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Homophobia / Homonegativity and
Its Manifestations

Page Index: - Some Highlights. - General Information. - Abstracts. - Internet Resources. Videos. - Bibliographies. - Books. - Full Text Papers.

To "The SEARCH Section" For...

The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

 'Tell Your Faggot Friend He Owes Me $500 for My Broken Hand' (2009)
"The title of this Article is taken from the actual words of the murderer of a young Gay man, Sean Kennedy, spoken to one of Kennedy’s friends, only minutes after the murder."

Life Interrupted (YouTube Video)
Justice for LGBT Youth (2004). - California Needs to Fight Gender Bullying (2011).

Hate crimes against LGBTQ people are a public health issue (2016)

The cubicle and the closet: Almost half of LGBT workers are not out at work, survey says (2011).

Get That Freak: Homophobia and Transphobia in High Schools - 2011 - by Rebecca Haskell, Brian Burtch
 (Excerpt) (Review)
(Review) (Author Interview: Rebecca Haskell) (Radio Interview: Brian Burtch)
(Global TV News Interview With Authors) (City TV Interview with Rebecca Haskell).
Police receive training on homophobic violence (2011): Program focuses on strengthening ties with gay community.
LUCA L'évangile d'un homo - Le Café de la Peste (2011, Video).

Powerful Irish Anti-Gay Bullying Ad (2011, Video).
   8 suspects in N.Y. anti-gay attack face arraignment (2010).  NYC gang members charged in anti-gay attack (2010).
La ville de New York en proie à une recrudescence des attaques anti-gays (2010).
New UN President Says Being Gay 'Not Acceptable' (2009). -
Connie Schultz: How we’ve taught our kids to hate (2010).\

Rugby League players unveil landmark anti-homophobia kit (2011).

Jeune et homo sous le regard des autres : un outil de lutte contre l’homophobie et prévention du suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels (Videos, 2010, Translation).

 The Global Divide on Homosexuality: Greater Acceptance in More Secular and Affluent Countries (2013):
The survey of publics in 39 countries finds broad acceptance of homosexuality in North America, the European Union, and much of Latin America, but equally widespread rejection in predominantly Muslim nations and in Africa, as well as in parts of Asia and in Russia. Opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality is divided in Israel, Poland and Bolivia.

- America's Designated Victims: Our Creative Young - 

by Bette Greene (Link), author of The Drowning of Stephan Jones (Google Books).

Although much of this force is generated by the fear of homosexuality, it isn't at all necessary to be homosexual to be persecuted as one of America's "designated victims." A designated victim is a boy, usually slender, usually thoughtful, who would prefer creating beauty to crushing bones. Because they might enjoy gymnastics, fencing, acting, writing, or band practice rather than football practice, these boys are called "faggots" and that's just for openers... Ted Fabiano, a young English teacher from Kansas City, flatly stated that homophobia affected everyone in his school. He broke it down: most obviously are those "designated victims," some gay, most not..." 
Homophobia Kills reveals chronicle of hate (2008).

ChildLine Case Notes ((PDF Download, PDF Download)
An estimated 2,725 young people call ChildLine each year to talk about sexual orientation, homophobia or homophobic bullying... The most common problem cited by this group of young people was homophobic ullying. Fear of telling parents (or problems after telling them) was also a significant source of concern. Some young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people reported being triply isolated, with schools, friends and families all being unsupportive at best or overtly homophobic at worst.

Violence Against Gays Unabated: Australia, 2003 - Violence against LGBT people (Wikipedia).

Rise In Gay Hate On Eve Of Amsterdam Pride - 2004 (Alternate Link):
"A report on hate crimes against gays and lesbians, released on the eve of Pride celebrations in Amsterdam, shows a marked increase in homophobic crime."

FBI data shows spike in hate crimes against gays, religious groups in 2008.
FBI data: Hate crimes against LGBT people on the rise (2012)

Violence Against Gay People Can - And Must - "Be Stopped (2009):

In London, recorded homophobic attacks are up by 20 per cent. In Glasgow it's 32 per cent; in Liverpool it's 40 per cent; in Greater Manchester it's 63 per cent. James Parks is only the latest face to be kicked in by this trend: last week, the off-duty police officer left a club in Liverpool with his boyfriend and was lynched by a group of 20 teenagers who smashed his skull and left him close to death..."

Is gay bashing on the rise? (UK, 2009): Just as gay and lesbian people are starting to enjoy equal rights, the number of attacks against them seems to be rising. Why?

In a Progressive State, a City Where Gay Life Hangs by a Thread (2007):

To live in Newark often means grappling with unrelenting poverty, the anesthetizing lure of drugs, murderous gangs, a lack of decent jobs. But for gay men, lesbians and transgender people, there are additional obstacles that are seldom acknowledged: gay bashings, H.I.V., open hostility from many religious leaders and sometimes callous treatment by the police.

Gay Suicide (Police responsible? Just watch the bloody video!):

Devon & Cornwall Constabulary, Cornwall Police Authority & the Independent Police Complaints Commission may well (and DO in my experience) turn a blind eye to the abuses, violations & intimidation as are carried out by Cornwall police officers AGAINST LGBT gay persons, but we DON'T! The Intercom Trust, Cornwall Pride, Cornwall LGBT Pact exclude & ostracise those gay people who have been abused & violated by Cornwall police. These so-called gay organisations might have wet their knickers in excitement, simpering & fawning because Cornwall police flew a multicoloured rag from a police station ...whilst in reality, Cornwall Police just keep on homophobically abusing gay people.Cornwall Police...They KILL gay people...don't they?

New Book Details Increase in Antigay
Violence Worldwide (2004)
Gays Seeking Asylum Find Familiar
Prejudices in U. S. (2001)

Release of 2003 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light
on the Experiences of LGBT Students in America’s Schools:

"At the same time, more than 4 out of 5 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students report being verbally, sexually or physically harassed at school because of their sexual orientation. “This year’s findings clearly demonstrate that despite modest measurable gains, violence, bias and harassment of LGBT students continues to be the rule, not the exception, in America’s schools,” said GLSEN Executive Director Kevin Jennings. “This research reveals what must be inherent to so many educators and parents: harassment has a negative impact on LGBT students’ academic performance and college ambitions. To ignore these numbers is an irresponsible message to all students that any promise of equal access to education remains forged and fictitious.”

The 2005 National School Climate Survey

75.4% of students heard derogatory remarks such as "faggot" or "dyke" frequently or often at school, and nearly nine out of ten (89.2%) reported hearing "that's so gay" or "you're so gay" - meaning stupid or worthless- frequently or often. Over a third (37.8%) of students experienced physical harassment at school on the basis of sexual orientation and more than a quarter (26.1%) on the basis of their gender expression. Nearly one-fifth (17.6%) of students had been physically assaulted because of their sexual orientation and over a tenth (11.8%) because of their gender expression. 

Think Before You Speak- Homophobia in High Schools (Video)

What do you say to "That's so Gay!" (2010)
The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief.

2007 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Harassed.

Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january, How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
It Gets Better Project. - Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Intolerance in Dutch schools (2003)

"Sometimes people spat on me, hit me or just plain abused me. It wasn't really rough. It wasn't like I was totally beaten up and landed in hospital. They were keeping it cool, so to speak." You wouldn't expect this gay man to be describing experiences in the ‘liberal' Netherlands, but he was, and his story isn't very different from that of many other homosexuals in Dutch schools. COC, a Dutch voluntary organisation whose aim is to integrate homosexuality into society, has been warning that there is a growing intolerance towards gays and lesbians in the country for some time, and when teachers' concerns about the changing climate in schools started growing, the COC decided to do some research. This story was featured in Dutch Horizons. Click to hear the programme in full..." (Related Information). - The shadow of homophobia darkens Amsterdam’s pink paradise (2005).

Love the Sin: Sexual Regulation and the Limits of Sexual Tolerance - 2003 - by Janet R. Jakobsen and Ann Pellegrini (Google Books): "In chapter 2, "What's Wrong with Tolerance," the authors offer arguments describing the practical limitations of currently popular homosexual tolerance rhetoric to truly establish freedom. Here they point out how tolerance rhetoric actually sets up a counterproductive "us versus them" mentality, wherein "we" tolerate "them," and where hate actually thrives. Jakobsen and Pellegrini trace how homosexuality is represented and talked about in public venues, and how the logic of tolerance actually restricts and shapes conversations and policies toward homosexuality. The authors note that the problem with being the object of tolerance is a lack of lull inclusion in American life, and that even though tolerance may be generous and open-minded, it is also by definition exclusionary and therefore cannot act effectively to eradicate hatred..."

Every 3rd day the murder of a trans person is reported. Preliminary results of a new Trans Murder Monitoring Project show more than 200 reported cases of murdered trans people from January 2008 to June 2009 (PDF Download). - Until We Accept Our Sissies, Gays Will Never Be Free (2007). - The Advocate Owes Sissies an Apology (2008). - Sissy = coward?

Queer fears and gay examples  (1987)
"Gay men are usually seen as a race apart. They are victimized and vilified, the butts of both humour and violence. Yet if we are looking for the men who  have done the most creative thinking about masculinity we should go to their door. Gary Dowsett begins our education..."

 Homophobia isn’t just a gay issue (2008):
Homophobic attacks are not restricted to LGBT people - how could they be, most homophobes have no idea who you or I love. Random homophobic abuse and attacks tend to target people who "look gay" or "act gay".

L’homophobie frappe les hétéros ! (2009, Translation):
Les deux tiers des jeunes collégiens victimes d’incidents homophobes se définissent comme hétérosexuels. [Two-Thirds of high school students subjected to homophobic abuses in Quebec are heterosexual identified but are deemed to be "different"]. Information from: Journal L'UQAM (March, 2009).

Montreal university creates homophobia research grant (2011).

The Politics of Biology by Shivanda Khan (PDF). Defining terms used in working with male-to-male sex:
"Self-masturbating is a same-sex behaviour. It is a ‘manly’ hand holding the penis, no matter what the surface imagination relates."
"Such an approach generates homophobia. Where untoward desires creep into our self-awareness, we can but deny them forcefully since we are not 'that', but 'this'. We have to scourge out this opposite [homosexuality]."

Visual Definition of a Male Masturbating: (Likely the most engaged-in sexual behavior of males in western countries):
'A male having sex with a male who happens to be himself'

Straight or gay, we're all just acting. - Homophobia Quiz.

 Another Murder of A Black, Gay English Professor (2010). - Homophobia, classism, the politics of rape. Related.

The Erotic Theater of the Mind: Secret Sexual Fantasies (2010):
"Even, perhaps especially, the outwardly homophobic male has gay fantasies. Why do you think a guy like that is so scared of gays “converting” straight men?  Because in his fantasies, that’s exactly what happens: a hugely endowed male dominates him, forcing him to have sex—usually giving oral or taking anal--and he likes it, at least in fantasy (again, this doesn’t necessarily mean he’s truly gay).  Masters & Johnson reported that heterosexuals often fantasize about homosexual encounters and vice versa, more often reflecting curiosity and other impulses than the desire to change the gender of one's real-life lovers. Norman Mailer went so far as to say that “There is probably no sensitive heterosexual alive who is not preoccupied with his latent homosexuality.”  I would add “at some point in his life,”  since such desires come and go. Our society tends to make things black or white, good or bad, male or female, heterosexual or homosexual. But the human sexual imagination is most definitely bisexual, even what you might call omnisexual...

Arthur Dong: "Anger is what pushes me forward" (Alternate Link): "I was asked by a student at a recent presentation of my films: "What keeps you going after all these years?" My answer: "Anger. Anger that the world is an unfair place. Anger that after over 25 years I still need to make films that attack social injustices. And most of all, anger that any sexuality other than heterosexuality is condemned equally by all sectors of our society, regardless of race, religion, nationality, class or gender. My films are my weapon, it's what I know best... It was no surprise, then, that incidents of anti-gay violence saw a dramatic increase across the nation immediately after the military controversy, and continue to escalate as I write this essay. As for myself, my first of two gay-bashing experiences occurred in 1977. My initial thought was, "Why me?" This quickly grew into the larger question: "Why does this happen at all?" It took me 20 years to find a way to explore this inquiry: I would go to prisons and visit killers who have been convicted of murdering gay men. I would ask them directly: "Why did you do it?" This formed the basis for my film "Licensed to Kill." As I set out to meet these prisoners, to discover what these men were made of, I did not find misfits, outcasts, fanatics or lunatics. Instead, I found a deeply disturbing reflection of American society. I saw that while individuals are responsible for their actions, individual minds can also be nurtured and molded by social conditioning. One killer told me he was taught by his junior high school librarian that homosexuality was wrong. Another inmate recalled how he was told that gay men were weak, and that "you could take theirs and they wouldn't put up a fight." A third murderer claimed that the Bible preaches that homosexuality was a sin worthy of death, and if that's what the Bible says, it must be true. He remembers: "They were trying to sink into our heads then when we were kids that what's written in the Bible is right." ..." - Arthur Dong: Biography / Films. - Dong, Arthur (Film, 1997). Licenced to Kill. Deep Focus Productions, Inc. Full Text. (Related).  Elton John urges fight against homophobia (2007, Alternate Link). - PBS Frontline: assault on gay america: how 'homophobic' are you? - Frontline: assault on gay america: the roots of homophobia: Hating gays - An overview of scientific studies. - Internalized homobia in each one of us (Alternate Link). - Don't Look Gay: Why American Men Are Afraid of Intimacy with Each Other: "Why do adolescent boys often leave empty seats between each other when they go to the movies? It's a product of the culture of male homophobia in America which pushes men to avoid intimacy and gay stereotypes." - Hate Crimes Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Individuals (2009). - Anti-GLBTQ Hate Crimes. -  Weekend vigils around US to honor slain gay teens (2009). - Young, Gay and Murdered (2008): Kids are coming out younger, but are schools ready to handle the complex issues of identity and sexuality? For Larry King, the question had tragic implications.

Polland, Ruth (Editor, 2009, PDF). However You Wanna See Me, I’m Just Me: Stories from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Gay Men, Lesbians and Sistergirls: This is a resource for combating homophobia and transphobia for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Gay Men, Lesbians and Sistergirls. The stories in this booklet tell of finding support from our friends, peers and organisations. They give examples of how others have found strength and overcome obstacles, which makes the community safer and more accepting for everyone. Everyone has the right to live safely...  It was last year, December 4, I remember it clear as. I got attacked because of my sexuality. I was on Flinders Street. This young, Caucasian guy attacked me and called me a faggot, and said: "hope you die". He stabbed me in the face twice with a glass bottle. I got rushed to hospital. I’m not going to let this beat me. The first six months it didn’t really hit me. I was just binge drinking a lot to numb the pain. And then all of a sudden I couldn’t sleep, couldn’t breathe...

The F Word N/A  (2011): Faggot. The homophobic slur has been reclaimed as a term of endearment and pride. But does the use of the word within New York’s isolated gay community allow it to maintain its power as a potent form of hate for the rest of the world?  When Jenni “JWoww” Farley dropped the F-bomb on the season-three premiere of MTV’s Jersey Shore, calling fellow cast mate Ronnie Ortiz-Magro a “fucking faggot” during a heated, if routine, argument-turned-throwdown, her fellow cast mates barely flinched.  Gay viewers (those agile enough to catch the bleeped-out pejorative) likely expected a protest from Vinny Guadagnino, at least, since he took time out of his busy Snooki-smooshing schedule to film an It Gets Better video and launch IHAV, a line of T-shirts that supports anti-bullying organizations.  But like so many instances of deliberate degradation against gays and lesbians, JWoww’s display of bigotry went unreprimanded...

Bully Gets 'Girl' (2012): This may help to explain why effeminate or gender-nonconforming male youth (i.e., those who are perceived to be gay) are in such regular and tremendous jeopardy, symbolizing as they do a loss of male power and privilege. We may also expect that other targets of bullying singled out for entirely different characteristics may be referred to by terms reserved for effeminate or perceived gay males, because such males are at the very bottom of the cultural barrel. Lee Hirsch's just-released documentary Bully is an evocative depiction of how the gender binary impacts acts of aggression. The subjects -- several kids facing repeated bullying in school, as well as the families of two boys who committed suicide -- are all seen through a misogynistic lens. The boys are constantly called "bitch" and "pussy," while school administrators try to explain away the harassment, noting that "boys will be boys" and encouraging the youths (at least the boys) to resolve their "differences" with a "manly" handshake. Similarly, though none of the subjects are out, self-identified gay males, the word "faggot" is uttered throughout the film more than any other derogatory term, and in one scene a 12-year-old boy named Alex is threatened on the bus by a peer who says, "I'll shove a broomstick up your ass." According to The Los Angeles Times, this explicitly homophobic scene was the lynchpin in the ratings controversy surrounding the film and was almost cut in order to change the MPAA rating from R to PG-13 -- still another example of the "gay" aspect of this epidemic at risk of being minimized or erased. The two female subjects are featured less in the documentary, and though we do not learn much about them, it is made clear that one of them has deviated from gender and sexual norms, having come out at her school as a lesbian... The gender binary and its relationship to bullying may be an elusive and challenging concept for many, because it requires us to self-reflect, examine our own expectations, and perhaps even change some of them. No one wants to feel he or she is part of the problem. But we are, all of us. An awareness of the systems through which we live and perceive the world, and which we maintain everyday, is essential for healing and change to take place. Part of the solution lies in changing our expectations for how males and females "should" behave, particularly males. We can take a page from the fathers in Bully, all of whom have been forced to walk in the shoes of their victimized, "feminized" children, all of whom now allow themselves to be emotional, to cry, and to take action against this problem. We cannot wait for more young people (and their families) to be destroyed before we too make the necessary adjustments in our expectations of what is "male" and what is "female."

The cubicle and the closet: Almost half of LGBT workers are not out at work, survey says N/A (2011, Related): Two-thirds of LGBT workers in a Human Rights Campaign 2009 survey said "one reason they are not open to everyone at work is because 'it's nobody's business.'" The report goes on to say that the data showed the "nobody's business" employees might be influenced by bad attitudes about LGBT people at work... But every work environment isn't as welcoming. A Human Rights Campaign study showed that 58 percent of LGBT people reported negative comments or jokes about gay people at work. One-fourth to one-third of the people at gay-hostile workplaces said they were distracted, depressed or exhausted. - Employers less likely to interview openly gay men for job openings: study (2011): The study, which is the largest of its kind to look at job discrimination against gay men, found that employers in the South and Midwest were much less likely to offer an interview if an applicant's resume indicates that he is openly gay. Overall, the study found that gay applicants were 40 percent less likely to be granted an interview than their heterosexual counterparts. "The results indicate that gay men encounter significant barriers in the hiring process because, at the initial point of contact, employers more readily disqualify openly gay applicants than equally qualified heterosexual applicants," writes the study's author, András Tilcsik of Harvard University.

LGBTQ: On the Streets, In the Schools, Outside the System (2006): Thousands of Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queer (LGBTQ) youth are forced out on to the streets in the U.S. each year, and face harassment, homophobia and even violence in their high schools. In addition, there are many LGBTQs outside this country seeking an increasingly difficult path to political asylum in the U.S. On this edition, we'll hear from the LGBTQ community, on the streets, in the schools and outside the system. - Racism and sexism 'persists in police service' (UK). - Greedy clubs tell gay players to keep quiet about sexuality (2006): The Independent's survey of professional footballers in England reveals today that a majority of players believe their industry is homophobic, but the only openly gay man on the Football Association's Council says that the major hurdle for any player in coming out is concern over how that player's value might be damaged. - Gay-hate crime rife across Scotland’s housing sector (2006). - Fear and loathing (2005): After years of sectarian hatred, Northern Ireland faces a new kind of intolerance. Mary O'Hara returns to a Belfast uncomfortable with racial diversity and sexual difference. - Gay Teen Murdered in Liverpool: LGBT Youth Groups Demand Action (2008). - Research on the Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People (Ireland, 2009): 80% of online respondents had been verbally abused because of their LGBT identity... 25% of the overall sample had been physically threatened by their school peers... 34% reported homophobic comments by teachers or other staff members... - Endemic levels of homophobic bullying in schools (2011). - Ten Ways Homophobia Affects Straight People. - Americans move dramatically toward acceptance of homosexuality (2011). - 'Born this way' beliefs may not be the key to reducing homophobia (2016).

