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GB Male Suicidality at a Glance! Results of 30 studies in four tables.

 "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 140 Studies!
At Another Website (Includes Transgender Study Results)

InfoSource: Gay & Bisexual
Male Suicide Problems
(Part 6 of 6: YRBS Study Results)
Internet Links: GB Male Suicide Problems
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Papers, Theses, Articles, Books.
ABSTRACTS / HIGHLIGHTS: Papers, Articles,  Books
ABSTRACTS: Ph.D. & Master's Theses
Graphics by Websight West: Acknowledgments andInformation Limitations
 
See: More Than 250 Full Text Papers and Documents Related to GLBT Suicidality.

Two Studies Are Re-Analysed by Plöderl et al., (2013) In The Published Study: "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review."
Conclusion: Sexual Minority Adolescents Are At Greater Risk for Dying by Suicide. The Expanded Analysis Related to This Study is Available!

ABSTRACTS / HIGHLIGHTS: Papers, Articles,  Books - Part 2 (Part 1 - The Other Studies)

Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)

Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
Will these GB adolescent males also be ignored as it was done by HIV/AIDS Prevention Researchers?

To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010).
Shutting LGBT Students Out: How Current Anti-Bullying Policies Fail America’s Youth (2011)
LGBT youth suicide reports show need for more studies (2011).

Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
It Gets Better Project. - Related Thesis. - The “It Gets Better Campaign”: An unfortunate use of queer futurity.
Why should LGBTQ students have to wait for it to get better? We have the power to make it better now.
School should not be about survival. PDF.
Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
It is unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences.
Make It Better Project (2011). - Does it ever really get better? (2011)
Negative gay community description, with the white racism missing.
The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!

Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011: Amazon: 2012 - Reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Interview):
For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough
.
43 Percent of Black Gay Youth Have Contemplated or Attempted Suicide. Survey Results.

Document Containing the Resources Available for GLBT Adolescent Suicide Prevention in Schools:
SAMHSA (2012)
. Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit for High Schools. PDF Download.


Youth Risk Behavior Surveys


Results for School Surveys That Have  Solicited "Homosexuality" & "Suicidality" Related Information:

Special: Calculating the "Total Homosexuality Factor In Adolescent Suicidality" Using the Seattle 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results - Males: "Attempted Suicide" [ > 34.3% of the Problem ] - Males "Attempted Suicide & Received Medical Attention"  [ > 38.4% of the Problem ] - Females: "Attempted Suicide" [ > 38.8% of the Problem ] - Females "Attempted Suicide & Received Medical Attention" [ > 44.1% of the Problem ]. Important Note:

Not one Adolescent Survey has collected the data required to calculate
the total "Homosexuality Factor" in Adolescent Suicidality.


Is it Possible or Likely that "The Homosexuality Factor" is Associated
With Close to 50% of the More Serious Adolescent Suicidality?

In A Well-Designed Canadian Random Study of Young Adult males, Bagley and Tremblay (1997, Full Text)
Reported that 62.5% of the Serious Suicide Attempters Were homosexual/Bisexual-Identified
and/or Reported Having Same-Sex Sex in the Past Six Months.

Meta-Analyses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results - May Include Other Surveys:



Meta-Analyses
Stone DM, Luo F, Ouyang L, Lippy C, Hertz MF, Crosby AE (2014). Sexual orientation and suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts: evidence from local youth risk behavior surveys, 2001-2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 262-71. Abstract. Suicidality results for 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys used in large American cities generally with large Hispanic and African American populations: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Diego, San Francisco. The "more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors" often does not apply, also depending on the sexual minority group being described and the sex of individuals.
For more on this issue see related webpage.

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download. "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'

Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T, Kinchen S, Chyen D, Harris WA, Wechsler H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011). Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001- 2009. MMWR Early Release 2011; 60. June 6: 1-113. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss60e0606a1.htm?s_cid=ss60e0606a1_w.  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6007a1.htm. Results, problem and related issues are presented in another webpage. A major problem seems to exist when combining sexual minority Youth Risk Behavior Survey suicidality results from large cities and states.







Minnesota* 1987, Minnesota Student Survey 1992, 1998, 2004.


Massachusetts 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009.

Vermont 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; Vermont: Franklin County 2005.

Massachusetts/Vermont 1995/1997:  Re-Evaluation Study.

Wisconsin 1997, 1999, 2001, 2007, 2009, 2007 & 2009 Combined, 2007, 2009 & 2011, Combined.

Rhode Island 2007.

Oregon, 1997, 1999, 2007 Oregon Healthy Teens Survey, 2006-2007-2007 Oregon Healthy Teens Survey.

Connecticut** 1997.

San Francisco, 1997, 2009


Boulder County, Colorado 2003. Boulder County Results in One Table: 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011.

Washington, DC 2007, 2009.

Seattle 1995 - General Results; 1995 Males & 1995 Female Results, Two Suicidality Variables, Includes suicidality Related to Anti-Gay/Lesbian Abuses Directed at Those Presumed to be Gay or Lesbian in All Sexual Orientation Categories; 1995 & 1999 Males & 1995 & 1999 Female Results, Two Suicidality Variables.

Chicago 2003, 2005, 2009 & 2011. - Illinois, Including Chicago 2009. Illinois 2011.

San Francisco, 1997, 2009.

New York City 2005.

British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey 1992, 1998, 2003.

Montreal 2004.

Important: Caveat for homosexuality related studies of adolescents.

*Study done using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey Questionnaire amended to solicit "sexual orientation" information.
**Voice of Connecticut Youth Survey


In 2011, the CDC - via its MMWR  publication - reported the suicidality results for all the 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - each as a grouped data set from 2001 to 2009 - from both states and cities - that had solicited sexual orientation information, such as identity and/or the sex of one's sexual partner(s). The "In the Past Year"  suicidality results are re-tabulated here to show that sexual minority adolescents (males and females, combined) are, as a rule (generally), but with some exceptions, at increasing risk - relative to heterosexual adolescents - for the more serious suicidal behaviors or outcomes. This fact would strongly suggest that sexual minority adolescents are also more at risk for suicide. The Suicidality Variables Data Tables are:

A. State Study Results Generated on the Basis of Sexual Identity: Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont.
  1. Gay / Lesbian Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  2. Bisexual Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  3. "Not Sure" 'Identity' vs. Heterosexual Identity.
B. City Study Results Generated on the Basis of Sexual Identity: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco.
  1. Gay / Lesbian Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  2. Bisexual Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  3. "Not Sure: 'Identity' vs. Heterosexual Identity.
C. State Study Results Generated on the Basis of the Sex of One's Sexual Partner(s): Connecticut, Maine, Delaware, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin.
  1. Only Same-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.
  2. Both-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.
D. City Study Results Generated on the Basis of the Sex of One's Sexual Partner(s): Boston, Chicago, Milwaukee, New York, San Diego.
  1. Only Same-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.
  2. Both-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.


Eighty-Three Thousand Youth (PDF Download - Alternate Link): Selected Findings of Eight Population-Based Studies as they pertain to anti-gay harassment and the safety and well-being of sexual minority students. April 1999. By The Safe Schools Coalition of Washington: Reports and Publications.

British Columbia's 2008 Adolescent Health Survey (PDF Download, 6 megs): "86% of students identified as heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” ... Those at greater risk of having attempted suicide: ... Aboriginal youth (11% vs. 4% non-Aboriginal: 2.8-times the risk), lesbian, gay and bisexual youth (28% vs. 4% heterosexual: 7-times the risk), obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight: 2.5-times the risk) and youth with a health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a disability: 4-times the risk)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%: 5-times the risk) or sexually abused (22% vs. 4%: 5.5-times the risk).

Gilbert, Mark (2004). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-spirited and Questioning Youth in British Columbia and the Influence of the School Environment: A resource document for Medical Health Officers. PDF.

Poon CS, Saewyc EM (2009). Out yonder: sexual-minority adolescents in rural communities in British Columbia. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 118-24. PDF Download. Abstract.

Saewyc E, Poon C, Wang N, Homma Y, Smith A & the McCreary Centre Society (2007). Not Yet Equal: The Health of Lesbian, Gay, & Bisexual Youth in BC. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society. PDF. Download Page.

More precise attempted suicide incidences are given: Gorham, Beth (2006, Canadian Press). B.C. researcher says American group distorting her research on teen suicide. Also (but with one perrcentage error - 2.8% for 12.8%): Bohn G (2006, Vancouver Sun). Lesbian teens more likely to attempt suicide.

Saewyc EM, Skay CL, Hynds P, Pettingell S, Bearinger LH, Resnick MD, Reis E (2007a). Suicidal ideation and attempts in North American school-based surveys: are bisexual youth at increasing risk? Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(2): 25-36. Abstract. PDF.

Rein, Amy S (1998). Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Behavior Among Adolescents. PhD. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Simon Frazer University. [British Columbia 1992 Adolescent Health Survey.]


Chicago: 2007 YRBS - http://www.slideshare.net/alejandroman/431-final-final-presentation-lgbtqppt


High School Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
Calculating The Total "Homosexuality Factor" in
The Male "Attempted Suicide" Problem
Sexual
Orientation,
Ns, %

Gay/Bisexual
N = 126
Unsure
N = 215
Heterosexual
N = 3,344

Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
19.8% (25 / 126)
13.0% (28 / 215)
4.8% (160 / 3,344)
Targeted for
Anti-gay
Abuses
n, %
Yes
36
28.6%
No
90
-
Yes
24
11.2%
No
191
-
Yes
125
3.7%
No
3,219
-
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
19.4%
7 / 36
20.0%
18 / 90
29.2%
7 / 24
11.0%
21 / 191
16.0%
20 / 125
4.3%
140 / 3219
Same-Sex Sex Reported
Information Not Solicited
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Counts &  Results Generated From The 1995 Seattle Youth Survey
Total Male Suicide Attempters: 213.
Counts Made Available by E. Saewyc, University of Minnesota in 2002.
The "Homosexuality Factor" in Adolescent Male Suicidality Would Include These Individuals:
1. Males Identifying as Gay or Bisexual (N = 126): 25 / 213 Attempters = 11.7% of the Problem
2. Males Unsure About Their Sexual Orientation (N = 215) = 28 / 213 Attempters = 13.1% of the Problem.
3. Heterosexual Identified Males Subjected to Anti-Gay/Bisexual Abuses (N = 125) = 20 / 213 Attempters = 9.4% of the Problem
Total: The above 466 Males (126 + 215 + 125) or  12.6% of Males (466 / 3,685) Account for 34.3% (73 / 213) of the Male Suicide Attempters.
Missing: The Suicidality of Heterosexual Identified Males (In Bold & Red) who Would Report Having Engaged in Same-Sex Sex... given that they would know of the negative "gay" implications, and especially if others knew about their same-sex sex experience(s).




High School Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
Calculating The Total "Homosexuality Factor" in
The Male "Attempted Suicide + Medical Care" Problem
Sexual
Orientation,
Ns, %

Gay/Bisexual
N = 126
Unsure
N = 216
Heterosexual
N = 3,319

Attempted Suicide /
Received Medical Care
% Incidence
11.1% (14 / 126)
2.8% (6 / 216)
1.6% (53 / 3,319)
Targeted for
Anti-gay
Abuses
n, %
Yes
35
27.8%
No
91
-
Yes
24
11.1%
No
192
-
Yes
122
3.7%
No
3,197
-
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
11.4%
4 / 35
11.0%
10 / 91
4.2%
1 / 24
2.6%
  5/ 192
6.6%
  8 / 122
1.4%
  45 / 3197
Same-Sex Sex Reported
Information Not Solicited
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Counts &  Results Generated From The 1995 Seattle Youth Survey
Total Male Suicide Attempters Who Received Medical Care: 73
Counts Made Available by E. Saewyc, University of Minnesota in 2002.

The "Homosexuality Factor" in Adolescent Male Suicidality Would Include These Individuals:
1. Males Identifying as Gay or Bisexual (N = 126): 14 / 73 Attempters + Medical Care = 19.2% of the Problem
2. Males Unsure About Their Sexual Orientation (N = 216) = 6 / 73 Attempters + Medical Care = 8.2% of the Problem.
3. Heterosexual Identified Males Subjected to Anti-Gay/Bisexual Abuses (N = 122) = 8 / 73 Attempters + Medical Care = 11.0% of the Problem
Total: The above 466 Males (126 + 216 + 122) or  12.7% of Males (466 / 3,661) Account for 38.4% (28 / 73) of the Male Suicide Attempters Who Received Medical Care.
Missing: The Suicidality of Heterosexual Identified Males (In Bold & Red) who Would Report Having Engaged in Same-Sex Sex... given that they would know of the negative "gay" implications, and especially if others knew about their same-sex sex experience(s).




High School Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
Calculating The Total "Homosexuality Factor" in
The Female "Attempted Suicide" Problem
Sexual
Orientation,
Ns, %

Lesbian/Bisexual
N = 173
Unsure
N = 237
Heterosexual
N = 3,485

Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
21.3% (37 / 173)
8.9% (21 / 237)
7.3% (254 / 3,485)
Targeted for
Anti-gay
Abuses
n, %
Yes
66
38.2%
No
107
-
Yes
30
12.7%
No
207
-
Yes
292
8.4%
No
3,193

-
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
24.2%
  16 / 66
19.6%
21/ 107
33.3%
  10 / 30
10.1%
21 / 207
22.6%
  66 / 292
7.3%
  232 / 3193
Same-Sex Sex Reported
Information Not Solicited
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Counts &  Results Generated From The 1995 Seattle Youth Survey
Total Female Suicide Attempters:
320
Counts Made Available by E. Saewyc, University of Minnesota in 2002.

The "Homosexuality Factor" in Adolescent Female Suicidality Would Include:
1. Females Identifying as Lesbian or Bisexual (N = 173): 37 / 320 Attempters = 11.6% of the Problem
2. Females Unsure About Their Sexual Orientation (N = 237): = 31 / 320 Attempters = 9.7% of the Problem.
3. Heterosexual Identified Females Subjected to Anti-Lesbian/Bisexual Abuses (N = 292) = 66 / 320 Attempters = 20.6% of the Problem
Total: The above 702 Females (173 + 237 + 292) or  18.0% of Females (702 / 3,895) Account for 38.8% (124 / 320) of the Feale Suicide Attempters Who Received Madical Care.
Missing: The Suicidality of Heterosexual Identified Females (In Bold & Red) who Would Report Having Engaged in Same-Sex Sex... given that they would know of the negative "lesbian" implications, and especially if others knew about their same-sex sex experience(s).




High School Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
Calculating The Total "Homosexuality Factor" in the
Female "Attempted Suicide + Medical Care" Problem

Sexual
Orientation,
Ns, %

Lesbian/Bisexual
N = 173
Unsure
N = 236
Heterosexual
N = 3,489

Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
6.9% (12 / 173)
4.2% (10 / 236)
2.6% (89 / 3,489)
Targeted for
Anti-Lesbian
Abuses
n, %
Yes
67
38.7%
No
106
-
Yes
30
12.7%
No
206
-
Yes
293
8.4%
No
3,196

-
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
9.0%
6 / 67
4.7%
6 / 106
13.3%
  4 / 30
2.9%
 6 / 206
9.2%
  27 / 293
1.9%
  62 / 3196
Same-Sex Sex Reported
Information Not Solicited
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
No
?
Attempted Suicide
% Incidence
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Counts &  Results Generated From The 1995 Seattle Youth Survey
Total Female Suicide Attempters Who Received Medical Care: 111

Counts Made Available by E. Saewyc, University of Minnesota in 2002.


The "Homosexuality Factor" in Adolescent Female Suicidality + Medical Care Would Include:

1. Females Identifying as Lesbian or Bisexual (N = 173): 12 / 111 Attempters + Medical Care = 10.8% of the Problem
2. Females Unsure About Their Sexual Orientation (N = 236): = 10 / 111 Attempters + Medical Care = 9.0% of the Problem.
3. Heterosexual Identified Females Subjected to Anti-Lesbian/Bisexual Abuses (N = 293) = 27 / 111 Attempters + Medical Care = 24.3% of the Problem
Total: The above 702 Females (173 + 236 + 293) or  18.1% of Females (702 / 3,898) Account for 44.1% (49 / 111) of the Female Suicide Attempters Who Received Medical Care.
Missing: The Suicidality of Heterosexual Identified Females (In Bold & Red) who Would Report Having Engaged in Same-Sex Sex... given that they would know of the negative "lesbian" implications, and especially if others knew about their same-sex sex experience(s).


The "Total homosexuality Factor" in Adolescent Suicidality
- as related to anti-gay/lesbian abuse/harassment part of the problem  - also appears to have been associated with other serious schools problems involving both suicide and murders. See: Kimmel MS, Mahler M (2003). Adolescent masculinity, homophobia, and violence: Random school shootings, 1982-2001. The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(10): 1439-1458. PDF Download. PDF Download.  - The 'Faggot' Factor: The Chickens Came Home to Roost at Columbine High (1999, Alternate Link).


Minnesota Student Survey, Minnesota (2004)


Minnesota Student Survey: 2004 - Homo-Sex & Hetero-Sex Active Males - By 'Race'/Ethnicity & Grade Level
Attempted Suicide Incidence, Lifetime

Category
Homo-
Sex
%F 1

Total
Homo-Sex 2
(% in category)
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
2 Hetero-
Sex
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime

All Sexually
Active Males
[4.1%]
10,672
1,452
(13.6%)
402 3
29.0%
9,220
1,135 3
12.6%
Odds Ratio
-
-
-
Homo-Sex vs. Hetero-Sex Males
OR: 2.49 (2.08, 2.98) 4
1135 / Grade 9
3.2%
4,069
777 (19.1%)
?
3,292
?
Grade 12
4.0%
6,603
675 (10.2%)
?
5,928
?
White
3.5%
[3.4%]
17,364
970 (67.0%)
?
7,282
?
Black
7.5%
[7.9%]
543
90 (16.6%)
?
453 ?
Hispanic
10.5%
[9.9%]
370
81 (21.9%)
?
289 ?
Asian
5.0%
[4.6%]
374
71 (19.0%)
?
303 ?
Native American
7.0%
[6.9%]
175
25 (14.3%)
?
150 ?
Mixed / Others
8.0%
913
211 (23.1%)
?
702 ?
Mixed: Native
American
?
?
?
?
?
?
Mixed: Non-Native
?
?
?
?
?
?
Others: Not Mixed
?
?
?
?
?
?
Original Family

5,815
776 (13.3%)
?
5,039
?
Not Original Family

4,857
676 (13.9%)
?
4,181
?
Data Source: Eisenberg et al. (2006)
1. This represent the percentage of Homo-Sex males in the total sampled male population. Estimates for 'race'/ethnicity group were estimated from Grade 9 and Grade 12 incidences data presented in bar graphs in the Minnesota Department of Health STD and HIV Section (2006). The Percentages in square brackets "[ --- % ] are taken from Table 3.1 in IWPR (2008).
2. Hetero-Sex & Homo-Sex: Adolescent males who reported sexual intercourse with at least one other male in the past 12 months.
3. An estimate of 8% & 8% for having attempted suicide in one's lifetime is given for males in both Grade 9 & 12, respectively, by Minnesota Department of Education (2004).
Total, All Males: 41,044 Males. Homo-Sex Males = 3.5%
Total, Grade 9: *23,999 Males. Homo-Sex Males = 3.2%
Total, Grade 12: *17,045 Males. Homo-Sex Males = 4.0%
*Only Totals for Males and Females by Grade Level are Given. Male Count Estimates are assumed to be about 50% of total counts.

4. The reported Odds Ratio with a 99% Confidence Interval and Controlling for grade level, race and family structure. The reported Odds Ratio with a 99% Confidence Interval and Controlling for grade level, race, family structure and four protective factors is 2.06 (1.69, 2.50).
Note: A similar analysis could have been done for suicidal behavior "in the past year" as opposed to "lifetime," but this had not been done.

