered Safe Schools for Gay and Lesbian Students a non-priority even before 2009... If a GSA or community-based support group is merely a refuge for queer kids to huddle—while the rest of the school or town remains unchanged and unchallenged—then the GSA or support group is merely a kind gesture. If anti-bullying policies are just part of a checklist for school boards to avoid lawsuits and are focused on detection and punishment rather than on transforming the school culture through anti-bigotry activities and curricula, they are hardly worth adopting. In Massachusetts’s schools and communities, we must do better.

GLSEN Massachusetts. - All Reports From the Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth available online. - List of Report from the Comission. -The Executive Order that created the Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth (1993). - The Massachusetts Gay and Lesbian Students’ Rights Law. - Mass. Gov. Attempts To Abolish Gay Youth Commission (2005). - The Safe Schools Program for Gay & Lesbian Students. - Massachusetts: 2001 - 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results.Youth Risk behavior Survey Results - 1997 - Table of Contents. - Gay / Straight Alliances: A student's Guide. - The Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth: Related Articles. Problems? - Few schools offer support to gay students (1997): some positive results in student attitude survey. - More gay bias reported at school: 161 attacks were reported last year. - Despite receiving high marks for having policies to protect gay students and teachers from harassment, Boston Public Schools fail to provide a safe learning environment. - Trans inclusion a gray area for Boston schools N/A. - Massachusetts High School to Celebrate"Transgender, Gay Day". - "Transgender Bisexual Gay and Lesbian Awareness Day" at a Massachusetts High School - major propaganda at taxpayers' expense. - Greater Boston PFLAG's Safe Schools & Communities Project. - High schools from across the state in homosexual parade (2009).

Parents rip school over gay storybook: Lesson reignites clash in Lexington. - Exploring the experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents in school: Lessons for school psychologists (PHD Dissertation by Marjorie Cooper-Nicols): Participants in this study consisted of 13 GLB youth between the ages of 15 and 18 who were members of Project 10 East, a community GLB youth organization serving the Boston, Massachusetts area...  Other key findings include: (1) anti-discrimination policies were not clearly enforced in the schools; (2) GLB youth interviewees developed strengths; and (3) participants did not perceive school psychologists as assisting GLB youth. Implications for GLB youth in schools are discussed, and recommendations for school psychologists at the individual practice and school policy levels are highlighted. - Film shows struggle to form gay alliance.

Homosexuality Will Massachusetts Listen? - From Sept. 2, 1999  Associated Press Article "Governor's commission calls on ed board to protect gay kids": ""The commission believes that nearly a third of the state's public schools are not including gay and lesbian students in anti-harassment and anti-discrimination policies." (Related Boston Herald Article) - Mass. Stance on Anti-Gay Bias In Schools Stirring Debate: "The new regulations call for schools to undertake "active efforts" to prevent discrimination, by training staff members and responding promptly to harassment when it occurs. School handbooks and codes of conduct are to be brought  up to date to reflect the ban on discrimination based on sexual orientation." - Massachussetts: Gay Marriage Legalized (2004). - Massachusetts Schools Weigh Gay Topics. - Massachusetts High School Students and Sexual Orientation Results (2005). - Massachusetts Study Shows High Suicide Rate for Gay. - Parents rip school over gay storybook Lesson reignites clash in Lexington (2006). -  Anti-gay bigots plan "Day of Defiance" in several Massachusetts High Schools. - Principal bans parents from pro-'gay' seminar (2007).  - Massachusetts: Gay Topics and Schools (2007): A federal judge threw out a lawsuit filed by parents who wanted to keep their young children from learning about same-sex marriage in school. - The daughter of a Massachusetts lesbian is abused and threatened at school after she tells classmates about her family (2007). - BC Newspaper Running Series on Homophobia (2009): The Boston College student newspaper on Monday published the first of three stories in a series on homophobia at the Roman Catholic school in Chestnut Hill, Mass.

Boston to host LGBT friendly college fair. - 11-Year-Old Hangs Himself after Enduring Daily Anti-Gay Bullying (2009): An 11-year-old Massachusetts boy, Carl Joseph Walker-Hoover, hanged himself Monday after enduring bullying at school, including daily taunts of being gay, despite his mother's weekly pleas to the school to address the problem. This is at least the fourth suicide of a middle-school aged child linked to bullying this year. - Milton school district harassment story continues to unfold (2007): The ongoing harassment case of a Milton school girl with a lesbian mother continues to unfold - and is gaining mainstream media attention.

Michigan: - Schools tackle the job of protection for gays:  "Kids can be cruel. So can teachers. Some people who wouldn't dream of using a racial epithet think nothing of punctuating a joke with a limp wrist, pronouncing something "soooo gay" or calling someone a faggot." - Gay students struggle to cope with attitudes:  "When Lana Madigan was in ninth grade at Garden City High School her peers regularly yelled "dyke" when they saw her walking to class... Seventy-eight percent of 104 principals who responded to the survey said there were no openly gay, lesbian or bisexual students at their schools and 82 percent said they were not aware of any antigay harassment." - State requires schools to stop bullying: Policy could highly impact lgbt students: "In an era characterized by school shootings, bullying, especially anti-gay bullying, has received much attention as a result. According to the national offices of the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, in five of the eight most recent school shootings the shooters were taunted as being gay." - Young, Gifted & Gay' within the Detroit Public Schools (2004). - School Board Objects to Pictures of Gay Americans (2009). - Anti-gay school bus incident renews calls for anti-bullying legislation (2009).

Minnesota: - Outfront, Minnesota: School Resources/News. -Basic human rights protections in Minnesota.  - How Catholic Schools Are Creating A Safe Climate for Gay and Lesbian Students. - Minnesota anti-bullying bill to help protect lesbian and gay students (2009). - Minneapolis: Out 4 Good - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Program. - Suicidality among gay, lesbian and bisexual youth: the role of protective factor (2004): There were 2,255 respondents [9th to 12 Grade] who reported same-gender experience. Over half of GLB students had thought about suicide and 37.4% reported a suicide attempt. GLB youth reported significantly lower levels of each protective factor than their non-GLB peers. - Creating Respectful Schools for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender students, Families, and Staff: A Guide for Concerned Minnesotans. - Minn. School District Accused of Abetting Anti-Gay Harassment (2009). - Homophobic Teachers Harass Student, School Loses $25,000 (2009). - Suburban school district gets earful over anti-gay harassment (2009). - Anti-bullying bill seeks Safe Schools for All (2009). - In Suburb, Battle Goes Public on Bullying of Gay Students (2011).

Mississippi: - MS Safe Schools Coalition: Mississippi does not favorably compare to many other states on ensuring students have a safe learning environment through non-discrimination policies. - Anti-bullying policy for JPS needs serious improvement (2009). - [Carter] Standing in Solidarity (2009): In 2009, it’s inexcusable that a state as diverse as Mississippi remains one of 19 states in the country that does not have hate-crimes protections covering gay and transgender people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students in Mississippi face the most hostile school environment in the country, according to a 2004 report by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), which ranked Mississippi last in a nationwide study of school anti-bullying policies. - Mississippi School Superintendent Upholds Ban on Lesbian Tux Photo (2009).

Safer Schools Now (2009): The Mississippi Safe Schools Coalition is entering its second year of existence. The organization is committed to protecting students' constitutional rights, but also exists to bring about change in Mississippi schools by "ending homophobia, transphobia, sexism and all forms of discrimination, and fostering acceptance of LGBT students through public education and advocacy," according to its mission statement... "The coalition is a broad base of students, teachers and parents trying to work at a grass-roots level," Young said. "Our experience is that safer schools mean better performance on test scores and better attendance. If you're being bullied, for whatever reason, you're terrified to come to school. You skip, so it's better for everyone to work with us." Safe Schools offers counseling, advice and information to students, teachers, parents, administrators or anybody who is interested in learning how to make their school an easier environment in which to get along. - Protecting the Rights of LGBT Youth: ACLU of Mississippi.

Missouri: - Gay jibes tied to Missouri school shooting (2006). - Teen In School Gun Incident Victim Of Unabated Homophobia Mom Says (2006). - Hallways of Hate: Back to school means a return to torture for... (2006). - ACLU Scolds Missouri High School for Censoring Gay Student (Alterenate Link). - Gay student sues school after he was disciplined for wearing T-shirts featuring gay pride messages N/A. - From Teasing to Torment Documents Student Experiences of Bullying and Harassment in Missouri Schools (2007). - Parents Blame Bullies for 5th-Grade Suicide (2008). - Mississippi conference to address harassment of LGBT students (2008).  - Lesbian Lawmaker Denied Chance to Work for Kids (2009): A Missouri lawmaker has been told she was kept off of a House committee on children and families because other members found her "offensive." What's offensive? That she's a lesbian?

Montana: - Queer and Present Danger: Outing Montana’s Ambient Homophobia (2002). - Hostile Hallways: Stopping Harassment and Bullying of Gay Youth (Montana Human Rights Network News, 2003): Of the calls we have fielded at the Network, students have reported the attack of one of their peers whose jaw was broken, because he was perceived to be gay. We have heard from a lesbian who was sexually harassed by male students who threatened to rape her in order to "make" her straight. We have heard from LGBT youth who have had their heads shoved into the toilet and flushed. Another student was forced to take an independent study class when a teacher refused to have a gay student in the classroom. We have also become aware that, in today's schools, the term "gay" is used as an adjective to describe anybody or anything seen as stupid, crazy or different. Also, "faggot," "dyke," and "queer," as well as more derogatory comments, are heard frequently by youth. This constant bombardment by their peers, along with teachers and administrators in some cases, subjects LGBT youth to daily abuse. Unrelenting verbal attacks create a hostile climate, undermining the ability of the targeted student to concentrate on learning and a teacher's ability to teach. When school officials choose to ignore verbal harassment or dismiss its significance, they help reinforce the hostile environment that the student is powerless to change. Youth being targeted get the message that they are not worthy of protection, and that harassment is an inevitable consequence of being gay. Often there is a deliberate indifference to this abuse by school officials, who sometimes blame the abused students for provoking the attacks by not fitting the rigid stereotypes of traditional gender roles. Sometimes officials even deny that anti-gay bias motivated the harassment or violence. Others justify their inaction by arguing that students who insist on being gay must get used to being harassed.

Montana Board of Public Education Bans Homophobic Bullying (2006). - Many gays, lesbians fear to come out even at home (2009).

The Montana Safe Schools Coalition: The Coalition formed in 2001 in response to concerns of teachers, students, and parents about severe anti-gay harassment, bullying, and violence in Montana schools. Homophobia affects the culture of the entire school—impacting those who are perceived to be LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender), those who identify as LGBT, and those with LGBT family members. Teachers across the state have asked for guidance on dealing with anti-gay bias in their schools, as well as information about the legal support they can expect. - NCBI Missoula: dedicated to moving individuals, organizations, and communities toward a more just and inclusive society.


Nebraska: - GLSEN Omaha. - GLSEN Omaha Pride Alliance's Notes. - Amplify Report Card: Nebraska : GLBTQ students in Nebraska are at serious risk for harassment and discrimination.

Nevada: - Lambda to Sue Reno School Officials for Failing to Protect Gay Student (2000). - Nevada School Officials Facing Suit for Allowing Abuse: Administrators Failed to Protect Gay High School Student. Merciless Mistreatment Drove Youth from High School. - Gay Ex-Student Gets Settlement From School (2002).  - Groundbreaking Legal Settlement is First to Recognize Constitutional Right of Gay and Lesbian Students to be Out at School & Protected From Harassment (2002). - Uncharted territory: Homophobic discrimination & victimization in a frontier state (2005).  - Derek Henkle: Survivor of School Violence in Reno, Nevada Nightmare of anti-gay abuse fueled by school officials' indifference. (2005).

New Hampshire: - New Hampshire Passes School Safety Bill. - Teen Lesbian Couple in New Hampshire Named "Class Sweethearts". (Anti-gay activists plan to picket at high school Protest is against lesbian couple.) - Lesbian kiss upsets US high school N/A.

New Jersey: - New Jersey Governor Signs GLBT-Inclusive Safe School Legislation. - New Jersey High School Library Creates Homosexual Section. - New Jersey Schools Told to Protect Gay Students. - Students Protest Discrimination in Schools - Silently N/A. - Lesbian Teen Sues School District ; Says Torment By Students Was Allowed By Educators (2005). - Judge blocks 'gay-friendly' curriculum (2005). - New Jersey Schools Told to Protect Gay Students (2007). - New Jersey School District Pulls Gay Family Movie (2007). -N.J. Ruling Highlights Bullying Nightmare in Schools (2007).  - Research Shows Alarming Rates of LGBT Student Victimization in New Jersey (2009).

New York: - GLSEN Hudson Valley. - GLSEN Rochester. - Homosexuality and the schools (Alternate Link). - School for Gay Students Nixed. - Gay Public High School to Open Doors This Fall. - No gay school on Long Island. - School Debate: Teach Gay Issues? "Most people don't know it, but October is officially designated Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual Heritage and History Month in School District 2 in Manhattan." - The Liverpool High School Gay/Straight Alliance. - Creating A Safe Environment Where Gay and Lesbian High School Students Can Seek Support: "More schools are offering counseling for teenagers, but by many accounts gay and lesbian students are among the least likely to receive those services." - High school: A gay old time. - Expanded gay high school becomes lightning rod. - First public gay high school to open in NYC. - The Harvey Milk School Has No Right to Exist. Discuss. - No Name-Calling Week targets homophobia in schools (2009). - Another Gay Kid Tormented By Classmates. Another Lawsuit to Force the School to Protect Him (2009). - New York School District To Protect Gay Student (2009): A 14-year-old gay student who is attending the Gregory B. Jarvis Junior, Senior High School in Herkimer, New York, has worked out an agreement with the school to ensure that administrators provide him with protection. The student has filed a lawsuit against the school district and the administrators for failing to provide him with adequate protection in the past. This is according to the New York Civil Liberties Union.

Bishop, Christa M (2010). How visible and integrated are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender families: A survey of school psychologists regarding school characteristics. PhD Disssertation, School Psychology, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. PDF Download. Download Page. This study examined what elementary schools in New York State are doing to recognize lesbian gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families in terms of curriculum, policies, and practices... The findings demonstrate that even though LGBT families live in school districts, few schools have comprehensive curricula, practices, and polices that create a welcoming environment for them. An interesting finding of this study was that even though most of the respondents indicated that LGBT families were visible and included within their district, they did not perceive the school environment to be very open and welcoming for LGBT-headed families. Although findings suggest some awareness of these families and their needs within the school system, schools still have a long way to go before the needs of all families are met.

North Carolina: - Homophobic language and verbal harassment in North Carolina high schools  (2006). - Equality North Carolina: Supports proposed anti-bullying bill for schools (2008). -  Gay rights foes kill N.C. bill to battle school bullying (2008). - Anti-bullying bill advances in major victory for gay rights (2009). - Eaton LE (2005). Constructing Rainbow Classrooms: Non-heterosexual Students Journey Toward Safer Schools. PhD. Dissertation, Educational Research and Policy Analysis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. PDF Download. Abstract.

Ohio: - GLSEN Greater Cincinnati. - Connecticut and Northeast Ohio: GLSEN Chapter Resources for Safe Schools. - From Teasing to Torment: Study Reveals Student Perceptions of Bulling and Harassment in Ohio Schools (2005).  - Ohio County High School Student Fights for Gay Straight Alliance (2008). - Parents Sue Ohio School to Implement Anti-Bullying Program (2009). - Lawsuit Against School for Anti-Gay Bullying (2009). - Teachers in Anti-Gay Harassment Case Take ’Voluntary Leave’ (2009).

Oklahoma: - Oklahoma Schools: Gay Hell, Recruiting Ground for Exgays (2004): A Post reporter followed gay Oklahoma youth Michael Shackelford for the past year through a gantlet of bullies in school and church, and to some degree in his own home. The article notes that an estimated one-third of same-sex-attracted youths are forced to drop out of high school due to harassment — and it turns out that Shackleford is one of those youths. - Coming Out for One of Their Own: An Oklahoma Teen Finds Love Where He Least Expected It (2004): But the message that followed was a rant against a 17-year-old Sand Springs resident named Michael Shackelford and his mother, Janice, the subjects of a recent Washington Post series examining Michael's struggles as a young gay man in the Bible Belt. The fliers posted a photo of Michael, called him a "doomed teenage fag" and announced that followers of Westboro Baptist in Topeka were on their way from Kansas to stage antigay protests in Sand Springs.  - Battle Brews Over Gay History Books In Oklahoma City Schools (2005). - Oklahoma Gay Students Call For Action To End Bullying (2005): Gay and lesbian students in Oklahoma City schools say that homophobic bullying is commonplace and want the school board to provide greater protection.

Tulsa High Schools: Gay-Straight Alliance Network Youth Leadership Summit Planned (2008). - ILGA Implores Public School Officials to add Sexual Orientation Discrimination Protections to School Rules (2005). - Coming Out in Middle School (2009). - Teacher Backs Gay Policies, Fired by School Board (2009): A high school English teacher said he was singled out and fired for pushing for anti-discrimination policies for homosexual students. - Oklahoma teacher fired after assigning gay-themed play (2009):USA Today reports that gay rights groups are complaining about the firing of a rural Oklahoma high school teacher who lost her job after assigning a play about the 1998 death of a gay college student. But the tiny school district says the move came after the teacher held a mock "funeral" for a canceled film production of the play.

Oregon: - GLSENOregon. - GLSEN Hails Defeat of Oregon's Anti-gay No. 9. - Oregon Rejects Anti-Gay Initiative. - Oregon Safe Schools and Communities Coalition (OSSCC). - Oregon Gay Straight Alliance Network. - Central Oregon Gay Striaght Alliance. -  Homophobia at West Linn High School (2006): Brandon Flyte, a student at West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, was recently expelled for airing a video project he had been assigned in class which includes a same-sex "snuggle" scene. The film, Brokeback High, is a "gay love story" based on themes from Brokeback Mountain, but set in a modern day high school. The shot above was the one that got him expelled. - Rural Gay-Straight Alliances Look to GLSEN Oregon’s Urban Efforts for Support (2009). - Oregon: Senate Approves Bullying Bill, Heads to Governor (2009). - Safety in schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth (2009).

New Reports Call Bullying in Oregon Schools a Major Problem (2009): "One in three gay and transgender students in Oregon indicate that the hostile climate in their high school created a significant barrier to graduation," stated Tash Shatz, of the Oregon Students Equal Rights Alliance."And more than half of gay and transgender college students concealed their sexual orientation or gender identity for fear of personal safety, discrimination, or rejection." - Ore. school district to examine policy after gay group silenced: A southern Oregon school district is reexamining its policies after LGBT students at South Medford High School say they were denied permission to put up posters for the National Day of Silence recognizing the victims of anti-gay bullying. - Lambda slams school officals re: South Medford High School student and Gay Straight Alliance (2009). - Transgender Youth School Guidelines from TransActive Education & Advocacy (2009).


Pennsylvania: - Teen sues school district over anti-gay harassment (2000). - They're 'Out' at School, and Tension is in (2004). - From torment to teaching (2006). How one gay teenager took his life back by suing his school and moving forward. Now, he shares his story in a documentary that he hopes will shine a light for other teenagers being harassed.  - "We Belong" Documentary Exposes Homophobia in High School (2006). - We Belong: Movie about high school homophobia (2006). - Gay students often bullied in Pa. schools (2006). - From Teasing to Torment: A Report on School Climate in Pennsylvnaia (2006) (Alternate Link). - PA Wingers Reject Gay Input on Diversity (2007): The American Family Association of Pennsylvania is up in arms after a national group committed to ensuring safe schools for all children invited a school principal to diversity workshop. Convinced that the Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network is secretly working to make Pennsylvania “similar to Massachusets,” the AFA of PA issued a press release vaguely threatening Ambridge Area Senior High School principal Alan Fritz:... - Plight of gay teen moves school to act (2007): The teenager, an openly gay boy described by friends as kind and compassionate, said he was constantly harassed, though he never reported it to anyone, not even his friends. Finally, when classmates told him to "go kill himself" to "make the world a better place," the teen decided he'd had enough. He said he left school in the middle of his senior year because he could no longer bear the torment. His departure inspired a petition by about 300 of his classmates calling for district administrators to prevent the same thing from happening to others. - Amending Pennsylvania's Anti-Bullying Laws (2008); The existing problems. - 2009 Pennsylvania Safe Schools Conference to Feature National Experts. - DHS discrimination against transgender teen alleged (2009): A transgender teenager who identifies as a girl said she was subject to constant abuse and discrimination during 18 months in the custody of Philadelphia's Department of Human Services. At the Youth Study Center, the 16-year-old teen was placed in the boys' unit, where, she said, staff and residents harassed her despite a judge's order that she be addressed by her preferred female name and female pronouns.

Rhode Island: - Creating safe schools for GLBT students. - Rhode Island: Still a tough life for gay students N/S. - Youth Pride (1998): In January 1998, Rhode Island students, teachers and parents testified about the impact of homophobia in schools. One young woman spoke of a friend who was believed to be gay. They thought he was gay and that is all they needed to know. He was in the bathroom and a couple of guys shoved his head in the urinal, and urinated on his head. Another student discussed the escalation from verbal to physical victimization:... - Harassment and Discrimination at School (2008): Are there any laws protecting gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender students in Rhode Island? Yes. Although there are no statewide laws that explicitly address discrimination or harassment based on sexual orientation or gender identity and expression in schools, several provisions provide students with protections against violence, bullying, and hazing. - Supporting Your Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer* or Questioning Child. - Sexual Orientation and Health Risks Among Rhode Island Public High School Students in 2007.

South Carolina: - Principal Censors Pro-Gay School Paper (2009): Two male students holding hands and a pro-gay editorial got a school paper yanked by administrators at a South Carolina school last month. Somehow, the principal is still claiming the school encourages diversity.

Tennessee: - Gay teens struggle to find support at school, form alliances peers (2003). - ACLU wants David Crockett High School officials to apologize to student suspended for gay rights demonstration (2007). - ACLU Gives Tennessee High School an F in Civics for Censoring Gay and Gay-Supportive Students Demands School Apologize and Promise Not to Censor in the Future (2007): After a high school principal suspended a student for participating in a silent demonstration to raise awareness about anti-gay violence, the American Civil Liberties Union demanded today that David Crockett High School apologize to the student and promise not to punish students who take part in such actions in the future. - Principal Outs Two Black Gay Students at High School (2008). - Nashville Schools To Protect LGBT Students (2008): Nashville’s Metro School Board has unanimously approved changes to the code of student conduct to protect students from discrimination based on sexuality and gender identity. - ACLU Sues To Stop Tennessee Schools From Censoring Gay Educational Web Sites (2009). - Schools Unblock Gay Web Sites (2009). - Related News Items (Koxville, to 2009).

Texas: - The Walt Whitman Community School of Dallas.  - Walt Whitman high point: a Dallas school for gay students was on its last leg when MTV taped the new documentary School's Out, but now everything is looking up. - School's Out: The Life of a Gay High School in Texas (2003) (TV). - Texas School Cancels Counselor Training On Gay Youth. - Gay Study: Students Live in Fear (2001): "Gay students in North Texas speak out against the abuse they say they face in school. A new study calls the harassment a violation of human rights. Texas gay and lesbian groups are demanding that school leaders protect the students from verbal and physical attacks." - HISD May Protect Sexual Orientation in Student Code of Conduct. - Gay Houston youth welcome new policy: Students who were subject to harassment in area schools say prohibiting anti-gay comments and acts will help. - Anti-gay bias rages in Dallas schools (2007): 16-year-old anti-discrimination policy not enforced; committee forms to demand its implementation. - Homosexual “Day of Silence” coming to Texas High Schools (2008). - Signs Of Progress: Texas Homecoming Queen & Proposed 'Gay-Friendly' High School (2008). - More gender-regulating in schools: TX district wants Apache boy to cut his long hair (2009).  - Harassment & Bullying in Schools: San Antonio community forum on safe schools (2009).