Himmelstein KE, Brückner H (2011). Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: a national longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 127(1): 49-57. Abstract. PDF Download. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents who were in grades 7 through 12 in 1994-1995. Data from the 1994-1995 survey and the 2001-2002 follow-up were analyzed. Three measures were used to assess nonheterosexuality: same-sex attraction, same-sex romantic relationships, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) self-identification. Six outcomes were assessed: school expulsion; police stops; juvenile arrest; juvenile conviction; adult arrest; and adult conviction. Multivariate analyses controlled for adolescents' sociodemographics and behaviors, including illegal conduct... Nonheterosexuality consistently predicted a higher risk for sanctions. For example, in multivariate analyses, nonheterosexual adolescents had greater odds of being stopped by the police (odds ratio: 1.38 [P < .0001] for same-sex attraction and 1.53 [P < .0001] for LGB self-identification). Similar trends were observed for school expulsion, juvenile arrest and conviction, and adult conviction. Nonheterosexual girls were at particularly high risk... Nonheterosexual youth suffer disproportionate educational and criminal-justice punishments that are not explained by greater engagement in illegal or transgressive behaviors. Understanding and addressing these disparities might reduce school expulsions, arrests, and incarceration and their dire social and health consequences.

Benoit-Bryan, Jennifer (2011). The Runaway Longitudinal Study: A panel study spanning 15 years which examines the characteristics of kids who run away from home and the long term impacts of run away behavior on key outcomes in adulthood. National Runaway Switchboad. PDF Download. The data used in this study are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of over 15,000 adolescents who were followed in to adulthood with four longitudinal interview points. The study used a clustered school sampling design of adolescents in grades 7-12 during the 1994-1995 school year. The most recent set of interviews occurred in 2008-2009 with a sample aged 24-32. This data set provides the unique ability to track individuals across 15 years and to examine how behaviors and characteristics of adolescence are connected to the outcomes of health, education, and economics for the same individuals in adulthood. In particular, this analysis uses waves three and four of the dataset, conducted when the respondents were adults, to examine the impacts of run away behavior at waves one and two of the study when respondents were adolescents... Individuals who described themselves as 100% heterosexual had the lowest run away rate at 7.6%. The highest run away rate was reported by bisexuals at 21.7%. The rate for individuals who self-identified as mostly heterosexual was also extremely high at 17.7%, followed by the rate for 100% homosexuals at 13%, individuals who report not being attracted to either sex at 11.8%, and mostly homosexuals at 11.5%.

Higdon, Michael J. (2008). Queer Teens and Legislative Bullies: The Cruel and Invidious Discrimination Behind Heterosexist Statutory Rape Laws. UC Davis Law Review, 42(1): 195-263. PDF Download. PDF Download. Most states make an exception to their statutory rape laws for sexual acts involving an adolescent victim, who is below the age of consent, when the defendant is close in age to the victim (i.e., generally no older than three or four years). However, a few states explicitly limit such exceptions (commonly referred to as Romeo and Juliet exceptions) to only those situations involving teens who are of the opposite gender. Thus, adolescents in these states who have sex with someone below the age of consent, and who are also the same gender as the defendant, cannot avail themselves to the exception. As a result, these teens are faced with felony convictions, large fines and mandatory sex offender registration — penalties that would not attach had the victim been the opposite gender. This article argues that such disparate treatment is not only cruel, but is also invidious discrimination that violates the Equal Protection Clause given that these laws serve primarily to stigmatize LGBT adolescents, a class of individuals that is already one of the most stigmatized and at-risk groups in American society.

Higdon Michael J (2011). To Lynch a Child: Bullying and Gender Nonconformity in our Nation's Schools. Indiana Law Journal, 86(3): 826-878. PDF Download. Indeed, the student who fails to conform to generally accepted gender stereotypes frequently finds him or herself among the chronically victimized. In essence, these children are isolated and demonized for their failure to adhere to our society’s unwritten “code” of what is required of boys and girls. As such, I contend that the treatment these students are subjected to frequently goes beyond bullying and instead becomes a form of lynching. After all, just as the violence that befell African Americans like Emmett Till was often the result of perceived violations of that society’s racial hierarchy, the bullying I focus on in this Article is predicated on the child’s “violation” of our society’s rather rigid gender roles. Further, just as the violence used during the civil rights era was designed to produce compliance through fear, such bullying likewise operates to create fear in those who are bullied, sending them the powerful message to either conform to their expected gender role or face continued bullying. In addition, just as the entire community participated in and supported the practice of race-based lynching, gender-based bullying goes far beyond the individual perpetrator(s). As discussed below, such bullies operate with relative impunity and often, in fact, with the explicit approval of school administrators and the larger school community. Even in the absence of explicit approval, however, it is largely the community standards of appropriate gender roles that drive this form of bullying. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, this bullying often results in death, either at the hand of the bully or by suicide. However, even when physical death is not a direct result, a number of studies have shown that the psychological harms that typically result from such bullying, like those harms suffered by African American children during segregation, are tantamount to death given the destructive role these harms can play throughout the remainder of the bullied student’s life...

Does It Get Better? A Roundtable on LGBTQ Youth (2011): But does it get better? When it comes to the lives of LGBTQ people, recent history offers a more complex reality... But that’s only part of the story. Every step forward seems to be threatened by a push backward; progress is by no means inevitable.. For queer youth, especially, such prejudice is still a powerful barrier to progress. Those of us who work in the LGBTQ community—especially those of us who grew up as closeted, questioning, or queer kids ourselves—know that bullying is not a new story. Study after study confirms that LGBTQ youth are more likely to be harassed or homeless, more susceptible to substance abuse and public health risks, and more prone to depression and suicide than their straight and gender-conforming peers.1 Epithets like “gay,” “fag,” and “dyke” are still widely deployed and accepted - in classrooms and locker rooms, on playgrounds and athletic fields - and young people whose actions and appearances don’t conform to normative gender expectations are often teased for being “tomboys,” “sissies,” “trannies,” and the like. Such bullying, which can take both verbal and physical (and now virtual) form, is especially rampant among adolescent boys whose conceptions of “manhood” and “masculinity” are contaminated by homophobia, trans-phobia, and sexism that often go unchallenged by teachers, coaches, religious leaders, and family members. In a recent speech on bullying, one of my Kennedy School of Government students presciently noted, “children often learn words like ‘fag’ and ‘dyke’ in the same place where they learn to say ‘mommy’ and ‘daddy.’” And as the award-winning lesbian writer Sarah Schulman documents in her haunting memoir, The Ties That Bind: Familial Homophobia and Its Consequences, for many queer kids, the bullying begins at home. And it doesn’t end there. As the recent suicides and studies demonstrate, the world is still a treacherous place for many LGBTQ kids. - When Bullying Takes a Life: Advocacy Tips to Protect LGBTQ Youth (2011).

Brändström A (21012). Challenging heteronormativity through literature: Teaching David Levithan’s Boy meets boy with norm critical pedagogy. Göteborg University: Department of Languages and Literatures/English. PDF Download. Abstract Excerpt: Norms are usually taken for granted and made invisible and the first step in any norm critical work is therefore to discern them. Boy meets boy can help pupils do that. It introduces readers to a world without homophobia, a world where hetero - , homo - and bisexuality are considered equally normal. Heteronormativity is disrupted, and readers are encouraged to question their assumptions of normalcy. It could thus be argued that Boy meets boy is suitable to use as a starting point for norm critical discussions on gender and sexuality. This essay contains a literary and didactic analysis of Levithan’s novel as well as examples of norm critical exercises for the language classroom.

Syracuse University Students in CFE/QSX 300 (2010, Under the direction of Elizabethe Payne). 2010 Report on Queer Youth in the Syracuse City School District. PDF Download. One issue with Syracuse area GSAs is their insistence on providing a “safe space” for youth – without actually improving the overall climate of the entire school. In an interview with a guidance counselor at Syosset High School, Zack noted that the members of the school’s GSA want more than just a specified “safe space”. “I think [the GSA] is…a place of comfort. [The club members] would like to be more activist. It’s discussed a lot about what could we do as in terms of activism” (Z. Beal, personal communication, November 17, 2010). In the larger sense, a “safe space” identifies the rest of the school as unsafe: "Having safe spaces on campus where students feel that they can have a temporary reprieve from harassment is important…but the establishment of these spaces, rather than being an answer to the problem…only make the problem more apparent. The larger problem is…that students do not experience the entirety of their school as 'safe' and therefore require these zones." (Payne & Smith, 2010, p. 16)  Although designated safe spaces bring about queer visibility and give queer kids a sense of safety, the larger problem of the overall “unsafe space” of the schools needs to be addressed and dealt with effectively.

Syracuse University Students in CFE/QSX 300 (2010, Under the direction of Elizabethe Payne). 2010 Report on Queer Youth in the Syracuse City School District. PDF Download. With the recent rash of LGBTQ suicides, many people have begun to question why queer adolescents feel so lost and hopeless. The media and news programs discuss bullying, and the LGBTQ community sets up support programs (It Gets Better and the Trevor Project). The real reason for these suicides is one that is not addressed by the media or the LGBTQ community. No matter how many anti-bullying programs are started, no matter how many support initiatives are created, and no matter what television programs are aired, the bullying will not stop until the root of the problem is dealt with. The problem is the overwhelming silence which smothers LGBTQ youth. This silence forces all non-normative, gender non-conforming and non-heterosexual adolescents into a position of non-existence. Bullying and suicide cannot be addressed until the silence is shattered and the LGBTQ youth are given a legitimate space within schools.

Sexual Orientation Microaggressions: “Death by a Thousand Cuts” for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth (2011): In recent years, there has been a growth of literature examining the mental health impacts of microaggressions, which are defined as subtle forms of discrimination toward oppressed groups. The current study utilized a qualitative focus group method and directed content analysis to categorize several types of sexual orientation microaggressions that exist. Eight themes were identified, including “Use of heterosexist terminology” and “Endorsement of heteronormative culture/behaviors.” Results suggest that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals experience both conscious and unconscious microaggressions from heterosexuals and support that microaggressions negatively impact LGB individual's mental health. Implications for youth development are discussed.

Amnesty International Issues Rights Report 2001 N/A: "Gay men and lesbians, bisexuals and the transgendered are tortured and mistreated in at least 30 countries, including the United States, Amnesty International said in a report issued Friday. "There is an overriding tolerance of abuse because of the social stigma attached to homosexuality and (because of) defined gender norms," William F. Schulz of Amnesty International USA, told the Associated Press."- Crimes of hate, conspiracy of silence: Torture and ill-treatment based on sexual identity (PDF Download). - Government Inaction & Abuse Drives Torture, Sexual Assault, Forced Psychiatric Treatment of Lesbians and Gays Worldwide. - Perceptions of homophobia and heterosexism in physical education: "These data indicate that homophobic and heterosexist behaviors are common in secondary schools, that teachers intend to provide a safe space, and that teachers fail to confront heterosexist or homophobic behaviors and take proactive steps to create an inclusive environment." - Threatening space: (physical) education and homophobic body work. - Sexuality and physical education. - Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe (PDF Download) (Download Page) (Alternate Link). - Queer APIs: When Communities Collide. - Homophobia in the business world. - Lord Browne Not Alone - Half Of UK Gay Workers Are Afraid To Come Out. - 2nd GU student hurt in anti-gay attacks: Another campus vigil held: university officials team with city police. - Students subject to homophobia (2009, Boston College).

Homophobia & Homonegativity & Heterosexism & Hétérosexisme (Wikipedia). Homophobia and Heterosexism: - Internalized Heterosexism: A Historical and Theoretical Overview. - Definitions, Prevalence, Correlates. - The Dr. G. Herek Websight: "Sexual Orientation: Science, Education, and Policy.  - Campaign to End Homophobia. - A Survey of Homophobia. - Homophobia: a systemic problem. - Qu'est-ce que l'homophobie? "Les milles et un visage de l'homophobie." - Aux origines de l'homophobie. - Homophobia: The Social Basis of Male Supremacy? - What is the psychology behind homophobia among heterosexual men? - My Homophobic Parents: Homophobic Parents won't stop me being who I am. - Forum on homophobia and bullying in schools. - Reports of parental maltreatment during childhood in a United States population-based survey of homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual adults: Abstract. NWT - Challenging Homophobia: School Health Program (PDF Download).  - Handling Homophobia: Gay Rights or Children’s Needs? - An Assessment of Personal Homophobia. - Curbing Homophobia in Reggae. - Is homophobia inevitable?: Evidence that explores the constructed nature of homophobia, and the techniques through which men unlearn it. - Canada’s ethnic minorities launch fight against homophobia (2009). - 2009 Anti-Heterosexism Conference Deemed Ground-Breaking. - The 1st International March against Stigma, Discrimination and Homophobia.

Gay Men and the Self Destructive Impulse: This paper was delivered at the ‘Men’s health in south London’ conference. - Axis of Evil versus Axis of Gay Eros (Alternate Link): "Having a psyche dominated by the shadow of internalized homophobia can cause the gay individual to be self destructive. This notion of self destruction is planted inside us through homophobic mistreatment we received as gay children." - The Process of Gay Identity: Internalized Homophobia. - Assessment of Internalized Homophobia. - The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice. - HIV/AIDS risk perception, attitudes and sexual behaviour in Portugal: "Homosexual relations between men were seen as either totally or partially acceptable by 38%." - Troubling trends with black America and Homophobia: Similarities between minorities should be embraced, not used to further divide historically disadvantaged peoples. - The Impact of Homophobia and Racism on GLBTQ Youth of Color. -  Campaign Against Black Homophobia Launches On Long Island Rail Road (2010). - Is Homophobia Just Narcissism? - Upcoming Film Examines Wrestling History, Homoeroticism, and Homophobia. - John Mayer Spews Racism, Sexism, Homophobia in Playboy Interview.

What is Homophobia? - Qu'est-ce que l'homophobie? - Homophobia verses Heterosexism: Is There a Difference? - Heterosexism: Definitions and Responses. - 'Heterosexism' is what we all need a cure for.  - What is Heterosexual Privilege? - Heterosexual privilege is here, there, everywhere. - I Have Heterosexual Privilege If... (Alternate Link) - Accepted’ Targets N.J. Girl’s Slaying Shows War on Homophobia Has Many More Battles N/A.- Memorial/Demonstration for Anti-Homophobia: "Basically what happened was that a fremont/newark boy who dressed as a women and identified as a women, went to a party and met four boys. they were flirting with her and when they found out she was really a boy, they beat her, strangled her, and burried her in the sierra mountains." - Girls Germs: Sexuality, Gender, Health and Metaphors of Contagion.(Plummer D - March, 2000 - Paper, NSW Chapter Scientific Meeting. Alternate Link) - The Causes and Effects of Homophobia: You Can Make A Difference Must Scroll). - The Roots Of Homophobia. - The origins of homophobia. - Engendering homophobia: violence, sexuality and gender conformity. - Homophobie. - State-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults (ILGA, 2009). - Meet the New Homophobia; Different than the Old Homophobia (2008).

An excellent example of heterosexism from Ask Osho (Searching for information needed): "But your making love to a man, or a woman making love to a woman, is not going to help. I am not against homosexuality: [?] I am simply stating a fact. [?]  I have no condemnation for it, but it will not be fulfilling -- that much I have to say." - References are available at Google.com: Homosexuality will not be fulfilling (Alternate Link). In the past Osho's site produced a browser crash when stated link was sought.) Osho, however, is quite wise with respect to people who hate homosexual individuals. See: "Osho, Why do I hate homosexuals?" (Must Scroll) - "Sargam, deep down you must be a homosexual, otherwise why should you hate them? Hate is love upside-down, hate is love doing sirshasan -- headstand... There are millions of people who hate homosexuals. That simply means millions of people have the capacity of becoming homosexuals if the opportunity is given to them. They have a deep longing for the forbidden fruit. Just to keep themselves in control, they create a great wall of hatred." - Homosexuality Rampant Among Anti-Homosexuals Hate Cults. - How large is the male homosexual/bisexual closet?

Homophobia Resources from religioustolerance.org: - What is Homophobia? - Homophobia's Cost to the Youth of North America - What Fuels Homophobia, and more. - Resources from Gay & Lesbian Information: - Prejudice, attitudes to gay men and homophobia. - Queer fears and gay examples: "Gay men are usually seen as a race apart. They are victimized and vilified, the butts of both humour and violence. Yet if we are looking for the men who have done the most creative thinking about masculinity we should go to their door. Gary Dowsett begins our education." - Attitudes towards homosexuality in 29 nations (PDF Download). - In depth: Homophobia. -  Queerbashing is a habit that is acquired in the playground but refined on the way home. - New report titled ‘Homophobia at Hell House’ reveals how the right wing fuels homophobia, demonizes lesbian and gay youth. - Young and Gay in the Bible Belt: 'My Mom Came at Me With a Butcher Knife!'

HOMOPHOBIA: A Weapon of Sexism - The Subtler Forms of Homophobia (PFLAG). -  On the Wavering Argument: Is Being Gay as Bad as Some Say, and If It Is, So What? - L’homophobie et l’hétérosexisme. - Manifeste lesbien 99: Contre le sexisme, la lesbophobie, l'homophobie. - Manuels scolaires: halte à l'hétérosexisme! - Scotland must never return to the dark ages of homophobia. - Hatred, murder and male honour: anti-homosexual homicides in New South Wales, 1980-2000. - Statistics: Homophobia. - Violence against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and the transgendered. - Violent Reaction - What do Teen Killers have in common?

Wilets JD (1997). Conceptualizing private violence against sexual minorities as gendered violence: an international and comparative law perspective. Albany Law Review, March 22. Full text. "To the extent that violence against women and sexual minorities1 is predicated upon assumptions of a polar construction of gender, in which nonconformity with gender role expectations is enforced through violent and non-violent means, it is possible to speak of violence against both groups as rooted in a system of male dominance. Understanding the commonality of the gendered nature of violence against the two groups can assist in formulating a response under international and national law to violence against both women and sexual minorities that reflects the common gendered societal assumptions and mechanisms which foster such violence. Indeed, this Article's central thesis is that oppression based on sexual minority status is, to a great extent, gender oppression. Moreover, to the extent that violence against both groups reflects societal assumptions regarding appropriate gender roles, violence against both groups is frequently committed by societal actors other than the state as narrowly defined..."

Lock J, Kleis B (1998). Origins of Homophobia in Males: Psychosexual vulnerabilities and defence development. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 52(4): 425-436. PDF Download. Abstract. We illustrate how homophobic attitudes can be associated with a hierarchy of defensive styles. We propose that these defensive styles are used to manage a range of psychosexual developmental anxieties in boys and men.

"Screw health": representations of sex as a health-promoting activity in medical and popular literature (2011): Recently, scientific and popular press articles have begun to represent sex as a health-promoting activity. A number of scientific studies have identified possible health benefits of sexual activity, including increased lifespan and decreased risk of certain types of cancers. These scientific findings have been widely reported on in the popular press. This "sex for health" discourse claims that sexual activity leads to quantifiable physical and mental health benefits in areas not directly related to sexuality. Analyzing this discourse provides an opportunity to better understand both broader health promotion discourses and current norms and anxieties about sexuality. In this article, I place this "sex for health" discourse within the context of broader health promotion discourses and within the context of a number of historical and contemporary discourses connecting health and sexuality. I argue that although the "sex for health" discourse may serve to de-stigmatize sexual activity for some, it may also increase pressure on others to be sexually active and may further pathologize sexual "dysfunction." In addition, these representations often serve to further privilege a normative form of sexual behavior - coitus in the context of a monogamous heterosexual partnership - at the expense of non-normative sexual desires, identities, and practices.

Egale Canada. (2009). Youth speak up about homophobia and transphobia. PDF Download. Summary: A recent national survey on homophobia in Canadian schools conducted by Egale Canada (2009) found that schools can be a hostile environment for sexual minority youth. The survey involved almost 1700 students from across Canada. Among the findings: • Almost three quarters (73%) of LGBTQ students felt unsafe in at least one place at school (i.e., change rooms, washrooms, hallways). • Over a quarter (28.5%) of LGBTQ students said that they had skipped school because they felt unsafe compared to 8.4% of non-LGBTQ students. • Over three quarters (76.7%) of students heard homophobic expressions like “that’s so gay” every day at school. • About half (50.6%) of LGBTQ students agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement “It is hard for me to feel accepted at my school” compared to 19.3% of non-LGBTQ students. • Six out of ten LGBTQ students said that they had been verbally harassed about their sexual orientation. • One in four LGB students reported that they had been physically harassed about their sexual orientation (EgaleCanada, 2009).

