Page (See New Index)
To . . .
Resource Links - - Bibliography
with Links to Abstracts available on the WEB -
- Abstracts or Research
Highlights - - PhD.
and Master's Thesis Abstracts.
The paper (by C. Bagley
and P. Tremblay) was in its final form by December, 1996, and it was published
in Bagley, C. & Ramsay, R., Ed. (1997)
Suicidal Behaviors in
Adolescents and AdultsAshgate Publishers, Aldershot, Hampshire,
England, pp. 177-195. A shorter version of the paper available at this
website was published in Crisis, The International Journal of Suicide and
Crisis Studies, Vol. 18(1), 1997, pp. 24-34, under the title
Behavior in Homosexual and Bisexual Males. The abstract is available
on a CRISIS
webpage.) A July 1996 first draft of the paper was tabled
in the Alberta Legislative Assembly on August 26, 1996.
Male Suicide Problems
This paper (by C. Bagley
and P. Tremblay) is based on the same random sample of young adult males
which produced the above "suicidality" paper, and it has important implication
with respect to the percentage of homosexual/bisexual individuals in the
male population. About 12% of males were deemed homosexual/bisexual based
on self-identification and/or being currently homosexually active. The
July 1996 first draft of the paper was also tabled
in the Alberta Legislative Assembly on August 26, 1996. The two papers
report data produced in a major research project funded by Grant # 498-89-0020
from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada. The
paper is now published as On the prevalence of homosexuality and
bisexuality in a random community survey of 750 men aged 18 to 27, The
Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 1-18, 1998.
Alert!: A 1998 study indicates
that many studies have underestimated - by about 400% - the percentage
of young males who are (have been) homosexually active. This result is
similar to the underestimates indicated by the Bagley and Tremblay Demographic
Study results. Major implications are noted.
The paper (by P. Tremblay
in collaboration with Richard Ramsay, Faculty of Social Work, University
of Calgary) was prepared for distribution at
The Third Bi-Regional Adolescent
Suicide Prevention Conference in Breckenridge, Colorado, September,
1997. On the basis of a review of the research literature, gay and bisexual
males have been (are) overrepresented in most suicide-related factors recognized
by mainstream suicidologists.
The 33-page paper by
P. Tremblay was presented at the 6th Annual Convention of the Canadian
Association for Suicide Prevention held in Banff, Alberta, Canada, October
1995. Although the paper's focus is gay/bisexual males,
section (and the tables of data) presents suicidality information
related to the lesbian and gay/lesbian/bisexual of colour populations.
On August 11, The
Trevor Project launched The Trevor Helpline, the
first round-the-clock national toll-free suicide hotline for gay and questioning
youth. It's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Teens
with nowhere to turr can call 800-850-8078.
The 215 page book (with
an Alberta focus) explores the suicidal problems of North American GLB
youth of all colours, related problems (including indifference and abuse
in GLB communities), and the serious problems with professionals who have
generally ignored these issues. The book also supplies the reader with
the basic knowledge needed to understand gay, lesbian and bisexual youth
and their challenges. This understanding is imperative for all seeking
to help these youth by alleviating the societal pressures which have contributed
to their suicides. For information about
The Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual
Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem follow
link. - Author's Biography. -
"homobio" relating to his childhood and adolescence published by Bagley
(1997).. - Photographs
of the author at a young age.
parts of the book, The
Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem
are now available online:
Appendix containing a published 1991 investigative report
on what Alberta professionals working with children and adolescents were
doing to help "at risk" GLB children & adolescents. - A
- This report led to writing the 1991 52-page report, Gay and Lesbian
Youth Need our Help, submitted to Jim Dinning, Alberta's
Minister of Education.
1996: A summary of events which occurred since 1994 is given, along
with additional information related to GLB suicide problems, such as child
chapter, The "Gay Factor" In The Street Youth Problem, which
is related to male youth prostitution. - A
1998 update. - Internet
resources related to male youth prostitution.