Eisenberg ME, Resnick MD (2006). Suicidality among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Protective Factors. Journal of Adolescent Health. 39(5): 662-668. Abstract.


Minnesota Department of Health STD and HIV Section (2006). 2005 Report on Minnesota Adolescents: STD, HIV, and Pregnancy.  Internet: http://www.health.state.mn.us/youth/stdhivpregreport05.doc . - http://www.pdf-finder.com/Adolescents-in-Minnesota:-STDs,-HIV,-and-Unintended-Pregnancy.html . - http://www.moappp.org/Documents/adolescentinfo/2005ReportMNAdolescents.pdf

Minnesota Department of Education (2004). 2004 Minnesota Student Survey Statewide Tables: Fall 2004. Internet: http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/groups/healthcare/documents/pub/dhs_id_049112.pdf .

Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR, 2008). Status of Girls in Minnesota. Research and Writing by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research in Partnership with the Women’s Foundation of Minnesota. PDF Download.

Note: Download Page for Documents Produced from the Minnesota Student Survey. On this page, the following is stated: "The Minnesota Student Survey (MSS) provides students, parents and their communities a dynamic vehicle for on-going communication about issues vital to the health, safety and academic success of youth. Some survey results and additional reports are available below. Most documents are in PDF format." Maybe it should read as follows: 'The Minnesota Student Survey (MSS) provides students, parents and their communities a dynamic vehicle for on-going communication about issues vital to the health, safety and academic success of youth on the basis of sex and race/ethnicity, but not on the basis of same-sex sex behavior that would be a proxy for sexual orientation. Given that the great majority of youth are heterosexual, the results therefore best approximate the situation only for heterosexual students. Over the years, we have specialized in not including any "at risk" results on the basis of sexual orientation for reasons that we would rather not reveal. Some survey results and additional reports are available below. Most documents are in PDF format.


Minnesota Student Survey: 2004 - Homo-Sex & Hetero-Sex Active Females - By 'Race'/Ethnicity & Grade Level - Attempted Suicide Incidence, Lifetime
Category
Homo-
Sex
%F 1

Total
Homo-Sex 2
(% in category)
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
2 Hetero-
Sex
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime

All Sexually
Active Females
1.9%
[2.1%]
11,255
803
(7.1%)
409 3
52.4%
10,452
2,559 3
24.8%
Odds Ratio
-
-
-
Homo-Sex vs. Hetero-Sex Females
OR: 2.63 (2.15, 3.23)
4
Grade 9
2.0%
3,679
483 (13.1%)
?
3,196
?
Grade 12
1.9%
7,576
320 (4.2%)
?
7,256
?
White
2%
[1.7%]
9,112
539 (5.9%)
?
8,573 ?
Black
3.5%
[3.7%]
388
43 (11.1%)
?
345
?
Hispanic
4.5%
[4.2%]
308
35 (11.4%)
?
273 ?
Asian
1.5%
[1.8%]
355
31 (8.7%)
?
324 ?
Native American
6.5%
[6.6%]
157
21 (13.4%)
?
136 ?
Mixed / Others
4.5%
902
130 (14.4%)
?
772 ?
Mixed: Native
American

?
?
?
?
?
?
Mixed:
Non-Native
?
?
?
?
?
?
Others: Not
Mixed

?
?
?
?
?
?
Original Family

6,017
336 (5.6%)
?
5,681
?
Not Original Family

5,238
467 (8.9%)
?
4,771
?
Data Source: Eisenberg et al. (2006)
1. This represent the percentage of Homo-Sex Females in the total sampled female population. Estimates for 'race'/ethnicity group were estimated from Grade 9 and Grade 12 incidences data presented in bar graphs in the Minnesota Department of Health STD and HIV Section (2006). The Percentages in square brackets "[ --- % ] are taken from Table 3.1 in IWPR (2008).
2. Hetero-Sex & Homo-Sex: Adolescent females who reported sexual intercourse with at least one other female in the past 12 months.
3. An estimate of 16% and 13% for having attempted suicide in one's lifetime is given for females in Grade 9 & 12, respectively, by Minnesota Department of Education. (2004).  This would average at about  14.5%.
Total, All Females: 42,687 Females. Homo-Sex Females = 1.9%
Total, Grade 9: *23,999 Females. Homo-Sex Females = 2.0%
Total, Grade 12: *17,045 Females. Homo-Sex Females = 1.9%
*Only Totals for Males and Females by Grade Level are Given. Female Count Estimates are assumed to be 50% of total counts.

4. The reported Odds Ratio with a 99% Confidence Interval and Controlling for grade level, race and family structure. The reported Odds Ratio with a 99% Confidence Interval and Controlling for grade level, race, family structure and four protective factors is 2.16 (1.74, 2.68).
Note: A similar analysis could have been done for suicidal behavior "in the past year" as opposed to "lifetime," but this had not been done.


Minnesota Student Survey, Minnesota (1998)


1998 Minnesota Student Survey, N = 22,029
Grade 9 & 12 Students
Suicidality:
Same-Sex Sex Students vs. Opposite-Sex Sex Students

Categories
Males
Females
Same-Sex
Sex,
Only
Both-Sex
Sex
Opposite
Sex-Sex,
Only
Same-Sex
Sex,
Only
Both-Sex
Sex
Opposite
Sex-Sex,
Only
N's
Males & Females Reporting
Same-Sex Sex in Past Year = 9%
?
?
?
?
?
?
Depressed
Mood
%
%
%
% %
%
Thought About
Killing Yourself?
39.8%
OR: 1.26
48.7%
OR: 1.7
(1.6−2.0)
34.5%
70.6%
OR: 1.96
72.5%
OR: 1.9
(1.5−2.4)
55.1%
Tried to Kill
Yourself?
19.9%
OR: 1.95
29.1%
OR: 3.0
(2.7−3.5)
11.3%
43.1%
OR:
47.1%
OR: 2.3
(1.9, 2.9)
24.9%
Data Source: Saewyc et al. (2007a): Includes all ORs with Confidence Intervals.
Other ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Incidence % & Using 2-way Contingency Table Analysis.
All ORs Relative to "Opposite-Sex Sex, Only" Category for Males & Females,
Some with unknown Confidence Intervals likely being not Statistically Significant.




Minnesota Student Survey, Minnesota (1992)


1992 Minnesota Student Survey, N = 24,978
Grade 9 & 12 Students
Suicidality:
Same-Sex Sex Students vs. Opposite-Sex Sex Students

Categories
Males
Females
Same-Sex
Sex,
Only
Both-Sex
Sex
Opposite
Sex-Sex,
Only
Same-Sex
Sex,
Only
Both-Sex
Sex
Opposite
Sex-Sex,
Only
N's
Males & Females Reporting
Same-Sex Sex in Past Year = 7%
?
?
?
?
?
?
Depressed
Mood
%
%
%
% %
%
Thought About
Killing Yourself?
37.4%
OR: 1.96
39.2%
OR: 2.0
(1.8, 2.3)
23.4%
43.5%
OR: 1.42
46.9%
OR: 1.4
(1.1, 1.8)
35.1%
Tried to Kill
Yourself?
21.4%
OR: 1.79
26.4%
OR: 2.3
(2.0, 2.6)
13.2%
17.8%
OR: 0.52
38.5%
OR: 1.3
(1.0, 1.7)
29.3%
Data Source: Saewyc et al. (2007a): Includes all ORs with Confidence Intervals.
Other ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Incidence % & Using 2-way Contingency Table Analysis.
All ORs Relative to "Opposite-Sex Sex, Only" Category for Males & Females,
Some with unknown Confidence Intervals likely being not Statistically Significant.





Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey, Minnesota (1987)

Remafedi G, French S, Story M, Resnick MD, and Blum R (1998). The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: results of a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 57-60. (PubMed abstract - Full Text. Full Text) . Related news articles: 1, 2, 3. Related demographic paper (Same Sample) based on sexual orientation.

Research Highlights: - A 1987 sample of 36,254 grades 7 to 12 Minnesota students from whom sexual orientation and suicidality information was solicited. This was a part of the Adolescent Youth Risk Behavior Survey which was amended given that the standard (CDC-approved) questionnaire does not solicit sexual orientation information. Self-identified gay/bisexual male adolescents (about 1% of males) were deemed to be at significantly greater risk (by a 7-times factor) for a suicide attempt compared to heterosexual male adolescent. Their respective lifetime attempted suicide rates are 28.1% versus 4.2%.

Comment:  This study demonstrating that gay/bisexual male adolescents are at higher risk for suicide attempts than their heterosexual counterparts is, however, only a part of the "at risk" picture for these boys. A 1996 study of the same sample reported that "homosexual males were more likely to report a poor body image (27.8% vs. 12.0%, frequent dieting (8.9% vs. 5.5%), binge eating (25.0% vs. 10.6%), or purging behaviors (e.g., vomiting: 11.7% vs. 4.4%) compared with heterosexual males." (French SA, Story M, Remafedi G, Resnick MD, and Blum RW, 1996. Sexual orientation and prevalence of body dissatisfaction and eating disordered behaviors: a population-based study of adolescents. International Journal of Eating disorders, 19(2), 119-26. PubMed abstract. Full Text.

Saewyc EM, Bearinger LH, Heinz PA, Blum RW, Resnick MD (1998). Gender differences in health and risk behaviors among bisexual and homosexual adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 23(3), 181-8. (PubMed abstract. PDF)

Research Highlights.  Further analysis of the 1987 Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey sample first reported on by Remafedi et al. (1998).  Suicide attempt rates for homosexual/bisexual males and females were 28.1% and 20.5%, respectively, versus 4.2% and 14.5% for their heterosexual counterparts. The authors of this study, however, note that "nearly 1 of 3 older boys and girls reported at least one suicide attempt." No explanation is given for this but the implications would be that, by the age of 15 to 18 (for this sample ranging in age from about 12 to 18), about one-third of homosexual / bisexual adolescents have attempted suicide - the female attempted suicide rate having become insignificantly different from the male rate. Two explanations are possible. With age, the lifetime "attempted suicide" tally increases, more for females. And/or: with age, more individuals (especially females) are self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, thus increasing the tally of lifetime suicide attempters in this category - who may have been listed in the "heterosexual-identified" category if they had been studied at an earlier age. Younger students, even after having attempted suicide for reasons related to sexual orientation, may not be ready to reveal the "homosexuality" aspect of themselves to anyone (possibly because they were rejecting or denying this aspect of self to themselves)- and they would therefore also not report this aspect of self on a pencil-and-paper questionnaire.

Remafedi G, Resnick M, Blum R, Harris L (1992) Demography of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics. 89(4-2), 714-21.  (PubMed abstract. PDF)


Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (2009)

 
Summary Available at: - http://www.mass.gov/cgly/YRBS09Factsheet.pdf.
Download Page.

Sample Size: 2,707 students, 59 randomly selected public high schools.

5.9 percent of students surveyed described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual.

9.4 percent of all students described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual and/or reported same-sex sexual contact.

Students who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual were significantly more likely than their peers to report attacks, suicide attempts and drug and alcohol use. When compared to peers, this group was:

        over four times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year.
        over four times more likely to miss school in the past month because of feeling unsafe.
        over two times more likely to have been injured or threatened with a weapon at school..


Massachusetts 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
Grades 9 - 12  Sexual Orientation Related Results

Categories GLB Students
Other Students
Risk Ratio
Odds Ratio

Attempted suicide in the past year 
24.7% 5.6%RR: 4.4
OR: 5.5
Received medical attention as a result of a suicide attempt
8.8%
2.2%
RR: 3.8
OR: 4.1
Skipped school in the past month because of feeling
unsafe on route to or at school
13.9%
3.4%
RR: 4.1
OR: 4.6
Was threatened/injured with a weapon at
school in the past year
17.3%
6.4%
RR: 2.7
OR: 3.1
Was In a physical fight resulting in treatment by doctor or nurse
9.0%
3.0%
RR: 3.0
RR: 3.2
Has been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant
10.5%
5.2%
RR: 2.0
RR: 2.1

All differences between GLB students and Others are statistically significant, p < 0.05


RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB versus Others.


Massachusetts 2009 YRBS Results: GLB vs. Others: Attempted Suicide (24.7% vs. 5.6%), Attempted, Received Medical Attention (8.8% vs. 2.2%).


Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (2007)

 
Summary Available at: - http://www.mass.gov/cgly/yrbs07.pdf (
Download Page) & http://akconsultingservices.com/akjoomla/index.php/services/statistics/2007-youth-survey.html.

Sample Size: 3,131 students, 59 randomly selected public high schools.

5.4 percent of students surveyed described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual.

9.2 percent of all students described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual and/or reported same-sex sexual contact.

Students who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual were significantly more likely than their peers to report attacks, suicide attempts and drug and alcohol use. When compared to peers, this group was:

        over four times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year.
        over three times more likely to miss school in the past month because of feeling unsafe.
        over four times more likely to have been injured or threatened with a weapon at school..


Massachusetts 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
Grades 9 - 12  Sexual Orientation Related Results

Categories GLB Students
Other Students
Risk Ratio
Odds Ratio

Attempted suicide in the past year 
29.1% 6.4%RR: 4.5
OR: 6.0
Received medical attention as a result of a suicide attempt
12.1%
2.2%
RR: 5.5
OR: 6.1
Skipped school in the past month because of feeling
unsafe on route to or at school
13.3%
4.2%
RR: 3.2
OR: 3.5
Was threatened/injured with a weapon at
school in the past year
18.7%
4.5%
RR: 4.2
OR: 4.9
Was In a physical fight resulting in treatment by doctor or nurse
12.7%
3.7%
RR: 3.4
RR: 3.8

All differences between GLB students and Others are statistically significant, p < 0.05


RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB versus Others.


Massachusetts 2007 YRBS Results: "29.1 percent attempted suicide and 12.1 percent attempted suicide that required medical attention. That compares to 6.4 percent and 2.2 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts. - Massachusetts High School Students and Sexual Orientation, Results of the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: GLB vs. Others: Attempted Suicide (29.1% vs. 6.4%), Attempted, Received Medical Attention (12.1% vs. 2.2%).

 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (2005) 

Summary Available at: - http://www.mass.gov/cgly/yrbs05.pdf. Download Page.

3.7 percent of students surveyed described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual.

6.4 percent of all students described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual and/or reported same-sex sexual contact.

Students who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual were significantly more likely than their peers to report attacks, suicide attempts and drug and alcohol use. When compared to peers, this group was:

        over four times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year.
        over four times more likely to miss school in the past month because of feeling unsafe.
        almost twice more likely to have been injured or threatened with a weapon at school..

Massachusetts 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
Grades 9 - 12   Sexual Orientation Related Results

Categories GLB Students
Other Students
Risk Ratio
Odds Ratio

Attempted suicide in the past year 
24.8% 5.7%RR: 4.4
OR: 5.5
Received medical attention as a result of a suicide attempt
8.2%
2.2%
RR: 3.7
OR: 4.0
Skipped school in the past month because of feeling
unsafe on route to or at school
16.3%
3.5%
RR: 4.7
OR: 5.4
Was threatened/injured with a weapon at
school in the past year
10.2%
5.2%
RR: 2.0
OR: 2.1
Was In a physical fight resulting in treatment by doctor or nurse
11.7%
3.7%
RR: 3.2
RR: 3.4

All differences between GLB students and Others are statistically significant, p < 0.05


RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB versus Others.




Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (2003)

 Summary Available at: - http://www.mass.gov/gcgly/yrbs03.pdf .

3.5 percent of students surveyed described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual.

6.0 percent of all students described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual and/or reported same-sex sexual contact.

Students who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual were significantly more likely than their peers to report attacks, suicide attempts and drug and alcohol use. When compared to peers, this group was:

        over five times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year.
        over three times more likely to miss school in the past month because of feeling unsafe.
        over three times more likely to have been injured or threatened with a weapon at school..

Massachusetts 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
Grades 9 - 12  Sexual Orientation Related Results
Categories
GLB Students
Other Students
Risk Ratio
Odds ratio
Attempted suicide in the past year 
40.4% 7.2%RR: 5.6
OR: 8.7
Received medical attention as a result of a suicide attempt
18.3%
2.2%
RR: 8.3
OR: 10.0
Skipped school in the past month because of feeling
unsafe on route to or at school
16.3%
4.2%
RR: 3.9
OR: 4.4
Was threatened/injured with a weapon at
school in the past year
19.2%
5.8%
RR: 3.3
OR: 3.9
Was In a physical fight resulting in treatment by doctor or nurse
13.3%
3.4%
RR: 3.9
OR: 4.4

All differences between GLB students and Others are statistically significant, p < 0.05

RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB versus Others.

Massachusetts' YRBS Report: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/03/results.pdf . Excerpts:


Sexual minority youth (i.e., students who either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or had any same-sex sexual contact) were more likely than other students to be current smokers (48% vs. 19%) and daily smokers (23% vs. 6%).

Sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to report current alcohol use (60% vs. 45%) and binge drinking (44% vs. 26%).

Sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to report lifetime drug use (73% vs. 46%) and current drug use (49% vs. 29%).

Certain groups of students reported higher rates than their peers of violence-related behaviors. These groups included male students, students in younger grades, Black students, students of Other or Multiple Ethnicity, students in urban districts, recent immigrants, sexual minority students, and students with disabilities.

Sexual minority youth (i.e., students who either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported any same-sex sexual contact) were significantly more likely than other students to have carried a weapon (24% vs. 13%), been in a physical fight (44% vs. 30%), and to have been in a gang (23% vs. 9%). They were also significantly more likely to have skipped school because they felt unsafe (15% vs. 4%), been bullied (42% vs. 21%), been threatened or injured with a weapon at school (22% vs. 5%), and to have experienced dating violence (30% vs. 9%) or sexual contact against their will (41% vs. 8%).

Students in urban districts, recent immigrants, students with disabilities, sexual minority youth, and students who have experienced violence were more likely than their peers to report a suicide attempt.

Certain groups of students were significantly more likely than their peers to report a suicide attempt:... Sexual minority youth (32% vs. 7% of other students), Students who were bullied at school (15% vs. 6% of students who were not bullied), Students who skipped school because they felt unsafe (33% vs. 7% of students who did not skip school for safety concerns), and Students who had experienced dating violence or sexual contact against their will (27% vs. 5% of students who did not experience dating violence or sexual contact against their will).

Adolescents who have experienced school victimization, dating violence, sexual contact against their will are especially vulnerable to suicidality, as are gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents, students in urban areas, and recent immigrants.

Sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to report never or rarely wearing a seat belt (29% vs. 15%), riding with a drunk driver (45% vs. 26%), and driving after drinking (24% vs. 11%).

Sexual minority youth and students in urban communities had higher rates than their peers of most sexual risk behaviors.

Four percent (4%) of all students described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and 5% had same-sex sexual contact98 in their lifetimes. In all, 6% of students could be considered sexual minority youth; that is they either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or had any same-sex sexual contact in their lifetimes.

Sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to report lifetime sexual intercourse (77% vs. 39%), sexual intercourse before age 13 (21% vs. 4%), sexual intercourse with four or more partners in their lifetimes (32% vs. 9%), and recent sexual intercourse (54% vs. 29%). Among students who ever had sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to report having ever been or gotten someone pregnant (17% vs. 9%)  and having been diagnosed with HIV or another STD (16% vs. 7%).

Sexual minority youth were significantly less likely than other students to have been taught about AIDS or HIV infection in school (85% vs. 92%).. Recent immigrants, sexual minority students and students in urban districts were significantly less likely to have received AIDS or HIV education in school.. Similarly, sexual minority youth have significantly higher rates than their peers of sexual risk behaviors and may be at particularly high risk of STDs and HIV infection.

Sexual minority youth (i.e., students who either identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, or had any same-sex sexual contact) were significantly less likely than other students to report having breakfast every day (22% vs. 33%), participating in regular vigorous physical activity (44% vs. 62%), playing on a sports team (40% vs. 55%), and were significantly more likely to be at risk of becoming overweight (22% vs. 13%) and to have used an unhealthy weight control method (38% vs. 16%).