Meyer, Elizabeth J (2008). A Feminist Reframing of Bullying and Harassment: Transforming Schools through Critical Pedagogy. McGill Journal of Education, 43(1): 33-48: What is Gendered harassment? Gendered harassment is a term used to describe any behaviour that acts to assert the boundaries of traditional gender norms: heterosexual masculinity and femininity. It is related to, but different from, bullying. Bullying is defined as behaviour that repeatedly and over time intentionally inflicts injury on another individual (Olweus, 1993), whereas harassment includes biased behaviours that have a negative impact on the target or the environment (Land, 2003). Forms of gendered harassment include (hetero)sexual harassment, homophobic harassment, and harassment for gender non-conformity (or transphobic harassment). I link these three forms of harassment because the impact of the harassers’ behaviour is linked to norm-setting and policing the performance of traditional (heterosexual) gender roles (Larkin, 1994; Martino, 1995; Martino & Pallotta-Chiarolli, 2003; Renold, 2002; Smith & Smith, 1998; Stein, 1995).

Denton, Mary Jean (2009). The lived experiences of lesbian/Gay/[bisexual/transgender] educational leaders. Ed.D. Dissertation, Educational Policy and Administration, University of Minnesota. PDF Download. Download Page. The Lived Experience of Lesbian/Gay/[Bisexual/Transgender] Educational Leaders Homophobia has created barriers to the safety and security of LGBT educational leaders. Legalized discrimination, found in the history and current practice of informal actions/attitudes of society, and the formal policies/laws create a context for the lived experiences of LGBT educational leaders. Within the context of formal policies/laws and informal actions/attitudes of society, the purpose of this study is to come to understand the commonalities of the personal and professional lived experiences of LG[BT] educational leaders. The analysis of data gathered from high- and low-structure designs revealed fear as the overarching theme interwoven throughout the experiences. From the overarching theme of fear, two major themes, five minor themes, and twenty-one supporting cluster themes were identified. Further analysis of the major, minor, and supporting cluster themes resulted in the Cycles of Fear Model: Losses and Gains.

Heffner, Paul Samuel (2010). The subjective life experiences of identified or perceived male GBTQ adolescents in high school settings: a retrospective study. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, California State unibersity Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page. The process, analysis, and results of this author’s qualitative research interviews of eight 18 to 22-year-olds identified or perceived GBT males are detailed. Significant emergent themes that were identified from the content analysis of the interview data included, but is not limited to, a consensus that homophobia was observed by all participants, and that having staff that would be properly sensitive to this population would be beneficial. Finally, this paper gives recommendations for how to address this issue, and to further provide sexuality sensitivity training for professionals working with this population.

Crowhurst M (2009). More Conversations with Queer Young People To Be Read Aloud. Australia: Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd. PDF Download. Introduction - A few thoughts on broad aims, on why I think this workbook is necessary, and on “Reading Aloud” as a change methodology.... The purpose of this collection of materials is multiple. I am very interested in the process of interviewing young people who identify as gay, lesbian, bi-sexual, transgender or intersex (GLBTI Young People or Queer Young people – QYP) about their life experiences – particularly about their school experiences. Further, I am also interested in transcribing and editing these conversations and in making these available to as wide a readership as possible in order to support change. Broadly, I am interested in doing these things primarily because it is my feeling, and it is reported in the literature (see below), that school settings are not always experienced as safe or welcoming places if you identify as a QYP and secondly because I feel that making available the stories of QYP, and asking people to read these aloud, is a very strategic way to generate change... Why are we talking about drugs, suicide, discrimination, rights and bullying all of the time? Why are we focusing on constraint and not on expansive potential? – says one side. When we focus on diversity, position subjectivity as fluid, and focus on the productive potential of deconstructive techniques, aren’t we ignoring the real problems that people face in the world as they brush up against power? Why are we wasting our time writing about such things, when in the “real world”, these things are irrelevant? – says the other... I am making a move in this collection of materials, to guard against pathologising, mainly through the use of a “multi-lifeworlds” framework (tapping into different aspects of participant’s lives). This being an attempt to ensure that where conversations move into arenas of constraint that these are balanced with stories of hope or expansion (Martino & Pallotta-Chiarolli 2005). Hopefully focusing on different life spheres will also amplify the diversity of the stories that are told across the group of participants.

Weinstein N, Ryan WS, Dehaan CR, Przybylski AK, Legate N, Ryan RM (2012). Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: Dynamics of self-acceptance and defense. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(4): 815-32. Abstract: When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. - Homophobia linked to lack of awareness of one's sexual orientation and authoritarian parenting, study shows (2012): Homophobia is more pronounced in individuals with an unacknowledged attraction to the same sex and who grew up with authoritarian parents who forbade such desires, a series of psychology studies demonstrates. The study is the first to document the role that both parenting and sexual orientation play in the formation of intense and visceral fear of homosexuals, including self-reported homophobic attitudes, discriminatory bias, implicit hostility towards gays, and endorsement of anti-gay policies.

The roots of homophobia.  - Homophobia - What are we so afraid of? - Homophobia: What's Really Going On Here? An essay on the origin and nature of homophobia. - Fascists, Anti-fascists & Homophobes. - Cocteau's White Paper on Homophobia. - No fear factor in 'homophobia,' study claims: Researchers say anti-gay prejudice rooted in disgust, 'contamination' concerns. - A Report on Insights from the Religious Roots of Homophobia Conference, Sydney, 2001. - From Masturbation to Homosexuality: A Case of Displaced Moral Disapproval. (Alternate Link) - Banalisation des gays à la télé. - Modern and Old-fashioned Homonegativity Among Samples of Canadian and American University Students. -  A Humorous Look at Internalized Homophobia. - A twisted view on 'flaunting' gay identity.

Studies Discover Clues to the Roots of Homophobia." (New York Times, 1990). (Alternate Link) - Riddle Homophobia Scale Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Identity.(Alternate Link) - Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal? - A related article: Protesting too Largely.  - APA article: New Study Links Homophobia with Homosexual Arousal. (Alternate Link) - A similar perspective from Singapore: An Epidemic of Self-Hate. - The Hate That Makes Men Straight: Psychoanalysts probe the roots of homophobia. - Psychologists Examine the Motives of Perpetrators and the Origins of Homophobia. - Fear and loathing. Prejudice, abuse, violence, sometimes murder. Why are lesbians and gay men hated? Dennis Altman explores the psychology behind the hostility. - Frontline: assault on gay america: the roots of homophobia: Putting Freud to the test. - Changing Heterosexuals’ Attitudes Toward Homosexuals: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature.

Book shows how homophobia starts in the schoolyard: "Dr Plummer found that homophobia peaks in the mid to late teens, with boys in years 8 and 9 reporting that they use the word 'poofter' 25 to 50 times a day. These attitudes, he said, were often an exaggerated expression of heterosexual identity, and thus effected everyone. 'Boys who aren't targeted by others observe what goes on and make sure they don't do anything that might be considered suspect or that would make them stand out.'" Variations of this Australian situation exists in most countries of the world. - Bashed and bashed again: enough is enough: "When I reflect upon being called "poofter" nearly every day at school, when I think about having to move schools, losing friends and suffering rejection by family members..." - Iowa Students Face 25 Homophobic Incidents Per Day. - Reaching Out to the Out: Kids and educators battle homophobia in schools. - McKellen prepares for battle against schoolyard homophobia (2008). - Homophobic bullying in schools can and does kill (2008). - Berlin Schools May Battle Homophobia by Teaching Students Gay Pick-Up Lines (2007).

Philippine Memories of a Gay Adventist (Alternate Link): " Bakla, Bading, Bayot, Binabae--those were the names I was called when I was growing up in Manila. I wish the Filipino language had an affirmative label equivalent to "gay." Instead, I was teased with the hurtful words--faggot, sissy. Even before I entered elementary school, I remember my aunt telling me not to walk like a girl. I was always teased in Sabbath School because my buttocks would sway even when I was running, and my wrist was limp... Maybe I just wanted to be like the other boys. Maybe I just wanted the whole church school to stop calling me a sissy. To be a "bakla" is a sin, according to my mom. She told me when I was eleven years old to be careful with a "bakla." He might even try to kill you. My best friend from elementary school recently mentioned to me that his parents forbade him to hang out with me when we were growing up because he might turn out to be "bakla." ...When I accepted myself, that I was born gay, I found my inner peace. I stopped suffering. But I continue to search for answers.

With downcast gays: aspects of homosexual self-oppression.  - La Haine [Hatred: Discusses different forms of homophobia, best called hatred] - "Mettre fin à la haine", séminaire sur l'homophobie". -  The Victims of Homophobia: From the book: "Outing Yourself" by M. Signorile. - Minnesota Gay Homicide Study, Progress Report, to 2004. - Homophobia as an Issue of Sex Discrimination: Lesbian and Gay Equality and the Systemic Effects of Forced Invisibility.Stopping Anti-Gay Abuse of Students in Public Schools: A Legal Perspective. - "Pooftah", "Wanker", "Girl" Homophobic harassment and violence in schools (By the Anti Violence Council (AVC), Brisbane). - Policing Sex/Gender Boundaries: Addressing Homophobia in Schools. - Gay teen beaten in suspected hate crime (Feb. 1999, Must Scroll): "High school student Adam Colton wears the cuts and bruises of a solid beating. They mark his face, his chest, his abdomen, his back. And carved into his flesh with a pen is the word `'fag.'"' - In our boys, a hatred bred of fear: "... the accusation of homosexuality has lost none of its power over young men and boys." - Bullying in Schools: Harassment Puts Gay Youth At Risk (National Mental Health Association: PDF Download).

Punks and Fags: Homophobia in Black and Latino Communities. - The strange truth behind hip-hop homophobia (2008). - The Greatest Taboo: An Interview with Delroy Constantine-Simms - Homophobia and HIV in the black community: A conversation with Phill Wilson. - "Boys Will Be Boys": How "masculinity" in American culture affects safety in our schools N/A. - Homophobia Hurts Kids. - Hostile Classrooms N/A: A Novato, CA, student was beaten in February when he told other students that he was gay. (The Advocate, April 13 1999 by Lisa Meyer). - Eliminating Homophobia: a social education strategy (PDF Download: Home Page). - Adolescents' attitudes about sexual orientation, gender identity, and prejudice against gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming youth. - New study reveals prevalence of cyberbullying and its psychological impact on nonheterosexual youth (2010).

Teaching from the shadows: Homophobia, Homohatred and Heterosexism in the Public School System. - Teaching Against Homophobia. - Homophobia and masculinities among young men (Lessons in becoming a straight man): a presentation to teachers, O'Connell Education Centre, 1997. - Having what it takes: Homophobia and masculinities in educational settings in the UK and South Africa. - TA's Guide for Overcoming Homophobia in the Classroom. - Educator confronts homophobia in high schools.Homophobia first targeted at effeminate boys. - Binary Gender Conceptions and Anti-Gay Violence. - Same-Sex Male Relationships Under the Threat of  "Masculinity". - L'homme et son Anima. - Parents' Attitudes and Expectations About Children's Cross-Gender Behavior: (Full Text) "The results revealed that cross-gender boys were more negatively regarded than crossgender girls and thatmen perceived more societal acceptance of cross-gender boys than women. Cross-gender children were predicted to continue to show cross-gender behavior in adulthood and to be less psychologically welladjusted as adults than “typical” boys and girls. Cross-gender boys were expected to be less psychologically well-adjusted than cross-gender girls."

Transgendered Like Me (Advocate, Dec. 10, 1996) by Gabriel Rotello who asserts: "Gay people, on the other hand, exhibit a whole range of “sex-atypical” characteristics, meaning characteristics that are most commonly associated with the opposite sex, at least among the heterosexual majority... In that sense we’re all transgendered.... When I was 10 and was taunted for throwing a ball “like a girl,” I don’t think those school-yard bullies suspected me of actually sleeping with men. They bashed me for not being boy enough....  for the same basic reason: transgressing our expected gender roles..., So just as all gays are in a basic sense transgendered, all homophobes are first and foremost “transphobes"...  Shouldn’t we stop being the les-bi-gay-trans-whatever movement, with a new syllable added every few years, and simply become the trans movement?" -  Politically Incorrect: "I will admit that we are all not drama queens, drag queens, overly feminine, or terribly animated.  I will also admit that we all have it in us." - Issue Brief: Gender Violence and Homophobia. - Leach F, Humphreys S (2007). Gender violence in schools: taking the 'girls-as-victims' discourse forward . Gender & Development, 15(1): 51-65. PDF Download: After examining some key concepts and definitions, we provide a brief overview of the scope and various manifestations of gender violence in schools, noting that most research to date has focused on girls as victims of gender violence within aheterosexual context and ignores other forms such as homophobic and girl violence.

Overcoming heterosexism & homophobia: international perspectives. - Essays online. - "Get Real," an engaging British movie that opens today, begins as a love story, then transforms itself into an impressively detailed study of internalized homophobia. (Related Information) - Intermountain Conference on Homosexuality, University of Utah (1997): Conference Speaker Blasts Homophobia.Survey reveals homophobia still rampant (Australia: Victoria, "The Age" - Article by Karen Kissane): "A staggering eighty-four per cent of Victorian gays and lesbians have experienced discrimination or abuse ranging from insults hurled from a car to severe beatings, according to a new survey. The incidence of bashings has fallen compared with results of a similar survey five years ago (from 19 per cent to 7 per cent of respondents). But verbal abuse during assaults makes it clear most attacks are motivated by homophobia, says the report, Enough is Enough, published by the Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby. The report, based on a survey of 929 gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people..." - How the Gay Community Is Complicit in Trans Violence.

Glick SN, Golden MR (2010). Persistence of racial differences in attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 55(4): 516-23. (Abstract. PDF Download): We used data from the General Social Survey to describe race-specific trends in the US population's attitude toward homosexuality, reporting of male same-sex sexual behavior, and behaviors that might mediate the relationship between stigma and HIV transmission among MSM. The proportion of blacks who indicated that homosexuality was "always wrong" was 72.3% in 2008, largely unchanged since the 1970s. In contrast, among white respondents, this figure declined from 70.8% in 1973 to 51.6% in 2008 with most change occurring since the early 1990s. Participants who knew a gay person were less likely to have negative attitudes toward homosexuality (relative risk, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.69). Among MSM, twice as many black MSM reported that homosexuality is "always wrong" compared with white MSM (57.1% versus 26.8%, P = 0.003).

McCormack M (2011). Mapping the terrain of homosexually-themed language. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5): 664-79. PDF Download. Abstract. In this article, I present a new model for understanding homosexually-themed language. By detailing how old conceptualizations of homophobic language no longer maintain heuristic utility in explaining the social dynamics of many sport and educational settings, I situate other conceptualizations of homosexually-themed language depending on the cultural context. I argue that whether language is considered homophobic, or whether it is better conceptualized as fag discourse, gay discourse or pro-gay language, is primarily dependent on the homohysteria of a setting. This model should enable scholars and educators to understand the operation of homosexually-themed language in society and properly evaluate the homophobia of a setting.

Compulsory Heterosexuality. - Compulsory Heterosexuality and Pych/Atrophy: Some Thoughts on Lesbian Feminist Theory. - Recognition, Identification, and a Plan - Compulsory Heterosexuality in the Daily Life of a Woman N/A. - Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence - by Adrienne Rich. (Alternate Link) (Commentary)  - Harper's Magazine: Matthew Shepard and Compulsory Heterosexuality. - Sexual Identity Development in the Context of Compulsory Heterosexuality. - Compare, contrast and critically discuss the treatment of the theme of homophobia in no more than three films (Word Download). - Gender and Power (A Tutorial, Part 1): Compulsory Heterosexuality. - South Africa: Murder Highlights Violence Against Lesbians.

Willis, Paul B (2009). Laboured Sexualities: The Experiences of Young Queer People in the Workplace. PhD Dissertation, Social Work, University of Tasmania. PDF Download. Download Page.The voices of young people are predominantly absent from the literature examining queer sexualities in the workplace, despite their unique position as newcomers to the labour market... Thirty-four (34) young people aged 18 to 26 years participated through three qualitative methods: web-based surveys, online interviews and face-to-face interviews. The findings of this study show that young queer people experienced the workplace across five interdependent dimensions as: 1) sexually exclusive spaces; 2) regulatory spaces; 3) silencing spaces; 4) inclusive spaces; and 5) sexually diverse spaces. Across these dimensions, young people participated in both enabling and constraining environments. Negotiating constraining work environments constituted a secondary form of labour for young queer workers as they faced adverse challenges in sustaining supportive and safe work-relationships with other organisational participants. Conversely, working in enabling work environments brought opportunities to form supportive and validating relationships with other organisational participants.

Gay: Stories: Homophobia.  - Penitence: A true story about youth violence and homophobia: "A 23-year-old homosexual is thrown to his death off a bridge in Bangor, Maine by three teenagers... This story of homophobia and youth violence collides in Bangor, Maine. The death of a 23-year old homosexual by a teenager made national news and is now in paperback for the purpose of education and rehabilitation." - Excerpt from Penitence. - Violence Against Lesbians [Part 1 of 2] ( Iris - A Journal About Women ). - Report exposes anti-lesbian violence. - The Victims Of Homophobia (by M. Signorile)  - Dealing with Homophobia. - Dealing With Homophobia and Homophobic Remarks. -  Pilot's suicide: a casualty of "Don't ask, don't tell"? - Homophobia and Women Archaeologists.(Full Text: PDF Download). - Play explores homophobia, xenophobia, tolerance and acceptance- Homophobia In Social Service Agencies.Homophobia As a Health Hazard: Report of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association.

Homophobia a strong influence on campus culture. - Censorship and Homophobia in Alabama. - Homophobia Still a Huge Issue at Notre Dame. - Urge Notre Dame To End Homophobia On Campus. - Reflections on campus homophobia (Video). - Homophobia on Campus (University of Toronto). - Is academia the safe space we imagine? - How Gay:  Homophobia at Mount Allison. -  Direct Action to Stop Heterosexism/Homophobia (Cornell University). - My roommate isn't straight ... and I don't like it! (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY) - Student journal triggers campus wide debate on homosexuality (Harvard). - Gay Student Commits Hate Crime Against Self. - Homophobia on Campus. "Tolerance" of Homophia on Campus. - Actions to Challenge Heterosexism and Homophobia on Campus. - Homophobia on Campus. - Gay Students Call for Improved Understanding from Community. - A Tale Of Two Campuses. - Gay dating comes out of the closet. - Representing our diversity N/A: "The biggest issue facing the students [is] homophobia on campus..." (The Manitoban) - PRiSM battle campus intolerance with PROUD N/A. - Language forum examines effect of homophobia. - What you can do to build a less homophobic campus. - Recognizing heterosexism and homophobia: Creating an anti-heterosexist, homophobia-free campus. - Safe Zones of Virginia Tech.

I've Got a Secret (excerpt from "Sissyphobia" by Tim Bergling): "And if as teenagers we also happened to possess effeminate mannerisms, whatever refuge secrecy might provide was no longer available to us; we pretty much outed ourselves every time we went out amidst our peers. We've already heard the sad stories of so many men who were victimized because of the way they walked, talked, or dressed. In "Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys," authors Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson contend that adolescent boys are particularly apt to strike out at those they see as gay, because of their own vulnerabilities regarding sexuality. Such boys, the authors say, fear homosexuality like the plague, not understanding its origin, but fully aware of its negative perception among society. "Homosexuals are male, but not manly... gay or fag is a constant taunt, whether a boy's crime is his hairstyle, his accent, his clothes, a good grade, or a bad pitch."" - Masculinity and Homophobia. - Hip Hop in Review: Part I Hyper-masculinity and Homophobia (Video). - Sexuality, Masculinity and Homophobia: The Latvian Case.

Babson College students will be disciplined for yelling homophobic comments to members of the Mount Holyoke field hockey team...  - Homophobia in women's sports. - Homophobia in Sport — Fact of Life, Taboo Subject. -  Homophobia in Sports: Is the Media Part of the Problem? - Addressing homophobia in women’s sports: The role of journalists.  - Homophobia and Sport Policy Recommendations: The Foundation Position. - Reasons why coaches need to address homophobia in athletics. - Football, homophobia and fighting prejudice. -  Sexuality Discrimination and Homophobia. - Harassment-free Sport: Guidelines to Address Homophobia and Sexuality Discrimination in Sport (Australia, 2000: PDF Download) - The last closet: Sports. - Outsports: Out on Campus: Article Archive. - 'I Wasn't Going to Let Some Ignorant Man Mess With My Dreams and Tell Me That I Am Not Worth It.' - Jock Struggles With Coming Out: Indiana High School Basketball Star Stays in the Closet, but His Secret Carries a Price. - Restoring Rainbow Pride In Hawaii. - The college sports closet. - Homophobia and Transphobia in Sports. - The Lived Experiences of Non-Straight Football Players at FBS Colleges (2011).

