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For Journalists, Advocates for the welfare of all children, and Advocates and Activists concerned about the health and welfare of gay, lesbian, and bisexual children and youth.

Information which should/may be included in media articles related to the Bagley & Tremblay (1996) research results. Some investigations are also recommended.

To date, newspaper/magazine articles, and radio/television news items, have most often reported and focused on only one research result (as it was done on the CBC National News): compared to heterosexual males, homosexually oriented young adult males are 13.9-times more likely to have attempted suicide at some time in the past. A suicide attempt is defined to be an attempt at self-killing,

In the November 12, 1996 Advocate article by Mike King, it was noted in the subtitle that "gay men are even more at risk for attempting to kill themselves than previously thought." This is only true with respect to what was "previously thought," but it is not true on the basis of the available research data. It is also more true for gay and bisexual adolescents and youth than it would be for gay "men".

A very important contribution of the Bagley & Tremblay (1996) study to the field of suicidology:

The results of the study replicated those produced in the 1978 Bell & Weinberg study of a 1969 sample of predominantly homosexual males living in the San Francisco Bay Area. To the age of 20 years, these males had been 13.6-times more likely to have attempted suicide than a control sample of predominantly heterosexual males. Our "13.9-times" result is to the average age of 22.7 years for the study's stratified random sample of 750 young adult males.

The most important finding has not yet been reported:

For the first time in North America, a data-based estimate was produced for the proportion of the male youth attempted suicide problem accounted for by gay/bisexual males: They accounted for more than half (62.5%) of the problem! This estimate was made possible as the result of the demographic data (based on self-identification and/or current sexual activity) produced in the same study. Mainstream suicidologists almost never solicited such data in their studies of youth suicide problems.

This implication of these findings are monumental. The methodologically sound Bell & Weinberg results (usually dismissed or ignored by mainstream - apparently highly homophobic - suicidologists) have now been confirmed. It is also recognized, on the basis of the best research data available (our results and the 1978 Bell & Weinberg results), that a major suicidality problem has existed in the gay and bisexual male youth population for at least 50 years. The available information suggests that the problem has existed for at least one hundred years.

The "homosexuality factor" has generally been ignored by mainstream researchers of youth suicidality problems, and by most suicidologists who developed youth suicide intervention and prevention programs. How much of society's resources - and time - allocated to male adolescent and youth suicidality problems should therefore be used to address gay/bisexual male suicidality problems? At least 60%, or more if suicidologists are to compensate for the incredible (lethal) neglect of this problem. This may not happen, however, because the not so hidden agenda of mainstream suicidologists may be generally rendered by: "Let's do everything possible to avoid homosexuality issues in our research and in our youth suicide intervention and prevention work."

A major media investigation should be done about the scandalous (homophobic?) situation which has existed in suicidology, and journalists should beware of information given by those in charge of suicide prevention/intervention programs. Individuals who have received youth suicide intervention and prevention education and training should be contacted to determine how much education they actually received about "the homosexuality factor" in male youth (and female youth) suicidality problems. In this respect, a "next to nil" situation - usually only a token mention - has existed in Calgary where a number of recent related scandalous situations remain to be reported on. These involve the Calgary Board of Education, the Canadian Mental Health's Suicide Services, and others. With respect to gay and lesbian youth issues, all in Calgary were essentially getting away with murder and the 'forces' which caused this are still alive and well.

An important analysis-based hypothesis or conclusion:

Data from our study, combined with the data available from other suicidality studies, permitted the following tentative (best available) conclusion: In the male adolescent/youth population, it is almost always homosexually oriented male adolescents and youths who have been committing suicide. Information obtained from two high school populations and about two of Calgary's three adolescent male suicide victims in 1995 (see Update 1996), supports this conclusion.

In our sample, homosexually oriented males (forming about 11% of the sample) accounted for 26% of males reporting self-harm activities, but homosexual/bisexual males accounted for 62.5% of males reporting the most serious form of self-harm studied: an attempt at self-killing. The implications are that homosexual/bisexual males may therefore represent an even greater proportion of male adolescents and youths in the most serious self-harm category, but they were not available for study; they had committed suicide. This conclusion is also suggested on the basis of research results produced in other studies, and this trend was recently replicated in a Seattle study of 8,406 grade 9 to 12 students.

I would estimate that 7 or 8 out of 10 male adolescents and youths committing suicide would be homosexually oriented for reasons which remain to be studied and reported on. Research results on the male youth suicide attempt problem offer some insights in this respect.

I am now working on a significant suicide factor which has not yet been recognized by suicidologists; related information is being circulated in Calgary. "Being gifted" (in a special way, related to altruism) is implicated, more than being gay or bisexual. A history of child sexual abuse appears be a factor, but not in ways which have yet been recognized and understood. The last word in the male youth suicide problems is far from having been written, but progress is being made.

Do the Bagley & Tremblay (1996) results reflect the situation existing in the entire homosexually oriented male adolescent and youth population?

Not quite, given the nature of our sample. The area in Calgary where young adult homosexually oriented gay/bisexual males are the most concentrated - the greater gay community area - was not represented in our sample. Related suicidality information, however, has been available for gay/bisexual male youth more intimately associated with North American gay communities. Twelve studies report a 20 to 50 percent attempted suicide rate; our study of gay/bisexual male youth living outside the gay community area reports an attempted suicide rate of 6.1%. Using the available research data, the best estimate for the lifetime adolescent attempted suicide rate of gay/bisexual males in North America (to the age of 19 years) is estimated at 22%. The estimated attempted suicide rate for heterosexual male adolescents would be about 1.1%. By the age of 20, gay/bisexual males have been about 20-times more likely to have attempted suicide than heterosexual males. Journalists reporting the Bagley & Tremblay "6.1%" attempted suicide rate for gay/bisexual male youth should qualify it. It applies for gay and bisexual young adult males living outside of Calgary's gay community area.

The "child sexual abuse" factor in male youth suicidality problems:

The first report of data from our study sample (a 1994 paper) emphasized that a history of "child sexual abuse" (occurring before the age of 17) was a significant factor in male youth suicidality problems (for 6 out of 8 suicide attempters), but this conclusion was made before the "homosexuality factor" was investigated. The 'picture' changed considerably when "sexual orientation" (5 out of 8 suicide attempters) was factored out. For gay and bisexual male youth, the Remafedi et al. (1991) analysis revealed that "child sexual abuse," by itself, was not implicated in suicide attempts of gay and bisexual male youth. Homosexuality-related factors (such as the age of self-identification and being effeminate), however, were significantly implicated in gay/bisexual male youth having been at the greatest risk for a suicide attempt - also defined as an attempt at self-killing.