Additional Problems of GLB Youth of Colour: (11/94, 03/98) - Internet
Resources related to North American and International GLB People of Colour
Issues. - Supplementary
Calgary Gay Youth Attempts Suicide. (2/99) Illustrates how some
gay youth, even by the age of 13, are most determined to kill themselves.
Suicide of Bobby Steele. The story also illustrates how researchers
such as David Shaffer would have failed to discover that Bobby was homosexually
active and even linked to Edmonton's gay community. Such seriously
flawed research - rooted in a great ignorance of adolescent homosexual
realities - has contributed to mainstream suicidology generally ignoring
homosexuality issues in youth suicide research, intervention, and prevention.
The negative effects
of racist white-dominated GLB communities on GLB people of colour is noted,
along with other problems faced in the greater society and in their own
ethnic/racial groups - commonly more homophobic than white cultures. Additional
"racism" information from the United States is also supplied. The issue
of racism in Calgary's GLB community was addressed only in 1993 in a gay/lesbian
magazine - and at a Gay Pride function in the same year, but it continues
to be ignored even in the one-year-old Calgary GLB community magazine OUTLOOKS.
The magazine, however, has also ignored the GB youth suicide problem which
often continues after the "at risk" individuals have made more formal contact
with GB institutions. Several GLB individuals of colour in the "leader"
category (such as Kevin DeSouza, Susanda Ya, and Paul Fernadez) have left
Calgary in complete disgust with the Calgary situation.
1,953 GLBT youth responded
to 1997 Internet survey. Suicide attempt rate 22% and more than half the
attempters (62%) are repeat attempters averaging 2.7 suicide attempts.
37% of attempters attempted suicide 3 or more times. Mean age of first
suicide attempt: 14.1 years. A full report related to a self-identified
10-year-old Calgary gay boy who attempted suicide (written by his mother
and presented to the Calgary Board of Education in 1995) is available in
Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem.
Internet survey reports a 44% suicide attempt rate for 198 GLBT
respondents (Average age = 31-years-old); 80% of the first suicide attempts
occurred before the age of 20.
survey of 255 GLB adults seeking counselling reports a suicide
attempt rate of 41% and the average age of the first suicide attempt was
Almost one-third of the attempters attempted suicide 3 or more times.
Using a modified version
of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey from the Centers for Disease Control
(the standard version still does not solicit information related to "sexual
orientation), studies from
and Vermont indicate
that that homosexually oriented youth (definition varies) are at higher
risk than their counterparts for having attempted suicide. Two of the studies
also report them to be at even higher risk for suicide attempts resulting
in medical attention. In 1998, one
paper was published on the Massachusetts' 1995 data and another
on the Vermont data. A third paper on a 1993
Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (some "homosexuality"
information solicited) was also published. All studies reported that homosexually
oriented male youth were at greater risk than their heterosexual
counterparts for having many problems, including suicidal problems. As
of April, 1999, all information related to Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
(1993, 1995, 1997) and the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey (1987) is
located on one webpage.
Alert!: A 1998 study indicates
that the Youth Risk behavior Surveys would have underestimated - by about
400% - the percentage of young males who are (have been) homosexually active.
This result is similar to the underestimates indicated by the Bagley
and Tremblay (1998) Demographic Study results. Major implications are
from the Seattle Study also permitted the estimate that the negative
effects of society's "traditional" homophobia are implicated in about 30%
of the adolescent "attempted suicide" problem, and about 40% of the suicide
attempt problem resulting in medical attention.
The 1998 Remafedi et
al. analysis of a large grades 7 to 12 student sample (The American Journal
of Public Health, Jan., 1998) reports that gay/bisexual male adolescents
were 7-times more likely to have attempted suicide than their heterosexual
counterparts. (Lesbian and bisexual female adolescents were about 1.5-times
more at risk for being suicide attempters than heterosexual female adolescents,
but this was not statistically significant. There are indications, however,
that lesbian and bisexual female adolescents of colour were at the highest
risk for having suicidal problems. Related
Some information is now available on three 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
Francisco, and Connecticut.
Resources related to School Issues.