Patterns of risk are different for different students. Certain groups of students appear to be at greater risk for health and academic problems because of higher rates of risk behaviors. Gender, race/ethnicity, grade level, sexual orientation, kind of community, and many other factors were all related to variations in risk behavior. Although all students need the knowledge, encouragement, and skills to develop healthy lifestyles, it may also be appropriate to develop “targeted” programs aimed specifically at the risks faced by certain segments of the adolescent population.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (2001)
 

Data at Source: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs/01/results.pdf N/A (PDF Download). New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/01/results.pdf .

 

Suicidality of Sexual Minority Students
Category /
Problem
Sexual Minority
Students 5.0%
N = 210
Other
Students 95.0%
N = 3984
Greater
Likelihood
For
Problem
Odds Ratios
95% 
Confidence
Intervals
Sexual Minority Students
Percentage of Problem
Considered
Suicide
47%
n = 99
19%
n = 757
2.5
Times
2.9<3.8<5.0
13.1%
(99/756)
Planning a
Suicide
37%
n = 78
14%
n = 558
2.6
Times
2.7<3.6<4.9
12.6%
(78/636)
Attempting
Suicide
31%
n = 65
8%
n = 319
3.9
Times
3.8<5.2<7.0
16.7%
(65/384)
Suicide Attempt &
Receiving
Medical
Attention
16%
n = 34
3%
n = 120
5.4
Times
4.1<6.2<9.4
22.1%
(34/154)
Statistically significant difference, p. < .05
"n" and "N" calculated by web site author. They are approximations.
Odds Ratio Calculated by web site author using the 2 X 2 Table located at - http://www.quantitativeskills.com/sisa/statistics/twoby2.htm.

Sexual Minority Youth vs. Others: Intercourse, life (73% vs. 43%) - Intercourse, recent (52% vs. 32%) - Pregnancy Involment (27% vs. 11%) - >= 4 Sex Partners, life (36% vs. 11%) - HIV, STD Testing (42% vs. 24%).

The Safe Schools Program for Gay & Lesbian Students: Program & Resources.
 

Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (1999)

"Sexual minority adolescents (those who identified themselves as gay, lesbian, bisexual and/or reported any same-sex sexual contact) comprised 5.5% of students participating in the survey." Citation From: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs99/chapter6.html. N/A New URL: http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/99yrbs6.pdf - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/chapter6.html - Download Page:  http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/default.html .

A total of 4,415 students participated in the study. Therefore, there are about 243 "sexual minority youth" and 4,172 students defined as "other students." These figures are used for calculation in data tables below. The actual numbers may be slightly different.

"Sexual minority youth (i.e, adolescents who either identified themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and/or those who had any same-sex sexual experience [5.5% of students]) reported higher rates than their peers of considering suicide (49% vs. 20%), making a suicide plan (39% vs. 15%), actually attempting suicide (29% vs. 7%), and of requiring medical attention for a suicide attempt (18% vs. 3%). Differences were statistically significant both for self-identified sexual orientation and for same-sex behavior."
 

Suicidality of Sexual Minority Students
Category /
Problem
Sexual Minority
Students 5.5%
N = 243
Other
Students 94.5%
N = 4172
Greater
Likelihood
For
Problem
Odds Ratios
95% 
Confidence
Intervals
Sexual Minority Students
Percentage of Problem
Considered
Suicide
49%
n = 119
20%
n = 834
2.4
Times
3.0<3.8<5.0
12.4%
(119/953)
Planning a
Suicide
39%
n = 95
15%
n = 626
2.6
Times
2.8<3.6<4.8
13.2%
(95/721)
Attempting
Suicide
29%
n = 71
7%
n = 292
4.1
Times
4.1<5.5<7.4
19.6%
(71/363)
Suicide Attempt &
Receiving
Medical
Attention
18%
n = 44
3%
n = 125
6.0
Times
4.9<7.1<10.4
26.0%
(44/169)
Statistically significant difference, p. < .05
"n" and "N" calculated by web site author.
Odds Ratio Calculated by web site author using the 2 X 2 Table located at -
http://www.quantitativeskills.com/sisa/statistics/twoby2.htm.

NOTE: One out of five male and female adolescent suicide attempters and one of four male and female adolescent suicide attempters who received medical attention is a sexual minority youth. On the basis of the Garofalo et al. (1999) study, it is likely that the proportion will be significantly higher for sexual sexual minority male youth, and  lower for sexual minority female youth when compared to their same-gender counterparts.

Data / Citation Source: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs99/chapter8.html N/A. New URL: http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/99yrbs8.pdf - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/chapter8.html - Download Page:  http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/default.html .

"Sexual minority youth (those who identified themselves as gay/lesbian/or bisexual and/or who had any same-sex sexual contact) had higher rates of drug use than their peers, including higher lifetime rates of using marijuana (70% vs. 49%), cocaine (29% vs. 9%), methamphetamines (30% vs. 7%), and injected drugs (18% vs. 2%)."

Lifetime Use of Illicit Drugs
Category
Sexual Minority
Students  5.5%
Other
Students 94.5%
Greater
Likelihood
Marijuana
70%
49%
1.4
Times
Cocaine
29%
9%
3.2
Times
Meth-
amphetamines
30%
7%
4.3
Times
Injecting
Drugs
18%
2%
9.0
Times
Statistically significant difference, p. < .05

NOTE: One out of 3 students reporting having injected illicit drugs is a sexual minority youth. The 18% of sexual minority youth reporting injecting illicit drugs (n = 44) and the 2% of other students having done the same (n = 83) produces a total of 127 adolescents reporting such activities. Therefore, 34.6% of students (44/126 = 34.6%) reporting injecting illicit drugs are sexual minority youth who form 5.5% of the student population.

Data / Citation Source: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs99/chapter4.html. N/A New URL: http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/99yrbs4.pdf - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/chapter4.html - Download Page:  http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/default.html .

"Sexual minority adolescents (that is, those who identified themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and/or had a history of same-sex sexual contact) reported substantially higher rates of school-related violence than their peers, regardless of whether comparisons were made on the basis of self-identified sexual orientation, same-sex behavior, or both."

Category
Sexual Minority
Students  5.5%
Other
Students 94.5%
Greater
Likelihood
Physical Fight
at School -
Past Year
31.1%
12.9%
2.4
Times
Carried Weapon
at School -
Past Month
21.5%
6.5%
3.3
Times
Threatened /
Injured at School
Past year
23.5%
7.2%
3.3
Times
Not Attending
School: Fear
Past Month
19.1%
5.5%
3.5
Times
Statistically significant difference, p. < .05
Source: http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs99/chapter5.html. N/A.  New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/99yrbs5.pdf - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/chapter5.html - Download Page:  http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/default.html .

"Among male students, those who identified themselves as gay or bisexual and/or who had any same-sex sexual experience were more likely than their male peers to consider themselves overweight (41% vs. 22%). They had significantly higher rates than other male students of trying to control their weight by fasting (21% vs. 6%), taking diet pills (19% vs. 4%), and vomiting or taking laxatives (22% vs. 4%). On the other hand, they were similar to other males in terms of actual Body Mass Index."

Citation Source: - - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs99/chapter10.html N/A. New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/99yrbs10.pdf - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/chapter10.html . - Download Page:  http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/default.html .
 

Results: Sexual Orientation/ Same-Sex Sexual Contact

"Three percent (2.8%) of students (2.7% of males, 2.9% of females) described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Nearly half of adolescents (47%) who self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual have never had any same-sex sexual contact.

Four percent (4.2%) of all students reported having same-sex sexual experience at some time; percentages of youth with same-sex sexual experience were the same for males and females. Most adolescents (52%) who have had same-sex sexual experience identify themselves as heterosexual; an additional 12% of these youth identify themselves as "not sure" of their sexual orientation.

In all, 5.5% of all students and 9.4% of sexually experienced students could be considered "sexual minority" youth; that is, they have had same-sex sexual contact and/or describe themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

Among adolescents with any history of sexual activity, sexual minority youth were more likely than their peers to report other sexual risks, including:

Citation Source: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs99/chapter6.html. N/A New URL: http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/99yrbs6.pdf - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/chapter6.html - Download Page:  http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/default.html .
 

Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Students

The MYRBS found that:

Students at Risk

Students who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual were significantly more likely than their peers to report attacks, suicide attempts and drug and alcohol use. When compared to peers, this group was:

Reported BehaviorsGLB Students*Other Students
Attempted suicide
in the past year
32.8 %7.6%
Required medical attention as a result
of a suicide attempt
18.5% 3.7%
Skipped school in the past month because of feeling
unsafe on route to or at school
20.0% 6.0%
Was threatened/injured with a weapon at
school in the past year
24.4% 8.2%
Was In a physical fight resulting in treatment
by doctor or nurse
20.3% 4.2%

*All differences between GLB students and Others are statistically significant, p. <.05.
Source: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/99/glb_rslts.html .
 

Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (1997)

Demographic Results: "Two percent (2.0%) of students (1.6% of males, 2.4% of females) describe themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. One fourth (26%) of these students have had no sexual experience in their lives. - Three percent (3.0%) of all students (3.5% of males, 2.4% of females) have at some time had same-sex sexual experience. About one percent (0.9%) of students both identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and have had same-sex sexual experience. - In all, 4.0% of all students, and 6.1% of sexually active students have had some same-sex sexual contact and/or describe themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual."

Considering only adolescents with any history of sexual activity, those who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and/or who had ever had any same-sex sexual partner were more likely than other sexually experienced students to report other sexual risk behaviors, including:

  • having had four or more sexual partners during lifetime (44% vs. 24%),
  • having experienced sexual contact against their will (56% vs. 18%),
  • having used alcohol or drugs prior to last sexual intercourse (36% vs. 23%), and
  • having ever been or gotten someone pregnant (24% vs. 12%) 53
  • Suicidality Results: Adolescents who identified themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and/or those who had any same-sex sexual experience reported significantly higher rates than their peers of considering suicide in the past year (54% vs. 22%), making a suicide plan (41% vs. 18%), actually attempting suicide (37% vs. 8%), and of requiring medical attention for a suicide attempt (19% vs. 3%). Citation Source: http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrbs97/97yrbstoc.html#TOC N/A . New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/97/ .

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (1995)

    Garofalo R, Wolf RC, R, Lawrence MS, and Wissow S (1999). Sexual orientation and risk of suicide attempts among a representative sample of youth. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153(5), 487-93. Abstract from APAM web site. Related Reuters' article (May, 1999): Gay, lesbian adolescents face high suicide risk. (Alternate Link)

    Research Highlights:

    The study is an analysis of 3.8% of public school students reporting being GLBN (gay, lesbian, bisexual, or "not sure" of their sexual orientation), and 96.2% reporting being heterosexual, their average age being 16.1 years. Latter group includes individuals reporting same-sex activity, but not identifying as GLBN, or 0.81% of the sample. The 1.9% percent of the sample reporting same-sex activity had a suicide attempt rate (for the past 12 months) of 30.6% versus 9.2% for their heterosexual counterpart. The suicide attempt rate for adolescents identified as GLBN was 31.0% versus 9.1% for heterosexual identified adolescents, .22.7% versus 9.1% for adolescents "not sure" of sexual orientation, and 35.3% versus 9.1% for GLB adolescents (not including "not sure" adolescents). GLBN adolescents also at significantly greater risk than heterosexual adolescents for receiving a high score on the three "risk behaviors" scales used for analysis (p < .001): (1) drug use, (2) sexual behavior, and (3) violence / victimization. Given that 18.3% of adolescents did not answer either the sexual orientation question (11%) or the suicide attempt question (10%), the analysis applies only to 81.7% of the total sample: N = 3365 out of 4167 students.

    Result of bivariate analysis: GLBN adolescents were 3.4 times more likely (p < .001) than heterosexual adolescents to report a suicide attempt in the past 12 months (31.0% versus 9.1%). For females, reporting a suicide attempt was 2.02 times more likely (p < .006) for LBN adolescents. For males, reporting a suicide attempt was 6.5 times more likely (p < .001) for GBN adolescents.

    Result of logistic regression - OR (Odds Ratio) - for cited factor predicting a suicide attempt in the past 12 months:

    Males and Females: female (4.43), GLBN (2.28), Hispanic/Latino (2.21), Violence/Victimization (2.06).

    Females Only: Hispanic/Latino (2.66), Violence/Victimization (2.35), LBN (1.42); LBN orientation not statistically significant predictor of suicide attempt.

    Males Only: GBN (3.74), Hispanic/Latino (1.66), Violence/Victimization (2.35); GLBN orientation statistically significant predictor of suicide attempt.

    Comments: Being "female"  is the best predictor of a suicide attempt but, in itself, this factor explains absolutely nothing about why females are at greater risk for attempting suicide. The same applies for being Latino/Hispanic, GLBN, and GBN (in male category). Although the authors stated that GBN males were 6.5 times more likely than heterosexual males to report a suicide attempt, it was maybe thought unimportant to report the percentage of suicide attempters in each category, but males had a suicide attempt rate of  6.4%. Using an estimate of about 4.7% for GBN males (3.8% GB males + .0.9% "not sure") in calculations, the relative rate of suicide attempters would be 33% versus 5.1% for GBN males compared to heterosexual males, with another estimate also made possible. About one quarter - 24.3% -  of male suicide attempters are in the GBN category. Stated otherwise, 4.7% of the students in the GBN category account for about 25% of the male suicide attempt problem.

    Missing form this calculation, however, are the male reporting same-gender sexual activity but not identifying as GBN. It is reported that 1.8% of students were in this category and that 55% of them identified as GLBN, while 45% (0.81% of students) identified as heterosexual. This group as a whole, however, has a suicide attempt rate of 30.6%, meaning that maybe the "0.81%" (percentage not given for males only) should have not been placed in the "heterosexual" category - even if they identified as such - given that many in this group are on the path to later GLB identification - as is often reported to have been the case for many GLB adults when reporting on their adolescent years and their often serious problems related to identifying as GLB in spite of most obvious - and acted upon - homosexual desires. Given that this "at risk" group should have been included  to the above calculation, the results may have been that GBN males, including the homosexually active ones self-identifying as heterosexual (for a total of about 5.5% of male subjects), would likely account for more that a quarter (+25%) of the male adolescent suicide attempt problem.

    Caveats noted in the study - and especially the ones noted in the Caveat Alert, indicate that the "24.3%" would be an absolute minimum, as would be the "6.5-times" greater risk factor for a suicide attempt by GBN males. In fact, the results of the Turner et al. (1998) study of males aged 16-19 years indicate that, at least with respect to "homo-sex" activity, about 80% of adolescent homo-active males will omit this information on pencil-and-paper questionnaires - the data intake method used in YRBS studies - compared to computer-based data intake methods. A version of the latter was used in the Bagley & Tremblay (1997) study of 750 randomly sampled males ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. The results produced an estimate for lifetime "suicide attempts" to the average age of about 22.5 years, About 11% of homosexually oriented males (defined on the basis of homosexual or bisexual self-identification and/or "being currently homosexual active" (but may not identify as homosexual or bisexual) accounted for 62.5% of the male youth attempted suicide problem. These males were also 14-times more likely than other males to report a suicide attempt.
     

    Garofalo R, Wolf RC, Kessel S, Palfrey J, and DuRant RH (1998). The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics, 101(5), 895-902. (Pediatrics Web site "abstract" link.  Related press release by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Note disclaimer at bottom of press release. For AAP  Policy Statement in the form of the 1993 article Homosexuality and Adolescence published in Pediatrics. . Press Release: Boston Children's Hospital. -  Related "Reuters" article, Chicago, May 4, 1998). - Washington Blade Article. - (A PubMed "abstract" link with article delivery service. If link is not working, access abstract via PubMed's Medline. Place this "unique identifier number" - 98232540 - in SEARCH window.)

    Research Highlights: - A random sample of 4159 grade 9 to 12 Massachusetts students completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 1995. The survey instrument, however, was amended to solicit sexual orientation information, thus making possible "risk behavior" comparisons on this basis.

    Compared to heterosexual-identified adolescents, homosexually-identified adolescents (gay, bisexual, and lesbian, forming 2.5% of the student population) were:

    3.6 times more likely to attempt suicide in the past 12 months (35.5% vs 9.9%)

    14.4 times more likely to have used cocaine before the age of 13 (17.3% vs 1.2%)

    9.4 times more likely to have used cocaine in last 30 days (25.3% vs 2.7%)

    4.8 times more likely to have used cocaine in lifetime (33% vs 6.9%)

    8.9 times more likely to have used crack or freebase use in lifetime (35.3% vs 3.5%)

    14.1 times more likely to have shared needles for illicit drug use in lifetime (15.5% vs 1.1%)

    6.4 times more likely to have used anabolic steroids in lifetime (25% vs 3.9%)

    9.6 times more likely to have injected illegal drugs in lifetime (22.2% vs 2.3%)

    2.6 times more likely to have been in a fight at school in the past 12 months (38.1% vs 14.4%)

    3.4 times more likely that a fighting injury required medical treatment in the past 12 months (14% vs 4.1%)

    4.9 times more likely to have missed school in the last 30 days because of fear (25.1% vs 5.1%)

    2.8 times more likely to have brought a weapon to school in the last 30 days (25.3% vs 8.9%)

    5 times more likely to have brought a gun to school in the last 30 days (24.7% vs 4.9%)

    4.6 times more likely to have been threatened with a weapon at school in the last 30 days (32.7% vs 7.1%)

    5.1 times more likely to have had more than 3 sexual partners in last 3 months (37.9% vs 5.1%)

    3.6 times more likely to have experienced sex against their will in lifetime (32.5% vs 9.1%)

    All the above and a number of other risk behaviors (with lesser magnitude of relative risk) were significantly different at the p < .00001 level.

    Additional research results are available via "abstract" links listed above.

    Information Sources: http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrb95/yrb95ltr.html N/A . New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/95/ . .- Table of Contents -  Summary of Results by SIECUS in SHOP Talk (School Health Opportunities and Progress) Bulletin, Vol. 3(5), 1998: - Health Risk Behaviors and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents.- The GLBT Health Access Project [A collaborative project initiated in 1996 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and its founding partners Justice Resource Institute (JRI), The Medical Foundation (TMF), and JSI Research and Training (JSI)]: GLBT Health Concerns in Massachusetts: Highlights of Recent Research.
     

    Suicide Information Summary available from the Massachusetts' Department of Education -  1995 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey at  - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrb95/yrb95ltr.html N/A - New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/95/ , and from data made available in Sexual Orientation and Youth Suicide by Lynne Levine & Linda Beeler. Paper presented at Defining the Problem and Meeting The Challenge: Third Bi-Regional Adolescent Suicide Prevention Conference held in Breckenridge, Colorado, September, 1997.

    From: the "Sexual Behaviors" section of the file - http://www.doe.mass.edu/hssss/yrb95/yrb95111.html#c6 N/A. - New URL: - http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/95/yrb95111.html#c6 .

    Students who describe themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and/or who have had same-sex sexual contact are more likely than their peers to report being involved in violence-related incidences and being threatened, including:

    Students who describe themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and/or who have had same sex sexual contact are more likely than their peers to engage in alcohol and illegal drug use including:


    4.4% of high school students (grades 9-12) identified as gay, lesbian. or bisexual, and/or reported same-gender sexual activity.

    These 'GLB' adolescents were..... (compared to other adolescents):

    1.9 times more likely to have considered suicide in the past year (48.8% vs 24.6%).

    2.3 times more likely to have planned a suicide in the past year (40.5% vs 17.5%).

    4.0 times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year (36.0% vs 8.9%).