A major scandal has been perpetrated in the field of "child sexual abuse" which should be investigated and reported on by insightful journalists. Often enough for youth having a history of child sexual abuse, if they are also manifesting a homosexual orientation, the homosexual orientation is pathologized. Homosexual desires are blamed on the sexual abuse, and the therapy for sexual abuse is nothing more than a thinly disguised (very harmful and potentially lethal) treatment for the youth's (often unwanted) homosexual orientation. This scenario has been repeatedly reported to happen in Toronto. It has also been reported to exist in Calgary, and it is probably occurring throughout North America. The field of child sexual abuse (like the field of suicidology) has been more "political" than scientific, and it has also been rife with homophobia and major ethical problems. Unfortunately, the media has been participating in this scandalous situation.

A great stressor for a group of boys who have been sexually abused is having a homosexual orientation. This was revealed in a 1985 Calgary-based professional summary of research results from a study of males reporting a history of being sexually abused: "In other words, males who were recruited to a homosexual life-style through these assaults were those whose self-concept was adversely affected."

The most distressed boys are (obviously) the ones manifesting a homosexual orientation, but this reality was reworked for gay-bashing purposes. The common belief that "being sexually abused causes a person to become homosexually oriented" (the infamous "recruiting" myth) is used to explain the most negative results of child sexual abuse when the individual's homosexual orientation is likely at the root cause of the problem.

The homophobia manifested here, and the homophobia commonly existing in the 'therapeutic' world, would exacerbate the distress of these boys (possibly resulting in suicide attempts or even a suicide) which would then be blamed on the child sexual abuse. It is society's homophobia (and the well documented homophobia of its traditionally homo-ignorant therapists), however, which may have been most often causal in the great distress manifested by young males who were sexually abused.

The implications of this information are monumental and a major investigative report should be done about the great sham which has existed in the child sexual abuse field. Most of the research results on the sexual abuse of boys have not factored out "the homosexual orientation factor," and the same omission has occurred in the research investigating the negative effects of child sexual abuse on girls. Statistical correlation between a history of child sexual abuse and resulting harmful effects are, at best, marginal, thus suggesting that another factor may be implicated in the reported negative outcomes only attributed to the sexual abuse. With respect to female prostitutes, for example, the high rate of child sexual abuse is linked to their problems, but a different perception results when it is known that many of them are sexually active with other women. Unfortunately, this telltale indicator of a homosexual orientation is commonly dismissed by attributing their enjoyed homosexual activities to their hatred for men said to result from the child sexual abuse and their paid sexual encounters with men. The myth that gay males have sex with men because they hate women died long ago, but its equivalent myth lives on in certain sectors of the female population.

Homophobia has been a great social evil, affecting more boys than the ones who are gay or bisexual. This has become most apparent in the Sheldon Kennedy case of sexual assault, as explained by a gay community leader in Saskatoon: "I also can't help but believe that homophobia was the major factor that allowed this lurid incident to happen. If we were more open and honest about the issue I doubt that [Graham] James would have gotten away with it for so long. Kennedy has said that he did not disclose the abuse because he was worried that people would think he was gay. It's rather scary to think that a teenager would prefer being physically, emotionally, mentally and spiritually abused more than 300 times over a period of years rather than being thought of as possibly gay." (Hellquist, Gens. It's a strange, strange world. Perceptions, Vol. 15 (1), Jan. 29, 1997, pp. 6-7.) Not all boys who are sexually involved with men, however, perceive themselves to be in the "sexual abuse" category, and they may be actively seeking such encounters. When they encounter abuse, they too will be silent because they will greatly fear others (including parents, teacher, and peers) discovering what they had been doing, and therefore discovering their gay or bisexual orientation. As I concluded in my book, all homophobic people in society (such as most fundamentalist Christians and others) are essentially the "best friends" of all men who have sex with boys, including men such as Graham James, and others who rape boys and older males.

Graham James was a well known hockey coach who received a three year sentence in January, 1997 for the "sexual assault" of Sheldon Kennedy (from the age of 14 to 20) who now plays with the Boston Bruins. Although the age of consent in Canada is 14-years-old, consent to sexual activity cannot be given to one who is in authority over a 14- to 17-year-old individual, such as a teacher, coach, etc.. Over the years, however, I have met gay males who celebrated the fact that, as teenagers, they had sex with authority figures. A significant number of adult males label their adolescent sexual experiences with men (occurring before the age of 17) to have been both wanted and enjoyed, thus replicating the Sandfort (1984, Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 20(2), 123-42) results for 25 Dutch boys (age 10 to 16) interviewed who were in such relationships. Similar results were also reported by Okami, P. (1991) for a sample of 63 American adult males and females who reported having had - "at least in part" - "positive" sexual experiences (mean number = 54.9) as children or young adolescents with someone significantly older. (Self-reports of "positive" childhood and adolescent sexual contacts with older persons: an exploratory study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20(5), pp. 437-57.)

There is also a documented history of the "trade" system existing between boys and men as partly rendered in Albert Reiss' 1961 paper The social integration of peers and queers (Social Problems, 9(2), 1961, pp. 102-21). In these situations, the American boys studied - "career delinquents" - made the rules (and also had the orgasms for which they received money), and the homosexual adult males violating the rules risked being assaulted and even killed. [For a summary of various forms of male prostitution, see Coleman, E. The development of male prostitution activity among gay and bisexual adolescents, Journal of Homosexuality, 17(1/2), 131-49.]

A more recent study from Holland reports a similar (but different) situation which has evolved between usually elderly gay-identified men and street youth. As a rule, when a murder occurs, it is the elderly male who is the victim and "the murderers are mostly young male prostitutes." (Van Gemert, F. Chicken kills hawk: gay murders during the eighties in Amsterdam. Journal of Homosexuality, 26(4), 1994, pp. 149-174.) Three murders of upper middle-aged men - with variations on the same theme - occurred in Calgary in the past 5 years or so, but Calgary's media has never comprehensively reported on this phenomenon, which replicates what Reiss (1961) had also noted about the media almost 40 years ago. Journalist wishing to write on this phenomenon should at least read the two papers cited (as well as others), and then do good investigative work - which may nonetheless be "too much" to ask given that a "homosexuality" issue is being investigated.