Utah: - Hostile Utah Parents Try to Force Gay Teachers into a Classroom Closet. - Students and Salt Lake City School Board End Feud over Gay-Supportive Clubs. - State of Utah Spent Quarter Million in Futile Fight Against Gay Student Groups - ACLU Defends Utah High School Students Censored for Wearing Gay-Themed Anti-Smoking T-Shirts (2004). - Utah School District Upset They Can't Find Anti-Gay Psychology Text Books (2005). - Utah ranks 35th in gay-straight clubs (2007). - Homophobic Utah PTA Angry at PFLAG Ad (2007). - Huntsman Signs 'Gay School Club' Bill Into Law- Utah Sets Rigorous Rules for School Clubs, and Gay Ones May Be Target (2007). - Anti-gay PTSA meeting scheduled at American Fork High (2008).

Vermont: - Causes of Youth Violence. - Homosexuality Education in Vermont Public Schools (PDF Download). - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth in Vermont Schools. - Outright Vermont launches statewide outreach effort. - "You're So Gay!": Anti-Gay Harassment in Vermont Public Schools (2003). - High Risk Nonsexual Behaviors in Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents (2005). - 2009 Safe Schools Report Card Released. - Transgender Vermont teen wants genderless bathrooms. - VT program helps students explore gender. - Queering education. - Rutland hosts 10th annual Vermont Youth Pride Day. - Report Card: Vermont law provides more protections from harassment and discrimination for GLBTQ youth in schools than almost any state. In addition, same-sex marriage is legal in Vermont. - Group counters protesters, raises money for gay & lesbian defense fund.

Virginia: - GLSEN Richmond. - Safe Schools. - Virginia School Board Bans Anti-Gay Harassment (1992). - Pressure Delays Fairfax, Virginia, 'Gay' School Policy (2002). - Parents Protest 'Homosexual Rights' in Virginia School District (2002). - New pairings at the prom (2004): For more gay teens, going as a couple to the prom is no longer off limits. - School district cancels gay author event (2005). - Oppose attack on Gay/Straight Alliances (2006). - Gay-Themed High School Play Sparks Va. Protests (2005). - Owning His Gay Identity -- at 15 Years Old. Youths Coming Out Sooner, but Protections Against Harassment Lag (2008). - Gay Teenager Speaks About His Experiences (Video, 2008).

Washington State: - GLSEN Washington State is on Facebook. - GLSEN Washington State. - The Safe Schools Coalition. The mission of The Safe Schools Coalition: A Public-Private Partnership in Support of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Youth is to help schools - at home and all over the world - become safe places where every family can belong, where every educator can teach, and where every child can learn, regardless of gender identity or sexual orientation. - Director of Public Health speaks out against anti-gay violence. - Washington State Support Policy for Participation of Transgender Athletes (2008).

Billings Middle School:  admits students of any religion, creed, sexual orientation, race, color and national or ethnic origin to all the rights, privileges, programs, and activities generally accorded or made available to students at the school. It does not discriminate on the basis of religion, creed, sexual orientation, race, color and national or ethnic origin in administration of its educational policies, admissions policies, financial aid policies, and athletic and other school-administered programs.

Washington, DC: - GLSEN DC. - Summersgill urges school policy on student harassment. - Malek Calls for Action on Student Harassment Policy. - Help Metro DC PFLAG make schools safe for all students. - Gay students more likely to consider suicide: study Survey shows D.C. gay youth face bullying, harassment (2008). - Serious Issues for Gay Teens Emerge in Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2008). - DC School District Restores Gay-Themed Titles to Summer Reading Lists (2009).

West Virginia: - Gay-Straight Club in West Virginia High School Educates Public (2002). - Kanawha school board poised to expand harassment policy to include homosexual, transgender students (2009). - 'Sexual orientation' removed from Kanawha schools policy (2009). - Gay W. Virginia Teen Subjected to Harassment at 4-H Camp (2009).

Wisconsin: - GLSEN South Central Wisconsin: About GLSEN. - Jamie Nabozny Wins Sexual Harassment Suit. - Nabozny v. Podlesny (1996). - Homophobia in Wisconsin Scolls: Prevention ans Intervention Strategies (Research Paper, 2000). - Homosexual teacher loses appeal in taunting suit (2002): " A veteran teacher who sued his bosses because children taunted him after he declared himself a homosexual has lost his civil rights case in federal appeals court." - Project Kurt (2001): Kurt Dyer’s committed efforts to create a support program for young lesbians and gays in Milwaukee made the acclaimed Project Q youth program a reality. - Bullying Prevention: Wisconsin Takes a Stand (2005). - Bullied Gay Wisconsin Students Get Own School (2005). - What kind of climate exists in the hallways, cafeterias and classrooms of Wisconsin's schools? If you're a gay, lesbian, bi-sexual or transgendered (GLBT) teen, it may be a hostile one (2005). - Wisconsin School Counselor Perceptions of Schol Climate Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Youth (2006). - 'The Gay Rights State': Wisconsin's Pioneering Legislation to Prohibit Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation (2007). - Milwaukee to Form Gay-Friendly Middle School (2008). - Wisconsin Teacher’s Anti-Homophobia Class Horrifies Christian Right (2009). - West Bend East High School teacher receives award from GSAFE for creating gay club at high school (2009).


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Canada: - Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009). - Reaching Out: A Report on Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youth Issues in Canada. Prepared for the United Church of Canada by John Fisher, Executive Director, EGALE, 1999. (Printer Friendly Version) - EGALE's Safe Schools Campaign. -  A New Look at Homophobia and Heterosexism in Canada. - Challenging Homophobia in Schools: A Critical Review (2000).  - School's out: confronting homophobia in high-schools (Film). - Queer Perspectives on Social Responsibility in Canadian Schools and Libraries: Analysis and Resources: 2005 (PDF Download N/A Abstract). - Bullying and Homophobia in Canadian Schools: The Politics of Policies,Programs,and Educational Leadership (2004). - Homophobia overlooked as cause of bullying (2005). - École: gais et lesbiennes en terrain hostile (2005). - Tonya Callaghan Investigates Homophobia in Canadian Catholic Schools (2006). - Canadian Safe School Network. - Study to gauge queer support in schools: Research shows some teachers oblivious to queer resources (2006). - Growing up lesbian or gay in Canada: Lesbian and gay youth still face a rocky path in many parts of Canada, one that can be made less painful with access to the proper support services. - Bullying prevention in schools & La prévention de l'intimidation à l'école (Public Safety Canada). - Bullying in Schools: Canada Links. - Canadian GLBTQ Youth Bibliography. - School Boards Have a Positive Duty to Protect Gay and Lesbian Students. - Risk and Protective Factors: A Literature Review on the Impact of Homophobia on LGBTQ Youth in Canada (2007). - Study will assess strategies to reduce homophobic bullying in schools (2012).

Taylor C, Peter T (2011). “We Are Not Aliens, We're People, and We Have Rights.” Canadian Human Rights Discourse and High School Climate for LGBTQ Students. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 48(3): 275-312. PDF Download. Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n=3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults.

Taylor C, Peter T, McMinn TL, Elliott T, Beldom S, Ferry A, Gross Z, Paquin S, Schachter K (2011). Every class in every school: The first national climate survey on homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia in Canadian schools. Final report. Toronto, ON: Egale Canada Human Rights Trust. PDF Download. Download Page.

May 17, National Day Against Homophobia: New teacher resource aims to nurture better understanding of BGLTT students (2007):  The Canadian Teachers’ Federation (CTF) is pleased to release on this National Day Against Homophobia, Challenging Silence, Challenging Censorship the latest in a series of publications aimed to help teachers, school administrators, and counselors understand the educational, health and safety needs of bisexual, gay, lesbian, trans-identified and two-spirited (BGLTT) students.  Challenging Silence, Challenging Censorship continues the work of three previous teacher resources published by CTF-- Seeing the Rainbow (2002) produced in cooperation with the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (ETFO), Lessons Learned: A Collection of Stories and Articles About Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian and Transgender Issues (2005), and The Gay-Straight Student Alliance Handbook (2006). ”We hope that Challenging Silence, Challenging Censorship finds a place in every school across Canada,” states CTF President Winston Carter. “Educators want the best for their students and to that end, this book has been created to help educational leaders learn more about how they can take action to challenge and positively change the educational conditions and social climate for BGLTT youth in their schools.”

A lack of class comes out in the school staff room (2008): I am a gay high school English teacher who has a rewarding career and excellent rapport with my students. Although I am not officially "out" at work, most of the teachers and my principal know I have a male partner because he has attended a few social events at school. Most people are fine with this, but more than once I have had to face ignorant questions and the occasional rude comment in the staff room. Sometimes I feel like telling these people off but I have to continue towork with them. Any advice? ... - A Capacity-Building Approach to Fighting Homophobia and Transphobia [in shools] (2007, Conference Presentation): ... I explain how the components of an holistic approach are not merely additive but mutually supportive and integral to each other’s effectiveness. The approach can be critiqued for reinscribing problematic identity categories that ultimately entrench hostile social relations between differently positioned people, for largely ignoring transgender issues, and in general for failing to integrate the insights into sexuality and gender developed through the last 10 years of Queer Theory and Cultural Studies. However, I argue for the merits of addressing the problem of school-based homophobia through such local efforts to implement a multi-pronged approach to transforming school culture, particularly, as is the case in Canada, in the face of a return to social conservatism and religious traditionalism at the level of national government.

Sexual health education in the schools: Questions & answers (3rd edition, 2009). - School's gay/straight alliance offers a lesson in tolerance (2009). - Generation Queer: Sexual Miority Youth and Canadian Schools (2008). - Inventory of Policies, Programs, Practices, Resources and Research related to School-based and School-linked Sexual Health Education (2007, Draft): This initial version of an electronic sexual health education inventory/tool kit of existing programs, polices, resources and services has been compiled for sharing at the national school health conference. It should be considered a work in progress. To facilitate broader sharing and input it will also be posted on www.safehealthyschools.org in the summer of 2007.1 While the focus was primarily on national and provincial/territorial based efforts, many items included herein represent more locally based activities in communities across Canada. The Canadian Association for School Health is hopeful that with time and further support this inventory can be built upon to support effective, evidence-informed school-based and school-linked sexual health education policies, programs and practices in Canada. - And they are There (2006): Education about diversity should start at the beginning of a child’s school life, Bill Ryan tells teachers at a workshop in Ottawa on sexual minority issues. “We’re talking about social diversity and respect for difference, and to reflect what society really is … ultimately it’s the duty of educators to make schools safe and eliminate oppression, because oppression impedes learning,” the McGill University professor, social worker and adult educator said in a presentation at last November’s Canadian Teachers’ Federation “Building Inclusive Schools” conference.

Fighting the religious bully in schools (2007): "There's a perception of schools in Canada as havens of multicultural harmony, where young people from all backgrounds work together and with tolerant teachers to learn the virtues of acceptance and openness. The reality is considerably different. More and more, students from different religious faiths and cultural backgrounds are being segregated into private and religious schools, where they are taught only their own values and interact only with those from a similar background. But the one thing all these schools — whatever their religious or cultural affiliation — seem to have in common is their unwillingness to go along with the public school system's attempts to teach that gays and lesbians are entitled to live their lives as equals with equal protection under human rights legislations..." - School's OUT! Confronting Homophobia in High Schools (1997, Video): 1998 Review: he irony of the video's short title is that most gay adolescents [or gay teachers] are not [cannot be] "out" in the nation's schools because of the rampant, largely unchecked homophobia which is found in schools [and homes], homophobia that finds its public expression amongst adolescents in their hallway/locker/bathroom graffiti and in the language they use in the schoolyard and sometimes even the classroom... - When Jill wants to be a Jack (2008): As children across the country return to school, the National Post takes a look at the curriculum issues that are flashpoints in their respective regions and examines how the most controversial subjects are taught. Today, gay rights education.

The "Last Acceptable Prejudice"? Homophobia (2008) ... It’s a scary thought, but I’m inclined to agree with writer Byrne Fone’s statement that of all prejudices, homophobia is the “last acceptable” one in today’s society. It would be naïve to say that racism, sexism and other prejudices are dead: they still exist around the world but in subtler forms than before. Homophobia (discriminating against someone because you perceive them to be gay) , however, is still rampant: I’ve already heard two homophobic comments today and that’s not counting all the ones I had to wade through while doing research for this article... There are many ways in which homophobia can be challenged in schools. Simple acts such as joining or forming a queer/straight alliance club and informing those making homophobic comments that their words are unacceptable will make a statement that diversity, not discrimination, is welcomed in your school... Whether it’s spearheading an anti-homophobia campaign or simply telling a homophobic classmate that his or her actions will not be tolerated, you can make a dent in the idea that homophobia is accepted. Seeing you stand up will also assure others that they are not alone in their discomfort with homophobia - soon you won’t be standing alone. - Sexuality and sexual health of Canadian adolescents: yesterday, today and tomorrow (2008): many GLBTQ youth continue to face homonegativity and discrimination in their schools and communities.

H-Cubed: A Primer on Bullying and Sexuality Diversity for Educators (2006): H-cubed reveals and explains how social and institutional settings, such as schools, privilege heterosexuality explicitly and implicitly, overtly and covertly. Sexuality is therefore organized. More than abstract theory, H-cubed illuminates real, lived consequences of privilege and disadvantage for all individuals and all children in schools... I began this paper by briefly describing bullying as a consequence of stigmatized difference. H-cubed describes and explains how bullying frequently involves homophobic slurs on one hand, and how, on the other hand, educational policy rarely addresses such incidents that occur in schools every day. Sexuality diversity is certainly not celebrated or even tolerated in most schools. Yet, all students have the right to learn in safe environments, which educators and administrators  have the responsibility to foster. Addressing homophobia, heterosexism, and heteronormativity is an essential ingredient for promoting safe schools. For LGBT students in particular, supportive educators can be an oasis from the injuries of “compulsory heterosexuality”, to quote Adrienne Rich (1993). For current and future educators, this paper has aimed to enhance understandings of abject, pervasive, and continued social injustice in schools in the form of H-cubed.

School can be cruel (2008): Susan Rose experienced plenty of discrimination in junior high school. After all, she was a gay teacher. And after quitting her job in 2006 because of the negativity she experienced, she says she realized the gay kids in school were probably also having a tough time — but they didn’t have the option of leaving... Rose has heard about students being beaten, spit on and mistreated in schools in this province. She even tells the story about one gay boy who had to sit through a class where the teacher would tell homophobic jokes. “One guidance councillor said to me, ‘Well there’s none here, but you can do your presentation anyway,’” Rose says of her west coast seminar tour She says the councillor did admit her ignorance later, after realizing there were several LGBT students in her school. “In every society all around the world six to 10 per cent of people are gay, lesbian, bi, or transgendered,” Rose says. “It’s a little bit of ignorance, a little bit of not knowing and a lot of homophobia.”

Egale Canada. (2009). Youth speak up about homophobia and transphobia. PDF Download. Summary: A recent national survey on homophobia in Canadian schools conducted by Egale Canada (2009) found that schools can be a hostile environment for sexual minority youth. The survey involved almost 1700 students from across Canada. Among the findings: • Almost three quarters (73%) of LGBTQ students felt unsafe in at least one place at school (i.e., change rooms, washrooms, hallways). • Over a quarter (28.5%) of LGBTQ students said that they had skipped school because they felt unsafe compared to 8.4% of non-LGBTQ students. • Over three quarters (76.7%) of students heard homophobic expressions like “that’s so gay” every day at school. • About half (50.6%) of LGBTQ students agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement “It is hard for me to feel accepted at my school” compared to 19.3% of non-LGBTQ students. • Six out of ten LGBTQ students said that they had been verbally harassed about their sexual orientation. • One in four LGB students reported that they had been physically harassed about their sexual orientation (EgaleCanada, 2009).  


Québec: - L'école-cauchemar pour de nombreux garçons (2000). - L'école-cauchemar pour de nombreux garçons (2000). - Quand l'école devient un enfer (2001). - Homophobie à l’école (2002). - Our Children Will Not be Homophobic (2002). - Démystifier l'homosexualité, ça commence à l'école: Lancement d'un guide pédagogique pour prévenir l'homophobie en milieu scolaire (2003). - De la tolérance à l’acceptation (2003). - Un nouveau coffret d’intervention (2003): Pour favoriser chez les jeunes le respect de la diversité des orientations sexuelles. - Famille et qualité de vie gais et lesbiennes Homophobie à l’école (2004). - L’homophobie à l’école, un phénomène méconnu (2006). - Un gay dans une école? (2006) - L’arc-en-ciel à l’école (2003, Alternate Link): Être jeune et homosexuel, c’est être différent. À l’école, l’homosexualité n’y est pas encore totalement démystifiée et les jeunes doivent pouvoir compter sur une aide extérieure. - Famille et qualité de vie gais et lesbiennes: Homophobie à l’école (2004. - L’homophobie, pas dans ma cour! Campagne du GRIS-Montréal. - Colloque Jeunes, homosexualité et écoles: Homophobie: les tabous persistent (2005). - Lutte contre l'homophobie des jeunes (2005). - “People Who Are Different from You”: Heterosexism in Quebec High School Textbooks (PDF Download). - Le GRIS lance une campagne à l'école (PDF Download). - Jeunes, homosexualité et écoles Enquête exploratoire sur l’homophobie dans les milieux jeunesse de Québec menée par GRIS-Québec (2005).

A report issues by Quebec's Human Rights Commision in 2007 found little evidence of systematic school uptake of what resources were available to combat homopobia in schools in Montreal. let alone in other regins of the province. (Rayside, 2007: Queer Inclusions, Continental Division: Public Recognition of Sexual Diversity in Canada and the United States: Google Books)

Lutte à l'homophobie en France: le Québec à l'honneur (2007). - L’homophobie à l’école : une aberration! (2007) Par Steve Foster, président Conseil québécois des gais et lesbiennes. - De l'égalité juridique à l'égalité sociale : vers une stratégie nationale de lutte contre l'homophobie (Download Page): rapport de consultation / du Groupe de travail mixte contre l'homophobie [et recommendations de la Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse] (2007)... Homophobie : suivi des recommandations (2009)... Monik Audet: Ma présentation portera sur rapport de consultation du Groupe de travail mixte contre l’homophobie, intitulé « De l’égalité juridique à l’égalité sociale - Vers une stratégie nationale de lutte à l’homophobie » ... Le Bilan de la CDPDJ : des ministères pas tous égaux face à l’homophobie! (2009).

Intimidation homophobe: un élève sur trois en est victime (2009). - L’homophobie frappe les hétéros ! (2009): Les deux tiers des jeunes collégiens victimes d’incidents homophobes se définissent comme hétérosexuels. [Two-Thirds of high school students subjected to homophobic abuses in Quebec are heterosexual identified but are deemedto be "different". - Quebec to table anti-homophobia action plan (2009). - La parole à Dany Turcotte, récipiendaire du Prix Lutte contre l'homophobie: Y a-t-il encore beaucoup d’homophobie à Montréal? Oui, il y en a encore. La première insulte qu’on dira à un enfant dans la cour d’école, c’est qu’il est fif. Juste ça, ça démontre qu’il y a encore du chemin à faire...

Prom Queen: The Marc Hall Story: For those of you not privileged to live in Canada, or for those of you who haven't heard of or haven't seen this movie, you have certainly missed out. Marc Hall, a young man living in Quebec, registers his prom date as per his Catholic school's rules. He is denied his request, because his prom date is a boy. Marc Hall is an openly gay teenager in a very conservative Catholic school. This film documents his struggles (legal, emotional, ethical and personal) to be himself and to live his life the way he deems best. With the help of friends, family and supporters, "Cinderfella" makes it to the ball, With his Prince Charming. 9/10 because it is a fabulous story, and a very important social issue, but the acting and cinematography is a little lacking at times.

Alterheros.com: A Montreal grouop  reaching out to youth, parents, and teachers on gender and orientation. - The Ideal School for queer youth (2004). - Homophobe, le milieu scolaire québécois? (2009).- En finir avec l'homophobie à l'école (2009). - Homophobie à l’école (2009): Il souligne l’inaction des commissions scolaires du Québec en matière d’homophobie.

Module en Ligne: Homophobie à l'école. - Montreal Youth Coalition Against Homophobia: Youth Resource Guide: Reaching Our to Young People - English - Fremch.

Ontario: - Lesbian, Bisexual and Gay Youth: Educational Needs and Experiences (Ontario) (1997):  "I’d rather have a dead son than a queer son." - Toronto GLB school "Triangle" Program. (Related Information) - Fighting homophobia at school. (1997, Maclean's Magazine). - Catholic School Principals Push Gay Agenda (1998). - Catholic Educator's Resource Center: Same-sex issues in our schools. "School programs which promote the idea that what homosexual couples do in private is a natural healthy “alternative lifestyle,” misrepresent the facts." - Are We Failing Them? - High school confidential (2001, Toronto). - Gay couple on high school prom (2002). - Coming Out at 16 in Rural Ontario (2002). - Kids say the funniest things … anti-homophobia group work in the classroom (2004). - Lakehead District School Board Fails Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Students. Human rights complaint against school board (2004). - Homophobia makes being gay more difficult (2004). - Positive change at Thunder Bay school board (2005). - Hear Me Out: True Stories of Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia: A project of Planned Parenthood of Toronto (Book Review, 2004, 2005). - Bullied Catholic student speaks out (2013).

What interventions do we need to make on behalf of young people who are being targeted by homophobic hatred? (2004, Download Page for Video) First we need good policy and then we need to implement it. Toronto has a good policy — in fact it's one of the only school districts in North America to target homophobia — but implementation has been hampered by cutbacks. - Are Kids Safe in Our Schools? (2008, Homophobia Study Beginning, Video). - Safe at School: Gay and Lesbian issues in the Classroom (2006, Toronto): To be, or not to be. Out. That is the question for gay and lesbian teachers in Toronto schools... The teachers interviewed for this article work within the jurisdiction of the Toronto District School Board. This was intentional. Toronto is often touted as a welcoming and progressive place in terms of accepting diverse families. - Challenging Homophobia and Heterosexism: A K-12 Curriculum Resource Guide (2011, Toronto).

Bortolin S, Adam BD, Brooke C, McCauley J (2011). Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth's Experiences of School Climate. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Windsor. PDF Download. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth (N=22), within four years of high school graduation, were interviewed in southwestern Ontario to assess their perceptions of school climate. The findings indicate that LGB youth who have not disclosed their sexuality in high school did not do so for fear of reprisals from friends, family or peers. Those who did come out during high school were often verbally or physically harassed and all male respondents in the study, whether out or not, were harassed during high school. LGB youth often witnessed harassment of other LGB youth around them. Study participants also reported a range of reactions to the ubiquitous use of the phrase, “that‟s so gay,” among their peers often disliking the phrase, correcting those around them who used it, or sometimes even using it themselves. Homophobia and fear of harassment continue to be concerns for LGB youth attending secondary school.

Why Canada can't stop bullies (2009): Daniel Sebben was just 13 when the taunts began. Day after day, for the next three years, the Newmarket high school student faced homophobic slurs, insults and verbal abuse from a group of six boys. He would come home upset, confused and fearful of what they might do to him the next day, said mom Karen Sebben. His marks slid. He became depressed. He began cutting himself and eventually attempted suicide. "He emotionally bottomed out. Every day, he was convinced they were going to get him." But it was also the lack of support within the "chain of command" at school, among superintendents and those at the board level that left the family distraught. The aggressor was suspended for a few days, and when he returned, things got worse for her son, she said. - School didn't answer bullied teen's plea (2009). - Gay Ajax student kills himself (2007). - Gay teen's suicide brings some changes (2008). - Media Coverage: Bullying in York Region Schools.