    Comment: - Given that 4.4% of students either self-identified or reported same-gender sexual activity, and that 2.5% are said to self-identify (Garofalo et al., 1998), 1.9% of students would therefore be homosexually active but not-self-identifying as gay, lesbian. or bisexual. According to Garofalo et al. (1998), the risk of GLB adolescents for attempting suicide in the past year was 35.5% compared to 9.9% for heterosexual-identified adolescents. Adding the "1.9%" homosexually active but  non-GLB-identifying student to the "2.5%" self-identifying group (for a total of 4.4%) did not cause a significant difference in "suicide attempt" results: In fact, above, Garofalo et al (1999), reports that the 1.8% of adolescents reporting homosexual activity had a suicide attempt rate of 30.6%.

    Of the "4.4%" of homosexually oriented students (based either on self-identification or being homosexually active), 36% reported a suicide attempted in the past year compared to 8.9% for "non-GLB" students according to Levine & Beeler (1997). or "their peers" according to Massachusetts' 1995 YRBS's "Sexual Behavior" section.
    If the results represented all student - 4.4% homosexually oriented and 95.6% "their peers" (meaning heterosexual-identified adolescents and the ones in the "not sure" category, GLB adolescents would therefore account for 15.6% of suicide attempters.
     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Massachusetts (1993)

    Faulkner AH, and Cranston K (1998).  Correlates of same-sex sexual behavior in a random sample of Massachusetts high school students.  American Journal of Public Health, 88(2), 262-266. (A PubMed "abstract" link with article delivery service. If link is not working, access abstract via PubMed's Medline. Place this "unique identifier number" - 98151718 - in SEARCH window.)

    Highlights: - From a 1993 sample of 3054 grades 9 to 12 students in Massachusetts: 1668 (57%) report having been sexually active with opposite sex only (heterosexual intercourse, 48.7%), both sexes (bisexual, 1.7%), and same-sex only (homosexual, 2.0%), for a total of 3.7% of students being homosexually active by the average age of 16 years. Homosexually active students were "more likely to report fighting and victimization, frequent use of alcohol, other drug use, and recent suicidal behaviors."

    Compared to heterosexually active adolescents, homosexually active adolescents were:

    1.5-times more likely to have considered suicide (41.7% vs 28.6%).

    2.1-times ,more likely to have attempted suicide once (27.5% vs 13.4%).

    4.2-times more likely to have made a suicide attempt requiring medical attention (20.0% vs 4.7%).

    8.1-times more likely to have attempted suicide 4 or more times (16.1% vs 2.0%).

    All the above are statistically significant at p < .05
     

    Homosexually active adolescents were also more at risk for manifesting behaviors, and/or having experiences which may be associated with adolescent (even adult) suicide problems.

    Compared to heterosexually active adolescents, homosexually active adolescents were:

    4.0-times more likely to be involved in episodic heavy drinking (15.0%% vs. 3.8%).

    8.7-times more likely to currently be consuming alcohol every day (10.9% vs 1.2%).

    6.0-times more likely to to have used cocaine at least once (19.2% vs 3.2%).

    19.0-times more likely to have used cocaine 10 or more times (13.3 vs .7%).

    5.1-times more likely to have used illegal drugs other than alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine (17.8% vs 3.5%).

    6.7-times more likely to have injected illegal drug (20.8% vs 3.1%).

    All the above are statistically significant at p < .05
     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Montreal (2004)


    Montreal 2004 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
    Suicidality Results: Non-Heterosexual Groups vs. Heterosexual

    Category
    AllHetero-
    sexual
    No Homo
    1
    GLB
    Identified
    Unsure
    Identity
    Hetero-
    sexual
      Some Homo
    2
    p
    N, %
    1,856
    100%
    1,624
    87.5%
    58
    3.1%
    59
    3.2%
    115
    6.2%
    -
    Depressed Mood 3
    641
    34.5%
    528
    32.5% a
    36
    62.1% a
    26
    44.1%
    51
    44.3%
    < 0.001
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    Suicide ideation 4
    313
    16.9%
    235
    14.5% a,b,c
    26
    44.8% a
    22
    37.3% b
    30
    26.1% c
    < 0.001
    Odds Ratios
    Unadjusted
    6
    -
    Reference
    Category
    4.80
    (2.81–8.21)
    p < 0.001
    3.51
    (2.04–6.06)
    p < 0.001
    2.09
    (1.35–3.24)
    p = 0.001
    -
    Regression Odds Ratios
    Adjusted
    6
    -
    Reference
    Category
    2.31
    (1.22–4.37)
    p = 0.010
    2.64
    (1.38–5.08)
    p = 0.004
    1.26
    (0.76–2.08)
    p = 0.373 ns
    -
    Suicide Attempt 5
    177
    9.5%
    133
    8.2% a,b
    17
    29.3% a

    12
    20.3% b
    15
    13.0%
    < 0.001
    Odds Ratios
    Unadjusted
    6
    -
    Reference
    Category
    4.65
    (2.57–8.41)
    p < 0.000
    2.86
    (1.48–5.53)
    p = 0.002
    1.68
    (0.95–2.98)
    p = 0.074 ns
    -
    Regression Odds Ratios
    Adjusted
    6
    -
    Reference
    Category
    2.23
    (1.15–4.35)
    p = 0.018
    1.61
    (0.77–3.36)
    p = 0.203 ns
    1.03
    (0.55–1.91)
    p =  0.926 ns
    -
    Data Source: Zhao et al. (2010)

    1. Without Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior Reported
    2. With Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior Reported
    3. Depressed mood was measured by asking, “During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities?”
    4. Suicidal ideation was assessed dichotomously with the item, “During the past 12 months, did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide?”
    5. Suicide attempt was assessed with the item, “During the past 12 months, how many times did you actually attempt suicide?”
    6. Reference Category: Heterosexual, No Homosexuality.
    7. Adjusted or Controlled in Binary Regression Model using the following variables: age, gender, depressed mood, smoking, drinking, marijuana use, hard drugs, fighting, physical abuse, sexual abuse, early sexual behavior, and sexual identity.

    a. Heterosexual without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior significantly different from GLB, p < .0083 based on Bonferroni correction.
    b. Heterosexual without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior significantly different from unsure, p < .0083 based on Bonferroni correction.
    c. Heterosexual without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior different from heterosexual with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, p < .0083 based on Bonferroni correction.


    Zhao Y, Montoro R, Igartua K, Thombs BD (2010). Suicidal ideation and attempt among adolescents reporting "unsure" sexual identity or heterosexual identity plus same-sex attraction or behavior: forgotten groups? Journal of the American Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(2): 104-13. Abstract.


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Rhode Island (2007)

    Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
    Suicidality Results: GLBU vs. Heterosexual

    Category
    N
    Weighted
    %
    Felt Sad
    Hopeless
    1
    %
    Considered
    Suicide
    2
    %
    Planned
    Suicide
    3
    %
    Attempted
    Suicide
    4
    %
    Received
    Medical
    Attention
    5
    %
    Heterosexual
    1954
    90.1%
    20.8%
    9.6%
    9.7%
    6.6%
    3.1%
    GLBU: Gay, Lesbian,
    Bisexual, Unsure

    225
    9.9%
    50.3%
    33.5%
    26.8%
    31.0
    10.5%
    RR: Risk Ratios
    OR: Odds Ratios
    6
    -
    2.4
    3.9
    3.4
    4.6

    2.8
    3.4

    4.7
    6.4

    3.4
    3.7

    Binary Regression
    Analyses

    Controls = 8 variables
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    Heterosexual
    (Reference Category)
    1.0
    1.0
    1.0
    1.0
    1.0
    GLBU: Odd Ratios
    95% Confidence Intervals
    7
    2.7
    (1.6, 4.5)
    p < 0.001
    3.1
    (1.8, 5.2)

    p < 0.001
    2.0
    (1.2, 3.4)

    p < 0.001
    3.5
    (2.4, 5.2)

    p < 0.001
    2.0
    (1.1, 3.5)

    p < 0.05
    Data Source: Jiang et al. (2010)

    1. Depressed mood was measured by asking, “During the past 12 months, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities?”
    2. Suicidal ideation was assessed dichotomously with the item, “During the past 12 months, did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide?”
    3. Planning Suicide was asseessed by asking "During the past 12 months, did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide?"
    4. Suicide attempt was assessed with the item, “During the past 12 months, how many times did you actually attempt suicide?”
    5. Suicide attempt(s) associated with receiving medical attention was assessedwith the item: "If you attempted suicide during the past 12 months, did any attempt result in an injury, poisoning, or overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse?
    6. Not given by
    Zhao et al. (2010). Calculated by webpage author using 2-way Contingency Table Analysis.
    7. Results given by Zhao et al. (2010). The 8 control variables are: Sex, Grade Level, Academic performance, Usual language at home, Did not go to school owing to safety concerns, Forced to have sexual intercourse, Current smoking, and Perceived weight.
    Note: The Rhode Island Departments of Health and Elementary & Secondary Education (2009) gives many of the variable incidence results on the basis of sexual orientation.


    Jiang Y, Perry DK, Hesser JE (2010). Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 38(5): 551-5. Abstract.

    Rhode Island Departments of Health and Elementary & Secondary Education (2009). Sexual Orientation and Health Risks Among Rhode Island Public High School Students in 2007. PDF.


    Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey: 2011


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Vermont, 2011
    Sexual Orientation & "Attempted Suicide"
    Attempted
    Suicide,
    Past Year
    Gay, Lesbian,
    Bisexual, Unsure
    (N = 2,100; 8%)*
    Heterosexual
    (N = 25,900; 92%)*
    *Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    -
    Wgt'd N*
    % (95% C.I.)
    Wgt'd N*
    % (95% C.I.)
    -
    Reported
    300
    16% (13.5, 19.0)
    700
    3% (2.0-3.3)
    RR: 5.3
    OR: 6.2
    Percentages:
    CI Midpoints
    Estimates
    -
    16.25%
    -
    2.65%
    RR: 6.1
    OR: 7.1
    Data Source: Outright Vermont (2012)
    *Weighted number, rounded to the nearest 100.

    RRs & ORs Calculated at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html.
    Note: GLBU students Account for about 30% of suicide attempters: 300 / (300 + 7000) = 30%


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Vermont, 2011
    Sexual Behavior & "Attempted Suicide"
    Attempted
    Suicide,
    Past Year
    Students Reporting
    Same-Sex Sex
    (n = 428; 5%)*
    Students Reporting Only
    Opposite-Sex Sex
    (n = 4204; 51%)*
    *Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    -
    Wgt'd N*
    % (95% C.I.)
    Wgt'd N*
    % (95% C.I.)
    -
    Reported
    ?
    19% (15.3-23.8) ?
    4% (3.0-5.3)
    RR: 4.8
    OR: 5.6
    Percentages:
    CI Midpoints
    Estimates

    19.55%

    4.15%
    RR: 4.7
    OR: 5.6
    Data Source: Outright Vermont (2012a)
    *Weighted number, rounded to the nearest 100.

    RRs & ORs Calculated at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html.

    Outright Vermont (2012). 2011 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Risk Behaviors: GLBU vs. Heterosexual Identity]. PDF Download. Download Page: 2011 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data.


    Outright Vermont (2012a). 2011 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey [Risk Behaviors: Same-Sex-Sex vs. Opposite-Sex-Sex]. PDF Download Download Page: 2011 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data.


    Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey: 2009

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Vermont, 2009
    Sexual Orientation & "At Risk" Variable Incidences
    Categories
    Heterosexual
    n = 10,319
    92%
    Gay or
    Lesbian
    n =114, 1%
    Bisexual
    n = 516
    4%
    Not Sure
    n = 328
    3%
    Attempted Suicide,
    Past 12 Months

    Risk Ratios, Odds Ratio 1
    3%
    Reference
    Category: 1
    24%
    RR: 8.0
    OR: 10.2
    21%
    RR: 7.0
    OR: 8.6
    15%
    RR: 5.0
    OR: 5.7
    Safety Belt Use
    17%
    33%
    31%
    27%
    Vomited or Took Laxatives
    To Control Weight

    4%
    19%
    19%
    15%
    Skipped school,
    Feeling Unsafe
    4%
    18%
    16%
    18%
    Threatened or Injured
    With Weapon at School
    5%
    25%
    17%
    13%
    Was Bullied
    16%
    36%
    35%
    34%
    Physical Fighting
    26%
    48%
    45%
    33%
    Smoked Cigarettes
    13%
    46%
    42%
    30%
    Binge Drinking
    20%
    41%
    31%
    22%
    Marijuana Use
    21%
    46%
    39%
    24%
    Inhalant Use
    9%
    34%
    29%
    17%
    Cocaine Use
    3%
    18%
    11%
    10%
    Heroin Use
    2%
    21%
    13%
    12%
    Injected Drugs
    2%
    16%
    11%
    10%

    Data Source: Outright Vermont (2010)
    1. RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. The Statistical Significances would be p < 0.001 - These are approximate calculations because the exact variable response counts and percentages (as in 3.12%) are not reported.

    Outright Vermont (2010). 2009 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey N/A (Archive Link): In the past 12 months, 26% of gay/lesbian students, 29% of bisexual students and 10% of those 'not sure' of their sexual orientation had attempted suicide, compared to 4% of heterosexual students.


    Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey: 2007



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Vermont, 2007
    Sexual Orientation & "At Risk" Variable Incidences
    Categories
    Heterosexual
    n = 7,746

    92.6%
    Gay or
    Lesbian
    n =94, 1.1%
    Bisexual
    n = 286
    3.4%
    Not Sure
    n = 238
    2.8%
    Attempted Suicide,
    Past 12 Months

    Risk Ratios, Odds Ratio 1
    4%
    Reference
    Category: 1
    26%
    RR: 6.5
    OR: 8.4
    29%
    RR: 7.3
    OR: 9.8
    10%
    RR: 2.5
    OR: 2.7
    Safety Belt Use
    16%
    30%
    32%
    20%
    Vomited or Took Laxatives
    To Control Weight

    4%
    17%
    17%
    17%
    Skipped school,
    Feeling Unsafe
    3%
    27%
    11%
    15%
    Threatened or Injured
    With Weapon at School
    6%
    30%
    14%
    15%
    Physical Fighting
    26%
    41%
    45%
    34%
    Smoked Cigarettes
    15%
    40%
    45%
    19%
    Binge Drinking
    23%
    39%
    34%
    20%
    Marijuana Use
    21%
    46%
    40%
    23%
    Inhalant Use
    10%
    38%
    36%
    21%
    Cocaine Use
    4%
    30%
    16%
    10%
    Injected Drugs
    2%
    23%
    12%
    10%

    Data Source: Outright Vermont (2008)
    1. RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. The Statistical Significances would be p < 0.001 - These are approximate calculations because the exact variable response counts and percentages (as in 4.12%) are not reported.



    Outright Vermont (2008). 2007 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey N/A (Archive Link): In the past 12 months, 26% of gay/lesbian students, 29% of bisexual students and 10% of those 'not sure' of their sexual orientation had attempted suicide, compared to 4% of heterosexual students.



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Vermont: Franklin County (2005)

     2005 Franklin County Student Health Survey Regional Results. Internet: http://www.frcog.org/pubs/teen/05survey.pdf.

    Suicide and Sexual Orientation

    Overall, students who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual are significantly more likely to have considered, planned, and attempted suicide than their heterosexual peers (p<=.01). Only 6 students reported identifying as “transgendered”, too small a number to produce reliable results.

    Sexual Orientation Related Suicidality
    High School Students, Vermont: Franklin County

    Category
    Ns
    *Consider
    Suicide
    *Planned
    Suicide
    *Attempted
    Suicide
    Odds Ratios**
    95% CI, p
    Heterosexual
    927
    16%
    9%
    37 / 927 = 4%

    Gay/Lesbian
    19
    42%
    12%
    7 / 19 = 37%
    5.2<14.0<37.7
    0.0000
    Not Identified
    54
    17%
    13%
    9 / 54 = 17%
    2.2<4.8<10.6
    0.0000
    Bisexual
    62
    42%
    38%
    18 / 62 = 29%
    6.2<12.0<23.1
    0.0000
    Transgender
    6
    N/A
    N/A N/A N/A
    Not sure
    80
    14%
    9%
    5 / 80 = 6%
    0.61<1.6<4.2
    0.332
    Gay, Lesbian,
    Bisexual

    81


    25 / 81 = 30.9%
    6.0<10.7<19.1
    0.0000

    * In the Past 12 Months.
    ** ORs for category versus heterosexual.
    Appromimate ORs. Counts used for calculations are estimated from percentages given.



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Vermont (2005)

    Source: - http://www.outrightvt.org/education/youth_stats.shtml N/A (Archive Link).

    The 2005 Vermont Department of Health/Education Youth Risk Behavior Survey1

    Overall this year, 7% of students described themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or questioning (LGBQ) (2005 YRBS Report, page 64).

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Vermont, 2005
    Sexual Orientation / Behavior & "At Risk" Variables
    Reported Behavior2 Engaged in
    same sex sexual intercourse (n=241)
    Engaged in opposite sex sexual intercourse (n=2944) Not Had Sex (n=6022) Hetero-
    sexual (n=8547)
    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Questioning (LGBQ)
    (n=416)
    Was bullied3
    (during the past 30 days):
    41% 16% 18% 17% 33%
    Safety belts use
    (never, rarely or sometimes wear):
    45% 29% 9% 16% 30%
    Attempted suicide
    (during the past 12 months):
    42% 9% 3% 5% 27%
    Skipped school because of feeling unsafe on route to or at school
    (during the past 30 days):
    27% 7% 2% 4% 15%
    Threatened or injured with a weapon at school
    (during the past 12 months):
    35% 9% 4% 6% 20%
    Physical fighting
    (during the past 12 months):
    56% 37% 20% 26% 40%
    Smoked cigarettes
    (during the 30 days):
    64% 34% 5% 15% 36%
    Binge drinking
    (during the past 30 days):
    60% 42% 9% 21% 31%
    Marijuana use
    (during the past 30 days):
    67% 43% 9% 21% 34%
    Inhalant use
    (during lifetime):
    56% 20% 6% 11% 32%
    Cocaine use
    (during the past 30 days):
    41% 8% <1% 3% 16%
    Injected drug use
    (during lifetime):
    32% 4% <1% 2% 13%
    Vomited or took laxatives to control their weight
    (during the past 30 days):
    33% 7% 2% 4% 17%
    Heroin Use (during lifetime): 36% 5% <1% 2% 16%


    1: The Vermont Department of Health/Education Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) has been conducted every two years since 1985. This survey measures the prevalence of behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disease, and injury among youth. In 2005, school staff administered the YRBS to 31,617 eighth to twelfth grade Vermont students in 146 schools. Participation by both schools & individual students were completely voluntary. For the purpose of this report, data are based on a representative sample of 9,342 Vermont high school & middle school students. (2005 YRBS Report, page 1)

    2: It is important to note that until 2005, the YRBS did not ask any questions about sexual orientation, gender identity or expression. So until this year, students' sexual orientation has been assumed based on who they report having had sex with. Obviously this has been not an entirely accurate way to assess the number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or questioning (LGBTQ) or queer students and their risk behaviors. This year, sexual orientation was asked & we therefore were able to pull the numbers on students who identified as heterosexual or lesbian, gay, bisexual or questioning (LGBQ). Please note that the survey still does not offer a way for transgender students to identify themselves, so there is still a gap in these stats. Also, this survey only surveys youth who are in public schools, thus failing to get information on homeless youth in Vermont, many of which are homeless due to their sexual orientation or gender variance.

    3: This question was new this year, based on the recent legislation passed in 2004 in Vermont. Bullying was defined as occurring when, on many occasions, a student or group of students say or do unpleasant things to another student to make fun of, tease, embarrass, or scare him/her; or purposefully exclude him/her. Bullying can occur before, during, or after the school day; on school property, a school bus, or at a school sponsored activity. It is not bullying when two students of about the same strength and power argue or fight or when teasing is done in a friendly way. (2005 YRBS Report, page 10 & 11).