The "Boys with Men" reality

A significant number of homosexually oriented males report having had enjoyable (often sought out) sex with men when they were in their early to mid-teens, some having done this by the age of 12, or even younger. A number of gay males I have met reported having had such a history, and similar accounts have been rendered in books and gay magazines. This knowledge has also been the product of studies of gay/bisexual males (eg. The Gay Report by K. Jay & A. Young, 1979, Summit Books; Male Prostitution by D. J. West & B. de Villiers, 1993, Harrington Park Press), and even studies of average males (eg. the sample taken for our study). When "child sexual abuse" is defined as "unwanted sexual acts" occurring before the age of 17 years, the study sample will contain a percentage of young adult males (or males of other ages) who report that their sexual experiences with men, when they were young, were both wanted and enjoyed - thus making it unscientific to ever label such experiences as "abuse."

Respecting the experiences of subjects studied has increasingly become important in research (eg. Grounded research theory), and such ethical behavior was manifested by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal in their study Association between history of childhood sexual behavior and adult HIV-risk sexual behavior in Puerto Rican men who have sex with men (Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(5), 595-605, 1995). In their sample of 182 Puerto Rican men aged 18 to 60 years living in New York City, 18% reported having been sexually abused before the age of 13 years by someone four or more years older. The "abuse" label applied because "they had been unwilling to participate" and because they had "felt harmed by the experience." Another 18%, however, has sexual experiences with someone (mostly males) four or more years older, but they were not classified to have been "sexually abused" because they did it "willingly and without feeling hurt by the experience." Unfortunately, not all researchers have been unbiased and therefore respectful of subjects studied.

In a study by Doll, LS et al. (1992), Self-reported childhood and adolescent sexual abuse among homosexual and bisexual males (Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(6), 855-64.), the reported sexual abuse rate having occurred before the age of 19 years is 37%. Sexual abuse was defined as having had sex with a older person (age difference varies from 3 to 10 years depending on age group) who was deemed to be "more powerful." The "use of force" also defined "abuse," but not the victim's response. This produced a "sexually abused" group in which 42% of the abused reported having responded in a "neutral" (15%) to "positive" (27%) way when the experience occurred. The "neutral to positive" response rate was 46% when interviewed.

A major problem with this research: it is not a study of "self-reported child and adolescent sexual abuse," because the authors essentially dictate what is "sexual abuse." For example, all males who reported that, at the age of 18 years, they had sex with a +27-year-old male (a very common event for teenage gay males who have made contact with gay communities, and some of them do prefer older males who are "more powerful" than they are) were defined to have been sexually abused. This definition would also make my uncle a sexual abuser because, at the age of 40 years, he married a (lesser powerful) 16-year-old female which resulted in 17 children being added to the six children born to his first wife. In many ways, the authors of the above noted paper (chief researcher and two others are from the US Department of Health) are highly ethnocentric, in an "implemented" manner. Basically, their ideology would also label almost all men in Classical Greece to have been sexual abusers.

Depending on the nature of older males with whom adolescent boys have been sexually involved in the past 15 years, and the sexual activities engaged in, they may or may not have been at high risk for contracting STDs or HIV. It is known, however, that male teenagers who have been part of study samples taken in gay communities have been coming out at the youngest age: 14- to 15- years-old, the average) for study samples of 13- to 21-year-old gay and bisexual males. They have also been at high risk for having problems ranging from having been runaways, having engaged in prostitution (for survival reasons and, sometimes, to meet the man of their dreams), and having been sexually abused (including rape), to having attempted suicide and developing problems requiring chemical dependency treatment. (See Remafedi et al., 1991.)

Rotheram-Borus et al. (1995: Predicting patterns of sexual acts among homosexual and bisexual youths, American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(4), 588-595) notes that "many homosexual male adolescents have sexual relationships with homosexual men , the group with the highest prevalence for AIDS," but most researchers have not been "up front" about this reality. For example, the Povinelli et al. (1996) study reports on a sample of 501 males aged 13 to 21 years "who self-identified as homosexual or bisexual or as having sex with men," the implication being that 13-year-old males are "men." (Trends and predictors of immunodeficiency virus antibody testing by homosexual and bisexual adolescent males, 1989-1994, Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 33-38.) The Remafedi (1994) study sample of 239 males aged 13 to 21 years is similarly described. They were "self-identified as gay or bisexual and/or had sex with men." (Predictors of unprotected intercourse among gay and bisexual youths: knowledge, beliefs, and behavior, Pediatrics, 94(2), 163-168.) In these studies, 13-year-old boys - although they are labeled to be adolescents - are also defined to be "men" as made evident by Remafedi (1994): "High risk sex between men account for the largest proportion of AIDS cases among adolescents." Therefore, hiding in these words is the very common "boys with men" sexual reality noted by Rotheram-Borus et al. (1995), but this reality has yet to be studied for its HIV infection implications, mostly for "political" reasons. Most (all?) gay community leaders (with much help from lesbian community leaders in Calgary) have not wanted this reality to be addressed for a number of reasons which must be addressed.

Concerning the "boys with men" sexual reality, Meyer & Dean (Patterns of sexual behavior and risk taking among young New York City gay men, AIDS Education and Prevention, 7(Suppl.), 13-23, 1995) bravely speculated that "it is plausible that power inequality in young gay men's sexual relations will play an important part in risk taking behavior," the young men in their study being 18- to 24-years-old. "Such power inequalities may be especially salient in intergenerational sexual encounters," this being the euphemism used to designate the "boys with men" reality also noted to exist in more general writings such as Framing gay youth" by Ben Gove (Screen (England), 37(2), 174-192, 1996). The depiction of gay teen sexuality in the film The Fruit Machine is addressed and one of the scenes is described. "...[I]n the sequence involving Vincent Barberi, the depiction of adult sexual opportunism also takes precedence over the consensual cross-generational relations which characterizes the social and sexual lives of many gay, lesbian and bisexual teenagers.... Of course, while even the most egalitarian adult-youth erotic relations are commonly pathologized, especially through homophobic myths of the persistent threat of adult gay molesters', popular culture has always addressed, and actively encouraged, adolescent erotic desires and fantasies relating to adults." (P. 184, emphasis mine.)