The launch of The Last Closet Website: a campaign to end homophobia in men's professional sport (2012). Creating a Safer Climate for LGBT Athletes and Coaches: PDF Download. - Homophobia in Sport - Fact of Life, Taboo Subject (2006). - National Center For Lesbian Rights Sports Project. - Gay Athlete: An Oxymoron? - Project to Eliminate Homophobia in Sport. - Harassment-free Sport: Guidelines to Address Homophobia and Sexuality Discrimination in Sport: PDF Download. - NCLR Project: Homophobia in Sport. - Paul Farber: Tackling homophobia in sports. - Breaking into the big leagues: gay and lesbian athletes tackle homopobia in sports N/A. - Niggas, Dykes, and Corporate Types: Some Notions on Racism and Homophobia in Sports. - Homophobia in Sport: Recent Research. - Will there ever be a time when black athletes on the down low can be on the up high? - Ignorance Leads to Hostile Atmosphere for Gay Students. - Homophobia in Sports Conference - Breaking Into the Big Leagues: gay & lesbian athletes tackle homophobia in sports - Seeing the Invisible, Speaking about the Unspoken: Homophobia in Sport: Online Resources. - Homophobia in sports: CU-Boulder Alumni Association spreads awareness. - LGBT Athletes of Color: Intersections of Racism, Sexism and Heterosexism.

Dude, action sports are, like totally homophobic: founded on an image of alternative lifestyle, the counterculture world of snowboarding, skating, and surfing has become one of the most uptight scenes around. - The Trial of Masculinity: Sports, Rituals, and Homophobia (L'Épreuve de la masculinité: Sport, rituels, et homophobie). - Study: Reporters Cite Homophobia as Bigger Problem in Men's Sports. - Brendan Burke talks about homophobia and hockey. - Football's Anti-Homophobia Ad, 5 Years in the Making, Delayed Again (2010).

Masculinities, sexualities and homophobia (New Blog, Psychology Today, 2012): Born in the 1980s, I grew up during a period where the most macho masculinities were esteemed. From Rambo to Rocky, Die Hard to Lethal Weapon, men were portrayed as all-action heroes whom neither bullets nor armies could vanquish. Professional wrestlers appeared almost understated in their gendered performances compared to the display of masculine bravado found in movies and revered in the wider culture. This machismo was accompanied by a pervasive and enveloping homophobia. The rise of the so-called moral majority and the AIDS epidemic meant that homosexuality was incredibly stigmatized in the 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, men went to great lengths to avoid being socially perceived as gay. The most effective way of doing this was to deploy homophobia. Accordingly, masculinity became not just a show of physical strength and emotional stoicism, but also of anti-gay animus. It is for this reason that leading sociologist Michael Kimmel argued that masculinity was effectively a performance of homophobia. And yet things have changed beyond recognition... It is likely that many of these changes are more advanced in the UK than in America. Yet progressive attitudes are undoubtedly developing in the United States as well. Much of this change has been documented by Professor Eric Anderson, and quantitative research demonstrates a similar story. For example, a recent survey of over 200,000 first time college undergraduates across 270 colleges in the United States found that 64.1% of male freshman support same-sex marriage; a statistic more startling when one considers that this does not account for those supporting civil partnerships. American culture might not have its own One Direction, but it has been quick to embrace the British band...

A History of Greeks United Against Homophobia (Cornell University): - Site has articles, brochures, and other resources. - Homophobia in Greek System. - Acted on Homophobia in College Students (PlanetOut Article - Aug. 21, '98):  "500 students at several unnamed San Francisco Bay area community colleges with shocking results: of the men in the sample, 18% reported having physically assaulted or threatened someone they believed to be gay or lesbian, and another 32% admitted to verbal homophobic harassment." - Responding to Campus Homophobia. - Homophobia is alive on campus. - Tips for Making Classrooms Safer for Students with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Parents (PDF Download). - Confronting Homophobic Speech in the Classroom. - BCTF: Issues In Education: Stopping Homophobia N/A, but do "homophobia" search at the site. Many Items!. - Report On Campus Climate For GLBT People At The University Of Minnesota – Twin Cities: PDF Download. - Homophobia and transphobia:creating a queer-positive university.

Report on the Status of the Recommendations of the President’s Task Force on Homophobia and Heterosexism – Ten Years After (York University, 2006: PDF Download). LGBTOUT Report on Homophobia and Systemic Heterosexism in the University of Toronto Departments of Engineering (2000: PDF Download). Campus Climate Committee Report 2: Gay, Lesbian, Bi-Sexual and Transgender Student Population at the University of Florida (2003: PDF Download). - Is Your Sexual Identity Reflected In Curriculum? A Survey of Queer Identifying Students at the University of Victoria (2003: PDF Download). - Heterosexism in Contemporary World Religion. - Spanish Homosexuals Charge Professor with 'Homophobia' (2009).

Dixon E, et al. (2011). Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Communities in the United States in 2010. New York, New York: New York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project, Inc. PDF Download. NCAVP member programs continue to work tirelessly to create safety for LGBTQH people nationwide. The annual goals and the reports play essential roles in eliminating the culture that fuels anti-LGBTQH hate violence. The 2010 report represents a richer source of data and information with which to understand anti-LGBTQH hate violence in the United States. NCAVP will continue to use this data to advocate for increased safety and resources for LGBTQH communities.

Coming out to debate homosexuality (Duke University): "I invite the radical queers, the gay-haters, the closeted lesbians and the indifferent Dukies to engage in this discussion inclusively and all students to reflect on their personal opinions, prejudice and agendas regarding all things gay. If Duke truly prides itself on the free exchange of diverse thought, then this discussion is long overdue. I had an incredibly difficult time finding an appropriate topic for this week's column in light of Coming Out Week and recent remarks in The Chronicle. Had I not had such a candid dialogue, it would have been easier to lash out, blindly decrying all things homophobic. This discussion forced me to think twice on a suitable and lucid commentary about this week's events."

Marie J reports on effects of the social homophobia related to the AIDS-related 1991 death of Robert McCall on a Mensa message board N/A:: "Towards the end of elementary, I took up figure skating. I'd finally found something I loved to do. Unfortunately, it made things worse in school. In Jr High, Robert McCall (famous Ice dancer) died of AIDS, and all of a sudden, my being a figure skater meant that I was a lesbian, a prostitute (I'm not sure if they knew exactly what a "whore" was, but called me it anyway), and had AIDS myself. The jump from "one figure skater was homosexual and died of AIDS" to "ALL figure skaters are gay and have AIDS" boggles me to this day, but whatever. It made my life hell." - Tracy Wilson & Robert McCall: "Tracy and Robert ended their amateur career after the 1988 Olympic figure skating season. Robert McCall had to quit skating for health reasons and has worked as choreographer. He died in 1991 on AIDS at age 33."

Sheriff's Office Consents to Address Internal Homophobia (West Hollywood). - USA 2005: Police mistreatment and abuse widespread in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities nationwide: "New Amnesty International Study Finds LGBT People of Color and Youth Most Likely to Suffer; Calls on Police to Improve Training and Accountability. - Homophobic San Francisco police video results in suspensions. - Hate Crime - A Menace in Society: Focus Panels - Homophobia (Essex Police, England). - Lincolnshire Police - Tackling Homophobia. - Do the police still have a problem with homophobia? (2007)  - The Police Service of Northern Ireland have launched a campaign to combat hate crimes & homophobia. - Homophobic crime rife in NI. - Northern Ireland victim accuses police of homophobia. - Police homophobia is “endemic”. - Sexism and homophobia still 'endemic' in all police forces. - Good cop gay cop: from the beat patrol to the precinct house, gay and lesbian police officers are shattering the blue wall of silence N/A.(Cover Story, The Advocate, March 3, 1998). Police tackle homophobia N/A (NY, 2004): Most police departments locally are doing a good job, but some say more still needs to be done. - Outrage at NYPD homophobia-driven Violence in Crown Heights (2009). - Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in the U.S (2005).

Lyons PM, et al. (2005). Police Judgments of Culpability and Homophobia. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice 1(1): "This study (a) presented 152 Texas police officers with a scenario in which the sexual orientation of a criminal suspect was manipulated (b) assessed homophobia in this sample, and (c) examined the relationship between homophobia and the officers’ judgments of the suspect’s culpability. Although the officers were no more likely to report that they would arrest a gay suspect than a heterosexual suspect, those who read a scenario with a gay suspect were more likely to indicate that they thought he should be convicted than those presented with a heterosexual suspect. In general, the officers in our study endorsed homophobic attitudes and those officers who reported higher levels of homophobia were more likely to think that the gay suspect should be convicted..." - Fort Worth Police Chief: That Faggot Had It Coming (2009). - Professor Margaret Beare on Homophobia among Police

Lambda Helps Gay Cops Strike Blow Against Anti-Gay Policy: Federal judge voids Puerto Rico police ban on associating with lesbians and gay men. - Police Brutality Aimed at Nepalese Gays. - Nepal Police Attack & Beat Gay Demonstrators (Alternate Link). - Police harassment of gay activists in India. - Gay Double Murder Shocks India. (Alternate Link) - Photos from Police Arrests of Gay Shame Protesters on Sunday. - Police refuse permit for gay and lesbian forum (Singapore). - Gay-themed film banned in Singapore. - Jamaican Police Hunt Famed Reggae Singer In Gay Beatings: ""There is a pattern of police indifference to attacks on gay men in Jamaica that goes far beyond what Buju Banton is alleged to have done in this case," said Rebecca Schleiser of HRW." - Filmmaker tackles homophobia in the Bahamas (2009). - In a step backward for emerging Vietnam, police are reported to have raided a gay sauna and arrested 30 men for undisclosed reasons (homosexual activity is not illegal in Vietnam). - Gay suspect decries sexual harassment by police. - Police raids Zimbabwe gay organisation's office. - Turkish Police Ban Gay Tourists From Aegean Resort. - Namibian minister tells police to 'eliminate' gays. - Egypt: Stop police entrapment, detention & ill treatment of gay men. - Egyptian police entrap gay men through internet chat forums. - Gay Israelis Charge Police Brutality. - Gay cops carve out a new beat in South Africa: Homosexuality is no longer considered a crime.

Repent or Perish: godhatesfags.com  - Homophobia or Holiness? The Bible and Homosexuality. - Mission:America - Fighting the "gay" Agenda in Schools. -  Groups that promote hatred and homophobia under the guise of "family values".Anti-Gay Groups. - Anti-gay ministries are a fraud that promote homophobia and self-hatred. - Steps to Recovery from Bible Abuse. - Rumors of homophobia: Promise Keepers. - Essays by Rictor Norton on the Historical Roots of Homophobia from Ancient Israel to the End of the Middle Ages.

Anti-gay violence rose 102% from 1990-1995 N/A. - 2,500 report anti-gay violence - 3rd most common bias.  - Statistics related to homophobia. - Gay man tell of being beaten, left for dead in trash. - Violence against lesbians and gay men.(PDF Download) - America's Designated Victims: Our Creative Young.

The 1998 Matthew Shepard Murder Index Page.  - The "Us" and "Them" of Murder. - Murders of Gender Non-Conforming Youth Documented in New Report. - Matthew Shepard Foundation: Resources. - Une mort horrible! - Fighting hate with "words": Judy Shepard speaks out in awareness campaigns.(mother of murdered homosexual Matthew Shepard featured in the spot 'Fighting...N/A (Shoot, October 29, 1999 by Kathy DeSalvo). - Thousands Die Each Year As A Result of Homophobia. (Alternate Link) - Cost of Homophobia (PDF Download). - 2000 Years of Church Homophobia: Peter Tatchell accuses Christianity of crimes against queer humanity. "The Bible is to gays what Mein Kampf is to Jews. It is the theory and practice of Homo Holocaust".

Community United Against Violence (San Francisco): - The New York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project.  - Chadron Campaign Against Homophobia (Nebraska).  -  Addressing Homophobia in health care in Nebraska. - PFLAG Lincoln-Cornhusker: Fighting Homophobia. - The Unlearning Homophobia Video Series. - Unlearning Homophobia. - De Colores: es un documental bilingüe de 28 minutos mostrando como las familias y comunidades latinas están reemplazando la homophobia con la tolerencia y el amor. A través de historias personales aprendemos como familias rompen barreras culturales y como el amor siempre prevalece.

It's not natural: The developing world's homophobia is a legacy of colonial rule.(Alternate Link) - Homophobia and Postcolonialism. - Male homosexuality is still illegal in Zimbabwe and punishable by up to 10 years’ jail, under laws originally introduced by the British during colonial rule. - The Hostility and Violence Against Homosexuality is not Found in Traditional Chinese Culture (Must Scroll): "the introduction of sodomy law in Hong Kong in 1865, which could sentence two consenting male adults to life imprisonment, was the result of British colonial rule. What was brought from the West to China was not same sex love, but the sin associated with it in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, which signiticamly contributed to the homophobia found in modern Chinese societies." - African Homophobia: A Crisis of Identity. - Homophobia in Africa "accelerates AIDS spread". - Fear and Loathing In Africa. -  Homophobia and the Confederate Tradition  - Homophobia as a weapon of war. -  Colonialism and Homosexuality - 2003 - by Robert Aldrich (Review) (Google Books). - Homophobia in Malaysia a legacy of British colonial rule. - Colonial homophobia marginalised homosexual and transgender Aborigines. But intolerance was never part of traditional life, as seen in the story of the Tiwi Sistergirls.

Fear and loathing in gay India. - Homophobia within India: "The Victorian morality of the British Raj, which labelled sexual non-conformity as deviant and sick, has left a homophobic stamp on the new native capitalists. It has long been suggested by theoreticians of colonialism - and not-ably in the 1950s by Frantz Fanon, writing on Algeria - that colonisers and colonised engage in a relationship which results in the latter aspiring to be like the former, taking on their values, especially on moral issues. This applies certainly to India, and has allowed radicals on the Left, who question all other issues related to society and economics, to maintain an anti-gay position." - India's Slow Descent Into Homophobia. - Asian Homophobia Overrated.(Alternate Link) -  Homophobia in China: Open Debate on De-Pathologizing Homosexuality in China. - Homophobia in China: Voices of gay men in  China. - Gay Rights in 90's China: many abuses of GLB people. - The Apartheid of Homosexuality: Homosexuals, Dogs, Smoking, Pants, Shorts, Slippers Are Not Allowed In This Restaurant. Sign on the door of an Italian restaurant in Taiwan. (Sydney Star Observer, 13 August 1998). - Homosexuals in Asia press for basic rights. - Unexpected Portraits from Asia. - In Asia, gays and lesbians take small steps.

Homophobia in Thailand - Public Response: Letters to the Editor (1997). - This apparent lack of homophobia can be explained by the valued Thai cultural practice of non-confrontation. Prejudice and discrimination do exist - indirectly. In the place of legal and religious sanctions, or public harassment, Thai sexual minorities often face malicious gossip, ostracization by family, and job discrimination. Westerners who proclaim that there is no homophobia in Thailand erase the experiences of those who have faced prejudice. For how can discrimination be addressed and dealt with if it supposedly does not exist? Thus, by acknowledging and exploring the hardships faced by male sex workers, lesbians and transgendered men, the contributors to Lady Boys, Tom Boys, Rent Boys compel readers to move beyond the idea that Thailand is a gay paradise. - Thailand: Paradise Not (on human rights and homophobia). - Rage in Thailand over ban on gay teachers. - College lifts its ban on gay entrants. - Letter: And what about homosexuality? Your article gives the impression this new curriculum will provide only heterosexual sex education. - Gays No Longer 'Sick' In Thailand (2002).  - Dear Uncle Go: Male Homosexuality in Thailand: "Jackson also asserts that the lack of overt homophobia in Thailand is conducive to homoeroticism as well. He states that “anti-homosexual violence is as uncharacteristic of Thai society as it is characteristic of traditional Western societies,” and then adds that a “greater preparedness to engage in male-male sex and the relative absence of homophobia are clearly related phenomena” (Jackson, 1995: 161). While this could be the case, Jackson offers no empirical or even anecdotal evidence to support this position."

Jackson PA (1998), Thai Buddhist accounts of male homosexuality and AIDS in the 1980s.  The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 6(3): 140-153. Full Text. "In my previous work (Jackson 1989a) I argued that popular Western perceptions of a general tolerance of homosexuality in Thailand are to an extent inaccurate. Although there are no legal or formal sanctions against homosexuality in Thailand, I showed that a wide range of normative cultural sanctions operate to stigmatise Thai homosexual men and women. Sanctions against homosexuality are diffused throughout Thai society rather than being focused in any clearly definable institution or set of homophobic practices as has historically been the case in most Western societies. However, this situation changed somewhat in the late 1980s..."

 Homophobia in Africa. - Africa, Homophobia & Colonized Minds. - Is homophobia on the rise in the Commonwealth’s African member states?. - Homophobia rife in Africa. - Who's to blame for African homophobia? We are, of course. - RW Johnson: The battle over homophobia in Africa. - Homophobia fuelling the spread of HIV. - Gay Men Have 10 Times Higher HIV Rate Due To Homophobia: Report. - UB Law Dean to Speak Against Homophobia During Week-long African Trip. - Legalizing Homophobia, Setting a Precedent in Africa. - Africa: Homophobia is the Problem, Not Homosexuality (2010). - African bishops react against state homophobia in Uganda (2010).

State-Sponsored Homophobia in Southern Africa: Abuses and Culture of Intolerance Documented. - Activists condemn "state-sponsored" homophobia. - More Than a Name: State-Sponsored Homophobia and Its Consequences in Southern Africa (PDF Download). - Homophobia at Aardklop festival unleashes debate. - L'homosexualité en Afrique. (Alternate Link) - L'homosexualité en Afrique : sens et variations d'hirer à nos jours. - Fear and Loathing In Africa. - Homophobia in Namibia.  - Namibia: The Bermuda Triangle of African Homophobia. - In Africa, homophobia goes beyond church. - Desmond Tutu: "Homophobia equals apartheid". (Alternate Link) - Homophobia: crime against humanity. - "Nowhere Is Really Safe": Violence And Harassment By Non-State Actors. - The U.S. Religious Right Exports Homophobia to Africa. - Religion, politics and Africa's homophobia (2010).

The Gay Sons of Allah: Wave of Homophobia Sweeps the Muslim World (2009). - Gender Identity And Homophobia In Pakistan (2007). - Muslim/Islamic homophobia. - Homophobia and Islamic Fundamentalism in Iran (2009). - Homophobic Muslim Gang Attacks Gay Man in Amsterdam (2008). - Muslim Mayor's Gay Rights Drive Fights Homophobia In Conservative Amsterdam Suburb (2009). - Artist Burns Rare Koran in Protest of Muslim Homophobia. - Homophobia on the rise in the Muslim world (2009): As recent incidents in Iraq show, in many Islamic countries, gays are ostracized, persecuted, even murdered. -  Liberal gays are scared to tell the truth about Muslim homophobia. - Islamophobia Watch: Documenting anti Muslim bigotry. - Queer Jihad: Essays & Articles. - Holy hatred: penalties for homosexuality are most extreme in Muslim countries.

Homophobia in Brazil - a report: Epidemic of Hate: Violations of the Human Rights of Gay Men, Lesbians and Transvestites in Brazil. (Related Information) - In Portuguese: "Homofobia, A Violaçao dos Direitos Humanos de Gays, Lésbicas & Travestis no Brasil" N/A.- Brazil's Homophobia Worst in the World. - Brazil: World Champion In The Murder Of Homosexuals. - Brazil State Makes Homophobia Criminal Offence. - Venezuela: Homophobia Stalks the Streets - in Uniform (2009). - Homophobia in Mexico (2003).  - Mexico’s anti-homophobia campaign offers lessons to world (2008). - Honduran teenager flees homophobia and finds a new life in Mexico (2009). - The Ugly Face of Homophobia in Chile (2009).  -  Sources of Homophobia in Latin America. - Homophobia is found in all Latin American countries, but when it comes to Cuba, it takes on special characteristics N/A. - Gays in Cuba join conga line against homophobia.  - Homophobia Is Not Incurable (2009).  - "Cultural Dynamics of Homophobia in Latin America" (PDF Download). - Cinema in the Rest of America - LaCinemaFe Information: "Expect to hear the derisive term "maricon" here and in other movies. Homophobia is alive and well all over Latin America, and in O Dia da Caça, the authorities who are setting up Nando and Vander make it pretty clear from their tone of voice that "that faggot" is expendable."  - Queer Issues in Contemporary Latin American Cinema. - Time to Stop Homophobic Crimes in Latin America and the Caribbean. - HIV and Homophobia in Latin America (2009).  - Anti-homophobia campaign to end discrimination in Latin America (2009). - Fighting Discrimination in Latin America: the "antihomophobia, lesbophobia, transphobia Guidelines". 