The Toronto Teen Survey (2009):  Sexual Identity: 3% of youth told us they are questioning their sexuality. 4% of youth identified as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Two-Spirited, Pansexual or Queer. 93% of youth identified as straight (heterosexual)... Between December 2006 and August 2007, we conducted 90 workshops in community-based settings, collecting 1,216 surveys from a diverse cross-section of youth aged 13 – 18+. As one of the largest and most diverse studies of young people’s sexual health needs ever done in Canada, TTS provided a space for youth voices that are often unheard. In 2008, we held 13 focus groups with 80 service providers representing 55 agencies to discuss the research findings and brainstorm recommendations for change. - Toronto teens need more sexual health education and clinics, new survey finds (2009). - Volunteers – Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia (T.E.A.C.H.).

Gay York Region, Easy Escape (2008): Whilst almost half of York Region's public high schools operate Gay Straight Alliance (GSA) clubs, students of other schools have faced major obstacles when trying to follow suit. But it would not be so difficult for our school boards to enforce policies that guarantee the entitlement of students in any York Region high school to form a GSA should they desire. Likewise they could also enforce their anti-bullying policies, rather than merely boast about them, to ensure all victims of homophobic bullying find remedy instead of inaction on the part of school staff too disinclined to get to grips with such problems. And it really shouldn't be so difficult for all decent parents in York Region to tell their kids that they can always depend upon being loved unconditionally, irrespective of what their sexuality might turn out to be.

Lesbian Ontario Education Minister Hires "Homophobia" Watchdog for Schools: Announced development at supportive Ontario Catholic Teachers meeting (2008). - School's gay/straight alliance offers a lesson in tolerance (2009). - Homophobia alive and well (2009). - Challenging Homophobia and Heterosexism: A Resource Guide for Educators. - Webcast: School safety and homophobia in Canada (2009). - Students take on dating violence, bullying and homophobia (2009). - Ontario curriculum to target sexual discrimination (2009).  - Queering classrooms, curricula, and care: stories from those who dare (2009). - Gosse, Douglas (2009). Race, Sexual Orientation, Culture and Male Teacher Role Models: Will Any Teacher Do As Long As They Are Good? Conference proceedings at EDGE Conference, St. John’s, NL.

Safe Schools Documents (2008-2009): Making Ontario's Schools Safer: What Parents Need to Know. - Ontario Safe Schools Report calls for change (2008): Huge gaps remain in addressing gay issues. - Shaping a Culture of Respect in Our Schools: Promoting Safe and Healthy Relationships. - Safe Schools Amendments. - Safe Schools Symposium: From Policy to Practice. - Making Our Schools Safer: Improving learning & teaching environments: Safe Schools Project. - Safe@School: This website and the training components that complement it are a joint project of the Ontario Teachers’ Federation and Le Centre ontarien de prévention des agressions. - Shaping a culture of respect in our schools : promoting safe and healthy relationships : Safe Schools Action Team report on gender-based violence, homophobia, sexual harassment, and inappropriate sexual behaviour in schools (2008, Ontario Ministry of Education. Safe Schools Action Team)

Catholic School Libraries Stock Gay Promoting Books and Videos Warns Pro-Marriage Group. - Ontario bishops address homosexuality in schools (2007). - Catholic school boards bowing to secularism (2007). - Catholic School Board Refuses to Conduct Survey on 'Homophobia' (2008). - Ontario Catholic School Board Approves Referrals to Gay-Activist Therapist, Censors Right to Life Material (2007). - A brief introduction to inclusion, inclusive schools and barriers to inclusion (2006).

British Columbia: - Gay & Lesbian Educators of British Columbia (GALE, BC). -  A BCTF Initiative: Stopping Homophobia N/A. (Archive Link) -  Youthquest! Lesbian and Gay Youth Society of British Columbia: Submission to the Safe Schools Task Force (2002). PDF Download. - GALE BC’s Brief to BC Government’s School Safety Task Force (2002): PDF Download. - Chamberlain vs. Surrey District School Board (Articles, 1997-2003). - B.C.'s Schools Least Safe for Gay Teens (2004). - Homophobic bullying affects everyone, regardless of orientation (2007). - Burnaby school board votes to address homophobia (2009). - School starts, homophobia radar on (2009). - Burnaby's policy on homophobic bullying meets opposition from parents (2012).

Two-Spirited Youth Program (2000,  Does not Exist Anymore). - Inventory of Aboriginal Services, Issues and Initiatives in Vancouver: Two Spirit - LGTB (2007).  - Stigma & Sexual Orientation: Aboriginal Youth (2003+): On average, Aboriginal GLB males and females felt less safe than Aboriginal heterosexual students of the same age and gender. - Stigma & Sexual Orientation: European-heritage Youth (2003+): European-heritage GLB teens face higher levels of exclusion, discrimination, and stigma in school compared to European-heritage heterosexual peers. GLB youth also rate their school environments more negatively, feeling less safe than heterosexual teens. - Lesbian teens more likely to attempt suicide (2006).  - Rainbow Flag in School District 61 on National Day Against Homophobia (2008).

B.C. to add gay issues to school curriculum: Same-sex couple withdraw complaint after province agrees to offer course (2006). - Controversial school course planned (2006): Social justice and legal experts are to gather today in Richmond to plan a new Grade 12 course that will bring formal lessons about sexual orientation and gender issues into B.C. schools for the first time. - School board liable for homophobic bullying: Azmi Jubran (2006, Radio Interview). - British Columbia Government Releases Overview of Controversial Pro-Gay School Curriculum (2007).  - LGBT issues in schools (2005). - Mission teacher fights for anti-homophobia policy (2007). - Messages from Silenced Youth: Homophobia & Transphobia in British Columbia High Schools (2009,  Related).

Recommemded LGBT-Positive titles for BC Schools (2006). - British Columbia School District Cancels Explicit Gay Propaganda Play (2005). - Human rights code link to safe schools unclear (2007): What about perceived sexual orientation, gender identity?: activists. - Mission bans gay posters in schools (2008). - Pride in Education Conference: Addressing Homophobia in BC Schools (2008). - Diversity in BC Schools: A framework (2008, British Columbia. Ministry of Education).

Students say board needs to deal with homophobia (2009): A presentation for the trustees at their meeting Tuesday night was a sign of how the times are changing--and how boards of education will need to evolve. Katharin Midzain, the president of the Chilliwack Teachers' Association (CTA), and Sardis secondary counsellor Vic Gladish approached the board about the need for a policy concerning students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual or questioning (LGBTQ) and the problem of homophobia. - School Safety: The Right of Youth and Responsibility of Adults (2008).

Vancouver School Board: The Board of School Trustees (the “Board”) is committed to establishing and maintaining a safe and positive learning environment for all students and employees including those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two-spirit, or who are questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity.   These students and employees, as all students and employees, have the right to learn and work in an environment free of discrimination and harassment... Homophobic harassment is demeaning treatment to all students, students’ parents or guardians, and employees regardless of their sexual orientation.  Harassment based on gender identities is also demeaning to all students and employees.  These forms of harassment and discrimination are prohibited under the B.C. Human Rights Code... The Vancouver School Board is committed to ongoing staff development in anti-homophobia education and sexual orientation equity for trustees and Board staff, and will assist them to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours to identify and eliminate homophobic practices. - Out in Schools counteracts homophobia with film competitions (2009). - Break the Silence - Vancouver Queer Film Festival PSA Winner Out In Schools Anti-Homophobia PSA Contest winner 2009. A highschool class partakes in a self exploration exercise.

Gay school material a threat, says Archbishop Roussin (2006). - British Columbia mandates teaching sexual permissiveness in public schools.

From Gale BC: Questions & Answers for Parents and Family Members of Gay and Lesbian Youth (PDF Download: English & Chinese). - "I Think I Might Be Gay or Lesbian or Bisexual" (PDF Download: English) (PDF Download: Chinese). - Trangender Youth (PDF Download). - On Homophobia: Myths about Anti-Homophobia Education (PDF Download: English) (PDF Download: Chinese). - Objections to H&H Curriculum (PDF Download). -  Lesson Plans: Brokeback Mountain Lesson (PDF Download). - Name-calling (Word Download). - Ending Name-calling in schools (PDF Download). - What does "faggot" and "dyke" mean? (PDF Download). - Resource Lists:  Book Resources Fiction and Non-Fiction Titles for K-12 (PDF Download). - Gay and lesbian characters and themes in children's books (PDF Download). - Homophobia and Heterosexism - Top Ten Resouces (PDF Download). - Video Resources on Homophobia and Heterosexism (PDF Download). - Gay/Straight Alliance Handbook (PDF Download). - CTF GSA Handbook Flyer: 2006 (PDF Download). - High School Student Protests "Gay Club" Refusal (2007). - Fighting homophobia in schools (2009).

Alberta: - I Was My High School's Token Fag (2000). - What being Gay in Rural Alberta can do (2001). - Safe and Caring Schools for Lesbian and Gay Youth - A Teacher’s Guide: PDF Download. - Gay-Straight Alliances in Alberta Schools. - Respecting Diversity in Alberta Schools (2004). - Review Essay: Resiliency And Capacity Building In Inner-City Learning Communities (2004) (Book Excerpt): "As a side note of direct relevance to Canadian educators, “The Missing Perspective,” a joint project between the Calgary Board of Education and the Calgary and District Labour Council, contains classroom materials on Homophobia and Sexual Harassment and is available in Alberta schools. The Alberta Teachers’ Association, in a recent publication, encourages schools to develop anti-homophobia programs such as the gay/straight alliance (GSA) support groups found in secondary schools in British Columbia. A number of potential classroom resource materials are listed at the conclusion of Taylor’s article." - What makes a ‘queer-friendly’ school? - Homophobic Bullying (2007).

Creating safe havens within schools for gay students (2007). - Producing Homophobia in Alberta, Canada in the 1990s (Abstract). The ATA's Sexual Orientation Online Resources. - A History of ATA Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Initiatives. - Getting an Education in Edmonton, Alberta: The Case of Queer Youth. - Gay/Lesbian Materials for Young Children (PPT Presentation). - In your care: School administrators and their ethical and professional responsibility toward students across sexual-minority differences (2007). The Meaning of Queer: Moving Beyond Our Resistance to Language. - Bringing Youth Voices Out of the Closet: Are You Asking the Right Questions to Help Prevent Suicide? - Harassment in the Hallways: Masculinity, Sexism, & Homophobic Bullying (2009). - ATA: Building Safe, Caring and Inclusive Schools for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students—Workshop series.

Alberta gay, bisexual youth hope new website will combat school ostracism N/A (2004): "Sara McIntyre recalls having empty pop cans thrown at her and enduring nasty slurs from high school classmates in rural Alberta because of her sexual orientation. Teachers turned a blind eye to the abuse. "It's a pretty big issue and it's not necessarily one they want to confront right away," said the 16-year-old. But she's hoping a new website catering to Alberta youth with sex and gender differences will improve the situation. See: http://www.youthsafe.net/ (Calgary). Youth Understanding Youth (Edmonton). - Using language to support LGBT youth: Adapted from Freedom to Be: A Teachers’ Guide to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity nd Human Rights by the Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre, 2007. - Institute for Sexual Minority Studies and Services (iSMSS), University of Alberta.

Tonya Callaghan Investigates Homophobia in Canadian Catholic Schools (2006): Through her research, Tonya made a number of discoveries.  One example of her findings is that because of the fact that teachers in Catholic schools have to remain closeted, many experience a type of burnout, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of personal competence.  “Some choose to leave their Catholic schools to teach in less homophobic environments. Others are forced out. One participant, for example, experienced a wrongful dismissal from his Catholic board after he had a private commitment ceremony with his same-sex partner.” - Michel Foucault’s Concept of Surveillance and Antonio Gramsci’s Notion of Hegemony Applied to the Problem of Homophobia in Catholic Schools. - Alberta transgendered substitute teacher fired from Catholic school board.

Contra/Diction: How Catholic doublespeak in Canadian Catholic secondary schools furthers homophobia (2007): In 2004, when I was teaching at a Catholic high school in Alberta, a promising drama student attending the school committed suicide after suffering several months of bullying due to his sexual orientation, as was confided to me by his friends after his death.  Disheartened by how our school had so clearly failed this student, I attempted to discuss with my principal the duty required of all members of the Alberta Teachers’ Association (ATA), a union which outlines the rights and responsibilities of teachers, to create a safe and caring school environment for all students.  I was told that the Catholic school district does not necessarily adhere to every aspect of the ATA. Further, I was told that our board was developing their own “Catholic response” to sensitive issues, such as sexual orientation, in Catholic schools. The subtext of this “Catholic response” does not bode well for LGBTQ people.  My principal relayed this information to me in a manner that suggested it was perfectly normal to have a selective membership in the ATA and that I should rest easy in the knowledge that the good people “downtown” (at the district level) were already developing Catholic solutions to this “modern world problem.” - Catholic schools reject homophobia survey: Egale executive director Helen Kennedy said trustees from three Catholic boards in Toronto, Guelph, Ont., and Alberta, have all said no. (Comment: Best not to produce research results in Catholic schools that would indicate a "Killing of GLBT Teens" atmosphere maintenance?).

Alberta Legalizes Homophobia With Bill 44 (2009): I could hardly believe it when one my gay friends in Alberta, Canada, told me that a new Bill had just been written into law that makes it legal for parents to exclude their kids from school if they are going to be taught about sexuality. - Kevin Libin: Alberta opts for hillbilly human rights (2009). - Vriend Ten Years Later (2008): April 2, 2008 marked the 10th anniversary of the release of the SCC decision in Vriend v. Alberta. This decision was remarkable in many ways. First, there were no less than 17 intervenors by the time the case reached the SCC. Our affiliated agency, the Alberta Civil Liberties Association, was one of those intervenors. The case was significant because of the remedy that was ordered by the SCC and because of the analysis that the SCC undertook in determining that sexual orientation should be included as a protected ground in Alberta’s Individual’s Rights Protection Act (“IRPA”, now called the Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Act (“HRCMA”), R.S.A. 2000, c. H-14). It is also interesting to examine what has happened in the area of sexual orientation and human rights since this noteworthy case. - Alberta to finally grant human rights for sexual orientation - trans left out (2009).

Four charged in Alberta queer bashing (2007): In mid-October, a 15-year-old girl was the victim of an alleged homophobic attack by a group of other girls outside a high school in rural Alberta. Four girls under 18 were charged with assault and one was also charged with uttering threats in connection with the incident. - School deserves dressing down over dress code decision: Studies repeatedly show homosexual teens are more likely to commit or attempt suicide than their heterosexual classmates. Yet, one rural Alberta school's decision to ban anti-homophobic T-shirts is a painful reminder that homosexuality is still very much taboo -- even among educators who should be setting a better example. - Considerations for Educators: Not everyone knows what Barb is, do they Mom? This article provides an overview of the portion of my doctoral research on planned two-mother families in Alberta that relates to school-aged children. These families were called planned two-mother families because they were made up of two women who identified as non-heterosexual who made the choice together to conceive and raise one or more children. There are many considerations and challenges provided for educators through the families’ stories to reflect upon and to apply in health classrooms.

The Society for Safe & Caring Schools & Communities: Micro Workshop 7 - Building Awareness of Sexual-Orientation and Gender-Identity Issues in Schools: Exploring Definitions. - Micro Workshop #8 - Homophobia in the School Environment: A Discussion Model. - Micro Workshop 9: What School District Leaders Can Do to Create Safe and Caring Schools for LGBTQ Students - Creating Safe and Caring Schools and Communities for LGBTQ Youth. - Bully Free Alberta: Homophobic Bullying.

Alberta High School Counsellors’ Knowledge of homosexuality and Their Attitudes Toward Gay Males: As hypothesized, most high school counsellors were categorized as low on homo‐negativity. The mean score for all participants on modern homo‐negativity was 29.93 with a standard deviation of 9.97. Using the cut‐off scores for each of these categorizations explained in the Measures section, we found that 71 per cent of the participants had a relatively low homo‐negativity score (that is, participants achieved a total score of 24 or less), 4 per cent had a score indicating relative neutrality (that is, neither high in homo‐negativity nor low in homo‐negativity, with an average score of 36), 19 per cent of the participants scored in a moderate range of homo‐negativity (that is, achieved a score between 37 and 48), and 5 per cent scored high in homo‐negativity (that is, achieved a score greater than 48). A maximum high score of 60 could be obtained on the scale, representing an endorsement of 5’s = strongly disagree on items that demonstrated, with face validity, a high degree of homo‐negativity. - At Issue: Homophobia (and some facts about sexual orientation) (Calgary Health Region).

Queer Youth in the Province of the Severely Normal - 2006 - by Gloria Filax (Review) (Review).

Update 1996: The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem. - Calgary School Situation: 1991. - A Calgary Gay Youth Attempts Suicide (1994). - The Suicide of Bobby Steele 1994).

Saskatchewan: - Conference 'breaks silence' on struggle of gays and lesbians in schools (1998). - Queer education conference a first for Saskatchewan (1998). - Homophobia: Studied to Death; Refusing to Die (2004). - Safe and Caring Schools for Lesbian and Gay Youth - A Teacher’s Guide: PDF Download. - Creating Safe, Caring, and Inclusive Schools for LGBTQ Students: A Guide for School District Leaders (PDF Download).

SSAGA (The Saskatchewan Straight And Gay Alliance is a Special Subject Council of the Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation.): Safe Space Campaign.

Respect for Diversity - Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: The Leaning department's resources and policies related to issues of sexual orientation and gender issues in Saskatchewan Schools. All resources listed. - Caring and Respectful Schools: Bullying Prevention. - Schools ordered to battle bullies: Every school expected to have program in place (2005).

Inclusive Schools? Sharing the Stories of Gay and Lesbian Students (Cheryl Erlandson, Saskatchewan Teachers’ Federation, 2004): The study on which this article is based was designed to explore the schooling experiences of four lesbian and gay students who are recent graduates of Saskatchewan schools. - Sexual-minority youth find safe space at camp: For the first time, Camp fYrefly, Canada’s only leadership retreat for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-identified, two-spirited, intersexed, queer, questioning, and allied youth is putting down roots in Saskatoon.

Study to gauge queer support in schools (2006): Provincial leadership can help change that. Grace and Wells say the Saskatchewan provincial government is the most progressive in Canada when it comes to queer education issues. "Their Ministry of Learning has infused LGBT issues into the curriculum without impetus," says Grace. Further, the province's minister of learning is the only provincial minister to have endorsed a handbook for gay-straight alliances in schools recently written by Wells.

Gay-straight alliance: In Saskatchewan, Carlton Comprehensive High School houses one of the first GSA movements in the city of Prince Albert. The first GSA in the city of Saskatoon first met on March 18, 2003 at Mount Royal Collegiate. Since then, GSAs have been established at Nutana, Walter Murray, Evan Hardy, Marion Graham, Bedford Road and Aden Bowman Collegiates. Saskatoon's newest Roman Catholic high school, Bethlehem, recently established a GSA after failed attempts at other Catholic high schools in the city. Humboldt Collegiate Institute in Humboldt, Saskatchewan - a school run by both the Greater Saskatoon Catholic School Division and the (public) Horizon School Division - has also acquired a GSA.

Manitoba: - Safe Schools Manitoba (Sexual orientation issues ignored?) In their "Homophobia" online resources, not one Canadian resource is listed. (Google site esearch for where the words "gay" or "lesbian" are located on Safe Schools Manitoba web pages)  - Equality in Education Newsletter - Special Issue 2002: Confronting Homophobia (PDF Download). - Anti-Homophobia Resources: Winnipeg. - How one woman shook up Winnipeg schools (2008): Influential lesbian school trustee looks back.

Discriminating Dialogue: Combatting commonplace homophobic language in our schools N/A (2008. Outwords Magazine, Google Cache)... However, for queer teachers and students the decision to come out is often determined by the school’s social, political and religious climate.  “Systemic homophobia exists,” says Shelly Smith, executive director of the Rainbow Resource Centre.  “Enforcing specific anti-discrimination policies within schools may be overlooked to suit the interest of a particular administrator.” When it comes to discrimination, every public school division in Winnipeg pays homage to the Manitoba Human Rights Code. Yet, the Winnipeg School Division is the only one in the province that adheres to an explicit policy outlining sexual orientation. To address homophobia in its schools, the division has gone one step further by implementing a mandatory half-day workshop for all staff members. In some Winnipeg high schools, LGBTQ teachers are treated as equals with their heterosexual colleagues. They openly discuss their personal lives, are out in their classrooms and display rainbow “safe space” triangles on the wall... “Trans issues are yesterday’s sexual orientation” he says. “In the past, the “T” in LGBTQ has been ignored or added out of politeness,” he explains.  “It is a matter of re-educating and introducing gender identity and expression into the dialogue.” Administrators tend to group gender identity and expression under the umbrella of sexual orientation and will politely suggest the topic as a professional development in service. “The challenge with that,” Lagartera explains, “is that teachers expect to understand trans issues and develop the capacity to be sensitive and respectful after one session. In some cases, this is impossible because of personal bias that can be hard to overcome.” 

Schools full of homophobia: researcher says many kids bullied, fearful (2009): High schools are "the land that time forgot" in the ongoing battle to eradicate homophobia, laments University of Winnipeg education and communications Prof. Catherine Taylor. "It's a non-issue for so many people these days. They don't recognize how bad the situation is for so many people," said Taylor. She and University of Manitoba sociology Prof. Tracy Peter are conducting a national survey on homophobia in schools. "Kids are being tormented and terrorized, and very little is being done about it," she said. - Where's the school leadership on queer issues? Manitoba students have to do it for themselves (2009) ... In tiny Gimli, Manitoba, about an hour north of Winnipeg, progressive teachers at the local high school have signs on their classroom doors that declare Safe Person, Safe Space, students are filling out a national survey on gay and lesbian issues, and the student-run Social Justice Committee just completed a 20-minute DVD about homophobia called In the Locker. But 10 years after Manitoba had a divisive debate over anti-homophobia education — that queers technically won — schools like Gimli High are still the exception rather than the rule when it comes to tackling gay and lesbian issues.

HelpingOut.ca: Addressing Homophobia in Manitoba Schools... Two Main Sections: Educators & Students. - Stopping Homophobia & Homophobic Violence (City of Winnipeg): Learn More About The Connections: Between Different Types Of Oppression. Many people still have difficulty seeing that homophobia, racism, poor bashing, sexism, and many other types of oppression are related. - Health and Safety Services for Transgender/Two-Spirit People (2007): For the first time, a comprehensive assessment has been done of the health and safety needs of the transgender and two-spirit community in Manitoba and Northwest Ontario. A survey of this community clearly shows that there is a tremendous gap in the services for transgender folks that ultimately has a human and economic cost to all Manitobans.

Rainbow Resource Centre (Winnipeg): Homophobia. - Sexuality Education Resource Centre Manitoba: Sexuality - Just What Are We Talking About GLBT Resources.

New Brunswick: - “I am convinced that schools are sites for homophobia and that schools, through their silence and inaction, allow homophobia that is not condoned in any other public place. I knew this as a student and I know this as a teacher.” Brave words from a rural New Brunswick teacher, Peter Gorham, but painfully true words too. (Warrren, 2002).