The fact that many homosexually oriented male teenagers have sex with men has, in fact, been largely ignored by North American education efforts to prevent the spread of HIV. AIDS organizations have had "Men with Men" safer sex education programs, but silence (as in Silence Kills!) has existed about the traditional "Boys with Men" reality existing in North America; "Boys with Men" (and even "Boys with Boys") safer sex education programs have been avoided, in spite of the cumulating wealth of knowledge about gay/bisexual male adolescents. Their common suicidal problems, for example, makes it unlikely that they would practice safer sex to save their lives. Homophobia (including internalized homophobia) has increasingly been recognized to be a significant factor implicated in the AIDS problem, especially for gay and bisexual male adolescents and young adults.

The best way to maximize negative results in an "at risk" population is to ignore the group's existence (and the related realities) in problem prevention work, whether this be with respect to HIV, suicidality, or other problems. It was therefore not surprising that a great decline occurred in the average age at which HIV is being contracted in the homosexually oriented male population A major investigation should be done about this scandal and journalists should begin the investigation by studying the situation - the 'politically correct' incompetence - which has existed in North American AIDS organizations as reported by Eric Rofes in his 1996 Harrington Park Press book "Reviving The Tribe." Inquiries about the traditional "boys with men" reality should also be made.

I have met many gay males who reported that, as children and young adolescents, they were most erotically/sexually attracted to men, this being the rule reported for a sample of 18- to 19-year-old homosexual males studied in Singapore, for example (Kok, LP. Et al. Profile of a homosexual in Singapore. Singapore Medical Journal, 32(6), p. 403-8). In North America, some gay males have reported seeking and experiencing sex with men by the age of 9 years, as the American gay artist, David Wojnarowicz, reported in an Outweek magazine article in December, 1990. Even psychologists have known about boys having sex with men, some of these boys having begun to frequent the gay baths by the age of 13. "Craig is a 13-year-old... was socially isolated and had very few friends... Craig had also been frequenting a gay sauna, where he engaged in homosexual acts with older adolescents and men..." (Sobocinski MR. Ethical principles in the counseling of gay and lesbian adolescents: issues of autonomy, competence, and confidentiality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21(4), 240-7, 1990.) The presentation of this case involved intervening in the situation, which occurred, but not because Craig was having sex with men. It was because he insisted on continuing to have unsafe sex with men, thus placing him at extreme risk for contracting HIV and probably dying at a very young age.

With respect to the unprofessional conduct implicated in AIDS organizations ignoring the "Boys with Men" reality, I may be contacted about the situation which has existed at AIDS Calgary. By 1991, AIDS Calgary was receiving information about the well known and documented "boys with men" sexual reality, but AIDS Calgary refused to effectively address this reality in their "safer sex" education efforts. (It was also unwilling to begin having the "homophobia in schools" problem addressed.) Yet, it was boys having sex with men who were at the greatest risk for contracting HIV at the youngest age. [In the early 1990s, the publisher and editor of The Calgary Herald were also supplied the same information but they refused to do the recommended investigative report on this well documented (but often denied) reality. They also repeatedly refused to so an investigative report on the extensive "child abuse" gay and lesbian children and youth were being subjected to in Calgary schools. Homophobia-related child abuse begins at the preschool level in Calgary. Unfortunately, the media in Calgary has typically avoided doing investigative reports of the major problems which have existed in schools, including racist problems which have continued to exist in schools and society. The same has also applied with Calgary's gay and lesbian community. As of the fall of 1996, after the take-over of Calgary Gay Lines (now called Gay and Lesbian Community Services under the presidency of Carolyn Anderson, MSW) by certain unsavory individuals, the following policy was not only enacted and put into practice. Anyone asserting that the "boy with men" reality exists, and especially that many boys (with or without love) enjoy their sexual encounters with men as the available research work also reports, will be denied access to the services the organization provides, which includes access to the library located there. (Information related to this, including the lethal implications for gay and bisexual male youth, will be supplied to anyone requesting the information. A change in administration occurred at the Community Center in the spring of 1997, but the domination of lesbians remains, as does the above noted policy.)]

Why were these boys who were (have been) having sex with men not targeted for effective "safer sex" education? Why was this well known reality ignored? Gay community leaders and "safer sex" educators who say that they did not know about this well documented reality are probably lying. If not, they should then not have the positions they occupy because of their "politically correct" abysmal ignorance. Almost everyone, including mainstream suicidologists, have therefore been participating in maintaining a maximum casualty status in the gay/bisexual male adolescent population. This reality is comprehensively rendered in The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem.

For an example of Calgary's "high risk" gay boys, see the Richard Hofmann's story - from the pre-AIDS era - in the 1991 Canadian book, Loving In Fear. At the age of 12, he began signaling in interest in older males and he did not have to go far to meet interested older males in Calgary's suburbs. Boys in the "Hofmann" category, however, would probably become HIV-positive by the age of 15: "The angrier I got, the more drugs and alcohol I consumed... By the time I reached the age of fourteen, [Calgary's] chicken queens had either had me or didn't want me as I was getting too old for their tastes... [After a party-related gang rape:] When I woke up the next morning, I had no recollection of the night before. My body was bruised and I found myself lying in a small puddle of blood, semen, and alcohol... The first thing I did when I got home was head straight for the medicine cabinet. I swallowed almost every pill I could find. This was my first attempt at suicide, followed in later years by more attempts." (Choices, Richard Hofmann, in Loving in Fear, The Queer Press Collective, Ed., 1991)

These boys would be classified as having experienced "unwanted sexual acts," but they also often experienced "wanted" and "enjoyed" sexual activity with men. Some boys also report only having had experiences in the latter category but may be engaging in high risk sexual activities. In Calgary, a collective effort has materialized (involving five organizations, including AIDS Calgary's lesbian president, Jane Oxenbury, MSW, and Carolyn Anderson from the Gay/Lesbian Community Centre) to make sure this reality will not be addressed. The ones involved, however, who have been the gay/lesbian mental health professionals I have severely criticized, all have a history of being politically correct: they had ignored all gay/lesbian/bisexual children/youth issues. A number of community involved lesbians have also been most troubled by some of my warranted inquiries related to girls becoming involved with lesbian women and are being harmed. Not all lesbians, however, have been as callous and indifferent to such issues. For example, in a British study of lesbian youth carried out by lesbians, it was reported that 40% of the girls reported having "been badly treated by an older lesbian/woman." (Bridget J. and Lucille S. (1996) Lesbian Youth Support Information Service (LYSIS): developing a distance support agency for young lesbians. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 6, 355-364.)