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Vermont (2001)

    PDF Download N/A, Archive Link. New Link. Download Page.
    Same-sex Sexual Activity: 3% male-male, 3% female-female.
     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Vermont (1999)

    Full Text N/A, Archive Link (Use "Sexual Behavior" Link on the Page). PDF Download. Download Page.
    Same-sex Sexual Activity: 3% male-male, 3% female-female.
     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Vermont (1997)

    General Information available from The Vermont Department of Health N/A Archive Link  - Access Page. Download Page. PDF Download. - From the "Sexual Behavior N/A Archive Link" Section - "Gay and Lesbian Youth: Although many lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents lead happy and healthy lives, others face tremendous challenges to growing up physically and mentally healthy. Compared to heterosexual youth, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young people are at higher risk for depression, alcohol and other drug use, suicide, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Suicide is the leading cause of death among this group. They are two to three times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual peers and may account for 30 percent of suicides among youth annually... Same gender sexual activity. Males were twice as likely as females to report engaging in same gender sexual activity (6% vs 3%)." No specific information is given about the "at risk" status of homosexually oriented adolescents.
     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Vermont (1995)

    DuRant RH, Krowchuk DP, Sinal SH (1998). Victimization, use of violence, and drug use at school among male adolescents who engage in same-sex sexual behavior. Journal of Pediatrics, 133(1), 113-118. PubMed abstract

    Research Highlights: From the Vermont sample of grades 8 to 12 students (in 79 randomly selected public and private schools, 97.5% white) administered the Youth Risk Behavior Survey:  Out of 3886 sexually active adolescent males (36% of boys), 8.7% (Note) reported having been homosexually active (defined by having had "sexual intercourse" with a male).

    The statistical analysis basically evaluated the risk for "at risk" behaviors on the basis of the number of male sexual partners reported by males" ("0" to "6 or more"). With an increasing number of male sex partners, males were significantly more at risk for:  (1) suicide attempts ( r = .27, p < 0.0002), (2) "being threatened or injured with a weapon at school, the number of days the students did not attend school because they felt unsafe, and the number of times they had been injured in a fight that required medical treatment." ( r = from .21 to .17, p < 0.0002), and  (3) other behaviors.

    Another statistical analysis compared males (131)  with five or more male sex partners with males (895) with five or more female sex partners, thus revealing that 12.8% (131/1026) of the males with the most sexual partners ( > 4 ) are homosexually oriented and over-represented in this category.  The result of this analysis indicated that the homosexually oriented males in this category were more likely to have carried a weapon to school in the last 30 days (p < 0.002), and they were even more likely to carry weapons more frequently, not go to school because of fear, be threatened or injured with a weapon, be in a fight, be injured in a fight and requiring medical attention, be threatened with physical violence, and attempting suicide (all at p < 0.0001).

    More statistical results are given, but percentage of males in different risk categories are not given. See data below from another source for the percentages of males "at risk" in the homosexually active vs heterosexually active categories.

    Note: There are some discrepancies in the cited number and percentages reported. For example, in Table 1, 3547 boys are noted to not have had sexual intercourse with another male, while a total of 278 boys (86 + 27 + 22 + 12 + 8 + 123) are reported to have had intercourse with a male ranging from the category of "one time" (86) to "6 or more" (123).  These number, however, do not add up to 3886 males, but to 3825 males. Therefore, the percentages of males homosexually active, based on the table data, is 7.3% (278 / 3825). The reason for this discrepancy is not known.

    Information Sources: Data reported below is taken from Sexual Orientation and Youth Suicide by Lynne Levine & Linda Beeler. Paper presented at Defining the Problem and Meeting The Challenge: Third Bi-Regional Adolescent Suicide Prevention Conference held in Breckenridge, Colorado, September, 1997. Relevant information is available from Kelly Hale at The Vermont Department of Health (802) 651-1557, or from Shaun Donahue at The Vermont Department of Education (802) 748-8640.

    General Information available from The Vermont Department of Health N/A Archive Link - "Gay and Lesbian Youth: Although many lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents lead happy and healthy lives, others face tremendous challenges to growing up physically and mentally healthy. Compared to heterosexual youth, lesbian, gay, and bisexual young people are at higher risk for depression, alcohol and other drug use, suicide, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Suicide is the leading cause of death among this group. They are two to three times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual peers and may account for 30 percent of suicides among youth annually... Same-gender sexual intercourse. 3% of female students and 4% of male students have had sexual intercourse during their lifetime with someone of the same gender. During the past 3 months, 2% of females and 3% of males have had sexual intercourse with same-gender partners." No specific information is given about the "at risk" status of homosexually oriented adolescents.

    Suicide Information Summary:

    4% of (grades 8 to 12) male students and 3% of female students reported having been sexually active with a same-gender individual.

    These 'GLB' adolescents were..... (compared to other sexually active adolescents):

    1.6 times more likely to have considered suicide in the past year (59.2% vs 37.1%).

    1.8 times more likely to have planned a suicide in the past year (52.8% vs 28.7%).

    2.7 times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year (40.7% vs 15.2%).

    4.3 times more likely to have attempted suicide which resulted in medical attention (26.5% vs. 6.2%).

    Note:  The "at risk" percentages result in this study are higher than in other studies most likely because only sexually active adolescents are being compared, thus indicating that all "sexually" active are more "at risk' than other adolescents, and that homosexually active adolescents are the most at risk.

    1995 Vermont YRBS Summary of Results: Full Text N/A.  Archive Link.

    According to the 1995 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey (VRBS), 4% of all 8th-12th male students and 3% of all femals students have had sexual intercourse with a member of the same sex. When compared

    * These numbers include those reporting having had sexual intercourse with a member of the same sex.
    Risk Behavior  GLB* Students

      Other Students

    Never, rarely or only sometimes wore a safety belt when riding in a car
    47%
     27%
    Attempted suicide (during past 12 months)
    38%
     9%
    Skipped school because of feeling unsafe on route to or at school *during past 30 days)
    18%
     4%
    Was threatened/injured with a weapon at school (during past 12 months)
     34%
     5%
    Was in a physical fight (during past 12 months)
     61%
     36%
    Smoked cigarettes (during past 30 days)
    73%
     36%
    Binged on alcohol (during past 30 days)
     60%
     31%
    Used marijuana (during past 30 days)
    63%
    27%
    Used inhalants to get high (during lifetime)
    57%
    26%
    Used cocaine (during past 30 days)
    32%
    3%
    Had sexual intercourse prior to age 12 (percentage among sexually active students only)
    34%
    10%
    Was ever forced or pressured to have sexual intercourse (percentage among sexually active students only)
    46%
    18%
    Drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual experience (percentage among sexually active students only)
    56%
    29%
    Was pregnant or had gotten someone pregnant (percentage among sexually active students only)
    27%
    10%
    Vomited or took laxatives to control their weight (during past 30 days)
    25%
    5%


    A 2002 Re-Evaluation of Massachusetts 1995/97 & Vermont 1995/97 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Bisexually Active Adolescents Most At Risk.

    Robin L, Brener ND, Donahue SF, Hack T, Hale K, Goodenow C (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school.  Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(4): 349-55. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

    From this paper, the results of 4 surveys are given: 2 from Vermont, and 2 from Massachusetts. The two surveys from Vermont (1995 & 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were combined to form one data set, and the two survey from Massachusetts (1995 & 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were combined to form another data set, and results were presented for "Vermont Students" and "Massachusetts Students" from Grades 9 to 12 (High School) as follows for having attempted suicide in the past year:

    Percent Attempting Suicide "In the Past Year" (In square brackets [--]: % with suicide attempt associated with having received medical care) for students in 3 categories: (1) Those reporting only opposite sex sexual partners, (2) those reporting only same-sex sexual partner, and (3) those reporting sexual partners of both sexes:

    Vermont Students

    Those With Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners (n = 6873) - % attempting suicide = 11.9% [4.5%]
    Those With Only Same-Sex Sex partners (n = 249) - % attempting suicide = 16.5% [5.6%]
    Those With Sex Partners of Both Sexes (n = 336) - % attempting suicide = 43.5% [26.8%]

    Massachusetts Students

    Those With Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners (n = 3948) - % attempting suicide = 12.4% [4.5%]
    Those With Only Same-Sex Sex partners (n = 106) - % attempting suicide = 18.5% [7.8%]
    Those With Sex Partners of Both Sexes (n = 122) - % attempting suicide = 52.2% [31.6%]

    Notes:

    1. The above excludes students who are not reporting having had sexual intercourse in their lifetime. Suicide attempts incidences are lower for  students who are not sexually active.
    2. There are more student who are bisexually active than students who are only homosexually active - in terms of having sexual partners.
    3. Bisexually active students are at the greatest risk for having attempted suicide in the past year. They are also at greater relative risk for suicide attempts associated with having received medical care. Generally, these would be the most serious suicide attempts, but not always.
    4. Bisexually active students are also more at risk for a number of other problems. See Paper.

    The information presented above is from Table 2, page 252.


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Washington DC (2009).

    Was the survey purposefully sabotaged to avoid reporting any GLBT "At Risk" data?  [Why was information related the the 2007 YRBS - the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Results - removed from the DC Public Schools Webbsite: Washington, DC 2007 Public High School YRBS: Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (PDF Download N/A). Use the "search" function at the "DC Public Schools Webbsite" to see if any concerns is noted about gay, lesbian, or bisexual students.]

    Chibbaro, Lou Jr (2010): D.C. schools get incomplete score on LGBT youth survey: A survey of risky behavior by D.C. youth, including LGBT youth, was so flawed that its data cannot be weighted, hindering local groups as they work to help gay students and fight HIV... "We’re still going to be reporting it as un-weighted data," he said. "It doesn’t mean we won’t be able to use the data to make the case for grant funding. It just means you won’t be able to compare it to other states and districts." But Hunter said that un-weighted data only "provides a snapshot of what’s going on among the students that were surveyed." She said the data cannot be used to extrapolate the behavior of the entire student population. Only "weighted data," which is obtained from a response rate of 60 percent or greater, can be used to assess the behavior of the larger population group, she said. Tenner said CDC officials told him the D.C. survey response rate was 36 percent for high school students and 54 percent for middle school students. "Many of us use the Youth Risk Behavior Survey for our programs and our grants," Tenner said in an e-mail to local activists. :"From a city-wide perspective, many of us were excited to use YRBS data to objectively measure the city’s effort to improve the health of its youth and to highlight the challenges that remain."

    Najafi, Yusef (2010). D.C.'s Failing Grade: Local LGBT students not included in national CDC survey of risk behaviors; District did not achieve adequate response rate for surveys: "OSSE did the survey and in order for them to meet the CDC requirement they have to get a 60 percent response rate," explains David Mariner, executive director of The Center, D.C.'s LGBT community center. "It wasn’t even close to 60 percent," he adds. "It was a 36 percent response rate. I can’t conceive of how that happened, and I haven’t heard a satisfactory explanation." As of Tuesday, March 9, no one has. OSSE did not return calls to Metro Weekly requesting comment before deadline. And representatives from the OSSE could not address the matter during a March 5 Committee of the Whole oversight hearing due to scheduling conflicts. Council Chairman Vincent Gray said during that meeting that the public would speak, and that OSSE representatives will speak at a later date. Mariner says in the past the survey has shed light on the plight of gay, lesbian and bisexual youth whose answers have demonstrated that they are more likely to use crystal meth, that they feel less safe going to school than their straight counterparts, and that they’re more likely to carry a weapon or skip school. The "unusable" 2009 survey was the first to include gender identity...


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Washington DC (2007).


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Washington D.C., 2009
    Sexual Orientation & Suicidality
    Categories
    Heterosexual
    Gay or
    Lesbian
    Bisexual
    Not Sure
    Males [Should be %?] 1
    N = 592
    90.0% [90.7%]
    N = 537
    3.1% [2.9%]
    N = 17
    4.1% [3.4%]
    N = 20
    3.0% [3.0%]
    N = 18
    Females [Should be %?] 1
    N = 940
    86.8% [86.6%]
    N = 814
    3.6% [2.9%]
    N = 27
    6.3% [6.4%]
    N = 60
    3.3% [4.1%]
    N = 39
    Males & Females 2
    N = 1,532
    Given N = 1,783
    Missing? 251? All Males?
    88.2%
    1,351
    2.9%
    44
    5.2%
    80
    3.7%
    57
    Males & Females 3
    N = 1,532
    Given N = 1,783
    88.2%
    1,351
    8.1%
    124
    3.7%
    57
    Sad Two Weeks,
    Past Year
    25.7% (363)
    [363 / 1,412]
    40.3% (48) - [48 / 119]
    RR: 1.6 (1.1 - 2.0)
    OR: 2.0 (1.3 - 2.9)
    p = 0.001
    -
    Consider Suicide,
    Past Year
    13.8 % (198)
    [ 198 / 1,435]
    30.6% (37) - [37 / 121]
    RR: 2.2 (1.6 - 2.9) 4
    OR: 2.8 (1.8 - 4.2)
    p < 0.000
    -
    Plan Suicide,
    Past Year
    10.3% (147)
    [147 / 1,427]
    28.9% (35) - [35 / 121]
    RR: 2.8 (2.0 - 3.8)
    OR: 3.5 (2.3 - 5.4)
    p < 0.000
    -
    Attempt Suicide,
    Past Year
    8.6% (100)
    [100 / 1,163]
    32.6% (28) - [28 / 86]
    RR: 3.8 (2.6 - 5.3)
    OR: 5.1 (3.1 - 5.4)
    p < 0.000
    -

    Data Source: Washington, DC 2007 High School YRBS:
    Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (2008)

    1. There are discrepancies between the counts and what the associated percentages would be. This could be sue to percentages being weighted and the counts being non-weighted, but nothing is mentioned related to this. However, the counts for males and females should be almost equal, leading to the suspicions that, in the analysis, maybe more than 200 male counts were osmehow lost. 
    2. 
    1,784 (Given Survey Count) - 1,532 (Given Males + Females counts added) = 252 counts missing that are likely male.
    3. Suicidality Analysis Categories, with those "Unsure" about their sexual orintation being omitted from the analysis.
    4. RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis.


    Washington, DC 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
    Sexual Minority Results
    Categories
    Heterosexual or
    Only  Opposite-
    Sex Sex

    Gay, Lesbian
    Bisexual or Same-
    Sex Sex

    Odds Ratio
    No
    Controls*
    Sad, Hopeless
    for 2 Weeks
    26%
    41%
    2.0
    p < 0.05
    Considered
    Suicide
    13%
    31%
    3.0
    p < 0.05
    Planned
    Suicide
    10%
    24%
    2.8
    p < 0.05
    Attempted
    Suicide
    9%
    34%
    5.2
    p < 0.05
    Attempted,
    Received
    Medical Care
    3
    10%
    3.6
    p < 0.05

    Data Source: Blake et al. (2010)
    *Odds Ratios calculated by webpage author from given percentages. Statistical Significance, p < 0.05, given by study authors.


    Washington, DC 2007 High School YRBS: Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (PDF Download N/A). - Serious Issues for Gay Teens Emerge in Youth Risk Behavior Survey  2008, Related data given).  - Gay students more likely to consider suicide: study. Survey shows D.C. gay youth face bullying, harassment (2008). "30.6 percent of gay teens considered suicide in the previous year, 28.9 percent made a plan to commit suicide and 32.6 percent attempted suicide. That compares to 13.8 percent, 12.1 percent and 8.6 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts.

    Blake SM, Ledsky R, Whycoff V, Cleary SD, Castel AD, Acosta Price O (2010). Health & Risk Behaviors of District of Columbia Youth: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2007. The Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE), Office of Wellness and Nutrition Services (WNS), June 2010. PDF Download.



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Seattle, WA (1995).

    Information Source: Safe Schools Anti-Violence Documentation Project - Part Two: The Seattle Public Schools' Teen Health Risk Survey N/A (Archive Link).    If unavailable, see Table 4: - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/quant_mh.html N/A (Archive Link) - and Table 6: http://www.safeschools-wa.org/quant_so.html N/A (Archive Link).  Data source is from the document "83,000 youth" by Reis and Saewyc (April, 1999) located at - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/ N/A (Archive Link, New Website) -  http://www.safeschools-wa.org/83000youth.pdf N/A (PDF Download of Document, Archive Link, New Link)


    Suicide Information Summary:

    "Overall, about 91% of students [grades 9 to 12, public schools] called themselves Heterosexual. The other 9% said either that they did not consider themselves Heterosexual or that they were not sure:"

    Question (#58) used: "How would you describe your sexual orientation / preference?  a. Heterosexual - attracted to opposite sex; b. Bisexual - attracted to both sexes; c. Homosexual (Gay or Lesbian) - attracted to same sex; d. Not sure."

    1% identified themselves as Gay or Lesbian.

    4% described themselves as Bisexual.

    Approximately 4% said they were not sure of their orientations."
     

    Excluding students who were "not sure" about their sexual orientation - - Compared to heterosexual-identified students, GLB students were:

    twice as likely as heterosexual students to report having seriously considered suicide in the twelve months preceding the survey (34.4% vs. 16.7%).

    twice as likely to say that they made a suicide plan in the twelve months preceding the survey (31.1% vs. 15.7%).

    three times as likely to report having attempted suicide in the twelve months preceding the survey (20.6% vs. 6.7%).

    more than four times as likely to report having made a serious enough attempt on their lives to require treatment by a doctor or nurse in the twelve months preceding the survey (9.4% vs. 2.2%).

    On the basis of the data produced in this study, it was possible to estimate "the homosexuality factor" in the adolescent suicide attempt problem. For the information and calculations producing the following results, likely to be minimums, follow this link - Alternate Link.

    Gay, lesbian, and bisexual identified adolescent targeted or not targeted for anti-gay violence, and heterosexual identified adolescents targeted for anti-gay violence because they are believed to be homosexually oriented, account for 27.8% of suicide attempters. (Based on a 'total' student population which excluded students "not sure" about their sexual orientation - 4% of sample.)

    Gay, lesbian, and bisexual identified adolescents targeted or not targeted for anti-gay violence, and heterosexual identified adolescents targeted for anti-gay violence because they are believed to be homosexually oriented, account for 37.2% of adolescents for whom their suicide attempt resulted in medical attention.  (Based on a 'total' student population which excluded students "not sure" about their sexual orientation - 4% of sample.)

    Implications: Numerous mainstream suicidologists do not seem to understand  how "just being a little faggot or a dyke, or being treated as if one is" could ever be related to suicide attempts or suicide, and David Shaffer (apparently an expert (?) in youth suicide problems) is in this category. Many adolescents who identify as heterosexual are being abused by individuals who are assuming they are homosexually oriented, and their abuse is implicated in their high attempted suicide rates compared to non-abused heterosexual identified teens: 20.5% (8.6% for suicide attempts resulting in medical attention)  versus 5.7% (1.7% for suicide attempts resulting in medical attention) for adolescents not targeted for anti-gay abuse. For GLB adolescents, however, their attempted suicide rates did not vary on the basis of being targeted for anti-gay abuse (about one-third of self-identified GLB teens) or not targeted for anti-gay abuse (two-thirds of self-identified GLB teens) probably because they are remaining in the closet. The attempted suicide rates of the abused GLB teens was 20.3% (9.6% for suicide attempts resulting in medical attention), while non-abused GLB teens had an attempted suicide rate of 19.1% (7.8% for suicide attempts resulting in medical attention). The implications of this information is monumental, given that The Homosexuality Factor is implicated in about 30% of adolescent suicide attempts and about 40% of the suicide attempts resulting in medical attention. The greater proportion of the more serious suicide attempts occurring in this latter category also strongly suggests that the most serious results of suicide attempts - DEATHS - may have an even greater over-representation by teens for whom The Homosexuality Factor applies. It is possible that  50 to 70 percent of teen suicide have been in this category.