Growing Homophobia in Italy and Other European Countries N/A. - Against Italian Homophobia (2009). - The social situation concerning homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in Italy (2009). - Homophobia in Hungary. - Relentless Homophobia Rages in the Balkans. - Take Action against Homophobia in Poland. - Take Action against Homophobia in Latvia. -  Gays and Lesbians Face State-Condoned Violence and Legalized Abuse in Romania. - EU shows east-west divide on homophobia (2009). - Homophobia in France. - France outlaws sexist and anti-gay insults. - VI. Effect of IDF Inclusion of Sexual Minorities in Military Operations: "The IDF doesn't try to create the kind of intense homophobia that the US military seems to specialize in. This gets back to the fact that, as activists said to me repeatedly, "there's no homophobia in Israel, only heterosexism." (Personal Communication, April 14, 2000)" - Soviet Homophobia. - New Ukraine, Old Homophobia (2005). - Homophobia's Reach. -  Homophobia in Southeastern Europe. - Rising Homophobia in Eastern Europe (2006). - Homophobia in Eastern Europe (2007). - Cooperation to Fight Homophobia. - Fighting homophobia world wide.

Homophobia - alive and well in Nelson [New Zealand]?Students' hatred of gays common: study (Sidney, Australia).The Lesbian & Gay Anti-Violence Project Victoria. - Black-banning homophobia. - Lesbian and Gay Anti-violence Project: Homophobia: What Are You Scared Of? - Homophobia, Hate and Violence against Lesbians and Gays in NSW (Government Document (PDF Download). - Mapping Homophobia in Australia, 2005 (PDF Download). - Academic says homophobia an issue in Australia (2007). - Out With Homophobia (06 March 2002): This course is specifically aimed at key-stakeholders currently working in schools addressing homophobia.- Anti-Violence Project (Victoria) N/A: "80% of Victorian gays and lesbians and 90% of transgender people were publicly assaulted or harassed in the past 5 years. (Enough is Enough, 2000).- New web site for AVP. - New Campaign underway: "Make Some Noise" The Anti-Violence Project of Victoria launched a new anti-homophobia campaign "Make Some Noise" at Federation Square, Melbourne on Thursday 18th March 2004. - Fiji killings highlight homophobia. - New report on homophobia in Australia: Catholics as among the least homophobic people.  - Homophobia identified as growing issue in BOP (NZ). - Researchers have welcomed a $25,000 grant for a study which will delve into the extent of homophobia in amateur and elite sport in Australia (2009). - Study: Why Are Some Adolescent Males Homophobic? (2009):A new Australian study begins to explain why homophobia occurs in some male teens and not others, and why the homophobia so often leads to anti-gay bullying..."

OutRage! London - Sex, Homophobia, and Media Lies. - Black Britain urged to accept gay men. - Homophobia and sexual orientation in schools. - Homophobia in medicine. - Homophobia rife in British society, landmark equality survey finds (2008). - Homophobia: the forgotten hate crime (2009). - Premier League footballers snub anti-homophobia video (2010). - Bullying and homophobia in UK schools: A perspective on factors affecting resilience and recovery (2006). - Muslims' fury forces schools to shelve anti-homophobia storybooks for 5-year-olds (2008). - Homophobia affects how teenage boys treat girls.

 Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.. - Why Canada can't stop bullies (2009). - Canada's healthcare system is homophobic, says group (2009). - Homophobia in Canadian schools - podcast.

Gay Moroccan writer takes on homophobia (2009). - Wave of Homophobia Sweeps the Muslim World. - Strategies for Challenging Homophobia in Islamic Malaysia and Secular China. - Eindhoven: Imam to fight homophobia (2009).

The Miami Herald nurtures Florida's homophobia. - Computer news columnist: "Gays are like murderers."  -  Radio broadcaster's homophobia in Australia. - Citizens Against Homophobia is a group that uses mass media campaigns to reduce homophobia. - The End of Media Homophobia? - Called Out: The Media, Homophobia and Professional Sports. - As usual, sports writers bleep out homophobia. - Homophobia in the media: now TV ad for Virgin Mobile is investigated. - Soccer study finds 93 percent of fans would support openly gay players (2012). - Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment (2012).

Anti-Homophobia Workshop by Warren J. Blumenfeld, author of - Homophobia: How we all pay the price. (Book Review) - Homophobia Workshop Materials.  -  Homophobia Talk, Discussion Opens Line of Communication. - Slide Presentations and Interactive Workshops on Homophobia, and Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender issues, and Anti-Semitism. - In the family - Black Lesbians and Gays Against Media Homophobia. - Homophobia in the Black community. - Anti-Harassment Training Program for Schools (PDF Download). - The Project to Eliminate Homophobia in Sport.-  Lesbian & Gay Rights: Youth & Schools: Resources. - Out With Homophobia (2004): Facilitator Manual. - Unlearning Internalized Homophobia: An Interactive Workshop for GLBTIQ folks. - The Impact of Homophobia: Interpersonal and Institutional Effects- Resolution: Integrated approach to combat homophobia, Lithuania, 2006 PDF Download. - Micro Workshop #8 - Homophobia in the School Environment: A Discussion Model. 

Chapter 5: Dealing with Intractable Problems: Racism and Homophobia (1978).

Male-to-Male Child Sexual Abuse In the Context of Homophobia. - Homophobia and the Sexual Assault of Men: Social and Cultural Perceptions. - Homophobia, heterosexism and how it can hurt the fight against the abuse of children and young people (2008). - Homophobia in childhood predicts childhood sexual abuse among Latino gay men (2002). - Sexual abuse is understood in the context of a predominantly patriarchal, homophobic society in which notions of masculinity, femininity, and sexuality are rigidly defined. - Behind the Bars of Masculinity: Male Rape and Homophobia in and about South African Men's Prisons (2007, PDF). - Male/Male Rape and the "Taint" of Homosexuality (2005). - The Nature, Scope and Motivation for Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in Armed Conflict. - Homophobia and Male Rape.

Homophobie: The "europrofeminist.org" Website (English & French articles (Some not available). Spanish, German, and Deutch articles also available - Index): From  La peur de l'autre en soi, du sexisme à l'homophobie - IntroductionHomophobie: des mots aux maux...- Pierre Dutey  - L'homophobie : La face cachée du masculin - Daniel Welzer-Lang - L'homophobie masculine: préservatif psychique de la virilité? - Christophe Gentaz - Attitudes et appréciations envers les hommes homosexuels en Allemagne de l'Ouest et en Allemagne de l'Est- Michael Bochow - Quand l'autre en soi grandit: les difficultés à vivre l'homosexualité à l'adolescence- Bill Ryan et Jean-Yves Frappier (L'adolescence: une réalité méconnue) - Images invisibles: les lesbiennes - Françoise Guillemaut - L'extrême droite, ça fait mâle!  - Working With Men and Boys to Challenge Sexism and End Men’s Violence - Michael Kaufman - (Section: "Ending Sexism = Ending Homophobia") - Male-positive. Pro-feminist. Gay-affirmative. These three terms have become the guiding principles for a substantial section of the men’s movement...  - by Michael Flood - (Tres Principios para Hombres). 

From XY Magazine: - Sticks and stones (Ending discrimination against gay men is a key step in ending sexism) - Straightjacket (Homophobia and masculinity)  (Alternate Link) - What's Wrong With The Men? A Critical Look At Modern Masculinity Informed By Melucci And Habermas. - Inside track: Homophobia in Sports.  - Be a man: when boys take up guns to kill those who torment them with words like "faggot," we shouldn't be surprised N/A. (By Kevin Jennings, The Advocate, Sept. 29, 1998).

Homophobie : traditionnelle à droite, plurielle à gauche. - Les liens entre le VIH/sida et l'homophobie. - Dossiers en éducation: Arrêtons l'homophobie. - SOS HOMOPHOBIE, association loi 1901 de lutte contre l'homophobie. - L'homophobie tue. - Homophobie et journalisme. - Contexte de l'homophobie et de l'hétérosexisme (Scrolling Necessary). - Homophobie.free.fr - Google.com search for "homophobie" - Homophobie: "Homophobie und Heterosexismus treten in verschiedenen Erscheinungsformen auf. Manifeste körperliche Gewalt gegen homosexuelle Menschen kommt öfter vor als man denkt. Die Täter sind meist jüngere heterosexuelle Männer. Andere Erscheinungsformen sind soziale Ausgrenzung, Diskriminierung, Nichtwahrnehmung und Ignoranz." - Avoir l'esprit ouvert face a homosexualité. - Neoliberalism and its Homophobic Discontents (2007).

Homophobia In Prisons: - Sexualités et violences en prison - Extraits - Ces abus qu’on dit sexuels (Section on homophobia in French Prisons): - L’homophobie, la maison des hommes et la prison. - La Maison des Hommes. -  Inside/outside (Australia): "The men and masculinities that are most at risk within these hierarchies are young men, gay men, transsexuals and the physically weak... Sexuality in prison is rife with contradiction. Consensual homosexual sex (often involving men who identify as heterosexual) coexists with vehement homophobia." -  A Million Jockers, Punks, and Queens: Sex among American Male Prisoners and its Implications for Concepts of Sexual Orientation (American) - "By my own before-and-after observation of federal prisons, homophobia has risen, especially among whites, the status of queens has fallen, virgin heterosexuals are more highly prized, fewer jockers are hooking up, and much of the sexual behavior has become more covert."

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Homophobia). - "Licensed To Kill  - paints a frightening portrait of an America where homophobia is a deeply ingrained part of life, the template rather than the exception. An America where hate is taught, encouraged, and passed father-to- son, from generation to generation: it is learned in the home, at school, at church, from the media, and from peers. The film depicts an American society deeply confused about sexuality, where repressed individuals are given tacit permission to vent their frustrations by performing acts of violence against gay Americans." - Anti-Homosexual Homicides Most Often Perpetrated by Young Males (PDF Download). - Cause of Death: Homophobia (2004). - Download Homophobia Movies.

Hollywood: - Closeted Homophobia: How Hollywood Maintains Heteronormativity Through the Portrayal of Queer Characters. - Doing Deviance, Teaching Conformity: How Transgender Characters in Hollywood Films Promote Normative Gender Roles. - Ian McKellen on Hollywood Homophobia. - Nathan Lane: Hollywood, homophobia and Mel Brooks. - Funny that way: Blades of Glory and Hollywood’s homophobic impulse. - Hollywood: home of homophobia. - Another crappy homophobic Hollywood movie: Below are excerpts from two movie reviews of 'Role Models' (starring Paul Rudd, Seann William Scott and Jane Lynch). - Hollywood Finally Tackles Black Homophobia: Start lining up for Dirty Laundry, a hilarious and touching film about a black gay family man. - Homophobia in Black Hollywood (2009). - Should Gay Hollywood Be Telling Young Hollywood to Keep it in the Closet? - No Closet, No Return: New local theater group debuts with this smart, if familiar, local premier about Hollywood's homophobia. - Catch of the day: Hollywood's homoerotic homophobia: Since Brokeback Mountain, no major studio has produced a single gay film. We have, however, had Wild Hogs... -  Homophobia Still Running Rampant in Hollywood. - YouTube: Hollywood's Promotion of Homophobia Must End. - The homegrown homophobia of Hollywood Undead (2008). - Sean Penn on Milk, Prop 8, and Homophobia in Hollywood (2009). - Colin Firth “feels complicit” in Hollywood’s homophobia (2010).

Québec: - De l'égalité juridique à l'égalité sociale - Vers une stratégie nationale de lutte contre l'homophobie (2007, PDF, Download Page: Québec policy against homophobia. - PDF). - Analyse du rapport « De l’égalité juridique à l’égalité sociale » du groupe de travail mixte contre l’homophobie. - Homophobie - L'égalité sociale n'est pas acquise au Québec: L'intolérance subie par André Boisclair est répandue, souligne un rapport. - Invisible Identities: Sexually Diverse Ethnic and Racial Minorities and Two-Spirited People in Quebec (2007). - Une lutte contre l'homophobie qui tarde à venir - La CSQ accuse la ministre de la Justice de se traîner les pieds (2009) - Homophobia high: Classrooms become labs for a multi-university study on attitudes towards LGBT students (2009). - Québec policy against homophobia (2009). - The Government of Québec Declares War on a ‘homophobic’ and ‘heterosexist’ populace (2010). - Quebec moves ahead with anti-homophobia plan (2010). - Egale Canada - Homophobia and Transphobia: Cases of discriminatory speech and actions. - Schools full of homophobia: researcher Says many kids bullied, fearful.

Canadian Labour Congress: Against Homophobia and Transphobia.

Abstracts: - “But There’s a Million Jokes About Everybody . . .”: Prevalence of, and Reasons for, Directing Negative Behaviors Toward Gay Men on a Canadian University Campus (2010).   

Abstracts: - Internalized Heterosexism (2008). - Incidence of and risk factors for sexual orientation-related physical assault among young men who have sex with men (2008). - Exploring the Relationship between Homophobia and Participation in Core Sports among High School Students (2007). - Black-White Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexuality and Gay Rights (2003). - When in Rome: Heterosexism, Homophobia, and Sports Talk Radio (2004). - Reflections on experiences in peer-based anti-homophobia education (2004).  - Absences that Matter: Constructions of Sexuality in Studies of Young Women’s Friendships (2000). - Male teachers, homophobia, misogyny and teacher education (2004). - The lack of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation in Hong Kong: breach of international and domestic legal obligations (2005). - The social construction of gay oppression as a determinant of gay men's health: 'homophobia is killing us' (2008). - Same sex attraction, homophobic bullying and mental health of young people in Northern Ireland  (2008). - Homophobia as a Boundary Phenomenon: The Dynamic Dance Between Different Tensions (2007). - Fusion or Internalized Homophobia? A Pilot Study of Bowen's Differentiation of Self Hypothesis With Lesbian Couples (2008). - The social construction of gay oppression as a determinant of gay men's health: 'homophobia is killing us' (2008). - Marginalization by the Marginalized: Race, Homophobia, Heterosexism, and “the Problem of the 21st Century” (2009). - Shopping Behaviour Among Gay Men: Issues of Internalized Homophobia and Self-Esteem (2007). - Faggot = Loser (2001). -  The Evaluation of Homophobia in an Italian Sample (2005). - Heterosexism in the Workplace: Do Race And Gender Matter? (2003). - Experiences of homonegativity and sexual risk behaviour in a sample of Latino gay and bisexual men (2010).

Homophobia Related Videos: - Life, Interrupted. - Gay Violence!!! - Gay Bashing in America (USA). - Gay Bashed - The Story of My Ass Kicking (USA). - MSM07 "Gay-Bashed By Police" (2/7) (USA). - Gay Bashing (USA). - Gay Bashing Protest (Canada). - Why people gay bash.... - Gay In Iran (Part 1 of 2). Gay In Iran (Part 2 of 2). - L'homophobie tue à l'école. - Challenging Homophobia (Teachers.TV).  - Kick Homophobia Out Of Football: It’s Time Bigotry Was Booted Off the Terraces. (Football accused in homophobia row: Players refuse to appear in video designed to combat prejudice). -  Halo 3: Homophobia Evolved (NSFW).  - Homophobia Is Gay. -  Homophobia. - Gay Teen Boy Abuse: Bullying & Homophobia.

Resources: - homophobiaday.org - Challenging Homopobia. - SOS-Homophobie.org. - homophobie.free.fr. - homophobie.org - endhomophobia.org - unlearninghomophobia.com - Tacklehomophoia.com - beyondhomophobia.com - gayhate.com - stophomophobiatoday.com - prideandprejudice.com.au - eachaction.org.uk - understandingprejudice.org - International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia.

Resources: - The Public Forum: Homophobia. - The Heterosexism Enquirer: Canada's first online Heterosexism resource. - Homophobie: Articles. - Matthew Shepard Foundation

Resources / Bibliographies: - Anti-Homophobia Resources. - Promoting Respect, Inclusion and Diversity in Education (PRIDE, UK): Challenging Homophobic Bullying: Publications and Guidance – Resources Available Online. - NoOutsiders, UK: links to reports. - The Gregory M. Herek Bibliography. - understandingprejudice.org : Bibliography. - Sexual Prejudice: Understanding Homophobia and Heterosexism.  -  Abstracts of selected papers on homophobia by Dr. Herek. - Homosexualities, homophobia, queer theory. - Gay Men, Homophobia and Masculinity. - Homophobia Books for Men. - A Short Bibliography of Writings on Gay Shame. - Video resources on homophobia & heterosexism. - Homophobia and Heterosexism: 10 Top Teacher Resources: K -12. - Challenging Homophobia and Heterosexism: A Resource Guide for Educators. - The Heterosexism Enquirer Resources Page. - Heterosexism & Homophobia Resources. - UnderstandingPrejudice.org: Reading Room - Heterosexism & Homophobia. Sexual Orientation & Homophobia: Reaching Out to Young People: A Resource and Awareness Guide (PDF). - Toolkit for Teachers: Dealing with Homophobia and Homophobic Bullying in Scottish Schools (PDF). - Tolerance and Non-Discrimination Information System (TANDIS): Homophobia. - Google Directory: Homophobia. - Questia's Books & Articles on Homophobia.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Books:  - Overcoming Heterosexism and Homophobia - 1997 - edited by James T Sears, Walter L. Williams (21 Sample Pages) (Review) (Review) (Google Books). - Heterosexism: an ethical challenge - 1993 - by  Patricia Beattie Jung, Ralph F. Smith (Google Books). - Homophobia: how we all pay the price - 1992 - by Warren J. Blumenfeld (Google Books) (Book Review). - Homophobia: an overview - 1984 - edited by  John P. De Cecco (Google Books). - Preventing Heterosexism and Homophobia - 1996 - edited by Esther D. Rothblum and Lynne A. Bond (Review).-  Homophobia : A Weapon of Sexism Includes Afterword and Annotated Bibliography - 1997 - by Suzanne Pharr (Free Condensed Version). -  Setting Them Straight: You Can Do Something About Bigotry and Homophobia in Your Life - 1996 - by Betty Berzon (Abstract). - The Dictionary of Homophobia: A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience - 2008 - edited by Louis-Georges Tin. - Homophobia: An Australian History - 2008 - edited by Shirleene Robinson (Google Books) (Review) (Review)- Homophobia: A History - 2001 - by Byrne Fone (Author Interview). - Challenging Homophobia: Teaching about Sexual Diversity - 2007 - edited by Lutz van Dijk, Barry Van Driel, Foreword by Archbishop Desmond Tutu (Review) (Review).

Books:  - Addressing Homophobia and Heterosexism on College Campuses - 2003 - by Elizabeth P. Cramer (Google Books) (Review). - Challenging Homophobia and Heterosexism: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Issues, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education - 2006 - edited by Robert J. Hill (Amazon). Troubling Intersections of Race and Sexuality: Queer Students of Color and Anti-Oppressive Education - 2001 - edited by Kevin K. Kumashiro (About the Author) (Google Books). - Community Organizing Against Homophobia and Heterosexism: The World Through Rainbow-Colored Glasses - 2004 - by Samantha Wehbi (Google Books). - Homophobia And The Law - 2005 - by Amy D. Ronner. - Setting Them Straight: You Can Do Something About Bigotry and Homophobia in Your Life - 1996 - by Betty Berzon. - Readings for Diversity and Social Justice: An Anthology on Racism, Sexism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism, Classism, and Ableism - 2000 - edited by Maurianne Adams, Warren J. Blumenfeld, Rosie Castaneda, Heather W. Hackman, Madeline L. Peters, Ximena Zuniga, Rosie Castaneda (15 Sample Pages) (Google Books). - Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation 2010 - by Derald Wing Sue (Google Books).