The reality of boys having relationships with men (at least by their mid-teens) is much more recognized and it has even been occurring at a prestigious ballet school in Toronto. A Calgary mother of a teenage gay male attending the school discovered this fact when her son reported that another boy (in his mid-teens) was in a relationship with a very well-to-do gay man. Her response was to inform school authorities who intervened in the situation, and her son suspected that his mother was responsible for this. She, of course, denied this, and also failed to recognize the possible highly negative consequences of her intervention.

Boys who are emotionally/sexually attracted to men (or girls who are attracted to women) will not stop seeking such relationships as the result of interventions. Instead, they will be more secretive and therefore much less likely to report any abuse (including rapes) if these things happen to them. The reason for their silence (as well as the general silence of girls mistreated and abused by adult lesbians) - which always benefits abusers (who have had numerous collaborating friends in many gay/lesbian communities) - will be related to their fear of others discovering what they had been doing. Concerned ignorant parents (who will even lie to their gay sons) are very dangerous, and they are much more dangerous if ever they become actively involved in gay communities, possibly through organizations such as P-FLAG. The organization has a good reputation which nonetheless may be undermined locally. P-FLAG should supply its members with well researched information about the intergenerational phenomenon existing in the world of homosexuality. It is very common in the white sector of the western world and, up to recently, it was probably the rule - as it appears to be on a worldwide scale. For example, this form of homosexuality predominates in Moslem societies, from Morocco to Afghanistan (Schmitt A. Ed. (1992) Sexuality and eroticism among males in Moslem Societies, Harrington Park Press, N.Y.) It is also very common in Latin America and in many Asian countries, and an informant reported that the same phenomenon predominated in Bangladesh.

The CBE (Calgary Board of Education) apparently has an intervention policy when it is discovered that a teenage boy is in a relationship with a man; this, in spite of the warning contained in information I have supplied on the subject since 1992. A 20-year-old male reported that, while he was in high school, he was in a relationship with a man about 40 years of age, his former brother-in-law. His gaydar equipped English teacher then discovered that he was living with the man by befriending the boy who was soon presented him with a "catch-22" problem. "If you have sex with me, you'll have a high grade in this course. If not, you'll fail." Because the boy did not want others to know about his relationship with a man, nor about his gay identity, which would have happened had he formally complained about this, his only option was to quit attending the high school where the English teacher was then able to continue being protected by "the system" the CBE apparently wishes to maintain.

A similar situation has also existed in Calgary Catholic schools. In the late 1980s, as reported in my book, a married high school teacher committed suicide after it became known that he has been sexually imposing with some high school boys. The "preying" nature of some highly unethical teachers, however, is rarely discovered, except by the victims who have been traditionally silenced for a number of reasons, the most important being society's homophobia. This "muzzling" factor was, in fact, highlighted in a 1994 major article on the sexual abuse of boys published in both the Calgary Herald and the Edmonton Journal. For gay/lesbian adolescents, however, the "muzzling" often occurs because having sex with a teacher(s) was coded positively, even when varying degrees of exploitation occurred. Telljohann and Price (1993) report this phenomenon in their study of gay and lesbian teenage life: "It should be noted that a few of the males and females who [reported] that the reactions of counselors and teachers were positive [when coming out to them] in reality were describing exploitive encounters. One of the males reported that he went to bars with his counselor. Another male claimed his teachers treated him well, he had even dated some of them." (A qualitative examination of adolescent homosexuals' life experiences: ramifications for secondary school personnel. Journal of Homosexuality, 26(1), 41-56.)

GLB (gay,lesbian, and bisexual) school counselors and teachers in the above described "exploiting" or "abusing" categories soon learn from their sexual experiences with GLB adolescents that they are very well protected by "the system" from ever having their highly unethical behaviors exposed, with only rare exceptions to the rule. To date, "the system" has been the ally of such unethical teachers and counselors, and these individuals also appear to have many friends (also in the professional category) in Calgary's gay and lesbian community, and at the CBE (Calgary Board of Education). Together, they form "the system" which has not only failed to protect GLB teenagers from wholesale abuse and socially induced suicidal problems, but it had also failed to protect them from the exploitation by unsavory teachers and counselors who have been in more than one closet. An insightful (and judicious) mainstream media investigation is needed of this reality existing throughout North America, and we cannot depend on the gay/lesbian media to do this, for reasons which should also be investigated and reported on. Gay/lesbian communities are sensitive to "image" issues, often at the expense of having major problems addressed, and many individuals, including GLB adolescents, have been paying a very high price for this.

Anyone wishing to better understand a significant sector of the gay male population, especially when they were children and were often highly vulnerable many abuses, should study a phenomenon which has increasingly been reported in the literature. Many gay males have reported having "distant fathers," which was once believed to cause male homosexuality. It is now realized, however, that it is likely gay sons who cause distant fathers. "I think he knew I was in some way attracted to him [his father], perhaps even that I was in love with him, and then he withdrew." (From: Being Homosexual: Gay men and their Development by Richard A. Isay, M.D., 1989.) In a family of 5 boys (and 3 girls), I was the only one my father often referred to as "My affectionate little bastard," which I was without being effeminate. Fortunately, he was not homophobic and I was therefore not being harmed simply for being different. Many gay boys, however, were not so lucky. Gay boys are more likely to have been assaulted by their fathers; the implicated factors are "being effeminate" and "homosexually active" (Harry, J. Parental abuse and sexual orientation in males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18(3), 251-61, 1989.) My good fortune also included growing up in a wonderful environment (compared to whatever most gay males have experienced and are experiencing); the situation is described in a recently published book on child sexuality authored by Dr. Chris Bagley. Additional information about the "boys with men" reality may be accessed via the index in the US Department of Health and Human Services section.

Other gay/bisexual male youth problems:

The available research data reveals that gay/bisexual male adolescents are at high risk for having other major problems such as developing drug and/or alcohol use/abuse problems, experiencing declining academic achievement, becoming truant and dropping out of school, becoming throwaways, delinquents, street youth, and homeless, contracting STDs and HIV, engaging in prostitution, being abused verbally and physically, etc.. Rarely mentioned in research work on GLB adolescents, however, is the abuse inflicted on them by older members of GLB communities With respect to such abuses, a major media investigation should be done. Professionals - including youth suicide prevention experts - must also be asked what they have been doing to help these "at risk" youth. Their level of formal education and training about GLB children and adolescents should also be solicited to determine their qualifications in this respect. Most important, however, is the knowledge that "being gay, lesbian, or bisexual" does not give an individual a "qualified" status, no more than just "being heterosexual" implies that one is qualified to deal with the problems affecting heterosexual children, adolescents, and adults.