    Research Results Needed: To determine the total for "The Homosexuality Factor" in adolescent suicide problems. Doing this would require "suicide attempt" information about the "not sure" group representing about 4% of sample. It is possible that the "not sure" group - with doubts about their sexual orientation - may have elevated levels of suicide problem, and some of them would surely be in the group targeted for "anti-homosexuality" abuse, thus increasing the size of this "at risk" category. The same may apply for heterosexual students targeted for anti-gay/lesbian abuses. This Information was eventually obtained. See Tables of Results.



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (2007, 2009 & 2011, Combined)


    Wisconsin 2007, 2009 & 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
    Grades 9 to 12 - Sexual Behavior
    Related Suicidality Results
    Categories Students
    Reporting
    Same-Sex
    Sex
    Students
    Reporting
    Only Opposite-
    Sex Sex
    Odds
    Ratio *
    Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities
    49%*
    25%
    OR: 2.5
    Seriously considered attempting suicide
    during the past 12 months
    42%
    15%
    OR: 3.7
    Planned a Suicide
    during the past 12 months
    33%
    11%
    OR: 3.6
    Actually attempted suicide one or more times
    during the past 12 months
    28%
    7%
    OR: 4.8
    Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose  that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse
    13%
    2%
    OR: 5.4

    Data Source: Mohr & Husain (2012)
    *Percentages are weighted.
    *Odds Ratios: Controlled for difference related to grade and sex.


    Wisconsin 2007, 2009 & 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
    Grades 9 to 12 - Sexual Identity
    Related Suicidality Results
    Categories
    Hetero-
    sexual
    Gay /
    Lesbian
    Bisexual
    Unsure
    Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities: Incidence
    20%*
    46%
    60%
    44%
    Odds Ratios, With Control Variables **
    GL, B or U vs. Heterosexual
    -
    3.7
    5.1
    2.9





    Actually attempted suicide one or more times
    during the past 12 months: Incidence
    5%*
    29%
    31%
    24%
    Odds Ratios, With Control Variables **
    GL, B or U vs. Heterosexual
    -
    7.6
    8.3
    5.2

    Data Source: Mohr & Husain (2012)
    *Percentages are weighted.
    **Odds Ratios: Controlled for difference related to grade and sex.



    Mohr A, Husain A (2012). The Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Sexual Minority Youth in Wisconsin 2007-2011. Slide Presentation. Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Population Health Institute, University of Wisconsin. PDF Download. Download Page. Note: 2011 Wisconsin YRBS results also given separately. Some 2007 to 2011 YRBS results given for the City of Milwaukee. At Download Page, see also: "Full Report Presentation" & Webinar Presentation 1 & 2.


     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (2007 & 2009, Combined)


    Wisconsin 2007 & 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
    Grades 9 - 12 'Sexual Orientation' Related Results

    Categories Students
    Reporting
    Same-Sex
    Sex
    Students
    Reporting
    Only Opposite-
    Sex Sex
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    p
    Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities
    46%
    25%
    RR: 1.8
    OR: 2.6
    p < 0.01
    Seriously considered attempting suicide
    during the past 12 months
    41%
    16%
    RR: 2.6
    OR: 3.6
    p < 0.01
    Actually attempted suicide one or more times
    during the past 12 months
    25%
    7%
    RR: 3.6
    OR: 4.4
    p < 0.01
    Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose  that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse
    12%
    2%
    RR: 6.0
    OR: 6.7
    p < 0.01

    Data Source: Gasiorowicz et al. (2010).
    "The 2009 YRBS sample of 2,430 includes 138 same-sex, 1,255 het-sex and 1,027 no-sex students. There are also 10 missing data points for students who did not respond to the respective question. Same-sex respondents comprise 10% (n=138) of the sexually active respondents, an increase from 8% found in the YRBS 2007 analysis." Many "At Risk" behaviors are given but they are not in this data table.
    ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. Same-Sex Sex students versus Opposite-Sex Sex students.


    Gasiorowicz M, Karki C, Herrmann M, Hollander G (2010). Health disparities experienced by youth engaging in same-sex sexual behavior in Wisconsin: 2007/2009 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Combined. PPT Presentation.



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (2009)


    Wisconsin 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Grades 9 - 12
    'Sexual Orientation' Related Results

    Categories Students
    Reporting
    Same-Sex
    Sex: n = 138
    Students
    Reporting
    Only Opposite-
    Sex Sex, n = 1,255
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    p
    Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks
     or more in a row during the past 12 months that they
    stopped doing some usual activities
    46.6%
    24.1%
    RR: 1.9
    OR: 2.7
    p < 0.01
    Seriously considered attempting suicide
    during the past 12 months
    39.7%
    14.4%
    RR: 2.8
    OR: 3.9
    p < 0.01
    Made a plan about how they would attempt suicide
    during the past 12 months
    32.2%
    10.6%
    RR: 3.0
    OR: 4.0
    p < 0.01
    Actually attempted suicide one or more times
    during the past 12 months
    24.8%
    5.7%
    RR: 4.4
    RR: 5.5
    p < 0.01
    Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months
    that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose
     that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse

    10.0%
    1.6%
    RR: 6.3
    RR: 6.8
    p < 0.05

    Data Source: Karki et al. (2010).
    "The 2009 YRBS sample of 2,430 includes 138 same-sex, 1,255 het-sex and 1,027 no-sex students. There are also 10 missing data points for students who did not respond to the respective question. Same-sex respondents comprise 10% (n=138) of the sexually active respondents, an increase from 8% found in the YRBS 2007 analysis." Many "At Risk" behaviors are given but they are not in this data table.
    ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. Same-Sex Sex students versus Opposite-Sex Sex students.


    Karki C, Gasiorowicz M, Hollander G (2010). Risk Behaviors and Health Conditions of Youth Engaging in Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors: Analysis of the 2009 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Wisconsin: Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services. PDF.

    Benditt L, Engel E, Gavin M, Stransky E (2009). Addressing Health Disparities Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth and Adults in Wisconsin. Workshop in Public Affairs. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, HIV/AIDS Program, Division of Public Health. Reports suicidality results (controlling for many variables) for GLB students compared to heterosexual students in the Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The odds for GLB high school students having attempted suicide in the past year were 3.9-times greater than for heterosexual students. PDF Download.


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (2007)


    Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Grades 9 - 12
    'Sexual Orientation' Related Results

    Categories Students
    Reporting
    Same-Sex
    Sex
    Students
    Reporting
    Only Opposite-
    Sex Sex
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio

    Have any long-term emotional or mental health problems
     like  depression, anxiety, ADD/ADHD, eating disorders,
    or cutting
    38.3% 17.9%RR: 2.1
    OR: 2.8
    Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks
     or more in a row during the past 12 months that they
    stopped doing some usual activities
    47.2%
    25.7%
    RR: 1.9
    OR: 2.6
    Seriously considered attempting suicide
    during the past 12 months
    41.4%
    16.6%
    RR: 2.5
    OR: 3.5
    Made a plan about how they would attempt suicide
    during the past 12 months
    31.1%
    10.8%
    RR: 2.9
    OR: 3.7
    Actually attempted suicide one or more times
    during the past 12 months
    25.2%
    7.5%
    RR: 3.3
    RR: 4.2
    Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months
    that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose
     that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse

    14.9%
    2.5%
    RR: 6.0
    RR: 6.8

    Data Source: Wisconsin Division of Public Health (2009).
    "The 2007 YRBS sample of 2,078 includes 111 same-sex, 1,181 het-sex, and 786 no-sex students. Same-sex respondents comprise 8% of students who have had sexual contact." Many "At Risk" behaviors are given but they are not in this data table.
    All differences between Same-Sex Sex students and Opposite-Sex Sex students are statistically significant, p < 0.0001
    . RRs Given.
    ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. Same-Sex Sex students versus Opposite-Sex Sex students.


    Wisconsin Division of Public Health (2009). Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) 2007: Risk Behaviors and Factors of Youth Engaging in Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors. PDF.


    2007 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Word Download): Sexual minority students were 3.7 times more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual students. - Risk Behaviors and Factors of Youth Engaging in Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors (PDF Download): One in four same-sex youth (7.5% het-sex youth) had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months. More than one in seven (15%) same-sex had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months serious enough that it required medical attention, compared to 2.5% of het-sex youth, a six-fold difference...



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (2001)

    2001 YRBS: Appendix C - Sexual Violence (PDF Info Source Page) - 2001 Index Page: http://www.dpi.state.wi.us/dpi/dlsea/sspw/yrbsindx.html .

    Sexual Violence


    Sex Grade Table Total


    Female Male 9th 10th 11th 12th
    Have you ever been threatened or hurt because
    someone thought you were gay, lesbian or bisexual
    Yes 8 9 8 9 9 7 8
    No 90 89 89 89 88 90 89
    Not sure 3 3 2 2 3 3 3

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (1999)

    Information Source: State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction - Student Services / Prevention & Wellness - 1999 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Feb. 2000).

    Information was not reported about the possible higher risk for suicide attempts of students who responded affirmatively to the question:

    Have you ever been threatened or hurt because someone thought you were gay, lesbian, or bisexual?

    1999 YRBS: Appendix C - Sexual Violence (PDF Info Source Page)

    Sexual Violence


    Sex Grade Table Total


    Female Male 9th 10th 11th 12th
    Have you ever been threatened or hurt because
    someone thought you were gay, lesbian or bisexual
    Yes 3 6 4 5 3 6 4
    No 95 90 93 93 94 89 93
    Not sure 2 4 3 2 2 5 3

    From PDF file "Weapons and Violence": As might be expected, there were also significant relationships between threats and feelings of safety. Students who reported feeling 'always' or 'usually' safe were significantly less likely to have reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the past 12 months. Similarly, students who felt unsafe at school were significantly more likely to have been hurt or threatened because someone thought they were gay, lesbian, or bisexual and to have been threatened or hurt because of their race. Similar patterns were found between having been threatened or injured with a weapon in the past 12 months and having been threatened or hurt because of one's race or perceived sexuality... Male students were twice as likely to report that they had been threatened or hurt because someone thought they were gay. lesbian, or bisexual.... However there were no significant differences between grade levels in the percentages of students reporting that they were threatened or hurt because of their race or because someone thought they were gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Wisconsin (1997)

    Information Source: State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction - Student Services / Prevention & Wellness - 1997 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey N/A Archive Link.

    Information was not reported about the possible higher risk for suicide attempts of students who responded affirmatively to the question:

    Have you ever been threatened or hurt because someone thought you were gay, lesbian, or bisexual?

    1997 YRBS: Appendix C - Sexual Violence (Info Web Page N/A Archive Link)

    Sexual Violence


    Sex Grade Table Total


    Female Male 9th 10th 11th 12th
    Have you ever been threatened or hurt because
    someone thought you were gay, lesbian or bisexual
    Yes 3 6 7 3 3 3 4
    No 91 88 85 93 90 91 90
    Not sure 6 6 7 4 7 6 6

    3% of females and 6% of males answered "yes", for a total of 4% of students. Some information related to this group of students is available in the Weapons and Violence N/A (Archive Link) section. Example: "Twenty-three percent of those who don't feel safe on the way to or from school [3% of students] reported having been threatened or hurt because someone thought they were gay, lesbian, or bisexual, compared to only four percent of those who "always" or "usually" felt safe [64% of students].

    The Safe Schools Coalition of WA - Trainer's Manual N/A (Archive Link) reports (at the end of the document) that "sexual minority youth" in the 1997 Wisconsin survey were at higher risk for "suicide attempts serious enough to have required treatment by a health care professional." but this is not possible given that "sexual orientation" information was not solicited. The information they may have encountered could only apply the the group targeted for abuse resulting from the assumption that they were gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

    Violence against gay and lesbian students was a problem nonetheless recognized by John T. Benson, State Superintendent, Madison, Wisconsin in The Power of Teaching: Characteristics of Effective Classroom Instruction on Health and Safety Issues (Bulletin No. 99061)

    Students harassed on the basis of assumed homosexual orientation were reported to be, compared to students not harassed in such ways,  more at risk for many behaviors such as:

    1. Seriously Considered Suicide in Past 12 Months: 51.7% vs 23.4% .

    2.  Attempted Suicide and Had to Be Treated by Doctor or Nurse in Past 12 Months: 13.3% vs 3.3%.

    3. Have Missed at Least One Day of School Because I Felt Unsafe in Past 30 Days: 16.7% vs 2.3%.

    4. Usually Do Not Feel Safe From Physical Harm on My Way To or From School: 2.1% vs 13.3%.

    5. Have Used Cocaine (powder, crack, or freebase) Ever: 23.3% vs 6.9%.

    6. Have Been Pregnant or Gotten Someone Pregnant Ever: 15.0% vs 4.7%.

    Data Source (with more results): Eighty-Three Thousand Youth, Table 5: http://www.safeschools-wa.org/quant_mh.html N/A (Archive Link). See: - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/ N/A (Archive Link, New Website) -  http://www.safeschools-wa.org/83000youth.pdf N/A (PDF Download of Document, Archive Link, New Link)

     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Oregon (1997)

    Source: Oregon Health Division - Suicidal behavior, a survey of Oregon High School Students, 1997 N/A. (Archive Link)
    One question, however, asked the students whether they had been harassed in the previous 30 days and, if so, why. Two percent of the respondents said they had been because they were perceived to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. These students were four times more likely to say that they attempted suicide than were their non-harassed peers (21% vs. 5%). Among those perceived to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual, harassed males were six times more likely than their non-harassed counterparts to attempt suicide (17% vs. 3%) while females were four times more likely (28% vs. 7%).
    The question asked (#24): - In the past 30 days, what were you harassed about? (If more than one reason, what was the most upsetting or offensive to you?)

    Possible Answers: a. I was not harassed; b. Race or national origin; c. Unwanted sexual attention or comments; d. Perceived sexual orientation (gay/ lesbian/ bisexual); e. Physical disability; f. Other not listed; g. Don't know why I was harassed.

    Note:  The question specified a "in the past 30 days" time frame - which would predictable produce a lower incidence than not specifying a time frame - as was done in the Seattle (1995) survey which produced an incidence level of about 8%.  Therefore, the Wisconsin group would likely represent a majority of the adolescents regularly subjected to such abuse, as opposed to maybe only occasionally and therefore more likely to have in the more distant past, or more than 30 days before the survey questionnaire was completed.
     

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Oregon (1999)

    Statistical Results were generated using 2X2 table available at - http://www.quantitativeskills.com/sisa/statistics/twoby2.htm - on the basis of data received from Oregon. Unweighted data was used, but results vary little from what they would be. Some of the data was obtained from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior "Summary Report" (PDF Download available, Archive Link). Youth Risk Behavior Questions (PDF Download N/A Archive Link).  All YRBS data may be accessed via Index Page: - http://www.dhs.state.or.us/publichealth/chs/yrbsdata.cfm N/A (Archive Link) and, on this page, the PDF version of the Oregon health Division Newsletter reporting the 1999 YRBS data / results for Grade 9 to 12 may be accessed. The URL is: - http://www.dhs.state.or.us/publichealth/chs/newsltr/trends57.pdf N/A Archive Link.

    A more comprehensive report on the data is located on a separate web page. Table 1 (of 3) reproduced below:
     

     
    Table 1 - Oregon: 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey 
    Result Summary For Males & Females (Grades 9 to 12): Harassment Based on Perceived Homosexual Orientation of Individuals: Associations with Depression & Suicide Behaviors.
    CATEGORIES
    MALES
    N = 10,348
    FEMALES
    N = 10,939
    Harassment based on perceived 
    homosexual orientation (percent) in
    the past 12 months
    n = 858
    (8.3%)
    n = 630
    (5.8%)
    Greater likelihood for "Depressed" ones 
    to  be in "harassed" group. (Percentage of 
    category accounted for by "harassed" group.)
    2.3 Times
    37% vs. 15.8%
    (17.2%)
    1.9 Times
    56% vs. 29%
    (9.0%)
    Greater likelihood for the ones who 
    "Seriously Considered Suicide" to be
    in "harassed" group.  (Percentage of 
    category accounted for by "harassed" group.)
    2.8 Times
    28% vs. 10%
    (20.2%)
    2.2 Times
    44% vs. 20%
    (11.7%)
    Greater likelihood for "Suicide Attempters"
    to be in harassed group. (Percentage of 
    category accounted for by "harassed" group.)
    5.1 Times
    13% vs. 2.6%
    (31.3%)
    2.7 Times
    23% vs. 8.5%
    (14.3%)
    Greater likelihood for "Suicide Attempters"
    who receive treatment to be in harassed
    group. (Percentage of  category accounted for by 
    "harassed" group.)
     5.5 Times
    3.8% vs. 0.70%
    (33.3%)
     4.1 Times
    8.2% vs. 2.0%
    (19.9%)
    Greater likelihood for "Repeat Suicide 
    Attempters" to be in harassed group. 
    (Percentage of  category accounted for by 
    "harassed" group.)
    5.9 Times
    1.04% vs. 6.2%
    (34.9%)
    3.7 Times
    3.6% vs. 13.5%
    (18.6%)
    Depression: Odds Ratio - 95% CI
    & Odds Ratio - 99% CI
    2.7<3.1<3.6
    2.6<3.1<3.7
    2.7<3.1<3.7
    2.5<3.1<3.9
    Consider Suicide: Odds Ratio - 95% CI
    & Odds Ratio - 99% CI
    3.0<3.5<4.2
    2.9<3.5<4.3
    2.7<3.1<3.8
    2.6<3.1<4.0
    Attempted Suicide: Odds Ratio - 95% CI
    & Odds Ratio - 99% CI
     4.5<5.7<7.2
    4.2<5.7<7.7
     2.5<3.3<4.0
    2.7<3.3<4.2
    Suicide Attempt  with Treatment: Odds 
    Ratio - 95% CI & Odds Ratio - 99% CI
    3.7<5.7<8.3
    3.3<5.7<10.0
    3.2<4.3<6.0
    2.9<4.3<6.6
    Multiple Suicide Attempts:  Odds 
    Ratio - 95% CI & Odds Ratio - 99% CI
    4.4<6.2<8.8
    4.0<6.2<9.8
    3.2<4.2<5.4
    3.0<4.2<5.8

    Oregon Healthy Teens Survey. 11th Grade Data (2007)

    Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure Incidences

    GLBU-Same-Sex-Sex-Incidences

    GLBU-Heterosexual-Attempted-Suicide-Year

    Approximate OR Estimates

    LGBQ Males (22%) vs. Heterosexual Males (4%): 6.8, p < 0.001

    LGBQ Females (24%) vs. Heterosexual Females (5%): 6.0
    , p < 0.001


    Franks, Molly (2008). Using Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Youth Data from the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey to Address Health Inequities.Oregon: Oregon Public Health Division.  PPT Presentation. Survey Questionaire.

    Ramowski SK (2008).
    Using Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Youth Data from the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey to Address Health Inequities.Oregon: Oregon Public Health Division. PDF of PPT Presentation.


    Oregon Healthy Teens Grade 11 Survey: 2006, 2007, 2008, Combined
    Attempted Suicide: Gay & Lesbian - Bisexual Adolescents

    Categories
    Gay /
    Lesbian
    Bisexual
    Hetero-
    sexual
    Males, N = 15,537.
    % of Male Population
    183
    1.18%
    278
    1.79%
    15,076
    97.03%
    Females, N = 16,315
    % of Female Population
    118
    0.72%
    834
    5.11%
    15,363
    94.16%
    Males & Females, N = 31,852
    % of Male/Female Population
    301
    0.94%
    1,112
    3.49%
    30,439
    95.56%
    Attempted Suicide One or
    More Times: N, % Incidence
    59
    19.60%
    245
    22.03%
    1,280
    4.21%
    Odds Ratios (ORs), Calculated by
    Webpage Author Using Given Data
    4.2<5.6<7.4
    95% CI
    5.5<6.4<7.5
    95% CI
    Reference
    Category
    Data Source: Hatzenbuehler (2011)
    Note: The analysis shows that "Among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, the risk of attempting suicide was 20% greater in unsupportive environments compared to supportive environments... [Attempted Suicide Incidence:] 25.47% of LGB living in negative environments attempted suicide at least once versus 20.37% in positive environments."