Books:  - How to Survive Your Own Gay Life: An Adult Guide to Love, Sex and Relationships - 1998 - by Perry Brass: The main challenge gay people face, of course, is homophobia, which is either external or internal but whose "results are the same: a society that is both rejecting of gay men and a gay society that is self-rejecting." "Internalized homophobia works like a sponge, absorbing every negative feeling we experience, both from within and from outside. These negative feelings cut us off from our own tenderness, closeness with ourselves, and sources of strength." Only by recognizing and dealing with the fact can we "survive our own gay lives." (Review) (Amazon) - How to Make the World a Better Place for Gays and Lesbians - 1995 - by Una W. Fahy. - Faces of Hate - 1997 - edited by Chris Cunneen, David Fraser, Stephen Tomsen (Review). - Sexually Stigmatized Communities: Reducing Heterosexism and Homophobia: An Awareness Training Manual - 1999 - by Chuck Stewart (Related WebSite) (Review) (Review). - Adolescents homosexuels - Des préjugés à l'acceptation - 2009 - de Elisabeth Thorens-Gaud (Interview). - Homophobia: The State of Sexual Bigotry Today - 2009 - by Martin Kantor. - The Dictionary of Homophobia: A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience - 2008 - edited by Louis-Georges Tin, translated by Marek Redburn (Introduction) (Africa: Central & Eastern) (Review). Arsenal Pulp Press: Based on the work of seventy researchers in fifteen countries, The Dictionary of Homophobia is a mammoth, encyclopedic book that documents the history of homosexuality, and various cultural responses to it, in all regions of the world: a masterful, engaged, and wholly relevant study that traces the political and social emancipation of a culture. The book is the first English translation of Dictionnaire de L'Homophobie, published in France in 2003 to world-wide acclaim.

Books:  - Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men - 1992 - edited by Gregory M. Herek & Kevin T. Berrill (Abstract Contents Reviews). - Homophobic Violence - 1997 - edited by Gail Mason, Stephen Tomsen (Google Books) (Review). - Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice Against Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals - 1998 - edited by Gregory M. Herek (Abstract, Contents).Strong Women, Deep Closets : Lesbians and Homophobia in Sport - 1998 -  by Pat Griffin (15 Sample Pages) (Review) (Review).- GLBTQ: The Survival Guide for Queer and Questioning Teens - 2003 - by Kelly Huegel, Steven Cozza (Contents/Excerpts). - The Spectacle of Violence: Homophobia, Gender, and Knowledge - 2002 - by Gail Mason (Review). - Coming Out Through Fire: Surviving the Trauma of Homophobia - 1998 - by Leanne McCall Tigert. - The Construction of Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men - 2000 - by Lynn Pardie (Review, Must Scroll) (Google Books). - Violence and Social Injustice Against Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People - 1998 - by by Lacey M. Sloan, Nora S. Gustavsson (Abstract) (Google Books). 
Books:  - One Of The Boys: Masculinity, Homophobia, And Modern Manhood - 1999 - by David Plummer (Google Books) (Amazon). - Boyhoods: Rethinking Masculinities - 2009 - by Ken Corbett (Related: The Puzzle of Boys: Scholars and others debate what it means to grow up male in America. Alternate Link). - Being Normal is the Only Way To Be: Adolescent Perspectives on Gender and School - 2005 - by Wayne Martino, Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli (Review) (Review) (Google Books)- The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex - 1993 - by Warren Farrell: "Although Farrell's book is written for the mainstream straight world, it has powerful implications for gays and for understanding homophobia." (Review)  (Review) (Amazon). - How Homophobia Hurts Children: Nurturing Diversity at Home, at School, and in the Community - 2002 - by Jean M Baker (Review) (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books). - A Family and Friend's Guide to Sexual Orientation: Bridging the Divide Between Gay and Straight - 1996 - by Bob Powers and Alan Ellis (Abstract) (Google Books) - Ties That Bind: Familial Homophobia and Its Consequences - 2009 - by  Sarah Schulman (Review) (Review). - Moral panics, sex panics: fear and the fight over sexual rights - 2009 - by Gilbert H. Herdt (Google Books) (Review). 

Books:  - The Gay Agenda: Talking Back to the Fundamentalists - 1997 - by Jack Nichols (Review) (Review) (Amazon). - Anything But Straight: Unmasking the Scandals and Lies Behind the Ex-Gay myth - 2003 - by Wayne R Besen (Related Web Site) (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Church Has AIDS: Essays on Sexuality, Sexual Orientation, Taboos, and the Black Church - 2010 - by Gerald Palmer (Book Preview).

Books:  - One More River to Cross : Black and Gay in America - 1998 - by Keith Boykin (Review). - The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities - 2001 - by Delroy Constantine-Simms (Excerpt) (Interview with author (Interview with author) (Interview with author (Review: Black Gay / Gay Black) (Review). - Dangerous Liaisons: Blacks, Gays, and the Struggle for Equality - 1999 - edited by Eric Brandt, Kendall Thomas (Introduction) (12 Sample Pages). - Creating Change: Sexuality, Public Policy, and Civil Rights - 2002 - edited by John D'Emilio, William Turner, Urvashi Vaid (Review) (Review)- Latino Gay Men and HIV: Culture, Sexuality, and Risk Behavior - 1999 - by Rafael M. Diaz: "Probably the most important statement from the book that sums up the problem of educating Latino gay men is: "The book's overall hypothesis is that six sociocultural factors in the lives of Latino gay men--machismo, homophobia, family loyalty, sexual silence, poverty, and racism--internalized through socialization experiences, undermine the self-regulation of sexuality and have become important barriers to the practice of safer sex." (Amazon)

Get That Freak: Homophobia and Transphobia in High Schools - 2011 - by Rebecca Haskell, Brian Burtch (Introduction) (Excerpt) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview: Rebecca Haskell) (Radio Interview: Brian Burtch) (Global TV News Interview With Authors) (City TV Interview with Rebecca Haskell).

Bergling, Tim (2001). Sissyphobia: Gay Men and Effeminate Behavior. New York: Harrington Park Press. Internet: http://www.timbergling.com/sissyphobia/. - Amazon. - Definition: Effeminate. - Effeminate. - Whoa Nellie!: "Nellie, Flamey, Queenie, Femme -- all of these terms are used within the gay community to describe effeminate men... If you look at a catalog of porn films to try to find effeminate in the title you will find that it is practically impossible. In fact, hot nellie action doesn't sound so thrilling when many of us think about it. What's disturbing to know is that if there are so many effeminate men out there, how come none of them are attracted to people like themselves? Tim Berling, author of gay fiction and non-fiction, coined the phrase "sissyphobia," an ailment our culture has blatantly accepted but seldom talks about. Even sissies are "sissyphobic." You wouldn't believe how many "fuck yous" I got when I tried to question the flamiest guys I know about why they acted that way. They were insulted because I insinuated that they were effeminate, yet they were quick to point fingers towards other queens who "might be of help." To many homosexual men, a lisp or a hand gesture comes naturally, and they don't equate it with being nellie." Alvear, Michael (2001). Nellies need not apply. Salon Magazine. Internet: http://www.salon.com/sex/feature/2001/08/01/nelly/ - http://dir.salon.com/sex/feature/2001/08/01/nelly/index.html . Book Review: Sissyphobia.

Wayne Martino & Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli (2003). So What's a Boy? Addressing Issues of Masculinity and Schooling. Open University Press: 2006 Review: PDF Download

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

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Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies / Reports (and/or Abstracts):

Homophobia: A Weapon of Sexism (Condensed) - 1997 - by Suzanne Pharr. PDF Download.

Eric Anderson, Mark McCormack & Others: Papers Books (Profile. CV. Personal Website. Download Page for Journal Articles. Related Blog by Mark McCormack - Website - Papers - Website - Papers): Changing masculinities and less homophobia.
Anderson E (2012). Shifting Masculinities in AngloAmerican Countries. Masculinities and Social Change, 1(1): 40-60.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Anderson E, ed. (2012). Sport, Masculinities and Sexualities. Routledge. Amazon.com. The 2010 Call for Papers.Related Papers & Abstracts in The Journal of Homosexuality: Special Issue (2011): Sport, Masculinities, and Sexualities, edited by Eric Anderson. First Paper: Anderson E (2011). Masculinities and Sexualities in Sport and Physical Cultures: Three Decades of Evolving Research. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5): 565-578.Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

McCormack M (2012). The Declining Significance of Homophobia: How Teenage Boys are Redefining Masculinity and Heterosexuality. Oxford University Press.  Amazon. Author Website. Author related page. Related Article, The Economist (2012): It’s getting better: Quietly, but quickly, anti-gay attitudes are vanishing in schools.

Anderson E, Adams A, Rivers I (2012). ‘‘I Kiss Them Because I Love Them’’: The Emergence of Heterosexual Men Kissing in British Institutes of Education. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(2): 421-30. Abstract. PDF Download.

Bush AJ, Anderson E, Carr S (2012). The Declining Existence of Men’s Homophobia in British Sport. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6(1): 107-120. AbstractPDF Download. PDF Download.

Peterson GT, Anderson E (2012). The Performance of Softer Masculinities on the University Dance Floor. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 20(1): 3-15. AbstractPDF Download.

Cunningham GB (2012). A Multilevel Model for Understanding the Experiences of LGBT Sport Participants. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6(1): 5–20.PDF Download.

Adams A, Anderson E (2011). Exploring the relationship between homosexuality and sport among the teammates of a small, Midwestern Catholic college soccer team. Sport, Education and Society, Online First.  Abstract & First Page. PDF Download.

Anderson E, McCormack M, Lee H (2011). Male Team Sport Hazing Initiations in a Culture of Decreasing Homohysteria. Journal of Adolescent Research, Online First. Abstract PDF Download.

Anderson E, Adams A (2011). “Aren't we all a little bisexual?”: The recognition of Bisexuality in an unlikely place. Journal of Bisexuality, 11(1), 3-22. Abstract.PDF Download.

Anderson E (2011): Updating the Outcome: Gay Athletes, Straight Teams, and Coming Out in Educationally Based Sport Teams. Gender and Society, 25(2): 250-268. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Ripley M, Anderson E, McCormack M, Rockett B (2011). Heteronormativity in the University Classroom: Novelty Attachment and Content Substitution among Gay-friendly Students. Sociology of Education, 85(2): 121-130. Abstract. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2011). The Rise and Fall of Western homohysteria. Journal of Feminist Scholarship 1: 80-94. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Ripley M, Anderson E, McCormack M, Adams A, Pitts R (2011). The Decreasing Significance of Stigma in the Lives of Bisexual Men: Keynote Address, Bisexual Research Convention, London. Journal of Bisexuality, 11(2): 195-206. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Anderson E, Adams A (2011). “Aren't we all a little bisexual?”: The recognition of Bisexuality in an unlikely place. Journal of Bisexuality, 11(1): 3-22. Abstract. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2011). Masculinities and Sexualities in Sport and Physical Cultures: Three Decades of Evolving Research. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5): 565-578. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

McCormack M (2011). Mapping the Terrain of Homosexually-Themed Language. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5): 664–679.
Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2011). Inclusive masculinities of university soccer players in the American Midwest. Gender and Education, 23(6): 729-744. Abstract. PDF Download.

Southall RM, Anderson ED, Nagel MS, Polite FG, Southall C (2011). An investigation of ethnicity as a variable related to US male college athletes’ sexual-orientation behaviours and attitudes. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(2): 293-313. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

McCormack M (2010). Changing Masculinities in Youth Cultures: Review Essay. Qualitative Sociology, 33: 111-115. Books Reviewed & Page 111. PDF Download.
The Metrosexual: Gender, Sexuality, and Sport. David Coad. Albany: SUNY Press, 2008. ISBN 0791474100. 214 pages, $16.95 (paper).
Inclusive Masculinity: The Changing Nature of Masculinities. Eric Anderson. London: Routledge, 2009. ISBN: 0415804620. 190 pages, $95 (hardback).
Guyland. Michael Kimmel. New York: Harper Collins, 2008. ISBN 0060831359, 332 pages, $25.95 (cloth).
McCormack M, Anderson E (2010). It’s Just Not Acceptable Any More’: The Erosion of Homophobia and the Softening of Masculinity at an English Sixth Form. Sociology, 44(5): 843-859. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. "Sixth Form" Information.

Anderson E, McCormack M (2010). Intersectionality, critical race theory, and American sporting oppression: examining black and gay male athletes. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(8): 949-67.
Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Anderson E, McCormack M (2010). Comparing the Black and Gay Male Athlete: Patterns in American Oppression. Journal of Men’s Studies, 18(2): 145-158.
Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Adams A, Anderson E, McCormack M (2010). Establishing and Challenging Masculinity: The Influence of Gendered Discourses in Organized Sport. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(3): 278-300.
Abstract. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2009). The Maintenance of Masculinity Among the Stakeholders of Sport. Sport Management Review, 12: 3–14.
Abstract. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2008). “Being Masculine is not About who you Sleep with...:” Heterosexual Athletes Contesting Masculinity and the One-time Rule of Homosexuality. Sex Roles, 58(1/2): 104-115.   Abstract. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2008). "I Used to Think Women Were Weak": Orthodox Masculinity, Gender Segregation, and Sport. Sociological Forum, 23(2): 257-280Abstract. PDF Download.

More papers available for download: Download Page for Journal Articles: Anderson. Download Pages for Journal Articles: McCormack. Download Pages for Journal Articles: McCormack.

Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 1(2) 2004: Special Issue: Homophobia and Sexual Prejudice. - Introduction: Expanding our Notions of Homophobia and Sexual Prejudice (PDF). - Beyond "Homophobia": Thinking About Sexual Prejudice and Stigma in the Twenty-First Century (PDF). - Enacting Masculinity: Antigay Violence and Group Rape as Participatory Theater (PDF). - Paths to Homophobia (PDF). - Homophobia and Hostility: Christian Conservative Reactions to the Political and Cultural Progress of Lesbians and Gay Men (PDF). - Premodern Origins of Modern Homophobia and Masculinity (PDF).

Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 5(3), 2009 (PDF Download): Editorial: Queer hate. By Christopher Fox. - ‘It really is water off our backs’: Young LGBQ people’s strategies for resisting and refuting homonegative practices in Australian workplaces. By Paul Willis. - Lesbian exclusion: ‘I didn't learn it in a cognisant sense, I absorbed it through my skin’. By Suzanne Dyson. - Rural homophobia: Not really gay. By Lorene Gottschalk and Janice Newton. - It’s hatred and intolerance not fear. By Christopher Fox. - The smiling faces of contemporary homophobia and transphobia. By Damien W. Riggs and Amy Patterson.

Adams HE, Wright LW Jr, Lohr BA (1996). Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3): 440-5. PDF Download.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Allegra R. Gordon AR, Meyer IH (2008). Gender Nonconformity as a Target of Prejudice, Discrimination, and Violence Against LGB Individuals. Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(3): 55-71. PDF Download.

Amnesty International (2006). New York City: Abuse of Transgender Women by New York City Police Officers. PDF Download.

Amnesty International (2005). Stonewalled: Police Abuse and Misconduct Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in the U.S. PDF Download.

Andersen R, Fetner T (2008). Cohort Differences in Tolerance of Homosexuality: Attitudinal Change in Canada and the United States, 1981–2000. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(2): 311-330. PDF Download.

Anderson E (2002). Openly Gay Athletes: Contesting Hegemonic Masculinity in a Homophobic Environment. Gender & Society, 16(6): 860-877. PDF Download.

Anehall KJO (2001). Covert Homophobia as a Function of Erotophobia and Social Restrictions. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 4: 37-42. Download Page. PDF Download.

Anonymous? (2003). Faces of Prejudice: Comparing Homophobic and Racial Attitudes Across Social Classes. Undergraduate Studies: Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) Documents. Download PageWord Download.

Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL, 2008). An inclusive culture: challenging homophobic and sexist bullying. UK: ATL: the education union. PDF Download.

Backer LC (2005). Emasculated Men, Effeminate Law in the United States, Zimbabwe and Malaysia. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism, 17(1):  101-160. PDF Download.

Badgett MWL, Lau H,  Sears B,  Ho D (2007). Bias in the Workplace: Consistent Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination. The Williams Institute.  PDF Download.

Balanko, Shelley L (1997). Anti-gay violence at the University of Saskatchewan : occurrences, mental and physical health consequences, and perceived effectiveness of support services. Master's Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan. PDF Download. Download Page.

Balder, Sara (2005). Marginalization of alternative gender and sexual identities: The role of normative discursive practices in Chilean society. Colorado Research in Linguistics, 18(10): 1-11. PDF Download.

Balsam KF, Rothblum ED, Beauchaine TP (2005). Victimization over the life span: a comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3): 477-87. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Banks C (2003, Rochon Associated Human Resource Management Consulting Inc.). The Cost of Homophobia: Literature Review on the Human Impact of Homophobia In Canada. Submitted to: Gay and Lesbian Health Services, Saskatoon, SK. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Barron M (2004). 'You're meant to be a man, why are you girlie? - Be a man!' Gay & bisexual young men, bofy image: stereotyping & bullying.  Masters' Dissertation. Brule University, London. Word Download.

Benoit-Bryan, Jennifer (2001). The Runaway Longitudinal Study: A panel study spanning 15 years which examines the characteristics of kids who run away from home and the long term impacts of run away behavior on key outcomes in adulthood. National Runaway Switchboad. PDF Download.

Berlan ED, Corliss HL, Field AE, Goodman E, Austin SB (2010). Sexual orientation and bullying among adolescents in the growing up today study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(4): 366-71. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Besen Y, Zicklin G (2007). Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality. Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality, 1(3): 250-266. PDF Download.

Betron M, Gonzalez-Figueroa E (2009). Gender Identity, Violence, and HIV among MSM and TG: A Literature Review and a Call for Screening. Washington, DC: Futures Group International, USAID |Health Policy Initiative, Task Order 1. PDF Download.

Bidstrup, Scott (2000). Homophobia: The Fear Behind The Hatred: An essay on the origin and nature of homophobia. Full Text.

Blaauw, Joris (2012). Attitudes towards Homosexuality: A study on contextual explanations of general and specific homonegativity among Dutch secondary school students. Master`s Dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. PDF Download.

Blumenfeld WJ, Cooper RM (2010). LGBT and Allied Youth Responses to Cyberbullying: Policy Implications. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3(1): 114-133. PDF Download.

Boellstorff T (2004). The Emergence of Political Homophobia in Indonesia: Masculinity and National Belonging. Ethnos, 69(4): 465–486. PDF Download.

Bonnici F, Tucker L (2002). Eliminating Homophobia: A Social Education StrategyPDF Download.

Bos, David (2009). Sports, Sociability, Sex, and Stigma. Experiences of Dutch gays and lesbians in field hockey and fitness training. PDF Download. Download Page.

Bos HM, Gartrell NK, Peyser H, van Balen F (2008). The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(4): 455-471. PDF Download.

Boston Public Health Commission, LGBT Health (2002). Double Jeopardy: How Racism and Homophobia Impact the Health of Black and Latino Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Communities. Word Download.

Bowers R, Plummer D, Minichiello V (2005). Homophobia and the everyday mechanisms of prejudice: Findings from a qualitative study. Counselling, Psychotherapy, and Health, 1(1), 31-51. PDF Download.

Brackenridge C, Alldred P, Jarvis A, Maddocks K, Rivers I (2008). A Review of Sexual Orientation in Sport. Centre for Youth Sport and Athlete Welfare, Brunel University. A research study for: sportscotland, Sport Northern Ireland, Sport England and UK Sport. PDF Download.

Brändström A (21012). Challenging heteronormativity through literature: Teaching David Levithan’s Boy meets boy with norm critical pedagogy. Göteborg University: Department of Languages and Literatures/English. PDF Download.

Breen MS (2001). Introduction to the Special Issue: Strange Bedfellows: Queer Negotiations with Homophobia in the Arts, Politics, and Religion. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 6(4): 231-234. PDF Download.

Brown, Clarence, E (2008). Racism in the Gay Community and Homophobia in the Black Community: Negotiating The Gay Black Male Experience. MS Thesis, Sociology: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. PDF Download.

Bull, Chris (2002). The college sports closet: increased attention from the NCAA and pressure applied by gay  activists may finally even the playing field for gay athletes.... The Advocate, March 05. Full Text N/A.

Bull C (1999). The state of hate. (eleven more antigay killings since the Matthew Shepard murder in October 1998). The Advocate, April 13. 8 pages. Full Text N/A.

Buston K, Hart G (2001). Heterosexism and Homophobia in Scottish School Sex Education: Exploring the Nature of the Problem. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 95-109. Full Text N/A: PDF Download), PubMed Abstract.

CAELIF (2011). Les représentations de l’homosexualité en milieu étudiant: Synthèse de l’enquête SOS homophobie. Ile-de-France: Collectif des Associations Etudiantes LGBT d’Ile-de-France. PDF Download. Translation.

Garig A, et al. (2000). Men, Masculinities and Development: Broadening our work towards gender equality. Gender in Development Monograph Series #10. PDF Download.

Carrara S, Vianna ARB (2003?). Lethal Violence Against Homosexuals in Rio de Janeiro City: General Characteristics. PDF Download.

Carroll H, Griffin J, Heywood L, Donald Sabo D (2002). Why Homophobia Is A Men's and Women's Sports Issue. Position Paper, Project to Eliminate Homophobia in Sport. PDF Download.