What happens when distressed gay/bisexual male youth seek help from the ones entrusted (and paid) to help youth?

Related information is available in Canada from Central Toronto Youth Services (CTYS). In 1993, one CTYS study, No Safe Bed, reported that gay/bi male teenagers in the youth residence system were in a "profoundly dangerous" environment. A 1994 CTYS study, Opening Doors, revealed that drug/alcohol treatment programs were, as a rule, also dangerous to the health and welfare of gay/bisexual male youth. What happens, however, if these youth seek help for their suicidality problems? A related study was not done for reasons which should be investigated and reported on.

Toronto harbors Canada's largest gay and lesbian communities and it appears to be Canada's most gay-positive city. It may therefore be anticipated that even greater harm (which includes not having qualified services) is being inflicted on distressed gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents and youth throughout most of Canada, and most of the United States. Almost half of American states still deem same-gender sexual contacts to be criminal acts.

The investigative work done in Calgary reveals that, until I began doing gay/lesbian/bisexual youth education work, institutions and organizations with a focus on youth problem prevention and/or intervention had not been advised by anyone (even from the gay and lesbian communities, including P/FLAG -Parent & Friends of Lesbians and Gays) about the "high risk" status of homosexually oriented youth. Their gay and lesbian employees had also avoided providing such information, and the same applies for their gay or lesbian consultants when such individuals were acting in this capacity. The only exception occurred with respect to HIV prevention education, but great compromises of integrity were often being made in this respect. I may eventually write "the Calgary story," listing the 'crimes' of all the "gutless" GLB professionals who were actively contributing to not having important (often life-threatening) realities addressed. A special emphasis will be placed on the ones who have taken over power positions in the gay/lesbian community within the past two years, only to hopefully stop the process of having major realities spoken about and addressed.

An important fact to consider when reporting on gay/bisexual adolescent/youth realities:

Gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents/youth can be expected to go through highly problematic periods, especially with respect to coming out. Often enough, however, they are stereotyped to be "basket cases," which is not true. Our research indicates that most gay/bisexual young adult males - the ones who are sexually active - have a current mental health status (depression scores) comparable to their heterosexual counterparts. It is celibate homosexually oriented males who are the most distressed, followed by celibate heterosexual males. A similar result was produced in the Bell & Weinberg (1978) study, and Motto et al (1985) listed the same male category in his "suicide risk estimate scale" for psychiatric patients.

Male celibacy should be evaluated on the basis of the males who are celibate. Our study results reveal that male celibacy is, as a rule for young adult males, associated with mental health problems (high levels of depression) for both homosexual and heterosexual males.

Information mostly for journalists, but also of interest to others:

When homosexually oriented people were wrongly deemed to be mentally disordered by psychiatrists and psychologists, why did journalists not investigate and report the scandal rooted in unprofessional and unscientific behavior? Was it because the abuse was directed at a group of people society hated? Did the media indifference (or silence) mean that media people approved of such abuse, at least tacitly? Did not the media behave similarly in Nazi Germany? What was the "media" situation in the southern American states when Afro-American males were being lynched?

When Native children and youth were being abused in residential schools, why did journalists not investigate and report the scandal? Was it because media people essentially approved, at least tacitly, of what was being done to Native children and youth? Why did WE once flock to movie houses to see films which grossly misrepresented (in a very racist way) Native American?

Where have the journalists been with respect to investigating and reporting on the situation existing in youth suicidology? With respect to this scandal, most of the investigative work has already been done by myself, but more could be done. To date, journalists have missed "the major story" related to the reported Bagley & Tremblay research results. The question is "WHY?"

I ventured into suicidology as the result of authoring a 1991 investigative report. I had asked Calgary's youth problem prevention professionals: "What are you doing to help gay and lesbian youth?" The answer was "Nothing!" Generally, these youth were not perceived to exist, and little was known about their high risk for having one or more of the major youth problems. The professionals who knew about the problems, however, had been afraid to do anything to help these children and youth, fearing punishments by colleagues and superiors if such a concern was manifested. In the 1992 book, Coming Out of the Classroom Closet, Karen Harbeck reports that the same "punishment" situation has existed in universities. Maintaining the abuse and neglect of gay, lesbian, and bisexual children and youth has therefore not been an accident.

Given that society's youth problem prevention professionals were failing gay and bisexual male adolescents with respect to their reasonably well documented suicidality problems, they were certainly not expected to recognize their lesser problems, much less begin to effectively address these. The war was to be won by waging the most important battle: the suicidality problems of gay and bisexual male adolescent were to be focused on. If this problem was recognized and addressed, all other lesser problems would be then also be recognized and addressed.

The tragically rampant abuse of gay, lesbian, and bisexual children and youth in schools by teachers, peers, curricula, etc., combined with an almost complete lack of qualified services for these youth, should have been the object of major media investigation reports. Such endeavors never occurred in Calgary, in Alberta, throughout most of Canada, and probably throughout most of the United States. As a rule, our history reveals that when the media has been silent about the abuses of the ones we have hated, the perpetrators of abuses always recognized that they essentially had a licence to abuse. Others had been given a licence to ignore what was happening, even if the victims were children and youth.

Recent Developments

By February 25, 1997, the CBE (Calgary Board of Education) had finally formally decided to provide education about GLB (gay, lesbian, and bisexual) adolescents to school counsellors. It is hoped, however, that the CBE Trustees and superintendents will be addressing the related major concerns I have brought to their attention. There is also the possibility that a school system which has been an abuser of GLB children and adolescents will not really become the opposite of what it has been. This also applies to Calgary's GLB community which had been quite indifferent to the health and welfare of GLB adolescents, even when it was known that abuse and exploitation was occurring. North American GLB communities must formally manifest a credible concern for the welfare of GLB youth, and act accordingly. Much remains to be written on the subject, addressing issues such as exploitation, rape, prostitution, violence in relationships, peer group pressures, AIDS/STDs, racism, ageism, sexism, etc.. Rarely addressed is the contribution of GLB communities make to suicidal problems. The CBE (Calgary Board of Education) has been asked to address the dangers posed by gay and lesbian communities to the welfare of various GLB youth; some of these are noted in Eric Rofes' 1983 book I Thought People Like That Killed Themselves. Soon the CBE will be asked to also address a great danger posed by all (and especially gay and lesbian communities) to another group of youths at very high risk for suicide, as opposed to self-harm and suicide attempts. Relevant information has already been supplied to CBE officials and others in Calgary.