    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L (2011). The Social Environment and Suicide Attempts in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth. Pediatrics: published online Apr 18, 2011. Abstract. Relatd Article.


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, San Francisco (2005)


    New York City 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey *
    "Attempted Suicide" Results: GLBU vs. Heterosexual

    Categories
    Males
    Females
    %
    G,B,U
    vs %
    Hetero

    Odds
    Ratios:
    Unad-
    justed
    1
    Odds
    Ratios:
    Adjusted
    1
    %
    L,B,U
    vs %
    Hetero

    Odds
    Ratios:
    Unad-
    justed
    1
    Odds
    Ratios:
    Adjusted
    1
    Gay & Lesbian
    ? vs
    ?
    6.2
    (1.7-22.7)
    ?
    ? vs
    ?
    0.9
    (0.3-2.6)
    ?
    Bisexual
    Male & Female
    ? vs
    ?
    12.8
    (6.5-25.3)
    ?
    ? vs
    ?
    5.3
    (2.9-9.8)
    ?
    Unsure
    Male & Female
    ? vs
    ?
    6.8
    (3.3-13.9)
    ?
    ? vs
    ?
    2.4
    (1.1-5.4)
    ?
    GBU (Male)
    LBU (Female)
    ? vs
    ?
    9.0
    (5.3-15.3)
    3.44
    (1.88-6.32)
    ? vs
    ?
    3.7
    (2.4-5.9)
    2.45
    (1.31-4.56)
    GLBU 2
    Males & Females
    Combined
    Attempted Suicide Incidences
    31% (GLBU) vs 8% (Heterosexual)
    OR: 5.2
    Data Source: Olshen et al. (2007)

    * "Responses from 8080 adolescents 14 years and older, who attended NYC public high schools, were included in the analyses.The sample, which was weighted to be representative of the total NYC public high school population, was 51.0% female and primarily nonwhite (40.1% Hispanic, 36.0% black, 16.0% Asian/other, and 7.9% white)." Counts/Percentages for Heterosexual, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Unsure student populations are not given. Counts/Percentages for Heterosexual, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Unsure student "At Risk" behaviors are not given.

    1. The Odds Ratios, Unadjusted, are from the weighted counts, given with 95% Confidence Intervals. The "Adjusted Odds Ratios" are from a Binary Regression Analysis from which "Independent Predictors" results via controlling for many variables. In this case: Likely "Age" or "Grade Level", Race/Ethnicity, and the following listed group: Dating Violence, Sexual Assualt, 5 variables for "Alcohol-related behaviors", 4 variables related to "Smoking", 9 variables related to "Violence and safety", Disordered Eating, Emotional distress: feeling sad or hopeless.
    Note: Olshen et al. (2007) conclude with: "Similar to prior studies (10-13) we found that adolescent boys and girls who identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or unsure vs those who identified as heterosexual were 3.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, as likely to report at least 1 suicide attempt." This statement is incorrect. For an analysis of the greater likelihood to have attempted suicide, only the following "demongraphic" variables should be used: Age or Grade Level (that are somewhat similar), and Race/Ethnicity for the Male and the Female Analyses, carried out separately. The above cited Odds Ratios "3.4 and 2.5" represent GBU & LBU remaining as Independent Predictors for "Attempting Suicide" after controlling for numerous variables (The Infamous Battle of the Variables!), many also being significant independent predictors after controlling for all other variables, including "Sexual Orientation". The Odds for GBU & LBU students being more at risk for Attempting Suicide, compared to Heterosexual students would likely be 9 and 3.7 as deternibed from the weighted counts.

    2. The noted percentages are given by NYC Health (2008). They are likely based on weighted counts,  meaning that they reflect the accurate incidence percentages that would be expected to be given in such a publication. On the basis of the percentages given, the OR was calculated by the Webpage author and appears to be the weighted average of the Male and Female ORs given by Olshen et al. (2007). See Below the tabulated results from the data supplied by NYC Health (2008).



    New York City 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
    Grades 9 - 12
    "Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure" Suicidality Results

    Categories GLBU
    Students
    Heterosexual
    Students
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks
     or more in a row during the past 12 months that they
    stopped doing some usual activities
    55%
    31%
    RR: 1.8
    OR: 2.7

    Seriously considered attempting suicide
    during the past 12 months
    37%
    14%
    RR: 2.6
    OR: 3.6

    Made a plan about how they would attempt suicide
    during the past 12 months
    29%
    10%
    RR: 2.9
    OR: 3.7

    Actually attempted suicide one or more times
    during the past 12 months
    31%
    8%
    RR: 3.9
    RR: 5.2

    Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months
    that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose
     that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse

    9%
    2%
    RR: 4.5
    RR: 4.8


    Data Source: NYC Health (2008).
    "The 2009 YRBS sample of 2,430 includes 138 same-sex, 1,255 het-sex and 1,027 no-sex students. There are also 10 missing data points for students who did not respond to the respective question. Same-sex respondents comprise 10% (n=138) of the sexually active respondents, an increase from 8% found in the YRBS 2007 analysis." Many "At Risk" behaviors are given but they are not in this data table.
    RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLBU students versus Heterosexual students. Likely all Statiscally Significant at p < 0.000


    2005 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual youth,  the odds of having attempted suicide were greater for Gay, Bisexual and Unsure male students:  6.2, 12.8, 6.9, respectively, or 9.0 for the combined 3 groups (3.4, with control variables). For Lesbian, Bisexual and Unsure females, the odds were 0.9, 5.3, 2.4, respectively, or 3.7 for the combined 3 groups (2.5, with control variables). - Mental Health of New York City Youth: 2005 YRBS Results Given for GLBU.

    NYC Health (2008). Mental Health of New York City Youth [A report from the New York City 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey]. Vital Signs, 7(2). PDF. Compared to Heterosexual Students, GLBU (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure) Students were more at risk for persistents sadness, at least for a 2 week period in past year (55% vs 31%), Seriously Considering Suicide in past year (37% vs. 14?), Making a Suicide Plan in past year (29% vs. 10%), Attempting Suicide in the past year (31% vs. 8%), and experiencing an Attempted Suicide Associated With Receivign Medical Attention (9% vs. 2%).

    Olshen E, McVeigh KH, Wunsch-Hitzig RA, Rickert VI (2007). Dating violence, sexual assault, and suicide attempts among urban [New York City] teenagers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(6): 539-45. Abstract. PDFIn the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual youth,  the odds of having attempted suicide were greater for Gay, Bisexual and Unsure male students:  6.2, 12.8, 6.9, respectively, or 9.0 for the combined 3 groups (3.4, adjusted with control variables).

    The study below reveals that, given the YRBS combined data sets - 2005 & 2007 - a more detailed anaysis of the New York City GLBU adolescent "At Risk" situation can be done, including for those who report having engaged in same-sex-sex but identify as heterosexual:

    Pathela P, Schillinger JA (2010). Sexual behaviors and sexual violence: adolescents with opposite-, same-, or both-sex partners [NYC, YRBS: 2005 & 2007, Combined]. Pediatrics. 126(5):879-86. Abstract. Related Article: Study reveals risky sex behavior among NYC teens:  Of the students who completed the survey, 7,261 said they had had sexual intercourse. The survey asked questions including the number of sex partners in the teen's lifetime, as well as in the previous three months, and whether there was a history of forced sex or dating violence. Among the sexually active males, 93.1 percent said they had had sexual contact only with female partners, 3.2 percent said they'd had contact only with other males, and 3.7 percent said they'd had both male and female partners. Among the sexually active females, 88.1 percent said they'd had sex only with males, 3.2 percent said they'd had only female partners and 8.7 percent said they'd had partners of both sexes. Of all the sexually active teens, 9.3 percent reported at least one same-sex partner. Study author Preeti Pathela, a research scientist at the health department, said that there are no comparable national numbers but that other states have reported lower numbers of teens who have had partners of the same or both sexes. Students also were asked whether they considered themselves straight, gay or lesbian, bisexual, or "not sure." Of the teens with at least one same-sex partner, 38.9 percent answered "heterosexual or straight." Other studies have shown a similar divergence between behavior and sexual identity, but Blank said this study provides a reminder that "our public health prevention messages really need to look at behavior, not identity." 



    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, San Francisco (2009)


    San Francisco 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
    High Schools & Middle Schools
    Suicidality Results: GLBU vs. Heterosexual
    Categories
    High Schools 1
    Middle Schools 2
    GLBU Hetero-
    sexual
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    3
    GLBU Hetero-
    sexual
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    3
    Seriously
    Considered Suicide
    38%
    10%
    RR: 3.8
    OR: 5.5
    56%
    21%
    RR: 2.7
    OR: 4.8
    Made Suicide
    Plan
    31%
    10% RR: 3.1
    OR: 4.0
    43%
    14%
    RR: 3.1
    OR: 4.6
    Attempted
    Suicde

    23%
    8%
    RR: 2.9
    OR: 3.4
    34%
    7%
    RR: 4.9
    OR: 6.8

    Data Source:
    Shields (2010).
    1. YRBS completed by 2,145 high schools (9-12) students and the results are representative all of all SFUSD HS students.  GLBU = 10% = > 1,500 students in the school system.
    2.
    YRBS completed by 2,417 middle schools (6 - 8) students and the results are representative all of all SFUSD MS students. GLBU = 12% = about 1,200 students in the school system.
    3.
    RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author wWith the Given Data and Using   2-way Contingency Table Analysis. Given the N's involved, the statistical significances would be about p < 0.001.



    Shields JP (2010, ETR Associates). Youth Risk Behavior Survey (SFUSD: San Francisco Unified School District). San Francisco: SFUSD Student Support Services Department & ETR Associates.
    PPT.

    Education, Training & Research Associates (ETRA, 2010a)
    . Middle School Youth Risk Behavior & Resiliency Results: Key Indicators from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior & California Healthy Kids Surveys. PDF. "The 2009 Middle School YRBS was administered to a random sample of 2,490 students in grades six through eight in 18 public middle schools in San Francisco." Heterosexual: 83.4%. Gay/Lesbian: 2.3%, Bisexual: 1.5%, Unsure: 11.9%. Based on the Shields (2010) N = 2,417, the corresponsing "Sexual Orientation" Ns are approximately:
    Heterosexual: 83.4%, N = 2,016. Gay/Lesbian: 2.3%: N = 56, Bisexual: 1.5%, N = 36, Unsure: 11.9%: N= 288. Total Non-Heterosexual: N = 380. Total GLB: 92. Percent GLB in GLBU Category:24.2% (92 / 380).

    Education, Training & Research Associates (ETRA, 2010b). High School Youth Risk Behavior & Resiliency Results: Key Indicators from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior & California Healthy Kids Surveys. PDF. "The 2009 High School YRBS was administered to a random sample of 2,167 students in grades nine through twelve in 15 public high schools in San Francisco." Heterosexual: 88.8%. Gay/Lesbian: 1.8%, Bisexual: 3.7%, Unsure: 5.8%. Based on the Shields (2010) N = 2,145, the corresponsing "Sexual Orientation" Ns are approximately: Heterosexual: 88.8%, N = 1,905. Gay/Lesbian: 1.8%: N = 39, Bisexual: 3.7%, N = 79, Unsure: 5.8%: N= 124. Total Non-Heterosexual: N = 242. Total GLB: 118. Percent GLB in GLBU Category: 48.8% (118 / 242).

    San Franciso High Schools: 2,145 [Using Shields 2010's N] X 0.091 [Suicide Attempt Incidence = 9.1%, CDC: 2010] = 195 Attempters
    San Franciso High Schools: GLBU = 242 X 0.23 [Suicide Attempt Incidence = 23%] = 57 Attempters.  Heterosexual = 138 Attempters [195 - 57 = 138]. GLBU = 29.2% of Suicide Attempters [57 / 195].
    Heterosexual Attempted Suicide Incidence: 138 / 1,905 = 7.2%. The discrepancy with reported percentage in Table above (7.2% vs. 8%) is likely related to rounded percentages used in calculations.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2010). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59: SS-5. PDF.  San Francisco's Attempted Suicide Incidences (Past 12 Months): Males (9.3%), Females (9.0%), Total (9.1%). N given as 2,154. The 9.1% "Attempted Suicide" incidence is also given in Education, Training & Research Associates (ETRA, 2010b).

    San Francisco Middle / High School Studies (2008, 2009): - One-Third of Gay Middle Schoolers In S.F. Have Attempted Suicide, Study Claims (2010): According to recent studies, 34 percent of gay middle schoolers, and 23 percent of high schoolers had attempted suicide in the last year alone... 34 percent of middle schoolers identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) had attempted suicide in the last year -- compared to 7 percent of hetero kids. Forty-three percent of LGB students had made a suicide plan; 56 percent had seriously considered suicide. In high school, the numbers go down -- a bit. Twenty-three percent had attempted suicide in the past year, compared to 31 percent who'd made a plan, and 38 percent who'd seriously considered suicide. While the San Francisco school district was the first in the country to establish support services for LGBTQ youth 20 years ago, it seems anti-gay slurs are rampant within the city's schools: 84 percent of middle schoolers had heard slurs like "fag," "dyke," or "that's so gay," thrown around, while only 59 percent had ever heard teachers or staff stop students from making those remarks... As far as experiencing actual violence, queer kids are more likely to get in fights. Forty-six percent of gay high schoolers had been in a fight, while only 20 percent of hetero kids had in the past year. Things get even worse for transgender kids: 56 percent report being in a physical fight. Gay kids were also astronomically more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use cocaine, inhalants, or marijuana. Supporting gay youth is a core San Francisco value (Same data reported, with additional information).


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey, San Francisco (1997)

    The Safe Schools Coalition of WA - Trainer's Manual N/A (Archive Link) reports that a very poor "sexual orientation question was asked in San Francisco - thus producing a 0.2% incidence for students reporting "same-gender sexual intercourse." A reason for this is given: "Note that how the question was worded may have influenced the response. If  respondents interpreted San Francisco's use of the term 'intercourse' to mean penile-vaginal sex, it is no wonder that very few said they had experienced intercourse with someone of their own gender." Using such a poor question is surprising given that San Francisco has an abundance of openly gay/lesbian professionals in many fields, including education. The original source for the above referenced information is the document, "83,000 youth" by Reis and Saewyc (April, 1999) located at - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/quant_cont.html N/A (Archive Link). See: - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/ N/A (Archive Link, New Website) -  http://www.safeschools-wa.org/83000youth.pdf N/A (PDF Download of Document, Archive Link, New Link)
     

    Voice of Connecticut Youth Survey (1997)

    The Safe Schools Coalition of WA - Trainer's Manual N/A (Archive Link) reports that, in "Connecticut, 6.3% of students said they had been "made fun of because of [their] sexual orientation" at least once in the past year. About 8% of young women and 5% of young men reported having experienced this form of harassment in the past year. Twelve and 13-year olds were more likely than 14 to 17-year olds to report having been bullied in this way in the past year (7-8% vs. 5%), with thirteen year-old-girls reporting the highest rates of any age/gender (over 10%)."  No information was located on the possible higher risk for suicide problems these adolescents may have been experiencing. The original source for the above referenced information is the document, "83,000 youth" by Reis and Saewyc (April, 1999) located at - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/quant_cont.html N/A (Archive Link). See: - http://www.safeschools-wa.org/ N/A (Archive Link, New Website) -  http://www.safeschools-wa.org/83000youth.pdf N/A (PDF Download of Document, Archive Link, New Link)



    Boulder County, Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2003-2011)




    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2003, 05, 07, 09, 2011
    Boulder County, Colorado - Suicidality Related Variables
    Risk Behaviors
    Statistical Significance,
    p < 0.05
    - No Overlapping CIs
    (Confidence Intervals)
    Incidence %, GLBU (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure)
    vs. Incidence % Heterosexual.
    Risk Ratio [__] *
    - Odds Ratio (__) *

    2003
    2005
    2007
    2009
    2011
    Felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more during the 12 months preceding the survey
    49.5% vs
    24.2% [2.0]
    (3.1)
    53.7% vs.
    22.8% [2.4]
    (3.9)
    53.2% vs.
    25.4% [2.1]
    (3.3)
    52.2% vs
    22.3% [2.3]
    (3.8)
    55.1% vs. 22.3% [2.5]
    (4.3)
    Seriously considered attempting suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey
    63.3% vs.
    16.8% [3.8]
    (8.5)
    45.9% vs.
    15.0% [3.1]
    (4.8)
    45.7% vs.
    14.3% [3.2]
    (5.0)
    35.3% vs.
    11.1% [3.2]
    (4.4)
    43.9% vs. 11.3% [3.9]
    (6.1)
    Planned Suicide, Past 12 Months
    Not
    Given
    Not
    Given
    Not
    Given
    28.9% vs.
    9.2% [3.1]
    (4.0)
    41.4% vs. 13.4% [3.1]
    (4.6)
    Attempted suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey 44.0% vs.
    13.5% [3.3]
    (5.0)
    23.6% vs.
    6.3% [3.7]
    (4.6)
    23.0% vs.
    7.2% [3.2]
    (3.8)
    20.3% vs.
    4.2% [4.8]
    (5.8)
    31.8% vs. 4.2% [7.6]
    (10.6)
    Suicide attempt resulted in medical treatment Not
    Given
    Not
    Given
    Not
    Given
    4.1% vs.
    1.8% [2.3]
    (2.3)
    12.4% vs. 1.7% [7.3]
    (8.2)
    Intentionally Self-Injured
    Not
    Given
    55.4% vs.
    17.2% [3.2]
    (6.0)
    38.9% vs.
    17.6% [2.2]
    (3.0)
    51.0% vs.
    16.1% [3.2]
    (5.4)
    61.1% vs. 17..1% [3.6]
    (7.6)
    Data Sources: 2003 YRBS Results. - 2005 YRBS Results. - 2007 YRBS Results.
    2009 YRBS Results. 2011 YRBS Results.
    * RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis.



    Boulder County Public Health (2012). 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Boulder & St. Vrain School Districts. PDF Download. Download Page.

    Boulder County Public Health (2010). 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Boulder & St. Vrain School Districts. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Download Page. Archive Link.

    Boulder County Public Health (2008). 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Boulder & St. Vrain School Districts. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Download Page. Additional Information: PDF Download. Archive Link.  

    Boulder County Public Health (2006). 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Boulder & St. Vrain School Districts. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Download Page. Archive Link.

    Boulder County Public Health (2005). '2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Boulder & St. Vrain School Districts' Section 2: Results by Sexual Orientation (countywide data). Download Page. Downloads: http://www.co.boulder.co.us/health/HP/pdfs/SVVSDSection2.pdf - http://www.co.boulder.co.us/health/commhlth/safeZone/pdf/YRBSlgYouth.pdf . Boulder County Public Health (2004). The Results... 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Boulder County, Colorado: Section 2… Results by Sexual Orientation (countywide data). PDF N/A. Download Page N/A Archive Link. or Boulder County Public Health (2004). The Results... 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Boulder County, Colorado. PDF N/A New Link. New Download Page. Download Page N/A Archive Link. Access Page N/A Archive Link.


    Boulder County Public Health (2010)
    . 2009 Boulder County Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Survey Summary and Boulder County High School Data Tables.
    New Link. New Download Page NA. 3rd New Download Page. PDF N/A. Download Page N/A. Access Page N/A Archive Link.

    Boulder County Public Health (2008). YRBS: 2007 Boulder County Tables. New Link. New Download Page N/A. 3rd New Download Page. PDF N/A. Download Page N/A. Access Page N/A Archive Link.

    Boulder County Public Health (2006). 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for Boulder County, Colorado. New Link. New Download Page N/A. 3rd New Download Page. PDF N/A. Download Page N/A. Archive Link. Access Page N/A Archive Link.