Case DN, Hesp GA, Eberly CG (2005). An Exploratory Study of the Experiences of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Fraternity and Sorority. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 1(1): 15-31. PDF Download.

Chavez CA (2003). Homophobia, Hate Crimes, and Victimization in Racial and Ethnic Communities of Color. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta, GA. Full Text.

Claassen, Cheryl (2000). Homophobia and women archaeologists. World Archaeology, 32(2): 173-179. PDF Download.

Clouse, Sean Travis (2007). Development And Validation Of The Perceived Parental Social Support Scale- Lesbian Gay (ppss-lg). PhD. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Colker R (2004). Homophobia, aids hysteria, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Gender, Race and Justice, 33.  PDF Download.

Corliss HL, Cochran SD, Mays VM (2002). Reports of Parental Maltreatment During Childhood in a United States Population-based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual and Heterosexual Adults. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26: 1165-1178. PDF Download.

Cortina LM, et al. (2008). Slurs, Snubs, and Queer Jokes: Incidence and Impact of Heterosexist Harassment in Academia. Sex Roles, 58: 179-191. PDF Download.

Craig SC, Martinez MD, Cain JG, Gainous J (2002). Core Values, Value Conflict, and Citizens' Ambivalence about Gay Rights. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.  PDF Download.

Crowhurst M (2009). More Conversations with Queer Young People To Be Read Aloud. Australia: Common Ground Publishing Pty Ltd. PDF Download.

D'Augelli AR (1998). Developmental implications of victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. In G. M Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 187-210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Full Text. Full Text.

Davison K, Frank B (2006). Sexualities, Genders, Bodies and Sport: Changing Practices of Inequity. In K. Young & P. White (Eds.) Sport and Gender in Canada, Second Edition, Toronto: Oxford University Press, pp. 178-193. PDF Download. Download Page.

De La Mora T, Terradillos J (2007). Reflexiones del armario [Thoughts from the closet]. Cuadernos de Trabajo Social, 20: 249-264. PDF Download. Google Translation.

Della B, Wilson M, Lin Miller R (2002). Strategies for Managing Heterosexism Used among African American Gay and Bisexual Men.  Journal of Black Psychology, 28(4): 371-391. PDF Download.

Demirkan-Martin, Vulcan Volkan (2009). Queerable spaces: homosexualities and homophobias in contemporary film. PhD. Dissertation, Cultural Studies, University of Canterbury. PDF Download. Download Page.

Denton, Mary Jean (2009). The lived experiences of lesbian/Gay/[bisexual/transgender] educational leaders. Ed.D. Dissertation, Educational Policy and Administration, University of Minnesota. PDF Download. Download Page.

Diaz RM, Ayala G, Bein E, Henne J, Marin BV (2001). The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: findings from 3 US cities. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 927-32. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Dick, Sam (2008). Homophobic Hate Crime: The Gay British Crime Survey 2008. Stonewall. UK: Stonewall. PDF Download.

Dixon E, et al. (2011). Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Communities in the United States in 2010. New York, New York: New York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project, Inc. PDF Download.

Dodds C, Keogh P, Hickson F (2005). It Makes Me Sick:Homophobia and the. Health of Gay Men and Bisexual Men. Sigma Research, London. PDF Download.

Donnelly J (1999). Non-Discrimination and Sexual Orientation: Making a Place for Sexual Minorities in the Global Human Rights Regime. In: Peter Baehr, Cees Flinterman, and Mignon Senders (eds.), Innovation and Inspiration: Fifty Years of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 93-110. PDF Download.

Douglas Scott S, Pringle A, Colin Lumsdaine C (2004). Sexual Exclusion - Homophobia and health inequalities: a review. A review of health inequalities and social exclusion experienced by lesbian, gay and bisexual people. UK Men's Health Network. PDF Download.

Dreyer Y (2007). Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by heteronormativity. HTS 63(1). PDF Download.

Dwyer, Angela (2011). Damaged goods: riskiness and LGBT young peoples’ interactions with police. In: Proceedings for the 2010 Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference, July 1-2 2010, Sydney. PDF Download.

Eadie, William F (2006-09). In Plain Sight: Gay and Lesbian Communication and Culture. In: Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel (Eds) Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Google Books. PDF Download.

Elfenbein A (1998). Stricken Deer: Secrecy, Homophobia, and the Rise of the Suburban Man. Genders, 27. Full text.

Ellis SJ, kitzinger C, Wilkison S (2002)Attitudes towards lesbians and gay men and support for lesbian and gay human rights among psychology students. Journal of homosexuality, 44(1): 121-138. PDF Download.

Emslie M (2002). Marginalised by the mainstream: the construction of sexuality and representations of lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in Australian youth policy. Master's Dissertation, School of Social Science and Planning, RMIT University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Epstein, D (1997). Taking it Like a Man: narratives of dominant white masculinities in South Africa. Paper given at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Brisbane. Full text

Eskridge Jr. WM (2000). No Promo Homo: The Sedimentation of Antigay Discourse and the Channeling Effect of Judicial Review. New York University Law Review, 75: 1327-1411. Internet: Full text.

Espelage DL, Swearer SM (2008). Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection Between Homophobia and Bullying. School Psychology Review, 37(2): 155-159. PDF Download.

Estrella LAH (2005). Niveles de Homonegatividad en la Población Homosexual de la Ciudad de Santiago. Educación Superior, 4(2): 74-89. PDF Download N/A. Must Scroll.

Eve J, Brabazon T (2008). Learning to Leisure? Failure, Flame, Blame, Shame, Homophobia and Other Everyday Practices in Online Education. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 9(1): 36-61. PDF Download.

Eyre L (1993). Compulsory Heterosexuality in a University Classroom. Canadian Journal of Education, 18(3): 273-284. PDF Download.

Faulkner E (2007). Homophobic Hate Propaganda in Canada. Journal of Hate Studies, 5: 63-97. PDF Download.

Fingerhut AW, Peplau LA (2006). The impact of social roles on stereotypes of gay men. Sex Roles, 55: 272-278. PDF Download. Download Page.

Finnessy, Patrick K (1998). Finnessy Drowning in Dichotomy: Interpreting The Drowning of Stephan Jones. The Alan Review, 25(3). Full text.

Fisher DA, Hill DL, Grube JW, Gruber EL (2007). Gay, lesbian, and bisexual content on television: a quantitative analysis across two seasons. Journal of Homosexuality, 52(3-4): 167-88. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Fitzgerald A (1996). Australia's Criminal Justice System Fails Lesbians and Gay Men. E Law - Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 3(2). Full text.

Flood M (1997). Homophobia and masculinities among young men (Lessons in becoming a straight man), Presentation to teachers, O'Connell Education Centre, Canberra, 22 April 1997. Full text.

Flood M, Hamilton C (2005). Mapping Homophobia in Australia. Australia Institute Webpaper.  PDF Download. PDF Download

Flowers P, Buston K (2001). "I Was Terrified of Being Different": Exploring Gay Men's Accounts of Growing up in a Heterosexist Society. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 51-65. Full Text N/A: PDF Download, PubMed Abstract.

FRA: European Agency for Fundamental Rights (2009). Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in the EU Member States Part I - Legal Analysis. PDF Download. Download Page.

FRA: European Agency for Fundamental Rights (2009). Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States: Part II - The Social Situation. PDF Download. Download Page.

Frazer M (2005)Some Queers are Safer Than Others: Correlates of Hate Crime Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in Britain. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Philadelphia, PA. Readable online as an unformatted document text.

Frey N, Fisher D (2008). The Under-Appreciated Role of Humiliation in the Middle School. Middle Schol Journal, 39(3): 4-12. PDF Download.

Frost DM, Meyer IH (2009). Internalized Homophobia and Relationship Quality Among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1): 97-109. PDF Download.

Gabriel U, Banse R (2006). Helping Behavior as a Subtle Measure of Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men: German Data and a Comparison Across Countries. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(3): 690–707. PDF Download.

García J, Laboy MM, de Almeida V, Parker R (2009). Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 1;6(3):44-60. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Garlinger PP (1995). "Homo-Ness" and the Fear of Femininity. Diacritics 29(1), 57-71. Full text, subscription needed.

Giddings LS, Pringle JK (2011). Heteronormativity at work: Stories from two lesbian academics. Women’s Studies Journal, 25(2): 91-100. PDF Download.

Gilreath S (2009). 'Tell Your Faggot Friend He Owes Me $500 for My Broken Hand': Thoughts on a Substantive Equality Theory of Free Speech.  Wake Forest Law Review, 44: 557-615. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Gilreath S (2006). Of Fruit Flies and Men: Rethinking Immutability in Equal Protection Analysis - with a View Toward a Constitutional Moral Imperative. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law. PDF Download.

Gindi C (2002). The Politics of Visibility: Healing from Homophobia in Faith Communities. In: Susan Sered (Ed.) Religious Healing in Boston: Reports from the Field. Produced by the Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University: 25-29. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Glick SN, Golden MR (2010). Persistence of racial differences in attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 55(4): 516-23. Abstract. PDF Download.

Goldstein T (2004). Performed ethnography for anti-homophobia teacher education: Linking research to teaching. The Canadian On-Line Journal of Queer Studies in Education, 1(1). PDF Download. Full text.

Gontek, Ines (2009). Sexual Violence Against Lesbian Women in South Africa. Outliers, a Collection of Essays and Creative Writing on Sexuality in Africa, 2, spring. PDF Download.

Goodey J (1997). Boys Don't Cry. British Journal of Criminology, 37(3): 401-418. Full Text. Abstract.

Coonan K (2005?). Sexual Prejudice: Understanding Homophobia and Heterosexism, Biphobia and Transphobia. Full Text.

Corrigan PW, Matthews AK (2003). Stigma and disclosure: Implications for coming out of the closet. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3): 235-248. PDF Download.

Gottschalk L (2003). Not so gay in the bush: 'coming out' in regional and rural Victoria. Victoria, Australia: State of Victoria. PDF Download.

Gouvernement du Québec (2009)Politique québécoise de lutte contre l’homophobie. (Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. PDF Download.

Gosse D (2005). My Arts-Informed Narrative Inquiry into Homophobia in Elementary Schools as a Supply Teacher. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 6(7): 1-19.  PDF Download.

Gregory A (2004). Rethinking homophobia in sports:  legal protections for gay and lesbian athletes and coaches. Journal of Sports Law & Contemporary Problems, 2(2). PDF Download. (Download Page)

The Graduate School of Syracuse University (2004). Interrupting Heteronormativity. PDF Download.

Griffith KH, Hebl MR (2002). The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6): 1191-1199. PDF Download.

Guindon MH, Green AG, Hanna FJ (2003). Intolerance and psychopathology: toward a general diagnosis for racism, sexism, and homophobia. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73(2): 167-76. PDF Download

Guth LJ, Clements KD,  Julio Rojas J, Lopez DF (2002). Using Thought Listing to Examine Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: A Case Study. The New Jersey Journal of Professional Counseling, 56: 13-6. PDF Download. PDF Download. "The thought-listing procedure uncovers additional information not traditionally obtained from standardized homosexuality attitude scales. Implications for counselors and educators are discussed."

Hansson M, Stockfelt L, Urazalin M, Ahlm C, Andersson R (2008). HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behavior among students in Semey, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional survey. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 8: 14. PDF Download.

Hart T, Peterson JL , Community Intervention Trial for Youth Study Team (2004). Predictors of risky sexual behavior among young African American men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7): 1122-4. PDF Download.

Hardin M, Kuehn K, Jones H, Balaji M, Genovese J (2008). "Have You Got Game?" Hegemonic Masculinity and Neo-Homophobia in Sports Coverage of John Amaechi. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Full Text.

Haskell, Rebecca (2008). A "Gentle Violence"? " Former student's experiences of homophobia and transphobia in British Columbia high schools. Master's Dissertation, School of Criminology, Simon Frazer University, British Columbia. PDF Download.

Hatzenbuehler ML (2009). How does sexual minority stigma "get under the skin"? A psychological mediation framework. Psychological Bulletin, 135(5): 707-30. PDF Download.

Heffner, Paul Samuel (2010). The subjective life experiences of identified or perceived male GBTQ adolescents in high school settings: a retrospective study. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, California State unibersity Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.

Herek GM (2004). Beyond “Homophobia”: Thinking About Sexual Prejudice and Stigma in the Twenty-First Century. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1(2): 6-24. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Herek GM (2000). The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(1): 19-22. PDF Download.

Herek GM (2000). Sexual Prejudice and Gender: Do Heterosexuals' Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Differ? Journal of Social Issues, 56(2), 251-266. Full Text. PDF Download.

Herek GM, Cogan JC, Gillis JR (2002). Victim Experiences in Hate Crimes Based on Sexual Orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 58(2): 319-339. PDF Download.

Herek GM, Cogan JC, Gillis JR, Glunt EK (1997). Correlates of Internalized Homophobia in a Community Sample of Lesbians and Gay Men. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 2: 17-25PDF Download

Herek GM, Gillis JR, Cogan JC (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(6): 945-951. PDF Download, Draft.

Herek GM, Gillis JR, Cogan JC, and Glunt EK (1997). Hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Prevalence, psychological correlates, and methodological issues. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 195-215. (Complete Herek Abstract List.)

Higdon Michael J (2011). To Lynch a Child: Bullying and Gender Nonconformity in our Nation's Schools. Indiana Law Journal, 86(3): 826-878. PDF Download.

Higdon, Michael J. (2008). Queer Teens and Legislative Bullies: The Cruel and Invidious Discrimination Behind Heterosexist Statutory Rape Laws. UC Davis Law Review, 42(1): 195-263. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Hillier L, Harrison L (2004). Homophobia and the production of shame: young people and same sex attraction. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 6(1): 79-94. PDF Download.

Himmelstein KE, Brückner H (2011). Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: a national longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 127(1): 49-57. Abstract. PDF Download.

Huebner DM, Rebchook GM, Kegeles SM (2004). Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7):1200-3. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Hunt R, Cowan K, Chamberlain B (2007). Being the gay one: Experiences of lesbian, gay and bisexual people working in the health and social care sector. UK: Stonewall. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hurd HM, Moore MS (2004). Punishing Hatred and Prejudice. Stanford Law Review, 56(5): 1081-1146. PDF Download.

Hylton, Mary E (2005). Heteronormativity and the Experiences of Lesbian and Bisexual Women as Social Work Students. Journal of Social Work Education, 41(1): 67-84. PDF Download.

Irwin L (2008). Homophobia and heterosexism: implications for nursing and nursing practice. Australian Journal of Advanced Learning, 25(1). PDF Download.

Ito, Daisuke (2007). College Students' Prejudiced Attitudes toward Homosexuals: A Comparative Analysis in Japan and the United States. Master's Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Georgia State University. PDF Download.

Jackson J (2000). Homophobia in Kensington & Chelsea: A local survey examining homophobic abuse and the reporting of such incidents to the police PDF Download.

Jackson, Stevi (2005). The Social Complexity of Heteronormativity: Gender, Sexuality and Heterosexuality. Keynote Speech by Clare Hemmings, London School of Economics, UK at the
international conference ‘Heteronormativity - a Fruitful Concept?’ in Trondheim, Norway.
PDF Download. Download Page.

Jennings, Michele (2010). Socialization Turns To Terrorization. PDF Download.

Johansson W (1981). The Etymology of the Word Faggot. Gay Books Bulletin, 6: 16 -18, 33. 'Summary': PDF Download. - Faggot = Loser.

Johnson MO, Carrico AW, Chesney MA, Morin SF (2010). Internalized heterosexism among HIV-positive, gay-identified men: implications for HIV prevention and care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(5): 829-39. PDF Download.

Kaduuli S (2009). Perceptions of LGBT in Uganda and Africa. York University: Africa Leadership Institute. PDF Download.

Kendall, CN (1996). Homophobia as an Issue of SexDiscrimination: Lesbian and Gay Equality and the Systemic Effects of Forced Invisibility. E Law - Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, Vol 3, No 3. Full Text.

Kennedy S, Cianciotto J (2006). Homophobia at “Hell House”: Literally demonizing  Lesbian, Gay, Buisexual and Transgender Youth. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy InstitutePDF Download.

Kian ET, Anderson E (2009). John Amaechi: changing the way sport reporters examine gay athletes. Journal of Homosexuality, 56(7): 799-818. PDF Download. Abstract.

Kimmel MS (2002). Masculinity as Homophobia. In: Esyelle Disch (Ed), Reconstructing Gender: A Multicultural Anthology. PDF Download.

Kimmel, Michael (+2000). Global Masculinities: Restoration and Resistance. PDF Download.

Kimmel MS, Mahler M (2003). Adolescent masculinity, homophobia, and violence: Random school shootings, 1982-2001. The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(10): 1439-1458. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Kole SK (2007). Globalizing queer? AIDS, homophobia and the politics of sexual identity in India. Globalization and Health 2007, 3(1). PDF Download. PDF Download.

Konik J, Cortina LM (2008). Policing Gender at Work: Intersections of Harassment Based on Sex and Sexuality. Social Justice Research, 21(3): 313-237. PDF Download. Download Page

Knox J (2007). That's So Gay! NACURH Task Force on Social and Diversity Issues, 1(4): 1-2. PDF Download.

Kulpa R (2007). En-Gendered Anxieties: Enforcing Gender Constrains within Polish Lesbian and Gay Community as a Mean of Liberation. Graduate Journal of Social Sciences & Working paper submitted for the book "Gender Query", ed. Jakob Hero. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Kuo, John Sheng  (2006). From “Coming Out” to “Becoming”: Locating, Performing, and Re-engineering the Geography of the Closet. Dong Hwa Journal of Humanities, 8: 213-248. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. Stopping Anti-Gay Abuse of Students in Public Schools: A Legal PerspectiveFull Text.

Lance, Larry M (2002). Heterosexism and homophobia among college students. College Student Journal, 36(4): 598-602.  Full Text.

Lance, Larry M (2002). Acceptance of diversity in human sexuality: will the strategy reducing homophobia also reduce discomfort of cross-dressing? College Student Journal, 36(4): 598-602.  Full Text.

Lane T, Mogale T, Struthers H, McIntyre J, Kegeles SM (2008). "They see you as a different thing": the experiences of men who have sex with men with healthcare workers in South African township communities. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 84(6): 430-433. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

LaSala, Michael C (2006). Cognitive and Environmental Interventions for Gay Males: Addressing Stigma and Its Consequences. Families in Society, 87(2): 181-189. PDF Download.

Lawrie A (2002). Homophobia Kills: The Role of Secondary Schools in the Prevention of Suicide Among Queer Youth. National Youth Roundtable. PDF Download.

Leach F, Humphreys S (2007). Gender violence in schools: taking the 'girls-as-victims' discourse forward . Gender & Development, 15(1): 51-65. PDF Download.

Learning and Teaching Scotland (2008?). Toolkit for Teachers: Dealing with Homophobia and Homophobic Bullying in Scottish Schools. Glasgow, Scotland: Learning and Teaching Scotland.  PDF Download.

Lemelle AJ, Battle J (2004). Black Masculinity Matters in Attitudes Toward Gay Males. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(1: 39-51. PDF.

Leonard W, Mitchell A, Patel S, Fox C (2008). Coming Forward: the underreporting of heterosexist violence and same sex partner abuse in Victoria. Melnourne, Australia: Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society, La Trobe University. PDF Download. PDF Download

Lewis AJ, White J (2009). Defense Mechanisms of Homophobic Adolescent Males. Brief report: The defense mechanisms of homophobic adolescent males: A descriptive discriminant analysis. Journal of Adolescence. 32: 435-441. Full Text.

Lingiardi V, Falanga S, D’Augelli AR (2005). The evaluation of homophobia in an Italian sample: An exploratory study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 81-94. PDF Download. (Download Page)

Liotard, Philippe (2008). Sport, Identité, Homosexualités, Homophobie. In Philippe Liotard (sous la direction de), Sport et homosexualités, Carnon, Association Quasimodo & Fils, 2008, p. 5-16. PDF Download. Google Translation.

Lock J, Kleis B (1998). Origins of Homophobia in Males: Psychosexual vulnerabilities and defence development. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 52(4): 425-436. PDF Download. Abstract.

Lord, Jean-Pierre (2005). Sexual Orientation & Homophobia: Reaching Out to Young People: A Resource and Awareness Guide. Montreal: Montreal Youth Coalition Against Homophobia. PDF Download. (Document in French)

Lyons PM Jr, Anthony CM, Davis KM, Fernandez K, Torres AN, Marcus DK (2005). Police judgments of culpability and homophobia [Electronic Version]. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 1(1), 1-14.  PDF Download N/A. (Download Page N/A) PDF Download.