And they are There (2006): Education about diversity should start at the beginning of a child’s school life, Bill Ryan tells teachers at a workshop in Ottawa on sexual minority issues. “We’re talking about social diversity and respect for difference, and to reflect what society really is … ultimately it’s the duty of educators to make schools safe and eliminate oppression, because oppression impedes learning,” the McGill University professor, social worker and adult educator said in a presentation at last November’s Canadian Teachers’ Federation “Building Inclusive Schools” conference... Another time Ryan was invited to address a PD day for 800 teachers in St. John, New Brunswick. He asked a local youth group if they could send along someone to relate their actual experiences to the teachers. A young man who’d graduated two years earlier told the teachers how he couldn’t pass a school toilet without feeling the urge to throw up. That’s because for the first year at high school his tormentors had time and again stuck his head in a toilet. The only person who helped was the janitor, who allowed the student to hide in his windowless broom closet during free periods and the lunch break. Ryan says: “You can’t assume you know where humanity is going to come from. It’s very important to access the humanity of students. We forget sometimes that the vast majority of students have a wellhoned sense of justice … much better than ours was at that age and much better than our parents’ was at that age.” In fact, parents all too often are part of the problem. “Young people in the Safe Spaces study tell us the worst things they hear are not in the schoolyard – and it’s pretty bad in the schoolyard – the worst things they hear are around their dining room table.” ...

New vision for public education in New Brunswick (2007): ... To Create Healthy and Safe Schools: Explore new tools to reduce bullying, violence, homophobia and other forms of discrimination, including student surveys. - Le Nouveau-Brunswick se dote d'un nouveau plan d'éducation. - The Lighthouse of Equality: A Guide to “Inclusive Schooling” (2007). - Gay author fights homophobia in New Brunswick (2008). - New Brunswick teachers working to combat homophobia in schools. - NB hockey team battles homophobia on the rink. - Defence against homophobia earns team human rights award (2009): The Woodstock High School Lady Thunder hockey team has won the 2009 New Brunswick Human Rights Award for refusing to let rival teams taunt their teammates about their sexual orientation.

Seeing Different - STU Hosts Young Leaders Forum on “A World Without Stigma (2009): The panellists touched on the situation of Aboriginal women, being ‘othered’ when traveling outside of Canada, racism in New Brunswick, and the damaging effects of heterosexism and homophobia. Each speaker had a unique story and the overall feeling from the session spoke to the need to eliminate assumptions as a starting point for a prejudice-free future. - 2007 Guide to Gay, Lesbian,  bisexual, Transgendered, and Two=Spirited Resources in New Brunswick.(French Version)

Pride in Education (2009): The mission statement of Pride in Education, says Papoulidis, is "Where the NBTA declares itself to be an anti-homophobia and anti-heterosexism organization that promotes equity and inclusiveness for all individuals in the workplace, it recognizes student and teacher diversity and the goals of anti-homophobia and anti-heterosexism in the selection of its priorities and programs, and promotes anti-homophobia and anti-heterosexism education." "Given that, we're going to organize teacher training around and in anti-homophobia and anti-heterosexism. That's what we're doing with this particular workshop," he says. "And we're going to promote and establish a provincial GSA network for teachers, staff and students in our educational system." That means instead of individual schools establishing their own Gay Straight Alliance, there could be a network, a body they could refer to for resources and help, he says.

L’école Mgr-Francois-Bourgeois dit non à l’intimidation ! À l’école, les plus petits et les plus faibles sont souvent victimes de moqueries et de rejet. Ils connaissent les insultes et la brutalité. Dans un tel climat, ils dorment moins bien, ont de la difficulté à se concentrer ou à étudier. Certains songent à quitter ce petit enfer en allant jusqu’au suicide... omme toute autre forme de violence, l’intimidation n’est pas la seule à tomber dans cette catégorie. Il en est de même avec l’extorsion, le taxage, le racisme, la discrimination, les préjugés, l’homophobie, le sexisme, les stéréotypes et le chantage. À l’école, les plus petits et les plus faibles sont souvent victimes de moqueries et de rejet. Ils connaissent les insultes et la brutalité.


Nova Scotia: - The destruction, rebuilding, vindication and progression of Lindsay Willow (2006): After a six-year battle to clear her name, the Halifax teacher and Pride Parade marshal is still angry. And still fighting. - National Group Applauds Nova Scotia’s First Anti-Homophobia Schools Policy (2006).

Anti-bullying pink rules at N.S. schools Thursday (2008): Province's inaugural Stand Up Against Bullying Day.

Efforts to fight homophobia appear to be working in Cape Breton: spokesman (2009). “I’m happy to say that PFLAG has had some great success over the last year helping mentor to get started gay-straight alliance clubs throughout the local high schools,” he said. The group at his former high school is very involved with plans for the International Day Against Homophobia this year...

The Healthy Relationships for Youth Program (2006-2008): based on the belief that sexism, racism and homophobia are forms of oppression which result in violence. Through enhancing awareness of the social context of their lives and promoting skill development to promote healthy interpersonal communication, youth can make positive decisions about their own behavior. - Strait school board to rule on sexual health programs.

Newfoundland: - Coming Out of the Classroom Closet in Newfoundland (1998). - Homophobia in Schools to be Addressed (1998). - Helping Lesbian and Gay Students: the role of the teacher (1999, ,Must Scroll. Alternate Link). - What "Straight" Social Workers need to know about Heterosexism and Well-being (2001).

(Coming soon) Dismantling Homophobia (1999) The Newfoundland-Labrador Human Rights Association has completed the first draft of a special human rights handbook designed for use by teachers, guidance counsellors and social workers who work with young people. Homophobia causes many societal, health and economic problems for gay and lesbian youth. The objective of the handbook is to provide reliable information and educational tools to combat intolerance and to promote respect and understanding in our communities. - Molestation 101: Child Abuse, Homophobia, and The Boys of St. Vincent.

AIDS Committee of Western Newfoundland Inc. (ACWN): Gay Youth Project Needs Analysis Results. - Growing Up Queer In Rural Newfoundland And Labrador! - Does homophobia still exist in this province? Ramona's guests are Gemma Schlamp-Hickey and Nathan Downey (2009).

Should high school students come out? (2009, Radio): We talked about homophobia yesterday on Radio Noon Crosstalk, and whether it still exists. And what came out was some disturbing information about what's happening in our high schools. Two teachers told us that they see kids who are either openly gay or believed to be gay getting picked on. Which raises the question of whether high school is the right time for young gays and lesbians to come out. Ramona speaks to Joshua Jamieson, a young gay activist. - Activist scores coup in Newfoundland (2009): Education minister backs province-wide queer survey... Newfoundland and Labrador is the only province to allow Egale, Canada's queer rights lobby group, to distribute its safe schools survey to every one of its school divisions.


Prince Edward Island: - PEI Teacher's Federation (2003, 2009): Goal 106 - Homophobia: sexuality education should include information and discussion about sexual orientation, homophobia, and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation... It is the policy of the P.E.I. Teachers' Federation: 1) The PEITF believes that efforts must be made to ensure that education prepares young people to live in open, pluralistic and democratic societies, in which they are safe from discrimination or aggression. 2) The PEITF believes that schools need to be made safe for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and two-spirited people. It is the duty and the responsibility of all teachers and administrators to make schools safe for staff and students by: a) treating everyone with respect and acceptance; b) avoiding disparaging remarks or language that imply one sexuality is superior to another;  c) challenging staff and students who display insensitivity;  d) exploring issues of diversity in the classroom; e) developing an action plan to address incidents of discrimination or harassment; f) avoiding assumptions in the matter of sexual orientation; and,g) making a commitment to confidentiality.

Silence is not Golden:  The old adage can certainly be applied to some situations, as we all know, but not for GLBTTY [Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two Spirited Youth (aboriginal term)]. Silence only reinforces homophobia (fear of those individuals who are homosexuals)... GLBTT students often feel invisible in their schools. Their invisibility is usually reinforced by heterosexism. Heterosexism is a privilege... In Prince Edward Island studies indicate that many GLBTTY leave the province in search of a community which often means moving to larger centers such as Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. It all adds up to a pretty grim picture for GLBT youth. Drawing attention to these hardships makes sense. In order to root out the problems of bigotry and oppression, a community requires education in order to become empowered to confront the damaging effects of homophobia. Knowledge, therefore, becomes the first step in changing attitudes and beliefs. - Gay Pride Week on P.E.I. opens with party Friday night at Confederation Centre (2009). - Champions of the cause (2007): PFLAG celebrates the people who, by their lives and actions, have helped in the effort to eliminate homophobia. - Making A Difference: PFLAG PEI - Melanie (2007, Page 8).

Northwest Territories: - Challenging Homophobia: An Addendum to "Skill of Healthy Relationships" (1995, PDF Download) (PDF Download). 


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Europe: - Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe (PDF Download) (2006): Young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people across Europe face discrimination and exclusion in their everyday life. They experience estrangement from family, bullying and marginalisation at school, which can lead to such problems as underachievement and school drop-out, low self-esteem and mental ill-health. - Poland's Sweeping New Anti-Gay Education Bill (2007). - Ban on gay talk in Polish schools (2007). - Government moves to stamp out homophobia in schools (2009): Research conducted by the Czech charity People in Need two years ago suggested that nearly three-quarters of school-age boys in this country had a ‘negative attitude’ towards homosexuality... - L'Europe devra travailler fort pour éliminer l'homophobie (2009).

Different in More Ways Than One: The manual "Different in More Ways Than One: Providing Guidance for Teenagers on Their Way to Identity, Sexuality and Respect" which was made by a European project-team called "TRIANGLE" (Transfer of Information to Combat Discrimination Against Gays and Lesbians in Europe), consisting of representatives from five countries. The team set out to develop a manual for educators and counsellors on how to deal with lesbian, bisexual and gay issues in multicultural contexts. Heterosexism and homophobia can be a real problem for young people, not only for those who experience lesbian, bisexual and gay feelings themselves, but for their heterosexual peers as well. In counselling and education, it is extremely important to provide a safe and supportive atmosphere in which young people can explore their emotions and make their own decisions on the way they choose to live. On this site you will find the manual itself, information about the "TRIANGLE" team and information on how to order the printed version in French, German, Italian or Dutch. You can also download an English pdf version of the manual (PDF Download Page). Read more about the project or read our stories (Download Page: PDF Download) that tell about the everyday life of teenagers and young adults. Available in other languages: Français, Deutsch. Italiano, Nederlands.

Schools for the 21st Century  - Commission Staff Working Paper (Written Contribution from IGLYO  and ILGA-Europe: 2007, Word DownloadDownload Page): Unfortunately, many young people do not experience education in a climate of safety, support, acknowledgment and affirmation in their school. This is particularly true for many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or questioning young people across Europe who face stigma, discrimination and marginalization... Numerous academic studies have found that homophobic bullying and harassment are pervasive features of many European educational systems... It should be noted that homophobic bullying is not only experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender people. It can also affect any child, young person or teacher who does not conform to ways of behaving that are traditionally associated with being ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’. Anyone seen as “different” or as having characteristics considered to belong to LGBT people can suffer from homophobic bullying... Indeed, all the research studies cited above have found that in many schools, LGBT issues are still too often presented in negative contexts such as being a disease, a sin or an unnatural way of being, which only strengthening old, well-known stereotypes. Equally widespread is the silencing of LGBT issues in the school curriculum, i.e. the fact that LGBT issues are not included, mentioned or covered in the school curriculum, which is interpreted by many as a tool at the institutional level for maintaining LGBT invisibility in school and as such an instance of discrimination in itself. Also widespread...

Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States: Part II - The Social Situation (PDF, Downlaod Page, 2009): Discrimination, homophobia and transphobia affect the lives and choices of LGBT persons in all areas of social life. From their early years the derogative words used for gays and lesbians at schools teach them to remain invisible... Incidents of bullying and harassment of LGBT persons are reported in educational settings across the EU. Verbal homophobia and transphobia are commonplace, and the word ‘gay’ is commonly used in a derogatory way. Bullying and harassment have significant consequences for LGBT youth, affecting school performance and well-being. Such experiences can lead to social marginalisation, poor health or dropping out of school. Existing research and interviews with LGBT NGOs demonstrate that school authorities across the EU pay little attention to homophobia and LGBT bullying. Research also shows that teachers lack the awareness, incentives, skills and tools to recognise and tackle such problems. The lack of recognition, representation and positive LGBT images in education in the majority of EU Member States is another concern raised by NGOs, as it contributes to a lack of awareness, sensitivity and understanding contributing to the social isolation of LGBT students. Teachers are rarely trained, prepared or inclined to discuss the issue of sexual identity and orientation. - De Schutter O (2008). Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in the EU Member States. Part I – Legal Analysis (PDFDownload Page).

France: - Les chapitres oubliés, ou question d'homosexualité à l'école (2000, Download Page). - Age Tendre et question d’homophobie en conversations (2002): Un samedi d’octobre, le 5, sur France Inter la journaliste Danielle Messager intervenait dans sa chronique sur les ados « Age tendre » sur la question de l’homophobie à l’école. - Comment lutter contre l’homophobie à l’école (2004).- Lutter contre le sexisme et l'homophobie à l'école (2004, Alternate Link). - Le module d’éducation à la santé et à la sexualité, ouvrage collectif (2005). - « Vivre ses différences, comment parler de l’homophobie » est une brillante réalisation de Couleurs Gaies de Metz. Une mallette pédagogique intitulée « vivre ses différences, comment parler de l’homophobie » a été créée afin de donner aux professionnels de l’éducation et de la santé un outil pour aborder le rejet de la différence (2005): Vivre ses différences, comment parler de l’homophobie. - L’HOMOPHOBIE : savoir et réagir : Brochure à destination des enseignants et de tous les professionnels travaillant auprès des jeunes. - Education in France: Fighting “Homophobia” (2008).

Enquête sur l'homophobie en milieu scolaire : des chifres alarmants (2006). - Lutte à l'homophobie en France: le Québec à l'honneur (2007). - L'homophobie s'apprend-t-elle à l'école ? (2007).- Combattre l’homophobie à l’école (2009). - Education à la sexualité et aux différences (2008). - Prévention de l'homophobie à l'école : avancées et blocages (2008). - Homophobie à l'école ; ça bouge ! (2008). - L'omertà sur l'homophobie à l'école est toujours présente (2008). - Xavier Darcos entend renforcer la lutte contre l'homophobie à l'école (2008). - L'école française se met (enfin) à la lutte contre l'homophobie (2008). - Homophobie à l'école : le piège des amalgames (2009, Download Page). - Homophobie, un mal chronique à combattre au quotidien (2009). - Résultats du questionnaire sur LGB-phobies en milieu scolaire (2009). - Jeunes homos à l’école : moins de tabous, mais un vécu encore difficile (2009).

France : Homophobes, les livres à l’école ? (2009): Au collège et au lycée les manuels scolaires utilisés ignorent l’homosexualité. Le rapport de la HALDE dénonce l’hétérosexisme des textes, illustrations et exemples de ces manuels. Explications. - La HALDE a fait réaliser une étude sur la place des stéréotypes et des discriminations dans les manuels scolaires de juin 2007 à mars 2008 (2008): Dossier de presse. Recommandations de la HALDE. - Rapport sur l’homophobie 2009 par SOS homophobie. - Pourquoi la lutte contre l’homophobie ne préoccupe pas les pouvoirs publics ? (2009).

Belgique: - Combattre l'homophobie à l'école : un dossier pour les enseignants (2005, Download Page).  - « Le Monde de William » Brochure à destination des jeunes sur l’orientation sexuelle: Le Monde de William. - Le monde de William. Un outil de promotion de la santé sur l'orientation sexuelle (2005). - Homophobie à l’école : un dossier et, en octobre, une journée d’étude de l’APED (2009).  - La lutte contre l'homophobie à l'école est insuffisante (2009).

Fighting homophobia, opening schools towards diversity: A new pedagogical dossier, conceived in Belgium on the initiative of Marie ARENA, Minister-President of the French speaking Community of Belgium. This handbook has been distributed in November 2006 in all French speaking Belgian primary and secondary schools to the attention of the teaching staffs and support teams. It is (was?) also available on the official website of the French speaking Education Department... Ce guide pédagogique, conçu en Communauté francaise de Belgique, propose aux professionnels de l´enseignement des informations et des pistes d´activités pédagogiques qui ont pour objectif de contribuer au développement d´un milieu scolaire davantage respectueux de la diversité sexuelle. Il aborde le problème de l´homophobie et présente des stratégies et des moyens pour la combattre. - Combattre l’homophobie, pour une école ouverte à la diversité (2006, Alternate Link).

Switzerland / Suisse: - Pourquoi parler d'homosexualité et d'homophobie à l'école? - Comment prévenir l’homophobie à l’école ? (2009): Si les écoles ne font rien, elles deviennent complices. C’est ce qui est ressorti des « Premières Assises contre l’homophobie » qui se sont tenues à Genève les 4 et 5 septembre 2009. Il faut donc passer à l’action. Mais comment ? - Homophobie: «Tarlouze, fifette, j’ai tout entendu» (2009).


Czechoslovakia: - Government moves to stamp out homophobia in schools (2009, Radio): Research conducted by the Czech charity People in Need two years ago suggested that nearly three-quarters of school-age boys in this country had a ‘negative attitude’ towards homosexuality. A recently published European study indicates that that situation is not improving, and that homophobia is still a widespread problem in Czech schools. In light of the findings, the Czech government is producing a teachers’ manual to tackle the problem. Earlier, I spoke to Lucie Otáhalová who is behind the project. I asked her first about the scale of the problem faced.


Croatia: - Croatia is condemned by European Social Rights Body for Homophobic School Text Books (2009).


Poland: - Poland: School bill would violate students' and teachers' rights and reinforce homophobia (2007).


Spain: - Gay, Positive, and Visible in Spain (2000): In fact, lesbians and gays are discriminated against socially and legally. "This discrimination has many faces and manifests itself most overtly within the schools," says Beatriz. "Society, teachers, and even heterosexual teenagers cannot conceive of the idea of homosexual teenagers. The ultimate discrimination, its maximum degree, is denying our existence, as occurs in the schools." - Spanish students to learn gay respect (2006): Primary and secondary school student in Spain are to be given lessons on homophobic behaviour and gay families amid increased attacks and discrimination against the LGBT community. It comes a year after Spain implemented gay marriage laws, and now the Education Ministry wants to teach pupils that discrimination based on sexual orientation is wrong. - Actitudes ante la diversidad sexual de la población adolescente de Coslada (Madrid) y San Bartolomé de Tirajana (Gran Canaria). [Study about homophobia among adolescents in Spain (2007?)] PDF. Download Page.

Homosexual marriage may now be a norm, but homophobia persists (2008): Spain might have the most advanced legislation in the world when it comes to giving equal rights to gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgenders, but that hasn't done much to change Spaniards' attitudes toward homosexuals, a new study shows... But these views are not just confined to the Catholic Church. Homophobia appears to be growing among young people... After this poll was conducted, another study was taken among secondary school students in two Madrid municipalities: Coslada, where the town hall commissioned the survey, and in San Bartolomé de Torajana. In the latter municipality, only students from public schools participated because private institutions didn't want their pupils answering questions on sexual diversity. In all, 4,636 students - or 65 percent of the school population in those two municipalities - between the ages of 11 and 19 filled out the questionnaires. The results suggest that if there is no shift in views in the future, the outlook for a peaceful coexistence with homosexuals in Spanish society isn't good...

Netherlands: - Intolerance in Dutch schools (2003): "Sometimes people spat on me, hit me or just plain abused me. It wasn't really rough. It wasn't like I was totally beaten up and landed in hospital. They were keeping it cool, so to speak." You wouldn't expect this gay man to be describing experiences in the ‘liberal' Netherlands, but he was, and his story isn't very different from that of many other homosexuals in Dutch schools. COC, a Dutch voluntary organisation whose aim is to integrate homosexuality into society, has been warning that there is a growing intolerance towards gays and lesbians in the country for some time, and when teachers' concerns about the changing climate in schools started growing, the COC decided to do some research. This story was featured in Dutch Horizons. Click to hear the programme in full..."

Sandfort TG, Bos HM, Collier KL, Metselaar M (2010). School environment and the mental health of sexual minority youths: a study among Dutch young adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 100(9): 1696-1700. Abstract. PDF Download. Data were collected in 2008 by means of a computer-based questionnaire completed at school by 513 young Dutch adolescents (12-15 years old) during regular class times. Eleven percent of these students, who were enrolled in 8 different schools, reported having at least some feelings of same-sex attraction... Adolescents with same-sex attractions in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as less consistent and clear reported significantly more mental health problems than their peers with no same-sex attractions in the same schools. Such differences were absent in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as more consistent and clear. There were no such effects of cultural pluralism... Our results suggest that schools with consistent and clear rules and expectations mitigate the risk for mental health problems among students with same-sex attractions and underscore the importance of structural measures for the health of sexual minority youth.

Muslim mayor flies flag for gays in homophobic Dutch suburb (2009): Ahmed Marcouch is on a self-appointed mission to end homophobia in Slotervaart, a suburb just a stones' throw from Amsterdam but light-years away from its anything-goes mentality... "For cultural or religious reasons, some people reject homosexuals and compare them to animals," said Marcouch, who has been Slotervaart's mayor since 2006 and was a former spokesman for Amsterdam's mosques. "They don't see homosexuals as humans. These people can be orthodox Christians, Muslims or immigrants." On Marcouch's initiative, the city council recently adopted an action plan for 2009 to 2011 that allows for the opening of a gay cultural centre. It will also permit gay associations to give briefings at schools and will take measures to teach mothers in immigrant households about gay rights in the Netherlands... - Church schools can fire gay teachers (2009).

United Kingdom / Ireland: - Teachers to get gay guidelines (2000). - Homophobic Bullying? (2001): “99% of schools have an anti-bullying policy but only 6% of these policies include reference to lesbian and gay related bullying.” - Schools afraid to tackle rising homophobia (2003). - Schools not tackling homophobia, says report (2006). - Schools Out! National Resources, News & Links. - Scotland: Schools' gay ban to be lifted (1999). - Homophobic Bullying 'Getting Worse' (2007): High-profile homophobic bullying initiatives are failing to make a significant impact in preventing homophobic bullying according to the Queer Youth Network. Outdated School System to Blame and we call for Social Centres to be created. - Britain's 'Gay Lit' experiment: Schools sample controversial homosexual theme for youngsters. - Gay sex to be described in school textbooks (2006): Parents are outraged at a school guidebook which contains a chapter describing graphic details of gay sex. - Gay rapper highlights school bullying. - Lessons in gay history for pupils aged seven. - Research on the Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People (Ireland): 80% of online respondents had been verbally abused because of their LGBT identity... 25% of the overall sample had been physically threatened by their school peers... 34% reported homophobic comments by teachers or other staff members... - Schools campaign will tackle homophobic bullying (2006). - How 'gay' became children's insult of choice in Britain. - Homophobia and heterosexism: There are those who are overtly homophobic, those who are subtly homophobic and those who are perpetuating the problem without even realising it. Report investigates homophobic bullying in education (2008). - London School Apologises to Gay Teacher Subjected to Homophobia (2008). - Queer Youth Network: The UK's National LGBT Youth Organisation. -  Young gay men talking: School experiences. - Sex education will help gay children (2009): New sex education rules will help all children feel comfortable with their sexuality – except those in faith schools. - Homophobic bullying in schools at 'endemic' levels (2009). - Double lives for gay teachers in Ireland (2011): Schools in Ireland can be hostile places for gay people, particularly the staff rooms. - Homophobic bullying: this hate-filled playground taunting must be eradicated (2011). - Serious homophobic bullying in Irish schools (2013). - What can schools do to tackle homophobic bullying? (2012). - Gay young people still face bullying at school (2012). - Homophobic bullying is 'so gay'(2012). - Separate schools for gay children is not the answer claims campaigner Peter Tatchell and fears LGBT plans could create 'ghetto' (2015): LGBT group wants to set up a school for pupils bullied for their sexuality... They claimed mainstream schools can be ‘last bastions of homophobia'... But gay rights campaigners said the move would amount to segregation.