Recently, I (and others) have been formally advised that I apparently do not speak for Calgary's GLB community. I am very proud of this status given that, if this had been the case, the major positive changes occurring in the Calgary Board of Education would not have occurred. I could not, like Calgary's GLB community, be indifferent to the health and welfare of GLB children and adolescents. When I began my work in 1991-92, there was much indifference (continuing until very recently), and even opposition from those who were in control of the former GLB youth group. Soon after, I discovered why. At Gay Lines, a peer counsellor advising a teenager stated: "Don't go there [the youth group] because you'll get fucked." By then, however, this all-too-common "youth exploiting youth" situation has been changing because the leadership of the youth group had been taken over by a trusted and highly responsible friend. Acquiring this knowledge has nonetheless troubled me, especially because some leaders of GLB organizations had known what was happening but were doing nothing about it. As I have told many individuals over the years, I could not belong to any GLB community organizations (except for a recent short-lived "investigation" period with P-FLAG) because this would compromise my integrity rooted in knowledge, understanding, compassion, and altruism. Little understanding exists concerning the import of my work extending well beyond Calgary's city limits, Alberta's border, and even Canada. Calgary's gay community leaders have been exceptionally short-/narrow-sighted, not being concerned about much beyond their consolidation of power, their ongoing unsavory tribal politics once written about in CLUE! magazine, and capitalizing on the recent mainstream recognition of GLB youth issues occurring in the last 3 years as the result of my work. The complete story related to this result is yet to be written. Calgary's gay and lesbian community harbors some very dangerous concerned self-serving individuals.

A Very Important Recent Research Result. (A 1997-98 Analysis)

From: "Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal?" by Adams et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1996, Vol. 105(3), pp. 440-445.

"Only the homophobic [heterosexual] men [compared to non-homophobic heterosexual men studied] showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli... Homophobia is apparently associated with homosexual arousal that the homophobic individual is either unaware of or denies." (Abstract, p. 440) According to a Vancouver Sun article, Lying in wait to pound a queer' may be a sign of latent homosexuality, by Linda Bates reproduced in the GALE, BC June 1997 Newsletter, at least two American magazines (Esquire and Harper's) have reported on the results of this study and probably some of the implications.

Much information has been available suggesting that many of the greatest male homophobes were having major problems with their own, often repressed or denied (or acted on in secrecy), homosexual desires. Little to nothing has been (comprehensively) written about this phenomenon in the mainstream media. I have found that a history of child sexual abuse is also often implicated in the creation of these homophobes who commonly blame their homosexual desires on the sexual abuse. John Money, in his 1988 book Gay, Straight, and In-Between, partly explores this phenomenon using expressions such as "malignant bisexuals" and "the exorcist syndrome." The concept is also explored by de Kuyper (1993) in The Freudian construction of sexuality: the gay foundation of heterosexuality and straight homophobia. (Journal of Homosexuality, 24(3/4), 137-44.)

Many homophobic men have been waging the great battle against their inner homosexual desires by externalizing the process: waging a similar unrelenting war against self-accepting homosexuals. This well known psychological process is called "projection," and it is only one of the major problems GLB communities must address, often with little help from mainstream society and its institutions.

Challenging a Homophobic and Dangerous Mainstream Media Personality

The homophobia of Peter Stockland, a Calgary Herald columnist continues (as noted in Update 1996). As soon as the CBE (Calgary Board of Education) had decided to proactively help gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth, he devoted 2 articles (Feb. 27, 28) to attacking the decision. He also invoked the words of a mainstream suicidologist, Peter Muehrer, to even advance the notion that suicide prevention efforts "MAY - actually increase suicide risks." (Fear tactics used to push [gay] agendas, p. A4) This belief is predominantly based on the results of a study carried out by David Shaffer et al.: Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Response to Suicide-Prevention Programs, JAMA, Dec. 26, 1990, Vol. 264 (24) pp. 3151-5.)

An Explanation for the Reported Negative Effects of Some Youth Suicide Prevention Programs in Schools

In The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem, the reason for such negative results was explained even before the Shaffer et al.'s paper had been read, as noted in a footnote. The predictable negative results would be related to the kind of adolescent suicide prevention programs being given. As a rule, even in Calgary, silence existed about homosexuality issues in these programs. From my book:

"Two years ago, youth suicide prevention experts and AIDS prevention educators in Calgary were not targeting gay and bisexual youth in their school-related education programs. It can therefore be interpreted that they are working to maintain maximum casualties in this segment of the youth population (147: Appendix E). Doing this, however, is enacting the "BEING GAY equals DEATH!" equation, at least unconsciously. It would certainly be a conscious effort if we were to hear these educators say: "Gays deserve to die!"

[Recently, I visited Calgary Police Services to get some information about the work done in Calgary schools by officers in their youth section. At the front desk I asked an officer about the self-esteem elevation work they do with youth, and then asked if they did the same for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. His answer was: "We would never do something like that!"] [This was the situation existing in 1994. A few positive changes have occurred since then, and much more must be done.]

Under these circumstances, it is therefore not surprising that many gay youth will attempt suicide (as suggested by the research). It is also expected that a significant number will die prematurely from other causes - such as AIDS, or maybe from drug and alcohol abuse. For many of them, drugs and alcohol will be used to dull the pain society continues to so generously inflict on them - in a world where the average type of suicide prevention education given to adolescents may even be CAUSAL in the gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth suicide tragedy.

A gay youth is in a classroom, receiving a form of suicide prevention education which deletes any mention of gay youth problems. He is suicidal, and his feeling of "hopelessness" is, in great part, related to his belief that no one in the world would understand or accept him, nor understand his problems. That no one is available to help him. He is also suicidal because he is experiencing the effects of the learned belief that "GAYS SHOULD NOT EXIST!"

He had been looking forward to this class, to be given by a suicide prevention expert. For him, there was hope that his problem would be addressed. That, maybe, this expert would know something about his problem - happening in a world where he has been made to feel so alone. Where he has been made to feel like he is the only one who is gay youth, and the only one who has a related suicidal problem.