Lyra, Paulo (2006). Campañas contra la homofobia en Argentina, Brasil, Colombia y México.  Washington, D.C: OPS. PDF Download.

Mahon C (2009). Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and the Right to Health. In: Andrew Clapham, Mary Robinson, Claire Mahon and Scott Jerbi (Eds.). Realizing the Right to Health: Swiss Human Rights Book Vol. 3. Zurich: Rüffer & Rub: Chapter 3. PDF Download.

Martin D, Baulieu A (2002). Besoins des jeunes homosexuelles et homosexuels et interventions en milieu scolaire pour contrer l’homophobie. Résultats de l’enquête menée auprès des écoles
secondaires, des centres d’éducation des adultes et des écoles de formation professionnelle. Montréal: Commission Scolaire de Montréal.
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Martino, Wayne (1997). Policing Sex/Gender Boundaries: Addressing Homophobia in Schools. Paper Presented as part of the Symposium, Sexualities and the Intellectual Work of Gender Reform, at the AARE Annual Conference,Brisbane. Full text.

Martinsson L, Reimers E, Reingarde J, Lundgren AS (2007). Norms at Work: Challenging Homophobia and Heteronormativity. Sweden: TRACE: The Transnational Cooperation for Equality. PDF Download.

Mason, Gail (1996). 'Are you a Boy or a Girl?' (Hetero)sexism and verbal hostility. In Sumner C, Israel M, O'Connell M, Rick Sarre R (eds.). International victimology: selected papers from the 8th International Symposium : proceedings of a symposium held 21-26 August 1994, pp. 91-101. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Maurer-Starks SS, Clemons HL, Whalen SL (2008). Managing heteronormativity and homonegativity in athletic training: in and beyond the classroom. Journal of Athletic Training, 43(3): 326-36. PDF Download.

McCormack M (2011). Mapping the terrain of homosexually-themed language. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5): 664-79. PDF Download. Abstract.

McDonald E (2005). No Straight Answer: Homophobia as Both and Aggravating and Mitigating Factor in New Zealand Homicide Cases. Paper presented at the Law and Sexuality Symposium, Wellington, November. PDF Download.

McGinley A (2007). Creating Masculine Identities: Harassment and Bullying 'Because of Sex'. Working Paper, William S. Boyd School of Law, University of Nevada Las Vegas. PDF Download.

McLaurin S (2003). Homophobia: An Autoethnographic Story. The Qualitative Report, 8(3): 481-486. PDF Download.

McMahon EM, Reulbach U, Keeley H, Perry IJ, Arensman E (2010). Bullying victimisation, self harm and associated factors in Irish adolescent boys. Social Science & Medicine, 71(7): 1300-1307. PDF Download. Abstract.

Meyer, Doug (2008). The Intersection of Gender and Sexuality: Homophobic Violence as a Social Control Mechanism. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Boston. Readable online as an unformatted document text.

Michaelson MT (2008). Inclusion and Social Justice for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Members of the Learning Community in Queensland State Schools. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 18(1): 76-83. PDF Download.

Mikulsky, Jacqueline (2005). Silencing (Homo)Sexualities in School ... A Very Bad Idea. M/C Journal 8.1. Full Text.

Mikulsky J (2005). Investigating the relationship between “school climate,” school-related outcomes and academic self-concept for Australian, secondary school-aged same-sex attracted youth (SSAY)PDF Download.

Miller J (2004). Educate, Evolve, Accept: Facing, Fighting, and Ending Homophobia in American Schools PDF Download.

Mishna F, Newman PA, Daley A, Solomon S (2009). Bullying of Lesbian and Gay Youth: A Qualitative Investigation. British Journal of Social Work, 39(8): 1598-1614. PDF Download.

Mitchell M, Collins P, Doheny S, Randhawa G, Davis S (2001). "What are you Like"!? Understanding the health needs and improving services for lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in Buckinghamshire and Milton Keynes: Report of the Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual ‘Lifestyle’ and Health Needs Assessment. Institute for Health Services Research, University of Luton. Commissioned by Buckinghamshire Health Authority. (Web Page for PDF Downloads)

Mizrahi T, Lombe M (2006). Perspectives from Women Organizers: Views on Gender, Race, Class, and Sexual Orientation. Journal of Community Practice, 14(3): 93-118. PDF Download.

Moradi B, et al. (2006). Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Manifestations of Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory. .Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1): 57–66.  PDF Download.

Moran, Leslie J (2003). The formation of fear in gay space: the ‘straights' story. Capital & Class, 27(2): `73-198. Full text.

Morgain, Rachel (2004). Sexual liberation: fighting lesbian and gay oppression. Class and struggle in Australia seminar series, Australian National University. PDF Download.

Morrison C, Mackay A (2000). The Experience of Violence and Harassment of Gay Men in the City of Edinburgh. The Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Internet: PDF Download.

Mullane, William Andrew (2008). The articulated thoughts of heterosexual male college students in reaction to anti-gay hate speech. Master's Dissertation, University of Southern California. PDF Download. Related PhD Dissertation: Utilizing the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm to examine the differential impacts of anti-gay verbal aggression and non-biased verbal aggression on heterosexual and sexual minority male college students (2011).

Muula AS (2007). Perceptions about Men Having Sex with Men in Southern African Country: Case Study of Print Media in Malawi. Croatian Medical Journal. 48: 398-404. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Myers KA, Forest KB, Miller SL (2004). Officer friendly and the tough cop:gays and lesbians navigate homophobia and policing. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(1): 17-37.  PDF Download.

Nel JA (2005). Hate crimes: A new category of vulnerable victims for a new South Africa. In Davis, L., & Snyman, R. (Eds.) Victimology in South Africa. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik.  PDF Download. Download Page.

Nel JA, Judge M (2008). Exploring homophobic victimisation in Gauteng, South Africa: Issues, impacts and responses. Acta Criminologica, 21(3): 19-36. PDF Download. Download Page.

Nguyen, Phong (2008). ‘Please Explain’: Is it that hard to link homophobia and racism? Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 4(1): 45-48. PDF Download. Download Page.

Nicely, Eric S (2001). Internalized Homophobia, Stages And Processes Of Change And Alcohol Use Among Gay Men: A Clinical Dissertation. PhD. Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Alemeda, CA. PDF Download. Download Page.

O'Brien, Jodi (2004). Afterword: Complicating Homophobia. Sexualities, 11(4): 496–512. PDF Download.

O’Brien P, Hohnke M (2007). Discrimination and Heterosexism in Schools: The School Experience of Same Sex Attracted Youth (SSAY). The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, 7(3): 211-216. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

O'Connell, James (2011). An exploration of the experience of internalised homophobia among gay Irish men : a phenomenological approach. Honours Bachelor's Dissertation, Counselling and Psychotherapy, Dublin Business School. PDF Download. Download Page.

O'Conor, Andi (1994). Who gets called queer in school? Lesbian, gay and bisexual teenagers, homophobia and high school. The High School Journal, October/November, December/January: 7-12. PDF Download.

O'Hanlan K (in press). Lesbian Health and Homophobia: Perspectives for the treating obstetrician/ Gynecologist. Accepted for publication in Current Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Full text.

O’Higgins-Norman, James (2010). Addressing Homophobic Bullying in Second-Level Schools. Dublin, Ireland: The Equality Authority. PDF Download.

Omar, Hishamuddin Bin (2011). Constitutive rhetoric and the rhetoric of hope in the It Gets Better project. Master of Arts' Dissertation, San Diego State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Osteen, Philip (2003). Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Social Work: A Brief Literature Review. SOWK Course Paper, University of Denver. Word Download.

Ottosson, Daniel (2010). State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults. ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. PDF Download.

Ottosson, Daniel (2009). Homophobie d'État: Une enquête mondiale sur les lois qui interdisent la sexualité entre adultes consentants de même sexe ILGA: Association Internationale des Lesbiennes, des Gays, des personnes Bisexuelles, Trans et Intersexuelles. PDF Download.

Pallotta-Chiarolli M (1997). "Coming Out/Going Home": Australian Girls and Young Women Interrogating Heterosexism and Homophobia. Paper given at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Brisbane. Full text.

Parco JE, Levy DA, Blass FR (2008). Intolerable tolerance: The problem with diversity training in the military.  Armed Forces Journal, July 2008, 37-45. PDF Download.

Parrott DJ (2008). A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model. Clinical Psycholology Review, 28(6): 933-51. PDF Download.

Parrott DJ, Miller CA (2009). Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions. Substance Use and Misuse, 44(9-10): 1377-1398. PDF Download.

Pechová, Olga (2007). Diskriminace na základe sexuální orientace. e-paychologie, 3(3). PDF Download. (English Abstract) Download Page.

Peters C (2004). Homophobia in the Classroom: One Teacher’s Response. Women & Literacy, 19. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Phoenix T, et al. (2006). Homophobic Language and Verbal Harassment in North Carolina High Schools. PDF Download.

Pinxtoron T Tamagne F  (2003)Combattre l’homophobie: Pour une école ouverte à la diversité. Belgique. PDF Download.

Plummer D, McCann D (2007). Girls' germs: sexuality, gender, health and metaphors of contagion. Health Sociology Review, 16(1). Full text. Full text.

Plummer D (2007). Homophobia, heterosexism and beyond. In: International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, vol 1, Flood M, Gardiner JK, Pease B, Pringle K (eds). PDF Download. PDF Download.

Plummer DC (2001). Policing Manhood: new theories about the social significance of homophobia. In: Wood, Professor Carl (ed). Sexual Positions. Hill of Content: Melbourne: 60-75.  PDF Download. Word 97 Download. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Plummer DC (2000). The quest for modern manhood: masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 15-23. PDF Download, PDF Download. PDF Download.

Polimeni AM, Hardie E, Buzwell S (2000). Homophobia among Australian heterosexuals: The role of sex, gender role ideology, and gender role traits. Current Research in Social Psychology, 5, 47-62. Full text.

Putnina, Aivita (2007). Sexuality, Masculinity and Homophobia. The Latvian Case. Published: Beyond the Pink Curtain, (eds.) Roman Kuhar and Judit Takacs, 313-26. Ljubljana: Peace Institute. PDF Download.

Ralph L (2007?). Out of the closet: Homophobia and Homoeroticism in Hip-Hop. University of Chicago.  PDF Download. Download Page.

Redding RE (2008). It's Really About Sex: Same-Sex Marriage, Lesbigay Parenting, and the Psychology of Disgust. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 15(127): 127-193. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Riley DM (2008). LGBT-Friendly Workplaces in Engineering. Leadership and Management in Engineering, January: 19-23. PDF Download.

Rivers I. Cowie HA (2006). Bullying and homophobia in UK schools: A perspective on factors affecting resilience and recovery. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education. 3(4) 11-43. PDF Download. Download Page.

Robinson KH, Ferfolja T (2003). Anti-homophobia education in teacher education: Perspectives from teacher educators in NSW, Australia. Paper presented at the NZARE/AARE conference, Auckland, New Zealand. PDF Download.

Robinson K (2005). Doing Anti-homophobia and Anti-heterosexism in Early Childhood Education: moving beyond the immobilising impacts of ‘risks’, ‘fears’ and ‘silences’. Can We Afford Not To? Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 6(2): 175-188. PDF Download.

Robinson, Shirleene (2008). Homophobia: Towards writing an Australian history. Paper presented at the Australian Historical Association biennial conference: Locating history. Melbourne, Australia. Full text.

Robison, Matthew K (2012). Through the Eyes of Gay and Male Bisexual College Students: A Critical Visual Qualitative Study off Their Experiences. Educational Policy Studies Dissertations, Paper 89, Georgia State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Romero, Pedro (1999). Impact of Racism, Homophobia and Poverty on Suicidal Ideation among Latino Gay Men. Berkeley McNair Research Journal. Full Text. PDF Download.

Rosky CJ (2009). Like Father, Like Son: Homosexuality, Parenthood, and the Gender of Homophobia. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism, 20: 257-354. PDF Download.

Ross MW, Rosser BR, Neumaier ER; Positive Connections Team (2008). The relationship of internalized homonegativity to unsafe sexual behavior in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 20(6): 547-57. PDF Download.

Russell GM (2004). Surviving and Thriving in the Midst of Anti-Gay Politics. Angles, 7(2). PDF Download. PDF Download.

Russell ST, Franz BT, Driscoll AK (2001). Same-sex romantic attraction and experiences of violence in adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 903-6. PDF Download. PDF Download. Abstract.

Russell ST (2011). Challenging homophobia in schools: policies and programs for safe school climates. Educar em Revista, 39: 123-138. PDF Download.

Ryan, Bill (2003). A New Look at Homophobia and Heterosexism in Canada. Discussion paper commissioned by the Canadian AIDS Society. PDF Download. Download Page. Full Text.

Saewyc E, et al. (2008). Stigma management? The links between enacted stigma and teen pregnancy trends among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 17(3): 123-139. PDF Download.

Sanders-Hahs, Erin M (2008). The impact of hate crime trauma on gay and lesbian interpersonal relationships. Master of Science, Department of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Sandfort TGM, Melendez RM, Diaz RM (2007). Gender Nonconformity, Homophobia, and Mental Distress in Latino Gay and Bisexual Men. Journal of Sex Research, 44(2): 181-189. Full text. Full text.

Sandnabba NK, Ahlberg C (1999). Parents' attitudes and expectations about children's cross-gender behavior. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 40, 249-264. Full Text.

Sarma, Kiran (2004). A review of research on victimisation of the gay and lesbian community in Ireland. Garda Research Unit: Research Report No. 4/04, Final report. PDF Download.

Save The Children (2008). Leave it Out: Developing Amti-homophobic Bullying Practice in Schools. PDF Download.

Scheiffele E, Kaye D (2002). Using Psychodrama to Expose Intolerance towards Homosexuality.  The British Journal of Psychodrama and Sociodrama, 17(2): 19-35.  Full text.

Schrock D, Schwalbe M (2009). Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology, 35: 277-295. PDF Download.

Shackelford TK, Besser A (2007). Predicting Attitudes toward Homosexuality: Insights from Personality Psychology. Individual Differences Research, 5(2): 106-114. PDF Download.

Shiu-Ki TK (2004). Queer at Your Own Risk:  Marginality, Community and Hong Kong Gay Male Bodies. Sexualities, 7(1): 5-30. PDF Download. Download Page.

Shoptaw S, Weiss RE, Munjas B, Hucks-Ortiz C, Young SD, Larkins S, Victorianne GD, Gorbach PM (2009). Homonegativity, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV status in poor and ethnic men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. Journal of Urban Health, 86 Suppl 1: 77-92. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Silverschanz P, Konik J, Cortina LM, Magley VJ (2008). Slurs, snubs and queer jokes: Incidence and impact of heterosexist harassment in academica. Sex Roles, 58: 179-191. PDF Download. Download Page.

Smith, Dale Chad Allen (2008). Making Sense of the Senseless: The Experience of Being Gay Bashed. Master of Social Work Dissertation, Faculty of  Social Work, University of Manitoba. PDF Download. Download Page.

Spivey SE, Robinson CM (2010). Genocidal Intentions: Social Death and the Ex-Gay Movement. Genocide Studies and Prevention, 5(1): 68–88. PDF Download.

Steffens MC (2004?). Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Men. In Press. Journal of Homosexuality. PDF Download.

Steffens MC, Wagner C (2004). Attitudes towards Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexual Women, and Bisexual Men in Germany. The Journalof Sex Research. Full text.

Stulhofer A, Rimac I (2009). Determinants of homonegativity in Europe. Journal of Sex Research, 46(1): 24-32. PDF Download. Full text.

Swearer SM, Turner RK, Givens JE, Pollack WS (2008). "You're So Gay!": Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males? School Psychology Review, 37(2): 160-173. PDF Download. Full Text.

Syracuse University Students in CFE/QSX 300 (2010, Under the direction of Elizabethe Payne). 2010 Report on Queer Youth in the Syracuse City School District. PDF Download.

Szymanski DM, Carr ER (2008). The Roles of Gender Role Conflict and Internalized Heterosexism in Gay and Bisexual Men’s Psychological Distress: Testing Two Mediation Models. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 9(1): 40–54.  PDF Download.

Takács J, Mocsonaki L, Tóth TP (2008). Social Exclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People in Hungary. Institute of Sociology Hungarian Academy of Sciences In cooperation with the Háttér Support Society for LGBT People in Hungary and the Labrisz Lesbian Association Budapest. PDF Download.

Temple JR (2005). “People Who Are Different from You”: Heterosexism in Quebec High School Textbooks. Canadian Journal of Eduation, 28(3): 271-294. PDF Download.

Thurlow C (2001). Naming the "Outsider Within": Homophobic Pejoratives and the Verbal Abuse of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual High-School Pupils. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 25-38. -  PDF Download, PDF Download, PubMed Abstract

Tomsen, Steve (1996). Gay homicides : activism, victims and law and order. In Sumner C, Israel M, O'Connell M, Rick Sarre R (eds.). International victimology: selected papers from the 8th International Symposium : proceedings of a symposium held 21-26 August 1994. pp. 87-9. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Toomey RB, Ryan C, Diaz RM, Card NA, Russell ST (2010). Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 46(6): 1580-9. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Toro-Alfonso J (2007). By Way of Exclusion: Homophobia and Citizenship in Puerto Rico. PDF Download.

Trajanoski, Zarko (2005). The Spectre of Homosexuality is Haunting Macedonia. Journal for Politics, Gender, and Culture, 4(1/2): 201-239. PDF Download.

Trimikliniotis N. Karayanni SS (2008). The situation concerning homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. Policy Document for SIMFILIOSI, Cyprus. PDF Download.

Tucker EW, Potocky-Tripodi M (2006). Changing Heterosexuals’ Attitudes Toward Homosexuals: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature. Research on Social Work Practice, 16: 176-190. PDF Download.

Turner WB (2008). Chasing Queers: The Radicalism of Conservative Legal Attacks on Lesbians and Gay Men. Working Paper, Emory University School of Law. PDF Download.

van Reyk, Paul (1996). Homophobia, hate and violence against lesbian and gays in NSW: an overview of some studies. In Sumner C, Israel M, O'Connell M, Rick Sarre R (eds.). International victimology: selected papers from the 8th International Symposium : proceedings of a symposium held 21-26 August 1994, pp. 101-5. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Verweij KJ, Shekar SN, Zietsch BP, Eaves LJ, Bailey JM, Boomsma DI, Martin NG (2008). Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study. Behavio Genetics, 38(3): 257-65. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Wall, N. Eugene (2004). Unraveling the Complexity of Heterosexuals’ Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men: The Multidimensional Heterosexism Inventory. Working Paper and Technical Report Series. PDF Download.

Walter D (2007). The Silent Art:  Lesbians and Lesbian Art in UK Art & Design EducationWord Download. Download Page.

Waltman, Jason (2000). A Survey of Homophobia. Final Paper, The Social Construction of Sexuality: HONR 300S 1W, Professor Sharon Abbott. Full Text. PDF Download.

Wang FT, Bih HD, Brennan DJ (2009). Have they really come out: gay men and their parents in Taiwan. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 11(3): 285-96. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract.

Warwick I, Chase E, Aggleton P, Coram T, Sanders S (2004). Homophobia, Sexual Orientation and Schools: a Review and Implications for Action. London: University of London. PDF Download PDF Download.

Warwick I, Aggleton P, Douglas N (2001). Playing It Safe: Addressing the Emotional and Physical Health of Lesbian and Gay Pupils in the U.K. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 129-40. Full Text N/A: PDF Download, PubMed Abstract.

Wellard, Ian (2009). Transcending the heteronormative in sport: Masculine sporting identities, sexuality and in/exclusive practices. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wilets JD (1997). Conceptualizing private violence against sexual minorities as gendered violence: an international and comparative law perspective. Albany Law Review, March 22. Full text.

Williams W (2009). Strategies for Challenging Homophobia in Islamic Malaysia and Secular China. Nebula, 6(1). PDF Download. Full Text.

Williamson, Iain R (2000). Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men. Health Education Research, 15(1): 97-107. PDF Download.

Willis, Paul B (2009). Laboured Sexualities: The Experiences of Young Queer People in the Workplace. PhD Dissertation, Social Work, University of Tasmania. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wilton T (2003). Homophobia Gives Tongue: The Encrypting of Hate Speech. Journal of Psycho-Social Studies,  2(2): 3. Full Text. Download Page.

Woods V (2008). Reconceptualizing Anti-LGBT Hate Crimes as Burdening Expression and Association: A Case for Expanding Federal Hate Crime Legislation to Include Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation. Journal of Hate Studies, 6: 81-115. Abstract & Download Page.

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