National Union of Teachers: - Tackling Homophobic Bullying: An issue for every teacher (2004: The Document). - Each/NUT seminar on tackling homophobic harassment (2004). - NUT guidance for members on sexual orientation discrimination (2007). - What is sexual orientation harassment? Guidance for members (2009). - What is transgender harassment? Guidance for members. - Working for a Fairer Future: Advice for members on LGBT equality in education with guidance for school representatives (2009).   - The Teachers' Union: - Homophobic Bullying? (2001): “99% of schools have an anti-bullying policy but only 6% of these policies include reference to lesbian and gay related bullying.” - Homophobia (2005). - Tackling Homophobic Bullying: Policy, Advice,  Support (2004). (Available as a PDF or Word Document). - Equality Matters (2008): Chris Keates, General Secretary of the NASUWT, has criticised the ‘hierarchy’ of bullying that exists in some schools and leads to some forms of abuse, such as homophobia, being treated less seriously than other forms of prejudice... Pressure group Stonewall has launched a new Education Champions Programme to provide support to local authorities in tackling homophobic bullying in their schools. The first five local authorities taking part, which include Birmingham and Wigan, will work with the charity and each other to promote a safe and inclusive learning environment and establish practical ways of addressing homophobia in schools. - Boys to Men: Teaching and learning masculinities in schools and colleges (2009, Available as a PDF or Word Document. Alternate Link). - TeacherNet (Tthe education site for teachers and school managers): Homophobic bullying: Preventing and responding to homophobic bullying in schools (Resource Downloads 1, 2): Safe to Learn: Embedding anti-bullying work in schools (2007, Overview, Further Resources). - Parents face court action for removing children from gay history lessons (2009). - Homophobic Bullying Rife In Schools: More Than 50% Bullied Because Of Their Sexuality (2012).

Salford National Union of Teachers (2010). Prevalence of Homophobia Survey. Salfrod N.U.T. (National Union of Teachers). Full Text.

The results. The results confirm the growing body of evidence from both academic research, human rights and LGBT groups indicating the cultural prevalence of homophobia in our schools. The overall reported incidence of homophobic abuse/ hate crime in Salford secondary schools is disturbingly high. In fact it is to be hoped that if any other form of criminalised discrimination was reported at this level (e.g. racism, sexism) there would be formal governmental demands for the immediate implementation of child protection measures.

Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Students in Post-Primary Schools: Guidance for Principals and School Leaders (Ireland, 2009, PDF, Download Page). School leaders often find themselves having to deal with these challenges without supports and resources being readily available. In response to this, the Department of Education & Science has worked collaboratively with GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network) to produce this resource. It is intended to support school leaders when addressing the challenge of homophobic bullying and when addressing other sexual orientation issues in their school. The resource is set out in stand-alone sections and provides information and practical suggestions on how school leaders can support young people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual. - Minister for Lifelong Learning Speech (2009, Word Download, Download Page). - Comments by Sandra Gowran, Director of Education Policy, GLEN at the launch (2009, Word Download, Download Page). Related Press Release (2009, Word Download, Download Page).

The softening of masculinity in English sixth forms (2011): However, my recent research shows that things have changed for today’s youth. Even if poisonous articles occasionally appear in newspapers like the Daily Mail, social attitudes towards homosexuality have markedly improved. And this change is most profound in the most unlikely of demographics - heterosexual male students. To complete my research into three sixth forms in the south of England, I spent a year hanging out with 16-18 year old boys. I discovered a world that was markedly different from the homophobic and aggressive one I experienced during my school days. Contrary to the ‘epidemic of homophobia’ that Stonewall argues still occurs in schools even today, I found that heterosexual male students explicitly support gay rights. I was surprised not just by these students’ pro-gay attitudes, but also by the passion and intensity with which they held them... While these positive changes are welcome, they are not the most surprising aspect of how straight male students are behaving in these schools. The most dramatic change is with respect to how young men physically interact. Rather than being rough and aggressive with each other, there is a great deal of physical closeness between these boys... None of this physical closeness is accompanied, as I might have expected, by homophobic language. These boys don’t care if their actions could be interpreted as gay...

No Outsiders: No Outsiders: Researching Approaches to Sexualities Equaity in Primary Schools: With the funded research period completed, project leaders and teacher-researchers will continue to compile and present findings and reflections on this ground-breaking work. A series of articles have been written for academic and professional audiences (see bibliography on the left hand menu)... A book entitled "No Outsiders: Undoing homophobia in primary schools" will collect the reflections of teacher-researchers, and another entitled Interrogating heteronormativity in primary schools will collect the reflections of university researchers. Both of these titles will be published by Trentham (expected 2009). - Safe for All: A Best Practice Guide to Prevent Homophobic Bullying in Secondary Schools (2001). - Schools Out: To provide both a formal and informal support network for all people who want to raise the issue of homophobia and heterosexism in education. To research, debate and stimulate curriculum development on LGBT issues. To campaign on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transperson issues as they affect education and those in education. Out ToThe Family (YouTube). Schools Out: Resources / Research: Including lesbian and gay youth in schools: parents find a voice (2008, Master's Dissertation). Oldham N.U.T.: Prevalence of Homophobia Survey (2008): This survey involved eighty-five teachers working in five secondary schools in Oldham.  Non-Normative Gender and Sexual Identities in Schools: An Exploration of the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual (and Transgender) Individuals in British Schools (2008. Master's Dissertation). A Serious Business: An NUT survey of teachers’ experience of sexism and  harassment in schools and colleges (2007). -  Homophobic Bullying In Schools: Baseline Research, Northamptonshire (2003+, PDF Download). - Homophobia and Homophobic Crime in Berkshire: Published by the Berkshire Anti-Homophobia Group (1999).

Stonewall: Education for All - Challenging homophobic bullying in Britain's schools: Downloads. - Education for All Conference 2009 - beyond bullying: Four workshop presentations (PPT Downloads): Primary Schools - How to engage parents, Secondary Schools - How to work in a faith context, Youth Volunteering Programme - How to engage young people, Education Champions - Sharing good practice and moving the agenda forward. - Education Champions. - Youth Volunteering Programme: Stonewall Youth Engagement. - Some people are gay. Get over it!': Stonewall campaign hits billboards. The School Report: The experiences of young gay people in British schools (2007, Download Page: PDF, Download Page: PDF), - Teachers' perspective on homophobic bullying in Britain's primary and secondary schools (2009, Download Page: PDF).  - Gender Identity Research and Education Society (GIRES): Guidance on Combating Transphobic Bullying in Schools. - Bleeding Poof: A dark, edgy short drama set in a not-so-idyllic community where filthy looks and cruel jibes have some very shocking results... The Bleeding Poof film shoot took place during June 2008. The actors chosen from the workshops - Simon, Hannah, Emma - together with a professional production crew filmed in rural locations across Herefordshire. Emma, who had been involved with the project since she joined the online forum, said... "It was surreal to be filming a gay-themed story in Hereford because that's where I grew up and I got my fair share of abuse. - Challenging homophobia in schools: additional materials: Guidance, reports and training materials. - Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN): PublicationsOutYouth: A Report on the Dublin Gay and Lesbian Youth Group Pilot Project (1998). - GLEN Education Resources & Supports: Education: Lesbian and Gay Students: Developing Equal Opportunities (2000). Human Rights and The Rights of Lesbian and Gay People in the Primary School (2008). Stereotyping of Young People Resource Pack (2008). Guidance for Teachers in Addressing Homophobic Bullying. - Tackle Homophobia: The website provides schools with practical ‘tried and tested’ strategies for tackling homophobia and homophobic bullying. It is part of a Tacade project supporting primary and secondary schools in four areas of the United Kingdom (UK).

Drama opens up ‘gay’ issue for schools (2007): A PLAY about a straight woman growing up in a homosexual world will be touring the county’s schools next month. The Homophobia Project is the brainchild of Woking’s Peer Productions and aims to widen understanding about issues affecting many of Surrey’s gay, lesbian and bisexual youth. - School play tackles homophobia (2009). - Schools accused of abandoning thousands of gay children to classroom bullies (2005): Homophobic abuse is driving many pupils out of education, researchers say.  - Needs Assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered young people living in Flintshire. - Schools not tackling homophobia, says report (2006). - Stonewall - "Education for All" campaign tackles homophobic bullying in Britain’s schools (2007). - An inclusive culture: challenging homophobic and sexist bullying (2009). - Whole School Approach: Tackling homophobia in schools – what works?

The school-based lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth (Word Download):  The findings of this Masters thesis paint a grim picture of the school-based lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. The message that emerges most clearly from this research is that schools are failing LGBT students. The literature amply illustrates the serious consequences of inaction on the part of school authorities in responding to the challenges facing LGBT students. The suggestion that the problem does not exist in Ireland may be cautiously dismissed on the basis of research that has been carried out to date and on the preliminary research carried out for this thesis. - February is LGBT History Month: Ideas for Secondary Schools (2009). - Tackling homophobia in faith schools (2008): In facing up to prejudice in schools, we have an opportunity to examine our faiths and practise what is best in them. - British Catholic Schools Targetted For Refusing to Implement School “anti-homophobic” Bullying Policies (2007). - UK Teacher's Guidelines to "Promote Equality and Value Diversity" will Violate Religious Consciences: Catholic Schools Head (2009).

'Pride Not Prejudice' reveals hidden bullying (2004): "In its latest briefing, Pride not Prejudice: young lesbian and bisexual women, YWCA urges schools to ensure that bullying of young lesbian and bisexual women is included in anti-bullying policies and to enforce a zero tolerance attitude to such behaviour amongst teachers and pupils." - Foyle Friend School Survey: The Experiences Of Lesbian, Gay And Bisexual Pupils At School In N.W. Ireland (1998). - Schools Tackle Homophobia (2006). - GLB Suicide Problems in England, Ireland, and Scotland. - Scotland must never return to the dark ages of homophobia (2000). - The impact of homophobia on mental health in Scotland (2003). - Initiative on Homophobic Bullying in Schools Launched (2006, Ireland). - Irish teachers face dismissal for being gay (2008). - Irish schools to tackle homophobia (2009). - Goundbreaking Guidance for School Principals on Sexual Orientation (2009). - School Leaders, Safety and Sexual Orientation: New Resource to Support School Leaders address safety for lesbian, gay and bisexual students.

LGBT Youth research report on how homophobic incidents and homophobia is dealt with in schools (Scotland): Download Page - PDF Download. - ChildLine casenotes: Sexual orientation, homophobia and homophobic bullying: PDF Download. - Social Inclusion: Reaching Out to Bisexual, Gay and Lesbian Youth. Published by ReachOUT (1999). - Inclusive Schools: Ending the Exclusion of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youth. Published by Yorkshire MESMAC (2002: PDF Download). -What role can citizenship education play in reducing homophobia in schools? (PPT, 2003)

McIntyre E (2008). Teacher discourse on lesbian gay and bisexual pupils in Scottish schools. The SilenceWord Download. School's Out Documents. (Related Thesis) "Analysis of the survey indicated themes of  assimilation, contradiction, and ambiguity, set within a liberal discourse of “we treat all pupils alike” “they are all the same”. These themes were developed in more depth in the interview to reveal institutional heterosexism and structural barriers to teachers discourse on LGB pupils. The data was organised into the following themes; ‘Gender roles and families’, ‘Moral Panic’, ‘Institutional heterosexism’. The study revealed that whilst teachers aimed to treat all pupils alike they did so by treating them as though they were heterosexual. As a consequence, teachers seemed to lack the language to talk about different sexual orientations..."

Challenging homophobia together (2009): The Commission in Scotland is delighted to support LGBT Youth Scotland’s schools campaign Challenging Homophobia Together along with respectme, Scotland’s Anti Bullying Service, and the Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS). The Challenging Homophobia Together campaign for schools was launched at LGBT Youth Scotland’s conference on 5 February 2009. Over 180 professionals working with young people in schools attended the first ever Scottish conference to focus on homophobia and homophobic bullying in schools... - Dealing with Homophobia and Homophobic Bullying in Scottish Schools: Teachers Toolkit and Lesson Plans. - School Matters: Challenging Homophobia (2005, Video, UK, Teachers.TV). - Promoting Respect, Inclusion and Diversity in Education (PRIDE, UK): Challenging Homophobic Bullying, Publications and Guidance – Resources Available Online.

Ken Plummer describes a situation likely associated with youth suicide problems in England (Must Scroll): "The kind of behaviour we are seeing against kids, who may not even be gay, just different (and therefore labelled) is savage and unrelenting. It is more what we might expect of a jail system than the supposed safe haven we expect schools to be for our kids. It is not a safe place for kids who are perceived to be gay. School culture is virulently anti-gay.". (SMH 5/4/97) A remarkable similar situation exists in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and many other countries.

I'm 14, I'm Gay & I Want a Boyfriend: Fourteen year old LEE tells PETER TATCHELL about first sex, boyfriends, coming out, paedophilia, and why an age of consent of 16 won't help under-age gays like him. Lee is 14. He's been having sex with boys since the age of eight, and with men since he was 12. Lee has a serious problem. He wants a steady relationship and has been going out recently with a guy in his mid-twenties, who he met at the hairdressers. But in the eyes of the law, Lee's partner is a paedophile and Lee is a victim of child abuse. That's not, however, the way Lee sees it: "I want to have a boyfriend. It's my choice. No one's abusing me. Why should we be treated like criminals?". 

Australia: - School of Hard Knocks. - A day in the life... (2002, Slight variations of this speech were used at a project called There's Two In Every Classroom, a project by Family Planning ACT. This project was designed to educate teachers and youth workers on queer youth issues, and come up with ideas to help combat homophobia.) - Issues for schools - The effects of Homophobia (2001). - Homophobia (1998). - School's Out (2002-04): We're all about letting gay, lesbian and bisexual high school students know that they are not alone. - The issue of gay books in schools (1998).  -"Pooftah", "Wanker", "Girl" Homophobic harassment and violence in schools (From:  Anti Violence Council (AVC), Brisbane (1995). - Why Must Teachers Remain Closeted? Parents need to recognize that homosexual students need role models too (1998). - High schools pressured to provide gay material N/A (1998). - Bashed and bashed again: enough is enough (2000): "When I reflect upon being called "poofter" nearly every day at school, when I think about having to move schools, losing friends and suffering rejection by family members..." - Homophobia Kills: The Role of Secondary Schools in the Prevention of Suicide Among Queer Youth (2002). - Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment Policy Support Materials Section C (2003). - Lobby says WA still needs working party on school homophobia. - Anger on school's gay plan (2006): Education authorities have been accused of instructing all Victorian government school teachers to "celebrate" homosexuality in the classroom.

End Homophobia and discrimination! (2008). - Girls school targets homophobia (2009). - Catholic schools reject homophobic bullying (2009). - A student in Australia has been attacked by a school superviser for promoting a rally in support of gay rights (2009). - The prince married a man, and lived happily ever after: Religious groups attack circulation of books raising gay issues among primary school pupils (2007). - Australian Churches Given OK to Ban Gays From Their Hospitals + Schools (2009). - Homophobic Bullying (2009): All students in Victorian government schools have a right to feel safe at school and be free from bullying, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex students... This report found that the most common place of homophobic abuse was at school. 74% of young people who had suffered homophobic abuse reported at least one incident of verbal or physical abuse at school. -  Push to help gay pupils with new anti-homophobia policy (2009). - Student Called Faggot By Teacher (2009): A year 11 student putting up posters for a gay rights protest at his school has been called a faggot by a teacher and has had his posters ripped down.

What we have to say: Getting over homophobia - Helping gay kids become part of the crowd (2005). - Group tackles homophobia head-on (2006): After concerns were raised by young people about sexual discrimination, the WayOut rural youth and sexual diversity project was established in 2002... The Kyneton based group has become a regular fixture at schools and forums in the area, providing a positive sexual message to its peers... Project coordinator, Sue hackney, from Cobaw community health Service said rural communities are less accepting of homosexuals which creates an unsafe environment for young people coming to terms with their sexuality. -  Homosexuality message threatens young people (2001). - Proud teens battle prejudice (2003): "Surviving your teenage years can be a struggle for just about anyone, but imagine if that time was also spent battling to come to terms with an alternative sexual persuasion to that of most of your friends, in a social, school and community environment without any real support." - Homophobia and masculinities among young men (Lessons in becoming a straight man): a presentation to teachers, O'Connell Education Centre, Australia, 1997.

Australian Association for Research in Education:  Conference papers - Policing Sex/Gender Boundaries: Addressing Homophobia in Schools (1997). - "Coming Out/Going Home": Australian Girls and Young Women Interrogating Heterosexism and Homophobia (1997). - Boys in Schools: Addressing the Politics of Hegemonic Masculinities (1997). - 1998 papers - Teacher positioning around 'homosexuality' in schools. (Homosexuality (gay and lesbian) within the school environment: Teachers' perspectives). - When we treat everybody the same we don't: Snipets of Gay and Lesbian School Experience:The need for naming names in policy. - Teaching Against Homophobia. - (1997 Abstracts) - Teaching Sexualities - Homosexuality and body image issues: teacher awareness. - Differences that matter and indifference in education. - Having what it takes: Homophobia and masculinities in educational settings in the UK and South Africa. - 1999 Papers - Dear Reader, There are 2 articles here: Are You Gay/Sir? is meant to be read first and is forthcoming in 'Melbourne Studies in Education' Are you gay/sir?: I'm not going to tell you: Towards a pedagogy of provocation. This is the paper that I presented at the AARE conference in 1999. - It's More Than a Game: Little boys, masculinities and football culture. - Enabling and disabling conditions for teaching against homophobia (1999). - 'Well at least they're doing something': Daring to explore, critique and move beyond practices that support heteronormativity. - 'Context': An Approach for Action Around Issues Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Teachers and Students (2000). - It's More Than a Game: Little boys, masculinities and football culture (2002). - School's Out: Homosexuality, Bullying and Suicide (2003). - Anti-homophobia education in teacher education: Perspectives from teacher educators in NSW, Australia (2003). - Disrupting heteronormativity: What about the girls? (2004) - Investigating the relationship between “school climate,” school-related outcomes and academic self-concept for Australian, secondary school-aged same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) (2005). - Behavioural Problem Boys Voices on Violence and Authority: Psychology & Sociology (2006). - ‘Unfixing knowledges’: Queering the literacy curriculum (2007).  

Sex Matters in Schools: "Schools normalise the binary gender/sex distinction between male and female, thus rendering invisible all those who might sit on the androgynous borderline between the two. This paper briefly examines institutional assumptions underlying gender identification and some of the consequences of assuming that gays, lesbians, transsexuals, transvestites, hermaphrodites, and other intersex people should present socially as either male or female." - Men in Primary Teaching: An Endangered Species? (1999) - Violence against teachers is increasing, but employers have done little to provide a safe workplace. Sharon Aris reports (2003): "According to Barnes, the problem is not the lack of good anti-homophobia programs. The NSW Teachers Federation has produced a resource called the Anti-Violence Kit for all members in NSW, and can provide people who can speak and train staff in schools. The real problem is compliance: while schools are required to run anti-homophobia programs as part of their curriculum, there is no system in place to enforce this. Barnes estimates that 25 per cent of schools do it well, another 50 per cent pay lip service, and the rest ignore it completely."

We Don’t Have Any of THEM at Our School! Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Student, Teacher and Parent Invisibility and Issues (2003, PDF Download). - Homophobia and the production of shame: young people and same sex attraction (2004, PDF Download). - Investigating the relationship between “school climate,” school-related outcomes and academic self-concept for Australian, secondary school-aged same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) (2005, PDF Download): "These preliminary findings begin to shed some light on the school experiences of SSA students in Australia’s secondary schools. As the descriptive statistics on school climate show, both verbal and physical manifestations of homophobia occur with some frequency and teachers’ reactions in these instances are far less than ideal. As one would expect, students’ perceptions of their school climate as such is correlated with their sense of school community connection demonstrating that as the school environment is perceived as being more supportive (i.e. fewer accounts of homophobia, greater teacher intervention and greater “positivity” surrounding homosexuality), the strength of SSA students’ reported sense of connection to the school community increases. Likewise, the greater this reported sense of connection, the higher SSA students’ reports of academic self-concept become..." - ‘It’s a catch 22’: same sex attracted young people on coming out to parents (PDF Download). - Safety in our schools: strategies for responding to homophobia.

Challenging Homophobia (Tasmania, Not available anymore - Searxh Site)... Background information, resources and activities for school and college leaders, teachers, Learning Services and other members of school communities addressing the requirements of the Department of Education's Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment Policy: Background on homophobia, Sexuality and the Individual, Definitions relating to homophobia, Questions and answers about lesbian, gay and bisexual people, Sample student learning experiences dealing with homophobia, Resources relating to homophobia. -  What is homophobia? - Tas implements anti-homophobia school program (2007). - Homophobia link to bullying claimed (2007): The Tasmanian Gay and Lesbian Rights Group believes any national strategy to tackle schoolyard bullying will fail if it doesn't address homophobia.  - Just kidding? Sex-based harassment at school (New South Wales): A 107-page text for educators and carers that focuses only on sex-based harassment among students. It examines the behaviours through scenarios, explores social justice, equity and legal aspects; looks at how our talk and practice of gender relations every day makes sex-based harassment 'normal'; showcases projects in New South Wales schools; and provides ideas for eliminating the behaviour. - Duty of care to students ignored in gay school essay debate. - OUT Smarting Homphobia (2007). - Inclusion and Social Justice for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Members of the Learning Community in Queensland State Schools (2008).

Shout! School's Out: An Internet resource for teachers, educators and parents. - Open Doors Youth Service Resources for Schools. - SSAFE in Schools Website: Transgender Young People. - Same Sex Attracted Youth Research, ARCSHS (LaTrobe University): Publications & Downloads. - Supporting SSAQTY at school: Resources. - WayOut, Rural Victorian Youth & Sexual Diversity Project: a partnership between Cobaw Community Health Service and Gay & Lesbian Health Victoria (GLHV). - Curriculum, schooling, research, young people and sexualities in Australia (2006).  - Homophobic bullying is making Australian schools unsafe: Researcher (2008): Research by the Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society (ARCSHS) at La Trobe University has revealed the serious problem of bullying provoked by homophobia in Australian schools with about 9-11% of students who struggle with their sexual identity under threat. - National LGBT Health Alliance Australia: Violence and Homophobia. - Research on homophobia. - Boys talk: Diverse masculinities: Please note these are real quotes from real boys and their language may offend.

Thailand: - Gays and lesbians banned from enrolling in Thailand's teacher training schools (1997). - Homophobia Trounced in Thailand: UPDATE: Education Minister Quietly Reverses His Position (1997). - New models for sexuality education (2006). -  Thai school offers transsexual toilet (2008). - The Work of the National Human Rights Commission of Thailand on Human Rights  in Relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (2009). - Bye Bye Bangkok Pride (2009,  Alternate Link): Unnoticed and unmourned, the pride parades in Thailand have come to an end. What happened? Doug Sanders reports from Bangkok. The Thai paradox is (a) a higher level of comfort with sex and gender diversity than elsewhere, but (b) no ‘out’ political or entertainment figures and limited LGBT rights activism. The Nation newspaper commented in an editorial in 2007 that the country “has traditionally been quite tolerant towards homosexuals and transvestites, who are widely regarded as a pretty harmless aberration to the norm…” How’s that for a tolerant putdown?