By the end of the class he has become very depressed. The suicide expert had been silent about the existence of kids like him, about the pressures on him specifically, and about the gay and lesbian youth suicide problem. He needs help. He wants help. But he is silent. He thinks about asking a question, and fear overtakes him. If he does, others will then suspect he's gay. An anxiety-ridden paralysis results. To date, his hell has only been internal, and he's absolutely terrified of others knowing or suspecting his secret.

He is now silent. The suicide expert has acted in accordance with the school's hidden creed: "GAYS DON'T EXIST" because "GAYS SHOULD NOT EXIST." This was the first time he had encountered a suicide prevention expert, and this person obviously knew nothing about his problem. He is now more sure than ever that no one in the world can help him, and his depression intensifies - as his feeling of hopelessness reaches higher levels.

For a few months he continues to live. He thinks about talking to a school counselor, but the idea terrifies him. School counselors have never let him know that help for gay kids would be available. That it would be safe to "come out" to a school counselor.

He attempted suicide before, but no one had found out about it. They all thought it was an accident. This time he wasn't to going fail. In a final way, he then acts out what was explicit when he heard some religious people talk about gays; implicit in the curriculum he was subjected to in schools; and also implicit in the suicide prevention education he had received.

In our homophobic and homohating world, even youth problem prevention professionals often unwittingly contribute to the 'hidden' agenda; or to what Dr. Sears - from the University of Southern Carolina - concluded after completing an in-depth study of 36 gays and lesbians:

[They] are survivors. They survived taunts and torments of childhood or vaguely uncomfortable feelings about being different. They survived the combination of racial, gender, or class oppression with homosexuality. They survived religious zealots... They survived incest, rumor and scandal, threats and beatings. In the silence of their souls, they hid - but they survived...

Nameless others have not survived. Some departed the heterosexual-oriented world through suicide, drug overdose, or alcohol-related accidents... They have not survived the heterosexual agenda to retell their lives; each of us share responsibility for their untold stories. (130: 402)

When all the information has been studied, we can easily end up saying: "It's a wonder that all gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth don't attempt and commit suicide." But, by how much does such a high rate of attempted suicide translate into actual suicides? Remafedi et al. (1991) gives us an idea of what this may be by reporting the results of their "Weisman and Worden" evaluation of the suicide attempts made by 45 gay and bisexual youth....."

Hopefully, by now having placed the above information on the Internet, and especially in the "journalists" section, it is hoped that positive outcomes will result. The mainstream media has yet to accept its role in maintaining major social problems, and especially those in which "homosexuality" is a significant factor.

Peer Review Status, Advance Publication Notice, and the Special "David Shaffer" Treatment at the Official Publication of the American Association of Suicidology: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior.

In the section on "Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior," it was noted that David Shaffer's research work was treated in a 'special' way at SLTB. Recently, I received the results (dated February 21, 1997) of our "Suicidality" paper's peer review. The results were highly positive and included the paper being granted advanced publication status given its monumental importance in the field of youth suicidology. It will be published in the next issue of Crisis, the international journal of suicidology: Vol. 18, No. 1, 24-34, 1997.

One reviewer of the paper also revealed important information related to David Shaffer and the official publication of the American Association of Suicidology. The [manuscript] 'Suicidality problems of gay and bisexual males...' presents a most important study. The topic is most important, highlighted by recent debates (See SLTB, 25). One study has been questioned, i.e., Shaffer, who reported a [gay male adolescent suicide] prevalence of 3%. At the meeting, he was confronted about his figures; regrettably, the published text [in SLTB] reflects none of this. Is this homophobia in science?" (Author anonymous due to anonymous nature of peer review process.) The exceptionally poor quality of Shaffer's 1995 study was immediately obvious to me (and so it seems to many others), as detailed in the 1995 paper The Homosexuality Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem presented at the suicide prevention conference in Banff, Alberta. It therefore appears like the "peer review" process has been (and continues to be) seriously compromised at Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, at least with respect to "homosexuality' issues. This serious problem has also likely been causal in maintaining (and possibly exacerbating) the worsening youth suicide problem, and the alleged "peer review" problem should be investigated and addressed by The American Association of Suicidology. An incestuous relationship nonetheless appears to exist between SLTB and the AAS, which means that probably nothing will be done about the situation, unless the mainstream media begins doing related insightful investigative reports.

A major negative result of Shaffer's previously cited 1990 study was reported to me by richard Ramsay, Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary. By the late 1980s, Richard Ramsay was involved in youth suicide prevention work being developed in California where gay and lesbian issues were also gaining recognition. By then, about $100,000.00 has been spent on a suicide prevention film but, given that the Shaffer study was implicating adolescent/youth suicide prevention programs, the film was scrapped.

At the time, and to this day, most suicidologists have failed to understand the Shaffer(1990) results, as it was explained above with respect to Peter Stockland using the same results to hopefully stop gay and lesbian youth from being helped in Calgary schools. It is not suicide prevention programs which would be a problem, but the nature of these programs. Unfortunately, Shaffer did not solicit "sexual orientation" information from adolescents in his study, thus making it impossible for him to recognize what was causing the problem. There is also another factor implicated in the youth suicide problem, especially with respect to completed suicides. A section on the subject will soon be placed at this website.

As indicated by the Bagley and Tremblay study results, however, and the 1996 Seattle school study, gay and lesbian youth are overrepresented in adolescent suicidality problems. Furthermore, the evidence indicates that gay and bisexual male youth may also form the majority of male youth attempting suicide in the most serious ways, and also committing suicide. Therefore, for the reasons I have explained in my book and reproduced in this section, youth suicide prevention programs which omit "homosexuality" issues will (predictably) negatively affect those youth for whom "homosexuality" is implicated in their suicidal problems. Furthermore, it may be concluded on the basis of the available research data that all adolescent/youth suicide problem studies which have not solicited "homosexuality" information from subjects are seriously flawed. The results of these studies are as vague (or even absurd) as would be the results of AIDS-related research, if the researchers had generally avoided soliciting information relating to the "homosexuality" of affected individuals. Such research, if it had existed, would have certainly been deemed scandalous, and certainly not be worthy of the "science" label. Yet, such a situation has been existing in adolescent/youth suicidology, and a related silence had dominated in the mainstream media. Is it possible that the mainstream media has been working (by omission, indifference, or as the result of convenient ingorance) to maintain a maximum casualty status in the gay/lesbian/bisexual children/adolescents/youth population. If so, who then can we depend on for information about major abuses in society when the mainstream media is (has been) a collaborator in the abuse process, as most professionals working with children/adolescents/youth have also been?

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