"gayzone" - Gay Teens' Resource Center
About 60% of heterosexual-identified
males in this study manifested sexual stimulation when viewing adult male
homosexual erotica, meaning that about 70% of males would be in this category
given that homosexual/bisexual-identified males were excluded from the
study. The 70%, however, drops to 50% if only "definite sexual stimulation"
is the criteria used. In 1948, Kinsey et al. reported that 50% of the males
studied (about 5000 males) reported homosexual experiences or related desires
not yet acted on. The implications of the Adams et al. (1996) study results
are therefore monumental, and more so given the analysis / evaluation presented.
Resources on the causes of homosexuality and the related debates.
Excerpts from The Homosexuality Factor in Social Violence by Pierre
The social programming of homohatred (includes homophobia) is evaluated
to have produced many males who repress and deny the "homosexual" implications
of their often common homo-sexual activities. The same social programming
is also implicated in many aspects of social violence such as the production
of male career delinquents (and related "trade" prostitution activities),
the rapes of adolescent and young adult males in prisons, gay bashing and
related murders, suicides, the sexual abuse of boys, and the sexual violence
directed at women.
experiences of a Metis Counsellor with highly distressed First Nations
Youth over a ten year period, an anomalous venture into understanding the
SELF, and a suicide note by a 21-year-old Calgary male who decided to leave
this world combine to produce the first part of a concept likely implicated
in a significant number of suicides.
Reports on a short adventure
in the world of schizophrenia which is associated with high suicide rates.
Save-The-World Factor - in the form of pathological "grandiosity"
- is reported to be common in certain groups of schizophrenic individuals,
but misinterpretations are suspected. It is possible that, under the threat
of death resulting from The Factor's interaction with the socialized
mind, other outcomes are possible such as the development of serious mental
Reports on how
Factor is also manifested in eating disorders. Many die as the result
of these disorders which may be a form of suicide. The section was
written soon after the publication of Peggy Claude-Pierre' book The
Secret Language of Eating Disorders (September, 1997) in which
eating disorders are said to be an unconscious form of suicide, but a different
interpretation is given for the phenomenon. The adolescent gay male's higher
risk for these disorders has implications which remain to be outlined and
explained. Links are supplied to related information on the Internet.
In November, 1998, I
was contacted by Miriam who reported a seven-year hsitory of anorexia and
STW related issues. A study of her case began which has become a collaboration
to render as much knowledge as possible about how the STW Factor applies
in at least some cases of anorexia. Some very important human realities
are also addressed. Additions to this section will be made as they are
Website Was Created By Pierre Tremblay
With The Greatly Appreciated Help of Chris Hooymans, The Webmaster
at Websight West and Former Publisher of CLUE! Magazine Which Was the Best
Gay Magazine to Have Ever Been Published in Calgary. A Tragic "Downhill"
Situation Has Existed Since Then, but a New Magazine ("Outlooks"
http://www.outlooks.ab.ca) has Become Available (Premiere March Issue,
1997) and Shows Promise. Will it be another gay publication which avoids
addressing important issues in insightful (even truthful) ways? Time will
By September, 1998,
the magazine had not ventured into any controversial - meaning "significant"
- GLB community issues. Nothing "insightful" - beyond what has not worked
for increasing "safer sex" practices by gay/bisexual males - has been printed.
Silence is still being maintained with respect to racism problems, and
nothing has been written about the most "at risk" gay and bisexual male
adolescents and their problems often involving gay or bisexual men with
whom they may be involved. Maybe, they could even write about a situation
brought to my attention in September, 1998: A gay high school teacher walks
into a Calgary gay club and sees that one of his male students - not yet
of legal age to be in such a club - is stripping. This situation involves
serious "ethical" issues, but related discussions are not occurring in
Calgary's GLB community, nor at the Calgary Board of Education.
Other important ethical
issues are: A Calgary gay high school teacher is approached by a gay male
student who reports on his relationship with a middle-aged gay male television
personality. The teacher knows that the TV personality is HIV+ but the
boy does not know this. What should the teacher do? Are school counselors
educated and trained to deal with such issues? If not, why not?
Pierre Tremblay: ----- email@example.com ----- (403) 245-8827
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