Africa: - Inclusive Sex Education Needed in Schools (2009): With the exception of South Africa, most African countries criminalise same-sex relationships with imprisonment, while incidents of violence against gay women and men are poorly investigated and rarely taken to court. In an interview with IPS, Akinyi M. Ocholla from the Nairobi-based Minority Women in Action, a community-based organisation that stands up for the rights of lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women and girls, said that the taboo on homosexuality in African countries will only be broken when schools start to include sexuality and sexual orientation in their curriculum.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education (Abstracts: Now published as: Journal of LGBT Youth): Vol. 1(1), Fall 2003. - Vol. 1(2), Winter 2003. - Vol. 1(3), Sping 2004. Some of the papers: Reflections on Being Gay in Japan & China, Gay and Lesbian Youth Experience of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education, The Angel’s Playground: Same-Sex Desires of Physical Education Teachers, Serving the Needs of Transgendered College Students, Describing Roles that Gay-Straight Alliances Play in Schools: From Individual Support to School Change, Some Challenges Facing Queer Youth Programs in Urban High Schools: Racial Segregation and De-Normalizing Whiteness, Education Policy Issues Affecting Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Youth.

Sexualities, Special Issue: Retheorizing Homophobias. Introduction to Retheorizing Homophobias. Profiles, Compulsory Disclosure and Ethical Sexual Citizenship in the Contemporary USA. Dude-Sex: White Masculinities and `Authentic' Heterosexuality Among Dudes Who Have Sex With Dudes. `Not Gay, but Not Homophobic': Male Sexuality and Homophobia in the `Lifestyle'. In Defense of Gay Children? `Progay' Homophobia and the Production of Homonormativity. `The Puerto Rican Way is More Tolerant': Constructions and Uses of `Homophobia' among Santería Practitioners Across Ethno-Racial and National Identification. Afterword: Complicating Homophobia.

Abstracts: - LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes (2009). - Psychosocial implications of homophobic bullying in schools: a review and directions for legal research and the legal process (2009). - Still Catching up: Schools, Sexual Orientation and Homophobia in Ireland (2009). - Beyond sticks and stones: School bullying in the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth (2007). - "Now Why do you Want to Know about That?" Heteronormativity, Sexism, and Racism in the Sexual (Mis)education of Latina Youth (2009). - Considering Transgender People in Education: A Gender-Complex Approach (2009). - A Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks (2008). - Playing it up, playing it down, playing it safe: Queering teacher education (2008). - Sexuality, schooling, and teacher identity formation: A critical pedagogy for teacher education (2009). - Social Constructions Influencing Sociosexual Identity Development of Collegiate Gay and Bisexual Men (2009). - The Meaning of Difference. Young Gay Males' Experiences at School in Australia (2007). - A Feminist Reframing of Bullying and Harassment: Transforming schools through critical pedagogy (2008) (Full Text). - Predicting Psychosocial Consequences of Homophobic Victimization in Middle School Students (2007). - Exploring the Relationship between Homophobia and Participation in Core Sports among High School Students (2007). - Why anti-homophobia education in teacher education? perspectives from Australian teacher educators (2004). - The Extent of Public Education Nondiscrimination Policy Protections for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students (2006). - Surviving in the trenches: A narrative inquiry into queer teachers’ experiences and identity (2009). - Mathematical Inqu[ee]ry: beyond 'Add-Queers-and-Stir' elementary mathematics education (2009).  - Gay–Straight Alliances and School Experiences of Sexual Minority Youth (2010). - Prejudice in Schools: Promotion of an Inclusive Culture and Climate (2010). - Sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents in the growing up today study (2010). 

Abstracts: - Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth (2009). - “Second Generation” Voices: Queer Youth with Lesbian/Bisexual Mothers (2009). - (Re)considering normal: queering social norms for parents and teachers (2009). - Protective Factors in the Lives of Bisexual Adolescents in North America. - Gay Teachers' Negotiated Interactions with Their Students and (Straight) Colleagues (2008). - Using Intergroup Dialogue to Reduce Sexual Orientation Prejudice in Public Schools: A Mixed Methods Experimental/Qualitative study (2009). - Reducing Homophobic Attitudes and Behaviors by Means of Sexual Orientation Curricula in High Schools (2005). - Queering Seduction: Eros and the Erotic in the Construction of Gay Teacher Identity. - State of the Field Review: Stories So Far: An Overview of the Research on Lesbian Teachers (2009). - Lesbian teachers, harassment and the workplace (2009). - State of the Field Review: Stories So Far: An Overview of the Research on Lesbian Teachers (2009). - Preparing LGBTQ-allies and combating homophobia in a U.S. teacher education program (2009). - Teaching as a Gay Man: Pedagogical. Resistance or Public Spectacle? (1999). - Voices of Courage and Hope: Gay and Lesbian Catholic Elementary School Teachers (2001). - Bound and Gagged: Sexual Silences, Gender Conformity and the Gay Male Teacher (2000). - Protecting the Kids in the Hall: Using Title IX to Stop Student-on-Student Anti-Gay Harassment (2000). - Stretching performances in education: the impact of gay parenting and activism on identity and school change (2008). - Primary School "Studs": (De)constructing Young Boys’ Heterosexual Masculinities (2007). - Teacher inquiries into gay and lesbian families in early childhood classrooms (2008). - Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior During Adolescence (2007).

Abstracts: - Recent lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender fiction for teens: are Canadian public libraries providing adequate collections? (2004) - “Brain Says You're a Girl, But I Think You're a Sissy Boy”: Cultural Origins of Transphobia (1997). - Teacher Transsexuality: The Illusion of Sexual Difference and the Idea of Adolescent Trauma in the Dana Rivers Case (2003). - Sex and Gender are Different: Sexual Identity and Gender Identity are Different (2002). - ‘I Can Accept My Child is Transsexual but if I Ever See Him in a Dress I’ll Hit Him’: Dilemmas in Parenting a Transgendered Adolescent (2002). - Engendering homophobia: violence, sexuality and gender conformity (2001). - The Prevalence of Bisexual and Homosexual Orientation and Related Health Risks Among Adolescents in Northern Thailand (2004). - Thinking About Sodomy: Public Schools, Legal Panopticons, and Queers (2006). - Stigma or Respect: Lesbian-parented Families Negotiating School Settings (2006).

Abstracts: - Skool's out (2004). - Sexuality in the Primary School (2000). - Gay rights and school policy: a case study in community factors that facilitate or impede educational change (2004). - Toward a consistent stance in teaching for equity: learning to advocate for Lesbian- and Gay-identified youth (2003). - Playing it safe: addressing the emotional and physical health of lesbian and gay pupils in the U.K (2001). - Embracing Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Youth in School-Based Settings (2001). - The Role of External Professionals in Education about Sexual Orientation - towards good practice (2001). - 'What are We Doing this For?' Dealing with Lesbian and Gay Issues in Teacher Education (2001). - Caring Without Justice: how we deaden the spirits of gay and lesbian youth in schools (2000). - Queer pedagogy, educational practice and lesbian and gay youth (1999). - Things that could make a difference: integrating lesbian and gay issues in secondary schools (1995). - Will It Be Silence and Violence or Safety and Prevention for the Next Generation of Gay Youth? (2002) - Can I Speak and Do You Hear Me? Quest(ion)s for R/Evolution (2002). -School social work with gay, lesbian and bisexual students: the case of Fairfax County (2000). - Pediatric Residency Training and the Needs of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth (1999). - Adolescent health care experience of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young adults - Ramifications for secondary school personnel (1998). - Ambiguities around Sexuality: An Approach to Understanding Harassment and Bullying of Young People in British Schools (2009). 

Abstracts: - Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: victimization and its correlates in the USA and UK (2003). - New developments concerning discrimination and harassment of gay students (2001). - Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths' Perceptions of Their High School Environments and Comfort in School (2003). - Producing Contradictory Masculine Subject Positions: Narratives of Threat, Homophobia and Bullying in 11–14 Year Old Boys (2003). - Reflections on experiences in peer-based anti-homophobia education (2004). - The quest for modern manhood: masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia (2001). - Naming the “outsider within”: homophobic pejoratives and the verbal abuse of lesbian, gay and bisexual high-school pupils (2001). - Homophobic bullying in secondary schools in England and Wales - teachers' experiences (1999). - Effects of at-school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths' health risk behavior (2002). - Social Exclusion, Absenteeism And Sexual Minority Youth (2000). - Relationships Between Sexual Orientation and Coping Styles of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents from a Community High School (1999). - The gay adolescent: stressors, adaptations, and psychosocial interventions (1997). - Innocence, Perversion, and Heather's Two Mommies (1998). - School-based support for GLBT students: A review of three levels of research (2007). - The repeal of Section 28: it ain't over 'til it's over (2008). - Working with youth on LGBT issues: why Gay-Straight Alliance advisors become involved (2009). - Pervasive Trauma Exposure Among US Sexual Orientation Minority Adults and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (2010).

Abstracts: - Social-developmental factors affecting lesbian and gay youth: a review of cross-national research findings (2003). - Sexual Minority Youth and Suicide Risk (2003). - Trying to Hide: A Cross-National Study of Growing Up for Non-Identified Gay and Bisexual Male Youth (2002). - Learning that an Adolescent Child is Gay or Lesbian: The Parent Experience (2004). - Developmental milestones and disclosure of sexual orientation among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths (2002). - Suicide and gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: implications for clinicians (2001). - A critique of research on sexual-minority youths (2001). - Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents (2001). - Sexual Identity Trajectories Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Gender Comparisons (2000). - Leisure in the Identity Formation of Lesbian/Gay Youth: Personal, but Not Social (2000). - Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Separation-Individuation, Parental Attitudes, Identity Consolidation, and Well-Being (1999). - Support Networks of Gay Male and Lesbian Youth (1998). - Strengths of Gay Male Youth: An Untold Story (1998). - HIV prevention with young men who have sex with men: what young men themselves say is needed (2000). - Homeless Youth: Drug Use Patterns and HIV Risk Profiles According to Peer Group Affiliation (1997). - Primary School "Studs": (De)constructing Young Boys’ Heterosexual Masculinities (2007). - Corporeal Controls: Violence, Bodies, and Young Gay Men's Identities (2007). - Adolescent Perceptions of School Safety for Students with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Parents (2008). 

Positions Statements, Resolutions: - Resolution on the Protection of the Rights of Lesbian and Gay Education Personnel: The Second World Congress of Education International, meeting in Washington D.C., U.S.A., from 25 to 29 July 1998. - National School Board Association (1999, USA): Position Statement: Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth. - NAGC Position Statement (National Association for Gifted Children, 2001): Appropriate Education for Gifted GLBT Students. - National Association of School Psychologists: Position Statement on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (GLBTQ) Youth (formerly Sexual Minority Youth) (USA, 2006). - National Council of Teachers of English (2007, USA): Resolution on Strengthening Teacher Knowledge of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Issues. - National Foster Parent Association: Position Statement: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Questioning Youth. - Suicide Prevention Australia Position Statement: Suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender communities.

GLSEN - The Safe Schools Coalition (Washington State). - California Safe Schools Coalition. Gale BC:. -  YES Institute. -  Schools Out. - Shout! School's Out: An Internet resource for teachers, educators and parents. - Open Doors Youth Service Resources for Schools. - SSAFE in Schools Website: Transgender Young People. - Same Sex Attracted Youth Research, ARCSHS (LaTrobe University). - Supporting SSAQTY at school: Resources. - WayOut, Rural Victorian Youth & Sexual Diversity Project: a partnership between Cobaw Community Health Service and Gay & Lesbian Health Victoria (GLHV). - The ATA's Sexual Orientation Online Resources. - Project 10, LA. - Project 10 East. - Egale's Education Resources. - Canadian Teacher's Federation's BGLTT Reesources: BGLTT Resources. - Advocates for Youth: Resources for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Youth: Select Organizations, Web Sites, Videos. - Promoting Respect, Inclusion and Diversity in Education (PRIDE, UK): Challenging Homophobic Bullying, Publications and Guidance – Resources Available Online. - Rainbow Youth Resources. - Challenging homophobia in schools: additional materials: Guidance, reports and training materials (2009).

The NASP Workgroup on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Issues: PowerPoint - Braving the Barriers: Supporting Faculty inclusion of GLBTQ Youth Issues in Courses and Research. - Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation and Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators, and School Personnel. - Resources on GLB Issues. - Safe Schools/Respect Our Differences Poster Series. - Join the NASP Work Group on GLB Issues Listserv. - Teaching resources on racism, white privileges, & anti-white supremacy (National Women's Studies Association, 2006). 

Beyond the Binary: A Tool Kit for Gender Identity Activism in Schools (2004). - Tips for Making Classrooms Safer for Students with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and/or Queer Parents (2003).

School Resources from outproud.org N/A . - From youthresource.com. - Alterheros.com: A Montreal grouop  reaching out to youth, parents, and teachers on gender and orientation.  - Lambda 10 Project: Transgender Education and Support Resources. - Resources for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth. - A Diversity Documentary: How to Cover LGBT Issues in the Classroom: A film and its sequel help teachers and students talk about gay people. - Links for Transgender Youth. - Transgender Youth School Guidelines from TransActive Education & Advocacy (2009).

True Colors, Inc. - Sexual Minority Youth and Family Services of Connecticut: True Colors works to create a world where youth, adults and families of all sexual orientations and gender identities are valued and affirmed.  We challenge all forms of oppression through education, training, advocacy, youth leadership development, mentoring and direct services to youth and those responsible for their well-being. 2008 Conference. 2010 Conference. Bibliographies. Resource Guide. - GSAFE Resource List (2009).

Lesbigay Special Interest Group of  NAFSA: Association of International Educators. - Newsletter articles.

Minnesota's List of Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgender Scholarships. - Recent lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender fiction for teens: are Canadian public libraries providing adequate collections? (2004)

Schools Out! National Resources. - Pridelinks.com: Education. - A resource page for Teens & Young Adults who might be gay or have friends who have same gender attraction- GLSEN's Student Organizing.

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Youth) N/A (Archive Link). - Mogenic - Gay and Lesbian Youth Magazine. - Resources for GLBT Youth of Color. - Recommended Movies For LGBTQ Youth N/A. - LGBT Teen Movies. - GSA-Network: Posters, Movies and More.

Videos -Teaching / Educational: - Challenging Homophobia in Schools part 1 of 4 (UK). - Challenging Homophobia in Schools part 2 of 4 (UK). - Challenging Homophobia in Schools part 3 of 4 (UK). - Challenging Homophobia in Schools part 4 of 4 (UK). - Homophobia: UK Stats & Facts (Let's put an end to this!). - Stamp Out Homophobia In Schools (UK). - That's So Gay - Wanda Sykes (USA). - Thats SO gay PSA. - "That's So Gay" Commericals Win Top Ad Council Award (USA). - Racism and Gay Bashing (USA). - Gay Bash By Mélange Lavonne (USA). - Oprah Winfrey Show Talks About Gay Bashing & Suicide (USA). - Coming out. - Being Gay in High School (2012). [A 2011 Canadian view about being gay in high school.]

Videos - Personal / Educational: - My first time: Homophobia (UK). - I Hate Faggots. - That's SO Gay (UK). - Chris Crocker - When people say "That's So Gay..". - Gay Teen Boy Abuse: Bullying & Homophobia (UK). - Gay Teen Boy Youth "Hate Crime" (USA). - Gay Hate Crime (USA).


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Canadian GLBTQ Youth Bibliography. - A bibliography: gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in education (1999). - Schools Out Bibliography. GLSEN Resources Index. - LGBT Non-Fiction Bibliography. - Recommended Books for and about LGBTQ Youth. - Recommended Movies for and about LGBTQ Youth. - Working with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in Schools: A Bibliography for School Psychologists. - Bibliography: GLBT Safe Zones. - Bibliography of LGBT Themed Books and Videos for Youth. - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered Bibliography. - Gay Lesbian Bisexual Bibliography. - Education Equity Organizing: A Resource Bibliography.   - Schooling, sexuality, and sexuality education Bibliography. - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Two-spirited People: A Bibliography Resource (Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation): PDF Download. - K-12 LGBTQ Bibliography: LGBTQ-themed fiction and non-fiction books written for grades K-12 and for adults, arranged by age-appropriateness. - Queer Perspectives on Social Responsibility in Canadian Schools and Libraries: Analysis and Resources. - Law Review Articles About Foster Care: GLBT. - Selected children’s & YA literature by and about marginalized groups (2009). - Men's bibliography: Schooling, Sexuality, and Sexuality Education (2008). 

Selected children’s & YA literature by and about marginalized groups. - Gender Transgression in Books for Children, Teens, and Caring Adults: A Bibliography by Nancy Silverrod, San Francisco Public Library. - Safe Schools Coaliton: Books For Middle School Libraries & Classrooms. - Brief report: The defense mechanisms of homophobic adolescent males: A descriptive discriminant analysis. - Sexual Orientation and the Law: A Research Bibliography. - Bibliography: Gay, lesbian and bisexual issues in education (1999). - Annotated Bibliography: Religion, Spirituality and Sexuality (2000). - Great Gay Teen Books. - LGBT Suggested Reading List: From the GLBT Youth in Iowa Schools Task Force. - Bibliography for Gay Teens: Used in the Gay Teens In The 21st Century: Access To The Future Preconference (2000). - GLBT resources: a selected list of Education Library titles (2006). - Mount Vernon High School GLBTQ Bibliography (2008). - LGBT Youth-Related Issues Bibliography. - Homosexuality & Education Book List. - Select Bibliography on Sexuality Education (2008). - GLBT Youth Issues Bibliography. - GLBTQ Youth Library Related Bibliography & Resources (2010). - Addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality in primary schools: Books for use in primary and early years settings:An annotated list (2010).  

Books: - Excerpt from Coming Out of The Classroom Closet - 1992 - edited by Karen M. Harbeck (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books). - The Gay Teen : Educational Practice and Theory for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents - 1995 - edited by Gerald Unks. (Abstract/Contents) (16 Sample Pages) (Review) (Google Books). - Free Your Mind. The Book for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth and Their Allies - 1996 - by  Ellen Bass, Kate Kaufman (Review). - Border patrols: policing the boundaries of heterosexuality - 1997 -  by Deborah Lynn Steinberg, Debbie Epstein, Richard Johnson  (Google Books). - Curriculum, Religion, and Public Education: Conversations for an Enlarging Public Square - 1998 - by James Sears, Ed. (Review). - Queer 13: Lesbian and Gay Writers Recall Seventh Grade.- 1998 - edited by Clifford Chase. (Browse Inside) - Open Lives, Safe Schools - 1996 - edited by Donovan R. Walling (Related Information) (Review). - In Your Face: Stories from the Lives of Queer Youth - 1998 - by Mary L. Gray (Google Books) (Related Information) (Amazon) (Review) (Review) (Review). -  Equity in Schools and Society - 2000 - edited by Judy M. Iseke-Barnes and Njoki Nathani Wane (Google Books).  - Being Gay and Lesbian in a Catholic High School Beyond the Uniform - 2001 - by Michael Maher Jr. (Review) (Review). - Seeing the rainbow : teachers talk about bisexual, gay, lesbian, transgender, and two spirited realities - 2003 - by Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario, Canadian Teachers' Federation (Review) (Review). - Youth and Sexualities: Pleasure, Subversion, and Insubordination In and Out of Schools - 2004 - edited by Mary Louise Rasmussen, Eric Rofes, Susan Talburt, William Haver (Review) (Review). - Beyond diversity day: a Q & A on gay and lesbian issues in schools - 2004 - by Arthur Lipkin (Google Books). - Becoming Subjects: Sexualities and Secondary Schooling - 2005 - by Mary Louise Rasmussenm  - Getting ready for Benjamin: preparing teachers for sexual diversity in the classroom - 2001 - edited by Rita M. Kissen (Google Books) (Review) (Review, Must Scroll). - I Could Not Speak My Heart: Education and Social Justice for Gay and Lesbian Youth - 2004 - edited by McNinch, J. & Cronin, M (Review) (Related Syposium). - The Male in the Head: Young People, Heterosexuality and Power - 1998, 2004 - by J. Holland, C. Ramazanoglu, S. Sharpe,  R. Thompson (Review) (Review). - The Men and the Boys - 2001 - by R. W. Connell (Review, Must Scroll). - Making American boys: boyology and the feral tale - 2005 - by Kenneth B. Kidd (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review, Must Scroll). - Queering Teen Culture: All-American Boys and Same-Sex Desire in Film and Television - 2006 - by Jeffery P. Dennis (Amazon) (Google Books). - The Transgender Child: A Handbook for Families and Professionals - 2008 - by Stephanie A. Brill, Rachel Pepper (Review).

Books: - The Last Closet: The Real Lives of Lesbian and Gay Teachers - 1996 - by Rita Kissen. (Review) (Review).  - Sexuality and the Schools: Handling the Critical Issues - 1995 - by Joan Curcio, Lois Berlin, and Patricia First. - School's out: The Impact of Gay and Lesbian Issues on America's Schools - 1995 - by Dan Woog  (Review) (Review) (Connecticut Q&A: Dan Woog;Taking Gay Issues Into the Schools). -  Gay Parents/Straight Schools: Building Communication and Trust - 1999 - by Virginia Casper (Review) (Review). - School Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Youth: The Invisible Minority - 1998 - by Mary B. Harris (Preface), Eric E. Rofes (Google Books). - When the Drama Club Is Not Enough: Lessons from the Safe Schools Program for Gay and Lesbian Students - 2002 - by Jeff Perrotti & Kim Westheimer (Google Books) (Related). - Lesbian and Gay Voices. An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Literature for Children and Young Adults - 2000 - by Frances Ann Day (Review) (Google Books). - Diverse sexuality and schools: a reference handbook - 2003 - by David Campos (Google Books). - Sexual orientation and school policy: a practical guide for teachers - 2004 - by Ian K. Macgillivray (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - 2010 - by Gillian Klein (Foreword), No Outsiders Project Team. - Challenging Homophobia: Teaching about Sexual Diversity - 2007 - edited by Lutz van Dijk,  Barry Van Driel (Review). - Girls, Boys, and Junior Sexualities: Exploring Children's Gender and Sexual Relations in the Primary School - 2005 - by Emma Renold (Google Books). - Unleashing the Unpopular: Talking About Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity in Education - 2007 - by Isabel Killoran and Karleen Pendleton Jimenez (Review). Policy Issues Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Families - 2007 - by Sean Cahill, Sarah Tobias (Google Books) (Review). - Rethinking Sexual Identity in Education - 2005 - by Susan Birden (Google Books) (Review). - Reconsidering the Knowledge Base on Sexual Orientation for Teacher Education Programs - 2009, Publication Pending - by Jeffrey David Zacko-Smith, G. Pritchy Smith. - Fit to teach: same-sex desire, gender, and school work in the twentieth century - 2005 - by Jackie M. Blount (Google Books) (Review). - Coming out, coming in: nurturing the well-being and inclusion of gay youth - 2007 - by Linda Goldman (Google Books). - Undoing Homophobia in Primary Schools - 2010 - by Gillian Klein (Foreword), No Outsiders Project Team. - Adolescents homosexuels - Des préjugés à l'acceptation - 2009 - de Elisabeth Thorens-Gaud (Interview).

Books: - Understanding Homosexuality: Changing Schools - 2000 - by Arthur Lipkin (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Restructuring High Schools for all Students: Taking Inclusion to the Next Level - 1998 - edited by Cheryl Jorgensen.  - Queering Elementary Education: Advancing the Dialogue About Sexualities and Schooling - 1999 - by William J. Letts and  James T Sears, Eds. (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - What about the boys? : issues of masculinity in schools - 2001 - edited by Wayne Martino, Bob Meyenn. (Contents /  Chapter  1) (Review). - A Dangerous Knowing: Sexuality, Pedagogy and Popular Culture - 1999 - edited by Debbie Epstein & James T. Sears (Google Books). - Sexual identities in English language education: classroom conversations - 2008 - by Cynthia D. Nelson (Google Books).- Education, Equality and Human RIghts: Issues of Gender,'Race', Sexuality, Disability and Social Class - 2000 - by Mike Cole (Google Books).  - Acting Out! Combating Homophobia Through Teacher Activism (On School Reform) - 2009 - by Mollie V. Blackburn, Caroline T. Clark, Lauren M. Kenney, Jill M. Smith. - Shaping sexual knowledge: a cultural history of sex education in Twentieth Century Europe - 2008 - by Lutz Sauerteig, Roger Davidson (Google Books). - Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Issues in Education: Programs, Policies, and Practices - 2005 - edited by James T. Sears (Review). - Dramatic Changes: Talking about Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity with High School Students Through Drama - 2002 - by Paula Ressler. - Trailblazing: America's First Openly Gay High School Coach - 2003, 2009 - by Eric Anderson (Author Bio). - Sexual Identities in English Language Education: Classroom Conversations - 2009 - Cynthia D Nelson (Google Books) (Review).

Books: - One of the Boys: Masculinity, Homophobia, and Modern Manhood - 1999 - by David Plummer: Abstract / Table of Content (Google Books) (Amazon) (Review). Book shows how homophobia starts in the schoolyard. - Becoming Visible: A Reader in Gay & Lesbian History for High School & College Students - 1994 - edited by Kevin Jennings (11 Sample Pages). One Teacher in 10: Gay and Lesbian Educators Tell Their Stories - 1994 - by Kevin Jennings (Amazon). - Special Needs of Students with Gay and Lesbian Parents in the Elementary School - 1998 - by Fioriello, Patricia (Google Books). - GLBTQ: The Survival Guide for Queer and Questioning Teens - 2003 - by Kelly Huegel (Google Books). - Youth, Education, and Sexualities - 2005 - edited by James Thomas Sears (2 Volumes) (Google Books) (Google Books). - Gender, Bullying, and Harassment: Strategies to End Sexism and Homophobia in Schools - 2009 - by Elizabeth J. Meyer. - That's so Gay! Homophobia in Canadian Catholic Schools - 2007 - by Tonya Callaghan. - Silenced sexualities in schools and universities - 2003 - by Debbie Epstein, Sarah O'Flynn, David Telford (Review) (Review) (Google Books). - Stigma and Perseverance in the Lives of Boys Who Dance: An Empirical Study of Male Identities in Western Theatrical Dance Training - 2009 - by Doug Risner (Amazon). - Dude, You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School - 2007 - C. J. Pascoe (Google Books) (Chapter 1) (Author Commentary) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Commentary) (Commentary). - Being Normal is the Only Way To Be: Adolescent Perspectives on Gender and School - 2005 - by Wayne Martino, Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli (Review) (Review) (Google Books). - Kicked Out - 2010 -  edited by Sassafras Lowrey (Google Books) (Website).

Get That Freak: Homophobia and Transphobia in High Schools - 2011 - by Rebecca Haskell, Brian Burtch (Introduction) (Excerpt) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview: Rebecca Haskell) (Radio Interview: Brian Burtch) (Global TV News Interview With Authors) (City TV Interview with Rebecca Haskell).

Wayne Martino & Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli (2003). So What's a Boy? Addressing Issues of Masculinity and Schooling. Open University Press: 2006 ReviewReviewReview.  

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.


GLBTQQ Adolescents Of Color:

The Intersection of Sexual Orientation & Race: Considering the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered People of Colour & Two-Spirited People:

"Substantial efforts must be made to challenge the oppression of GLBT people of colour & Two-Spirited people, as people, not a collection of separated issues. This, of course, necessitates that all aspects of their identity and all sources of the oppression they face be considered and challenged. Until this happens, GLBT people of colour & Two-Spirited people will only have partial access to justice, dignity and equality, they will gain nothing more than the status of equality, without being equal."

Pflag for families of color and allies in NYC.

Diaz EM, Kosciw JG (2009). Shared Differences: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students of Color in Our Nation’s Schools. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page. - Educators fail gay students of color (2009, Alternate Link). - Harsh Words For Gay Students of Color (2009). - Study: LGBT students of color at highest risk (2009): "While research on the experiences of LGBT students has increased in recent years, few studies have examined the specific victimization of students who identify as people of color and LGBT," said GLSEN Executive Director Dr. Eliza Byard. "Our schools are diverse environments, and it is important to understand how our students experiences differ based on personal characteristics such as race and ethnicity. This report provides alarming evidence that we must act now to ensure sure that America's LGBT students of color are safe in school." - Trouble For LGBT Teens of Color (2009): It's scary to see our youth going through the same mess we went through . The harrasment, violence and abuse needs to stop. Change must come for next generation's sake. - Gays of color at highest risk in schools (2009).

Remembering LGBTQ Youth of Color When Talking About Bullying (2010).

Study Session: I Am Here - Intercultural and Ethnic Diversity within LGBTQ Youth Communities. - IGLYO Study Session - "Intercultural and Ethnic Diversity within LGBTQ Youth Communities" at the European Youth Centre in Strasbourg, France. - Intercultural and Ethnic Diversity within LGBTQ Youth Communities: IGLYO - Study Session - European Youth Centre, Strasbourg 22nd February - 1st March, 2009.

In articles and discourses about GLBTQQ adolescents in public schools, the issues of GLBTQQ adolescents of color has generally been completetely ignored. This is also a reflection of what has existed in  predominantly white GLBTQ communities. Some resources for GLBTQ Youth of Color.

See Resource: Racism in Predominantly White GLBT Communities.


Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies / Reports (and/or Abstracts):

Book: Epstein D, Ed. (1994). Challenging Lesbian and Gay Inequalities in Education. Gender and Education Series. Open University Press, Buckingham, England. PDF Download. Download Page.

Abstract: Educators in Britain have tended to ignore lesbian and gay issues, creating a gap that this book addresses by discussing the complex debates about sexuality and schooling. Contributors to this collection tell stories of distress and victimization and of achievement and support in the following: (1) "Introduction: Lesbian and Gay Equality in Education--Problems and Possibilities" (Debbie Epstein); (2) "So the Theory Was Fine" (Alistair, Dave, Rachel, and Teresa); (3) "Growing Up Lesbian: The Role of the School" (Marigold Rogers); (4) "A Burden of Aloneness" (Kola); (5) "Are You a Lesbian, Miss?" (Susan A. L. Sanders and Helena Burke); (6) "Victim of a Victimless Crime: Ritual and Resistance" (Roy Bartell); (7) "Black in the Closet" (Akanke); (8) "Lesbian and Gay Equality within a Whole School Policy" (Debbie Epstein); (9) "Lesbian and Gay Issues in the Curriculum" (Paul Patrick and Susan A. L. Sanders); (10) "Shifting Ground: Rethinking Sexuality Education" (Peter Redman); (11) "(In)visibility: Sexuality, Race and Masculinity in the School Context" (Mairtin Mac An Ghaill); (12) "Coming Out in the National Union of Teachers" (Gillian Spraggs); and (13) "On the Straight and Narrow: The Heterosexual Presumption, Homophobias and Schools" (Debbie Epstein and Richard Johnson). 


Adams N, Cox T, Dunstan L (2004).I am the hate that dare not speak its name’: Dealing with homophobia in secondary schools. Educational Psychology in Practice, 20: 259–269. PDF Download.

Alderson KG, Orzeck TL, McEwen SC (2009). Alberta High School Counsellors’ Knowledge of homosexuality and Their Attitudes Toward Gay Males. Canadian Journal of Education, ,32(1): 87-117. PDF Download.

Allan, Christina (1999). Poets of Comrades: Addressing Sexual Orientation in the English Classroom. English Journal, July: 97-101. PDF Download.

Alloway N (2000). Just kidding? Sex-based harassment at school. New South Wales: PDF Download.

Almeida J, Johnson RM, Corliss HL, Molnar BE, Azrael D (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(7): 1001-14. Abstract. PDF Download.

Alvine, Lynne (1994). Understanding Adolescent Homophobia: An Interview with Bette Greene. The Alan Review, 20(2). Full Text.

The American College of Pediatricians (2008). Empowering Parents of Gender Discordant and Same-Sex Attracted Children. Full Text.

APA (American Psychological Association) Online. Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel. Full Text. Full Text.

Anderson JD (1994). School Climate for Gay and Lesbian Students and Staff  Members. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(2), 151-54. Full Text.

Andersson, Miranda (2007). Ung och gay - Informationsbehovet som ung och homo- eller bisexuell i komma-ut-processen [Young and gay - The need for information as young and gay or bisexual in the coming-out-process]. Master's Dissertation, Vid Institutionen Biblioteks - Och Informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan. PDF Download. Google Translation.

Armstrong M (1994). Creating a Positive Educational Environment for Gay and Lesbian Adolescents: Guidelines and Resources for Staff Development, Curriculum Integration, and School-Based Counseling Services. Master's Practicum Project, Heidelberg College. (The 46-page document is available from ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Box 40, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027. PDF Download. Abstract. PDF Download.

Barnard I (1993). Anti-homophobic pedagogy: Some suggestions for teachers. Feminist Teacher, 7, 3, 50-52. Full Text. (Excerpts)

Berlan ED, Corliss HL, Field AE, Goodman E, Austin SB (2010). Sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents in the growing up today study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(4): 366-71. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Bidell, Markus P (2011). School Counselors and Social Justice Advocacy for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Students. Journal of School Counseling, 9(10). PDF Download. Download Page.

Bird L (2004). A queer diversity: Teaching difference as interrupting intersections. The Canadian On-Line Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 1(1). PDF Download. Full Text.

Birden, Susan (2002). Teaching with "attitude": Coming to grips with the truths and consequences of ignoring sexual diversity in schools. Educational Foundations, 16(Fall). Full Text.

Bishop, Christa M (2010). How visible and integrated are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender families: A survey of school psychologists regarding school characteristics. PhD Disssertation, School Psychology, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. PDF Download. Download Page.

Blackburn MV, McCready LT (2009). Voices of Queer Youth in Urban Schools: Possibilities and Limitations. Theory Into Practice, 48(3): 222-230. PDF Download.

Blackwell, Louise (2008). Needs Assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered young people living in Flintshire. Flintshire, England: Flintshire Citizens Advice Bureaux. Word Download.

Blake SM, Ledsky R, Lehman T, Goodenow C, Sawyer R, Hack T (2001). Preventing sexual risk behaviors among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: the benefits of gay-sensitive HIV instruction in schools. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 940-6. Full TextFull Text.

Bland, Frederick J (2010). Assessing Michigan school counselors' preparedness to meet the needs of attractional/sexual minority students. PhD Dissertation, Western Michigan University. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Blumenfeld WJ (). Adolescence, Sexual Orientation & Identity: An Overview. Full Text.

Blumenfeld WJ, Cooper RM (2010). LGBT and Allied Youth Responses to Cyberbullying: Policy Implications. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3(1): 114-133. PDF Download.

Blumenfeld WJ, Lindop, L (2000). How to Start a Gay-Straight Alliance. PDF Download.

Blumenfeld WJ, Lindop L ()  Road Blocks and Responses in Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Issues: Responding to Resistance from Teachers, Administrators, Students and the Community.  Full Text.

Bochenek M, Brown AW (2001). Hatred in the Hallways: Violence and Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools. Full Text.

Bonauto ML (2008). The Legal Rights of Public Schoo; Students and Teachers in Massachusetts: A Focus on Sexual Orientation Discrimination and Free Speech in Massachusetts Elementary and Secondary Schools. Boston, MA: Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders. PDF Download.

Bontempo DE, D’Augelli AR (2002). Effects of at school victimization and sexual orientation on lesbian, gay, or bisexual youths’ health risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(5), 364-374. PubMed AbstractFull Text. Full Text.

Bortolin S, Adam BD, Brooke C, McCauley J (2011). Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth's Experiences of School Climate. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Windsor. PDF Download.

Bouchard P, Jean-Claude St-Amant J-C, Gagnon C (2000). Pratiques de masculinité à l’école québécoise. Revue canadienne de l’éducation/Canadian Journal of Education, 25(2): 73-87. PDF Download. Download Page. Google Translation.

Bower LA, Klecka CL (2009). Lesbian Mothers' Bids for Normalcy in Their Children's Schools. Educational Forum, 73(3): 230-239. Full Text.

Brautigam, Christel Katharina Ireme (2004). The Image of Homosexuality in Recent Novels for Young Adults. Master's Dissertation, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Bravener HL (2010). School Climate and Implications for LGBT Youth. PPT Presentation.

Breitenbach, Esther (2004). Researching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues in Northern Ireland. OFMDFM Equality Directorate. PDF Download.

Brickley, Lori (2001). Diversity and Learning: Ending the Silence--Starting a Gay/Straight Alliance. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA. Full Text. Download Page.

Bridge, Sally (2010). No place on the shelves? Are Northern Ireland’s school libraries addressing the information needs of their lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered students? Master's Dissertation, Department of Information Studies, Aberystwyth University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Bridgman, Becky L (2008). LGBTQ Course(s) in Public Education. Master's Dissertation, Division of Teacher of Education of the College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Health Services. PDF Download. Download Page.

Buckel DS (1998). Taking the Offensive in the Struggle against Anti-Gay Abuse in Public Schools: Improving School Policies and State Laws. A Landmark compendium of Model Policies and Laws. PDF Download. Download Page.

Burnett L (2003). We Don’t Have Any of THEM at Our School! Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Student, Teacher and Parent Invisibility and Issues. Australian Journal of Middle Schooling, 3(1). PDF Download.

Busch, Rebecca (2006). Wisconsin School Counselor Perceptions of Schol Climate Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Youth. Master of Science Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout. PDF Download.

Buston K, Hart G (2001). Heterosexism and homophobia in Scottish school sex education: exploring the nature of the problem. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 95-109. Full Text N/A. PubMed Abstract.

Byrd R, Hays DG (2012). School Counselor Competency and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth.  Journal of School Counseling, 10(3).  PDF Download. Download Page.

Cahill S, Cianciotto J (2003). Education Policy: Issues Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth. PDF DownloadHome Page.

Callahan, Connie J (2001). Protecting and Counseling Gay and Lesbian Students. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 40(1): 5-10. Word Download.

Callaghan, Tonya (2009). How Catholic Schools Dance Away From Their Obligations Regarding Sexual Diversity. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/ Revue canadienne des jeunes chercheures et chercheurs en education. 2(1). PDF Download.

Callaghan TD (2008). Matthew’s Catholic Closet: Narrative Inquiry as a Form of Qualitative Research. Paper presented at the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies (CACS) Congress, University of British Columbia. Word Download.

Callaghan TD (2007). Contra/Diction: How Catholic doublespeak in Canadian Catholic secondary schools furthers homophobia. The Canadian On-Line Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 3(1). PDF Download.

Camille, Lee (2002). The Impact of Belonging to a High School Gay/Straight Alliance. The High School Journal 85(3). Download Page. - Full text - PDF Download. (Subscription Needed). Alternate Link.

Cant B, Taket A (2008). Editorial Introduction: Special Section on Methodology and LGBT People. Sociological Research Online, 13(1). Full Text.

Cart Michael (1997). Honoring Their Stories, Too: Literature for Gay and Lesbian Teens. The Alan Review, 25(1). Full Text.

Carvalho, Kimberly (2006). Effects of a Gay-Straight Alliance on the perceived climate at a continuation high school. A Social Work 298 Special Project Presented to the Faculty of the College of Social Work San José State University. PDF Download.

Casper, Virginia et al. (1996). Toward a Most Thorough Understanding of the World: Sexual Orientation and Early Childhood Education. Harvard Educatioal Review, 66(2): 271-294. Full text.

Catlett C, Lesser LK (2007). Tools and Strategies for Including Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Diversity in Professional Development. PDF Download.

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (2007). Sexual minority students. Los Angeles, CA: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. PDF Download.

Chesler MA, and Zuniga X (1991). Dealing with Prejudice and Conflict in the Classroom: The Pink Triangle Exercise. Teaching Sociology, 19, 2, 173-81. Full text.

Chew, Cynthia Mei-Li (2008). “It’s stupid being a girl!” The Tomboy character in Selected Children’s Series Fiction. PhD. Dissertation, Murdoch University, Australia. PDF Download.

Cochran BN, Stewart AJ, Ginzler JA, Cauce AM (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5): 773-7.  PDF Download.

Clarke P, MacDougall B (2004). Crossing the Line: Homophobic Speech and Public School Teachers. Encounters on Education, 5(Fall): 125-140. PDF Download.

Clyde LA (2003). School libraries and social responsibility: support for special groups and issues - the case of homosexuality. Paper presented at the World Library and Information Congress: 69th IFLA General Conference and Council, Berlin, Germany. PDF Download.

Cooper-Nicols M, Bowleg L, de Mesquita PB (2007). Exploring the Experiences of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth in Schools: Lessons for School Psychologists. Paper presented at the NASP 2007 Annual Convention, New York, NY, March 27-31. Word Download N/A.

Corliss HL, Shankle MD, Moyer MB (2007). Research, Curricula, and Resources Related to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. American Journal of Public Health, 97(6): 1023-27. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Correa, Dierdra Marie (2009). Creating a socially supportive environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth through education, advocacy, and school-based support groups. Master's Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach. PDF Download.

Crew, Louis (1975). The Faggot in the Woodpile: Teaching Gay Students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the College English Assn. (6th, Atlanta, Georgia, April 10-12, 1975). Download Page. PDF.

Crothers L, Altman C (2007). Bullying of Sexually Diverse Children and Adolescents. NASP Communiqué, 35, #5. Full Text.

Crowhurst M (2009). More Conversations with Queer Young People To Be Read Aloud. Australia: Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd. PDF Download.

Crowhurst M (2005). 'I think I might be gay'. In: M. Pallotta-Chiarolli (ed.) When Our Children Come Out: How to Support Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Young People, Finch, New South Wales, Australia, pp. 153-157. PDF Download. Download Page.

Crowhurst, Michael (2001). Working Through Tension: A Response to the Concerns of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Secondary School Students. PhD Dissertation, Youth Research Centre, Department of Education Policy and Management, University of Melbourne. PDF Downloads (Download Page).

Crowhurst, M (1999). Are you gay/sir?: I'm not going to tell you: Towards a pedagogy of provocation. Paper presented at the AARE conference in 1999. Are You Gay/Sir? is meant to be read first and is forthcoming in 'Melbourne Studies in Education'. Full Text.

Crowhurst, M (1999). 'When We Treat Them All The Same We Don't': Snippets of Gay and Lesbian School Experience: The need for naming names in policy. Paper presented at the AARE conference in 1999. Full Text.

Crozier PW (2000). Forcing boys to be boys: The persecution o fgender non-conforming youth. Boston College Third World Law Journal, 21(1): 123-144. Full Text.

Culhane, John G (2011). A Population-Based, Public Health Approach to Bullying of LGBT Youth. Rutgers Law Record: The Internet Journal of Rutgers School of Law, 38. Download Page.

Cull M, Platzer H, Balloch S (2006). Out On My Own: Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth. Health and Social Policy Research Centre, Faculty of Health, School of Applied Social Science, University of Brighton. PDF Download.

Curry, Ann (2005). If I Ask, Will They Answer? Evaluating Public Library Reference Service to Gay/Lesbian Youth. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 45(1): 65-75. PDF Download. Download Page.

Cutler A, et al. (2010). The World of Sexual Minority Youth: Implications for Educational Professionals. Wayne State University. PDF Download.

Dalley-Trim L, Cook J (2009). The Call To Critique ‘Common Sense’ Understandings About Boys And Masculinity(Ies). Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1): 54-68. PDF.

Dame L (2004). Queer youth in care in Manitoba: An examination of their experiences through their voices. The Canadian Online Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 1(1). PDF Download. Full Text.

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Davis, Katherine (2010). Application of a Leadership Approach to Address Suicide among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. Florida Public Health Review, 7: 4-8. PDF Download.

Davison KG (2004). Texting Gender and Body as a Distant/ced Memory: An Autobiographical Account of Bodies, Masculinities, and Schooling. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 30(3): 129-149. PDF Download. Download Page.

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DeJean W (2007). Out Gay and Lesbian K-12 Educators: A Study in Radical Honesty. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 4(4): 59-72. PDF Download.

Denton, Mary Jean (2009). The lived experiences of lesbian/Gay/[bisexual/transgender] educational leaders. PhD. Dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Minnesota. PDF Download. Download Page.

DePalma R (2008). ‘No Outsiders’: Challenging homophobia and heteronormativity in UK primary schools. Paper presented at the ECER Conference: From Teaching to Learning? Full Text.

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Diaz, Elizabeth Maria (2010). Demographic differences in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth's participation in school-based gay-straight alliances in the United States. Master's Dissertation, George Washington University. Abstract & Download. - Note: "Black and Latino/a youth were less likely than White youth, and males were less likely than female or transgender youth to participate in their school's GSA. Findings highlight a need for further research examining barriers to GSA participation."

Diaz EM, Kosciw JG (2009). Shared Differences: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students of Color in Our Nation’s Schools. New York, NY: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Drake KA, Billington A, Ellis C (2003). Homophobic Bullying In Schools: Baseline Research, Northamptonshire. PDF Download.

Drummond M (2005). Men's bodies and the meaning of masculinity. Paper presented at the Ian Potter Museum of Art Masculinities Symposium Proceedings: Masculinities: Gender, Art and Popular Culture. PDF Download.

Dumas, Jacqueline (2008). The ESL Classroom and the Queerly Shifting Sands of Learner Identity. TESL Canada Jourbal, 26(1): 1-10. PDF Download.

Duncan, Neil (2006). Homophobia, misogyny and school bullying. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Warwick. Full text.

Dunne A (2006). Over-Conformists to Gender Norms: Anabolic Steroid Consumption among Adolescent Males. ACR (Association  for Consumer Research) Proceedings: Conference Presentation. PDF Download.

Eaton LE (2005). Constructing Rainbow Classrooms: Non-heterosexual Students Journey Toward Safer Schools. PhD. Dissertation. Educational Research, Leadership, and Policy Analysis, North Carolina State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Egale Canada. (2009). Youth speak up about homophobia and transphobia. PDF Download. Summary.

Elliott, Amy M (2006). Thinking Globally and Reading Diversely: Issues of Gay and Lesbian International Literature for Young Adults. Paper presented at the 28th Annual College of Communication and Information Research Symposium, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. PDF Download. Download Page.

Ellis V, High S (2004). Something More to Tell You: Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Young People's Experiences of Secondary Schooling. British Educational Research Journal, 30(2): 213-225. PDF Download.

Elsbree A, Fernández AE, Wong P (2004). It’s not so elementary: Practices to disrupt homophobia in teacher education courses. Multicultural Pavilion Education. Word Download.

Elze DE (2003). Risk factors for internalizing and externalizing problems among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. Social Work Research, 26(2): 89-100. PDF Download.

Epstein D (1997). Teaching Sexualities. Chapter extracted from Debbie Epstein and Richard Johnson (in press). Schooling Sexualities. Buckingham: Open University Press and given by Debbie Epstein as a paper at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Brisbane. Full text.

The Equality Authority, Ireland (2006). Making Your School Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students. PDF Download.

Erlandson C (2004). Inclusive Schools? Sharing the Stories of Gay and Lesbian Students. Perspectives, 4. PDF Download.

Espejo, Juan Cornejo Espejo (2011). “Coming out” en la escuela. Bagoas, 5(6): 49-68. PDF Download. Translation.

Espelage DL, Swearer SM (2008). Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection Between Homophobia and Bullying. School Psychology Review, 37(2): 155-159. PDF Download.

Espelage DL,  Aragon SR, Birkett M, Koenig BW (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37(2): 202-216. PDF Download. PDF Download. Full text.

Estrada R, Marksamer J (2006). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Young People in State Custody: making the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems Safe for All Youth through Litigation, Advocacy and Education. The Temple Law Review, 79(2): 425-428. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Evans L, Davies K (2000). No sissy boys here: A content analysis of the representation of masculinity in Elementary School Reading Textbooks. Sex Roles. 41(3/4): 255-270. PDF Download.

Fetner T,  Kush K (2008). Gay-Straight Alliances in High Schools: Social Predictors of Early Adoption. Youth & Society, 40(1): 114-130. PDF Download.

Fifield Steve (2004). Mr. Swain is Gay’: Problems and Prospects of Teachers as Sexual Strangers. Paper presented at the LGBTQ Lecture Series, University of Delaware, Newark, DE. PDF Download.

Fifield Steve (2004). Getting to know you?: LGBT teachers and the epistemological prospects of coming out versus being a sexual stranger. Paper presented at the Centre for Research into Professional Practice, Learning, and Education, Charles Sturt University. PDF Download.

Fisher, ES, Komosa-Hawkins K, et al. (2008). Promoting School Success for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning Students: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention and Intervention Strategies. The California School Psychologist. Full text. Full text.

Flood M, Hamilton C (2005). Mapping Homophobia in Australia. Australia Institute Webpaper. PDF Download.

Fong, Sabrina (2010). Homophobic bullying and safety for queer youth in high school, a retrospective study. Masters' Dissertation, Social Work, California State University Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.

Ford T (2004). Queering education from the ground up: Challenges and opportunities for Educators. Canadian Online Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 1(1). PDF Download. Full text.

Forsman DH, Simonet L (2003). Understanding the GLBTQ Diversity in the Classroom. Hamline University. PDF Download.

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Foster D (2007). Considerations for Educators: Not everyone knows what Barb is, do they Mom? Health Leaning, 3. PDF Download.

Fournier B, Marcoux A (1997). Demystifying Homosexuality in Schools in the Chaudière-Appalachia Region: An Aid to Intervention. Public Health Office of Planning and Evaluation Chaudière-Appalachia Region. PDF Download

Flowers P, Buston K (2001). "I was terrified of being different": exploring gay men's accounts of growing-up in a heterosexist society. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 51-65. Full Text N/A, PubMed Abstract.

Frank B, Davison K (2006). Editorial – Boys, Men, Masculinities and Education. The McGill Journal of Education, 41(2): 105-107. PDF Download. Download Page.

Frank II DA, Cannon EP (2009). Creative Approaches to Serving LGBTQ Youth in Schools. Journal of School Counseling, 7(35): 1-25. PDF Download. PDF Download.

French J (2009). Support of marginalized students in science: An examination of successful lesbian individuals in science career paths. PhD. Dissertation, College of Education and Human Ecology, Ohio State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Garcia  MRV (2009). Homofobia e heterossexismo nas escolas: discussão da produção científica no Brasil e no mundo. In: IX Congresso Nacional de Psicologia Escolar, 2009, São Paulo. Anais do IX Congresso Nacional de Psicologia Escolar e Educacional, 2009.  PDF Download. Google Translation.

Gardner CA (2006). Welcoming Our GLBT Patrons. Virginia Libraries, 52(2). Full Text.

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). What You Can Do: Ideas and Resources for Educators Working to End Homophobia in Schools. Full Text.

Gibbons M, O’Shea K (2006). More Than a Phase: A resource guide for the inclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender learners: Understanding the Issues. Ireland: Pobal. PDF Download.

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GIRES: Gender Identity Research and Education Society (2008). Guidance on Combating Transphobic Bullying in Schools. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

GLEN (2009, Ireland). Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Students in Post-Primary Schools; Guidance for Principals and School Leaders. PDF Download.

Glimps BJ (2005). Students Who are Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, or Transgender. Current Issues in Education,  8(16). Full Text.

GLSEN and Harris Interactive (2008)The Principal's Perspective: School Safety, Bullying and Harassment. A Survey of Public School Principals. Commissioned by GLSEN in collaboration with NASSP. New York: GLSEN. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Glynn, Warrick (1999). Non-hegemonic masculinities and sexualities in the secondary school: construction and regulation within a culture of heteronormativity. Masters dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Melbourne. PDF Download.

Gobby, Brad (2006). Captured becomings: An assemblage of sexual difference, neoliberal capitalism and bodies in the boys‘ education debate. Master's Dissertation, Education, Murdoch University, Australia. PDF Download.

Goldstein T (2004). Performed ethnography for anti-homophobia teacher education: Linking research to teaching. The Canadian On-Line Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 1(1). PDF Download. Full text.

Goldstein T, Russell V, Daley A (2007). Safe, Positive and Queering Moments in Teaching education and Schooling: A conceptual framework. Teaching Education, 18)3): 183-199. PDF Download.

Goodrich KM, Luke M (2010). Handout A: What Youth Say About Counselors Straight Talk About Counseling LGBT Youth. American Counseling Association 2010, Pittsburgh, PA. PDF Download.

Gopal S, Mesibov LL (2003). Liability for Peer Harassment of Gay Students. School Law Bulletin, Fall, 2003: 16-29. PDF Download.

Gordon, Lenore (1997). What do we say when we hear 'faggot'? New Moon Network, 4(4): 6-7. Reference. In: Rethinking Our Classrooms, Volume 1. In: Equity in schools and society - 2000 - edited by  Judy M. Iseke-Barnes, Njoki Nathani Wane (Google Books). PDF Download. PDF Download.

Gosse, Douglas (2009). Race, Sexual Orientation, Culture and Male Teacher Role Models: Will Any Teacher Do As Long As They Are Good? Conference proceedings at EDGE Conference, St. John’s, NL.  PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Gosse D (2005). My Arts-Informed Narrative Inquiry into Homophobia in Elementary Schools as a Supply Teacher. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 6(7): 1-19. PDF Download. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Gosse D (2004). Foundational Tenets and Challenges in Conceptualizing a Queer Curriculum Model. Inter-Cultural Studies, 4(1): 32-41. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Grace A P (2007). In your care: School administrators and their ethical and professional responsibility toward students across sexual-minority differences. In W. Smale & K. Young (Eds.), Approaches to educational leadership and practice: 16-40. PDF Download.

Gosse D, Parr M, Allison J (2007). You’re Out! Calling for debate on male primary school teacher candidates. The Canadian On-Line Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 3(1). PDF Download Full Text.

Grace, André P (2009). Resilient sexual-minority youth as fugitive lifelong learners: engaging in a strategic, asset-creating, community-based learning process to counter exclusion and trauma in formal schooling. University of Alberta. PDF Download.

Grace AP, Wells K (2005). The Marc Hall Prom Predicament: Queer Individual Rights v. Institutional Church Rights in Canadian Public Education. Canadian Jourbal of Education, 28(3): 237-270. PDF Download.

Graybill E, Morillas C (2009). School climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trandgender youth: An overview of the literature. Center for School Safety, School Climate, and Classroom Management, Georgia State University. PDF Download.

Greytak EA, Kosciw JG, Diaz EM (2009)Harsh Realities: The Experiences of Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. A Report from the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Griffin P, Ouellett ML (2002). Going Beyond Gay-Straight Alliances to Make Schools Safe for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students. Angles: The Policy Journal of The Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies, 6(1). PDF Download. PDF Download.

Grossman AH, D'Augelli AR (2004). Socialization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: Celebrity and personally known role models. In E. Kennedy & A. Thornton (Eds.), Leisure, media, and visual culture: Representations and contestations (pp. 83-105). Eastbourne, UK: Leisure Studies Association Publications. PDF Download.

Gruber JE,  Fineran S (2008). Comparing the Impact of Bullying and Sexual Harassment Victimization on the Mental and Physical Health of Adolescents. Sex Roles, 59(1/2): 1-13. PDF Download.

Guasp A (2009). Homophobic bullying in Britain’s schools: The Teachers' Report. UK: Stonewall (School Documents). School's Out Documents. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Guidotto N (2005). Sharing scars, healing ourselves: Theory in praxis. Canadian Online Journal for Queer Studies in Education, 3(1). PDF Download.

Hackney S, Hiller L (2005). WayOut: Central Victorian Youth & Sexual Diversity Project, Final written report to accompany video report. Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society. PDF Download.

Hall HR (2006). Teach to Reach: Addressing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Issues in the Classroom. The New Educator, 2: 149–157. PDF Download.

Hall, Will (2007). Harassment, Bullying, and Discrimination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Legal Issues for North Carolina Schools. Lumberton,, North Carolina: Safe Schools NC. PDF Download.

Harris N, Dyson MR (2004). Safe Rules or Gays' Schools? The Dilemma of Sexual Orientation Segregation in Public Education. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, 7(11): 183-218. PDF Download.

Hayn J, Hazlett L (2008). Connecting LGBTQ to Others through Problem Novels: When a LGBTQ Is NOT the Main Character. ALAN Review, 36 (1): 68-72. Full Text.

Healey, Norma M (2004). Is curriculum in the closet? Instructors' perceptions about gay and lesbian content in Alberta university gender courses.  Master's Dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Lethbridge. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hein, Laura C (2010). Where Did You Sleep Last Night? Homeless Male Adolescents: Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Heterosexual Compared. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Resarch, 10(1). Full Text.

Hellen, Mark (2009). Transgendered Children in schools. Liminalis. PDF Download.

Higdon Michael J (2011). To Lynch a Child: Bullying and Gender Nonconformity in our Nation's Schools. Indiana Law Journal, 86(3): 826-878. PDF Download.

Higdon MJ (2008). Queer Teens and Legislative Bullies: The Cruel and Invidious Discrimination Behind Heterosexist Statutory Rape Laws. 42 U.C. Davis Law Review, 195. PDF Download.

Hill C, Kearl H (2011). Crossing The Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women (AAUW). Full Text.

Hillier, Lynne (2007). "This group gave me a family": An evaluation of the impact of social support groups on the health and well being of same sex attracted young people. Australian Research Centre in Sex Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne. PDF Download.

Hillier L, Harrison L (2004). Homophobia and the production of shame: young people and same sex attraction. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 6(1): 79-94. Draft: PDF Download.

Hillier L, Horsley P, Kurdas C (2005). ‘It made me feel braver, I was no longer alone’: The Internet and same sex attracted young people. PDF Download.

Hillier L, Turner A, Mitchell A (2005). Writing themselves in again: 6 years on - The 2nd national report on the sexual health & well-being of same sex attracted young people in Australia. Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society (ARCSHS), La Trobe University, Melbourne. PDF Download.

Hillier L, et al. (1998). Writing Themselves In: A National Report on the Sexuality, Health and Well-Being of Same-Sex Attracted Young People. National Centre in HIV Social Research. Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Himmelstein KE, Brückner H (2011). Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: a national longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 127(1): 49-57. Abstract. PDF Download.

Hirsch AJ, Carlson JS, Crowl AL (2010). Promoting Positive Developmental Outcomes in Sexual Minority Youth Through Best Practices in Clinic-School Consultation. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(1): 17-22. Abstract. Full Text.

Hoffman, Jennifer D (2001). Teachers' perceptions on including gay and lesbian issues in the classroom. Master's Dissertation, University of Wisconsin. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hohnke M, O'Brien P (2008). Discrimination Against Same Sex Attracted Youth: The Role of the School Counsellor. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 18(1): 67-75. Author's Draft. Free Access. PDF Download.

Hooker, Steven Dale (2010). Closeted or Out? Gay and Lesbian Educators Reveal Their Experiences about Their Sexual Identities in K-12 Schools. EdD Dissertation, University of Cincinnati. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hunt R, Jensen J (2007). The School Report: The experiences of young gay people in Britain's schools. UK: Stonewall. PDF Download.

Hunter, Lisa (2006). Curriculum, schooling, research, young people and sexualities in Australia. Redress: 5-9. Note: This article is a collation of two entries by the same author in Sears, J. T. (Ed.) (2005). Youth, education, and sexualities (Vol. 1: A-J). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. The editor has given permission for these entries to be reproduced in a slightly different form for Redress. PDF Download.

The Illinois Safe Schools Alliance (2008). You have the right to be yourself. A Resource for LGBT Youth and Allies in Illinois Schools. Chicago: The Illinois Safe Schools Alliance. PDF Download.

Jamil OB, Harper GW, Fernandez MI; Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (2009). Sexual and ethnic identity development among gay-bisexual-questioning (GBQ) male ethnic minority adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 15(3): 203-14. PDF Download. Abstract.

Jennett M (2009). Practical Strategies for Addressing Homophobia and Issues of Sexual Identity Within Schools. In: NASUWT, Boys to Men: Teaching and learning masculinities in schools and colleges. UK: NASUWT: National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers. PDF Download. Word Download

Jennings K (1999). Silence Is the Voice of Complicity Addressing Homophobia in Schools. Independent School, 58(2): 54-59. Full Text.

Johnson, Dominique (2007). ‘This Is Political!’ Negotiating the Legacies of the First School-Based Gay Youth Group. Children, Youth and Environments. 17(2): 380-387. PDF Download. Free Registration. Google Cache.

Kehler M,  Martino W (2007). Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools. Canadian Journal of Education, 30(1): 90-112. PDF Download.

Kemp JM, Chan AW (2006). “Homo” Hallways: The Prevalence of Homophobic Language in North Carolina Secondary Schools. Explorations, 2006. PDF Download. Download Page: See "Archives".

Kendall C, Sidebotham N (2004). Homophobic Bullying in Schools: Is there a Duty of Care? Australia & New Zealand Journal of Law & Education, 9(1): 71-93. PDF Download.

Kennedy, Natacha (2008). Transgendered Children in Schools: a critical review of Homophobic Bullying: safe to learn - embedding anti-bullying work in schools. FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, 50(3). Full Text.

Kim, Robert (2009). A Report on the Status of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender People in Education: Stepping Out of the Closet, into the Light. Washington, DC: National Education Association. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Kim R, et al. (2006).Strengthening the Learning Environment: A School Employee’s Guide to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, & Transgender Issues, 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: National Education Association of the United States. PDF Download.

Kimmel MS (2005). Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity. In: MS Kimmel, Ed., The gender of desire: essays on male sexuality. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. Google Books. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Kimmel, Michael (2002). Toward a pedagogy of the oppressor. Tikkun, November/December. Full Text.

Kimmel MD, Mahler M (2003). Adolescent masculinity, homophobia, and violence: Random school shootings, 1982-2001. The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(10): 1439-1458. PDF Download. PDF Download.

King KA (2008). Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth Matter! Equity Alliance. PDF Download.

Kiyak SE (2004). Teacher Management o Homophobia and Homosexuality in High Schools. Master's Dissertation, Rowan University. PDF Download.

Knight, Calvin (2000). The Triangle Program: Experiences of Lesbian, Bisexual and Gay Students in the Classroom. Master's Dissertation, Ontario lnstitute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. PDF Download.

Koehler. Elizabeth M (2011). The School Library Can Do More to Counteract Homophobia. Master's Dissertation, School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PDF Download.

Komosa‐Hawkins K. Fisher ES (2009). Promoting school success for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning students: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and intervention strategies. Paper presented at the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Annual Convention, Boston, MA. Full Text.

Kosciw, JG (2005). The 2005 National School Climate Survey: The School-Related Experiences of Our Nation’s Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth.  GLSEN. PDF Download. Executive Summary: PDF Download.

Kosciw JG, Diaz EM (2008). Involved, Invisible, ignored: the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents and their children in our natin's K-12 schools. A report from the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, in partnership woth Collage and The Family Equality Council. PDF Download.  PDF Download.

Kosciw, JG (2003). The 2003 National School Climate Survey: The School-Related Experiences of Our Nation’s Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth.  GLSEN. PDF Download.

Krywanczyk, Loren (2007). Queering public school pedagogy as a first-year teacher. Radical Teacher, 79, 27-34.  Full Text. Full Text.

Kuban, Kaila Gabrielle (2010). That Which Is Not What It Seems: Queer Youth, Rurality, Class and the Architecture of Assistance. PhD Dissertation, Anthropology, University of Massachusetts - Amherst. PDF Download. Download Page.

Lambda Legal & Child Welfare League of America. (2006). Getting down to basics: Tools to support LGBTQ youth in care. New York, NY, and Washington, DC: Authors. Full Text.

Lambda Legal Defence and Education Fund. Stopping Anti-Gay Abuse of Students in Public Schools: A Legal Perspective.  PDF Download.

Lanzon P, Delasko S, Mangus L, Wandle D, Pohlmann J (2007). LGBTQ Youth Social Issues and Their Implications for School Professionals. Wayne State University. Word Download.

Lassera J, Tharingerb D (2003). Visibility management in school and beyond: A qualitative study of gay, lesbian, bisexual youth. Journal of Adolescence, 26: 233–244. PDF Download.

Laver, Mimi (2007). Exploring Attitudes about LGBTQ Youth in Foster Care. Child Law Practice, 26(7): 101-107. PDF Download.

Lawrie A (2002). Homophobia Kills: The Role of Secondary Schools in the Prevention of Suicide Among Queer Youth. National Youth Roundtable. PDF Download.

Lecky, Duane Joseph (2009). Out of the Classroom Closet: Why Only Some Gay and Lesbian Teachers Are Out. Master's Dissertation, Department of Educational Psychology and Leadership Studies, University of Victoria. PDF Download. Download Page.

Lee JR (2000). Teenage boys' perceptions of the influence of teachers and school experiences on their understanding of masculinity. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, University of Sydney. Full Text.

Lee JR (2000). Teenage boys' perceptions of the influence of teachers and school experiences on their understanding of masculinity. PhD. Dissertation,  School of Religious Education, Faculty of Education, Australian Catholic University. PDF Download.

Mabitla, Makwetle Aubrey (2006). Causes and manifestation of aggression among secondary school learners. Master's dissertation, Education, University of South Africa. PDF Download. Download Page.

Mac an Ghaill M (2000). The Cultural Production of English Masculinities in Late Modernity. Revue canadienne de l’éducation/Canadian Journal of Education, 25(2): 88-101. PDF Download. Download Page.

Macintosh, Lori B (2004). Queering the body’(s) politic? : GSAs, citizenship and education. Master's Dissertation, Educational Studies, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Mac Manus E (2004). The school-based lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Master of Science Dissertation. University College Dublin, Ireland. Word Download.

Madison, Dale Guy (2010). How Can the Use of Arts Education Make an Impact on the LGBT Youth who are at Risk. Master's Dissertation, Education, Antioch University, Los Angeles. PDF Download. Download Page. Author Articles.

Mahaffey, Cynthia Jo (2004). Wearing the Rainbow Triangle: The Effect of Out Lesbian Teachers and Lesbian Teacher Subjectivities on Student Choice of Topics, Student Writing, and Student Subject Positions in the First-Year Composition Classroom. PhD. Dissertation, English/Rhetoric and Writing, Bowling Green State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Marksamer, Jody (2005). Testimony concerning the sexual victimization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth in juvenile justice and adult correctional institutions. National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. PDF Download.

Martino W (2005). Issues in boys’ education: encouraging broader definitions of masculinity in schools. Curricukum Leadership, 3(33). Full text.

Martino W (2000). Mucking Around in Class, Giving Crap, and Acting Cool: Adolescent Boys Enacting Masculinities at School. Revue canadienne de l’éducation/Canadian Journal of Education, 25(2): 102-112. PDF Download. Download Page.

Martino, Wayne (1997). Policing Sex/Gender Boundaries: Addressing Homophobia in Schools. Paper Presented as part of the Symposium, Sexualities and the Intellectual Work of Gender Reform, at the AARE Annual Conference,Brisbane. Full text.

Martino W, Kehler M (2006). Male Teachers and the 'Boy Problem': An Issue of Recuperative Masculinity Politics. McGill Journal of Education 41 (2): 113-131. PDF Download. Full Text.

Mayo, Cruis (2007). Chapter 3 - Queering Foundations: Queer and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Educational Research. Review of Research in Education, 31(1): 78-94. Full Text.

Mayo, James B Jr (2005). Negotiating Curricular Boundaries And Sexual Orientation: The Lived Experiences Of Gay Secondary Teachers In West Central Florida. PhD. Dissertation, Department of Secondary Education, College of Education, University of South Florida. PDF Download. Abstract.

McClain, Ruth (2004). To Teach the Truth. WILLA, 13(Fall): 17-23. PDF Download. Full Text.

McCormack, Mark (2012). Queer Masculinities, Gender Conformity, and the Secondary School. Queer Masculinities, Chapter 3. Word Download. Abstract.

McDowell, Carmen D (2002). The Prevalence, Characteristics, and Typology of Washington State School District Policies on Bullying, Harassment, and Discrimination. Written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Nonprofit Management At Regis University. PDF Download.

McGregor, Catherine (2008). Norming and <re>forming: challenging heteronormativity in educational policy discourses. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, #82, September 18. Full text.

McIntyre, Elizabeth (2007). The Silence: Barriers and facilitators to inclusion of lesbian and gay pupils in Scottish schools. PhD Dissetation,  Educational Psychology, School of Education,  University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. Word Download.

McIntyre, Elizabeth (2008-2010). Teacher discourse on lesbian gay and bisexual pupils in Scottish schools. The Silence. Unpublished paper containing excerpts from a dissertation accepted as part of a Doctoral Award in Educational Psychology, University of Newcastle, 2007. Word Download.

Mehra B, Braquet D (2006). A "Queer" Manifesto of Interventions for Libraries to "Come Out" of the Closet! A Study of "Queer" Youth Experiences during the Coming Out Process. LIBRES, 16(1). PDF Download.

Meiners, Erica R (2011). A Queer Time and Place: Analysis and Intervention in the School to Prison Nexus. PowerPlay, 3(1): 71-86. PDF Download.

Melillo SM (2003). Heteronormativity and Teaching: A Phenomenological Study of Lesbian Teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, Chicago, IL. PDF Download.

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Woods, Jordan Blair (2010). Gay-Straight Alliances and Sanctioning Pretextual Discrimination Under the Equal Access Act. New York University Review of Law & Social Change, 34: 373-423. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Woronoff R, Estrada R, Sommer S (2006). Out of the Margins: A Report on Regional Listening Forums Highlighting the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth in Care. Washington DC, New Yorn, NY: CWLA, Inc. and Lambda Legal, Inc. PDF Download.

Wu KK, Leung EY, Leung AY (2008). A survey on Same-Sex Attraction in Secondary School Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, 18: 15-22. PDF Download.

Wyatt TJ, Oswalt SB, White C, Peterson FL (2008). Are Tomorrow’s Teachers Ready To Deal with Diverse Students? Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(2): 171-185. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Wynne, Nora (2008). An Analysis of Student Teacher Preparation in Relation to Homophobia. Master's Dissertaton, Education, Humboldt State University. PDF Download.

Wyss, Shannon E (2004). ‘This was my hell’: the violence experienced by gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(5): 709-730. PDF Download.

Young AL, Youth Contributors (2011). Queer Youth Advice for Educators: How to Respect and Protect Your Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students. Next Generation Press. What Kids Can Do, Inc. PDF Download.

Youth Leadership and Action Program of COLAGE (Children Of Lesbians and Gays Everywhere, 2003). Tips for Making Classrooms Safer for Students with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Parents. PDF Download. Full Text.

Zacher, Elizabeth Jean (2009). School counselor perspectives on bullying behavior in urban middle school settings. MSW Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF Download. Download Page.

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