    Boulder County Public Health (2004). The Results... 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Boulder County, Colorado: Section 2… Results by Sexual Orientation (countywide data). PDF N/A. Download Page N/A Archive Link.
    or
    Boulder County Public Health (2004). The Results... 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Boulder County, Colorado. PDF N/A New Link. New Download Page. Download Page N/A Archive Link. Access Page N/A Archive Link.


    Boulder County, Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2003)

    Source: - http://www.co.boulder.co.us/health/HP/pdfs/SVVSDSection2.pdf N/A - http://www.co.boulder.co.us/health/HP/pdfs/County.pdf N/A - New Link. New Download Page.

    Populations: Heterosexual (92.5%), Gay/Lesbian (1.0%), Bisexual (3.0%), Not Sure (1.6%). None of these (1.9%). Study Sample: N = 1,960, Grades 9 to 12.

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2003
    Boulder, Colorado  - Part 1
    Risk Behavior
    GLB /
    Unsure
    (95% CI)
    Hetero-
    sexual
    (95% CI)
    Total
    (95% CI)
    Felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks
    or more during the 12 months preceding the survey
    49.5%
    (43.8-55.2)
    24.1%
    (23.0-25.2)
    25.5%
    (24.4-26.6)
    Seriously considered attempting suicide one or more
    times during the 12 months preceding the survey
    63.3%
    (57.9-68.7)
    16.8%
    (15.9-17.8)
    19.5%
    (18.5-20.5)
    Attempted suicide one or more times during
    the 12 months preceding the survey
    44.0%
    (38.3-49.7)
    13.5%
    (12.6-14.4)
    15.2%
    (14.3-16.2)
    Harassed because someone thought they were gay, lesbian, or bisexual at school (or on the way to or from school) during the 12 months preceding the survey
    33.3%
    (27.8-38.7)
    4.9%
    (4.3-5.5)
    6.5%
    (5.9-7.2)
    Harassed because of race or ethnic origin at school
    (or on the way to or from school) during the
    12 months preceding the survey
    22.4%
    (17.8-27.0)
    6.1%
    (5.5-6.8)
    7.1%
    (6.4-7.7)
    Harassed at school (or on the way to or from school)
    during the 12 months preceding the survey
    59.9%
    (54.3-65.6)
    30.9%
    (29.7-32.1)
    32.6%
    (31.4-33.7)
    Smoked cigarettes on school property
    One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey
    29.1%
    (24.2-34.1)
    7.7%
    (7.0-8.4)
    8.9%
    (8.2-9.6)
    Drank alcohol on school property
    One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey
    22.9%
    (18.3-27.5)
    4.9%
    (4.4-5.4)
    5.9%
    (5.4-6.5)
    Used marijuana on school property
    One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey
    20.8%
    (16.5-25.1)
    6.3%
    (5.7-6.9)
    7.1%
    (6.5-7.7)
    Alcohol or drugs at last intercourse
    among currently sexually active students
    48.2%
    (40.4-55.9)
    20.6%
    (18.5-22.7)
    23.2%
    (21.1-25.3)
    Ever tried any form of cocaine
    (e.g., “powder,” “crack,” or “freebase”)

    28.9%
    (23.9-33.8)
    9.0%
    (8.3-9.7)
    10.1%
    (9.4-10.9)
    Ever sniffed glue or breathed the contents of aerosol
    spray cans or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high
    34.4%
    (28.8-40.0)
    9.1%
    (8.4-9.8)
    10.6%
    (9.8-11.3)
    Ever used ecstasy
    27.3%
    (22.3-32.3)
    5.3%
    (4.8-5.8)
    6.5%
    (5.9-7.1)


    Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2003
    Boulder, Colorado  - Part 2
    Risk Behavior GLB /
    Unsure
    (95% CI)
    Hetero-
    sexual
    (95% CI)
    Total
    (95% CI)
    Ever forced to have sexual intercourse
    35.1%
    (29.7-40.5)
    4.2%
    (3.7-4.7)
    6.0%
    (5.4-6.6)
    Ever touched sexually when they did not want to
    be touched other than forced sexual intercourse
    53.4%
    (47.7-59.0)
    16.6%
    (15.7-17.6)
    18.7%
    (17.7-19.7)
    Hurt by boyfriend/girlfriend: Hit, slapped, or physically hurt
    on purpose during the 12 months preceding the survey
    20.5%
    (16.1-24.9)
    6.4%
    (5.8-7.0)
    7.2%
    (6.6-7.9)
    Ever had sexual intercourse
    57.7%
    (51.9-63.5)
    32.9%
    (31.7-34.0)
    34.3%
    (33.2-35.4)
    Currently sexually active: one or more times
    during the 30 days preceding the survey
    43.6%
    (37.9-49.2)
    24.1%
    (23.0-25.1)
    25.2%
    (24.1-26.2)
    Four or more sex partners during lifetime
    32.0%
    (26.8-37.2)
    7.4%
    (6.7-8.0)
    8.7%
    (8.0-9.4)
    Have been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant
    11.2%
    (7.6-14.7)
    1.9%
    (1.6-2.3)
    2.4%
    (2.0-2.8)
    First sexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger
    28.5%
    (23.5-33.5)
    6.7%
    (6.0-7.3)
    7.9%
    Felt too unsafe to go to school on one or more
    of the 30 days preceding the survey
    22.9%
    (18.0-27.8)
    3.0%
    (2.5-3.4)
    4.1%
    (3.6-4.6)
    Feel unsafe or afraid at school most or all of the time
    10.1%
    (7.6-12.6)
    1.3%
    (1.0-1.7)
    1.8%
    (1.5-2.2)
    Carried a weapon on one or more of the
    30 days preceding the survey
    32.1%
    (26.7-37.4)
    12.8%
    (11.9-13.6)
    13.8%
    (12.9-14.7)
    Carried a gun on one or more of the
    30 days preceding the survey
    11.6%
    (7.9-15.2)
    3.0%
    (2.6-3.5)
    3.5%
    (3.0-4.0)
    In a physical fight one or more times during
    the 12 months preceding the survey
    44.3%
    (38.7-49.8)
    24.2%
    (23.1-25.3)
    25.3%
    (24.2-26.4)
    In a physical fight on school property one or more times
    during the 12 months preceding the survey
    23.1%
    (18.0-28.3)
    11.3%
    (10.4-12.1)
    11.9%
    (11.1-12.8)
    Carried a weapon on school property
    on one or more of the 30 days preceding the survey
    22.3%
    (17.6-27.0)
    5.0%
    (4.4-5.5)
    5.9%
    (5.3-6.5)
    Threatened or injured with a weapon on school property
    one or more times in the past 12 months
    16.0%
    (11.9-20.1)
    4.6%
    (4.1-5.2)
    5.3%
    (4.7-5.8)
    Smoked cigarettes or cigars or used chewing tobacco on one or more of the 30 days preceding the survey
    54.4%
    (48.8-60.1)
    28.8%
    (27.7-30.0)
    30.3%
    (29.1-31.4)




    Illinois & Chicago Public Schools - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2011)

    Illinois Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2011
    Categories GLBU Heterosexual
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    Depression, Past Year
    47.2%
    26.0%
    RR: 1.8
    OR: 2.5
    Suicidal Thoughts, Past Year
    31.5%
    12.7%
    RR: 2.5
    OR: 3.2
    Attempted Suicide, Past Year
    21.3%
    6.6%
    RR: 3.2
    OR: 3.8

    Data Source:
    Steinhausen et al. (2012).
    Random Study Sample: 3,051 students in grades 9-12
    Statistical Significance: All differences between GLBU students and heterosexual identified students would be statistically significant at p < .05.
    GLBU: Identified as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Unsure of their Sexual Orientation.
    RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLBU versus Heterosexual.
    Note: More statistically significant "At Risk" behavior are given but they were not tabulate above.



    Steinhausen G, Cartland J, Smith T (2012). 2011 Illinois Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Overall Results andd Results byu Sexual Orientation. Presentation at the IDPH HIV/STD Conference, October 24, 2012.  PDF Download.

    Illinois & Chicago Public Schools - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2009)



    Illinois Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2009
    Categories GLBU Heterosexual
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    Depression, Past Year
    54.7%
    25.5%
    RR: 2.1
    OR: 3.5
    Suicidal Thoughts, Past Year
    41.8%
    12.8%
    RR: 3.3
    OR: 4.9
    Making a Suicide Plan, Past Year
    31.0%
    10.0%
    RR: 3.1
    OR: 4.0
    Attempted Suicide, Past Year
    29.7%
    7.2%
    RR: 4.1
    OR: 5.4
    Harassed Because Assumed to be GLB, Past Year
    29.0%
    6.5%
    RR: 4.5
    OR: 5.9

    Data Source:
    Smith et al. (2010).
    Random Study Sample: 3,051 students in grades 9-12
    Statistical Significance: All differences between GLBU students and heterosexual identified students would be statistically significant at p < .05.
    GLBU: Identified as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Unsure of their Sexual Orientation.
    RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLBU versus Heterosexual.
    Note: More statistically significant "At Risk" behavior are given but they were not tabulate above.



    Smith TL, Syeinhuasen G, Carland J (2010). Risk Behaviors Among Illinois and Chicago High School Students by Sexual Orientation [2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results]. Presentation: Adolescent Health Disparities Summit, Springfield, IL, October 26, 2010. PDF: PPT.

    Related News Item: Task force talks suicide prevention [for GLBTQ youth].



    Illinois Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2009
    Categories GLB or Had
    Same-Sex
    Sex - 8.8%
    Heterosexual
    No Same-Sex
    Sex - ? %
    Maybe 90%
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    Depression, Past Year
    54.3%
    25.5%
    RR: 2.1
    OR: 3.3
    Suicidal Thoughts, Past Year
    45.8%
    13.5%
    RR: 3.4
    OR: 5.4
    Making a Suicide Plan, Past Year
    35.3%
    10.5%
    RR: 3.4
    OR: 4.7
    Attempted Suicide, Past Year
    33.6%
    6.5%
    RR: 5.2
    OR: 7.3

    Data Source:
    Illinois Department of Public Health (2010).
    Random Study Sample: 941 students in grades 9-12
    Statiscal Significance: All differences between GLB students, including those who had same-sex sex, and heterosexual identified students who did not have same-sex sex, would be statistically significant at p < .05.
    GLB: Identified as Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual.
    RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB + Students who reported having Same-Sex Sex versus Heterosexual.


    Illinois Department of Public Health (2010). 2009 Suicide Prevention Report. Chicago: Illinois Department of Public Health. PDF.


    Chicago Public Schools - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2009 & 2011)

    "[D]data from the 2009 and 2011 combined Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was also utilized... In the YRBS [2009 & 2011, combined], 26.3% of LGBT students reported attempting suicide in the past 12 months, compared to 12.7% of heterosexual students.'  Mustanski et al. (2012): pp. 6 & 9.

    Mustanski BS, Clifford A, Bigelow L, Andrews K, Birkett MA, Ashbeck A, Fisher K (2012). A Healthy Chicago for LGBT Youth: An IMPACT Program White Paper on Health Disparities in Chicago’s LGBT Youth. Chicago, IL: The IMPACT Program at Northwestern University. Download Page.


    Chicago Public Schools - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2005)



    Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2005
    Categories Gay
    Lesbian
    1.6%

    Bi-
    sexual

    2.5%
    GLB
    4.1% *

    Hetero-
    sexual
    93.4%
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    Depression, Past Year
    53.8%
    57.9%
    56.3%
    27.8%
    RR: 2.0
    OR: 3.2
    Making a Suicide Plan, Past Year
    33.3%
    35.0%
    34.2%
    9.7%
    RR: 3.5
    OR: 4.8
    Attempted Suicide, Past Year
    27.3%
    33.3%
    30.0%
    7.5%
    RR: 4.0
    OR: 5.3
    Being Threatened at School, Past Year
    16.7%
    20.0%
    18.7%
    8.1%
    RR: 2.3
    OR: 2.6
    Treated for Fight Related Injury, Past Year
    23.1%
    10.5%
    15.4%
    4.2%
    RR: 3.7
    OR: 4.2
    Sexual Assault, Past Year
    16.7%
    36.8%
    29.0%
    8.0%
    RR: 3.6
    OR: 4.7

    Data Source: Sullivan (2007b)
    Random Study Sample: 941 students in grades 9-12
    Statiscal Significance: "All differences between LGB students and other students are statistically significant at p < .05."
    GLB: Identified as Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual. * GLB Results not given as a group. Estimated by webpage author.
    Heterosexual: Identified Self as heterosexual.
    RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB versus Heterosexual.


    Sullivan, Shannon (2007b). Chicago Public High Schools: Differential Risk Factors for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Identified Students: 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results. Chicago: The Illinois Safe Schools Alliance. PDF. Gay/Lesbian & Bisexual population percentages given by Horn & Szalacha (2007).

    Horn SS, Szalacha LA (2007). Chicago Public Schools Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005: Executive Summary. Chicago: Board of Education of the City of Chicago. PDF.

    "The majority of students in the sample identified as Heterosexual (93.4%) with a minority of students identifying as Lesbian or Gay (1.6%), Bisexual (2.5%), or unsure
    of their sexual identity (2.5%)..."

    "As with sexual identity, the majority of students in the sample engaged in sexual activity with opposite-sex peers (95.2%), with small numbers of students reporting exclusively same-sex sexual behavior (2.5%) and sexual behavior with members of both sexes (2.3%). Of the students who reported behavior other than heterosexual sex, females (3.8%) were more likely to have sexual partners of both sexes, while males (3.7%) were more likely to report exclusively same-sex sexual behavior than females. The number of students reporting exclusively same-sex behavior or bisexual behavior increased with age."



    Chicago Public Schools - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2003)


    Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2003
    Categories GLB +
    Same-Sex
    Sex - 8.5%

    GLB
    6.3%

    All Others
    93.7%
    Risk Ratio
    Odds Ratio
    Depression, Past Year
    Not Given
    53%
    31%
    RR: 1.7
    OR: 2.5
    Attempted Suicide, Past Year
    Not Given
    32%
    11%
    RR: 2.9
    OR: 3.8
    Missing School Because They Felt Unsafe.
    Past Year
    Not Given
    33%
    11%
    RR: 3.0
    OR: 4.0
    Being in a Fight at School, Past Year
    Not Given
    32%
    17%
    RR: 1.9
    OR: 2.3
    Sexual Assault, Past Year
    Not Given
    26%
    8%
    RR: 3.3
    OR: 4.0

    Data Source: Sullivan (2007a)
    Random Study Sample: 968 students in grades 9-12
    Statiscal Significance: "All differences between LGB students and other students are statistically significant at p < .05."
    GLB: Identified as Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual
    All Others: "Includes students who identified their sexual orientation as heterosexual, not sure, [or did not answer the question ?]."
    RRs & ORs: Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis. GLB versus All Others.


    Sullivan, Shannon (2007). Chicago Public High Schools: Differential Risk Factors for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Identified Students: 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results. Chicago: The Illinois Safe Schools Alliance. PDF.

    2003 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Related GLB suicidality information not given. "Among CPS high school students, 6.3% described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual; 7.5% of males described themselves as gay or bisexual and 4.7% of females described themselves as lesbian or bisexual... The prevalence of describing themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual, was higher among non-Hispanic Black (7.3%) than Hispanic (5.8%) and non-Hispanic White (4.9%) CPS high school students but the difference was not statistically significant... Among CPS high school students, 2.3% reported having had sexual contact with females and males during their life; 1.6% of males and 2.9% of females indicated having had sexual contact with females and males. The prevalence of having had sexual contact with females and males during their life was similar for non-Hispanic Black (2.0%), Hispanic (2.8%) and non-Hispanic White (2.3%) CPS high school students." Suicidality information may be available given the following information in this document: "Risks and Needs of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in Chicago Public Schools. Health and wellness. Uses the 2003 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey to investigate the school experiences and differential risk factors for students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or who have had same-sex sexual ontact.Dates active: 2005 to present. Chou, Victoria. Dean, College of Education. Phone: 312.996.5641. Email: vchou@uic.edu"

    2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Summary of Results From A Representative Sample of Students From Selected Chicago Public High Schools
    . Internet: http://www.oism.cps.k12.il.us/pdf/2003YRBS.pdf.

    N = 968 in 23 High Schools. Results by random sampling deemed to be representative of all students in public schools.

    Race/Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic Black: 51.1% - Hispanic: 35.0% - Non-Hispanic White: 10.1% - Non-Hispanic Other Race; 2.2% - Non-Hispanic Multiple Races; 1.6%.

    "Among CPS high school students, 6.3% described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual; 7.5% of males described themselves as gay or bisexual and 4.7% of females described themselves as lesbian or bisexual (Figure 38). The prevalence of describing themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual, was higher among non-Hispanic Black (7.3%) than Hispanic (5.8%) and non-Hispanic White (4.9%) CPS high school students but the difference was not statistically significant (Figure 38).

    Note: Suicidality and other variable results were not generated in association with sexual oreintation.




    A 2002 Re-Evaluation of Massachusetts 1995/97 & Vermont 1995/97 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Bisexually Active Adolescents Most At Risk.

    Robin L, Brener ND, Donahue SF, Hack T, Hale K, Goodenow C (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school.  Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(4): 349-55. (PubMed Abstract) (Full Text)

    From this paper, the results of 4 surveys are given: 2 from Vermont, and 2 from Massachusetts. The two surveys from Vermont (1995 & 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were combined to form one data set, and the two survey from Massachusetts (1995 & 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were combined to form another data set, and results were presented for "Vermont Students" and "Massachusetts Students" from Grades 9 to 12 (High School) as follows for having attempted suicide in the past year:

    Percent Attempting Suicide "In the Past Year" (In square brackets [--]: % with suicide attempt associated with having received medical care) for students in 3 categories: (1) Those reporting only opposite sex sexual partners, (2) those reporting only same-sex sexual partner, and (3) those reporting sexual partners of both sexes:

    Vermont Students

    Those With Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners (n = 6873) - % attempting suicide = 11.9% [4.5%]
    Those With Only Same-Sex Sex partners (n = 249) - % attempting suicide = 16.5% [5.6%]
    Those With Sex Partners of Both Sexes (n = 336) - % attempting suicide = 43.5% [26.8%]

    Massachusetts Students

    Those With Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners (n = 3948) - % attempting suicide = 12.4% [4.5%]
    Those With Only Same-Sex Sex partners (n = 106) - % attempting suicide = 18.5% [7.8%]
    Those With Sex Partners of Both Sexes (n = 122) - % attempting suicide = 52.2% [31.6%]

    Notes:

    1. The above excludes students who are not reporting having had sexual intercourse in their lifetime. Suicide attempts incidences are lower for  students who are not sexually active.
    2. There are more student who are bisexually active than students who are only homosexually active - in terms of having sexual partners.
    3. Bisexually active students are at the greatest risk for having attempted suicide in the past year. They are also at greater relative risk for suicide attempts associated with having received medical care. Generally, these would be the most serious suicide attempts, but not always.
    4. Bisexually active students are also more at risk for a number of other problems. See Abstract.

    The information presented above is from Table 2, page 252.


    The 2011 CDC Results on the Suicidality of Sexual Minority Adolescent
    In the 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
    American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
    Gay / Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Delaware
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 133, 1.3%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 9,801, 93.5%)
    Maine
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 186, 1.2%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =9,513, 93.3%)

    Massachusetts
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 196, 1.2%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =15,780, 93.6%)

    Rhode Island
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 91, 1.7%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =4,836, 90.7%)

    Vermont
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 264, 1.0%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =21,466, 93.0%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    35.3% vs.
    10.9%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 4.5
    29.5% vs.
    10.1%
    RR: 2.9, OR: 3.7
    43.4% vs. 
    13.2%
    RR: 3.3, OR: 5.0
    20.5% vs.
    9.9%
    RR: 2.1, OR: 2.3
    N/A
    Suicide
    Planned
    36.8% vs.
    8.5%
    RR: 4.3, OR: 6.3
    31.1% vs.
    15.7% 
    RR: 2.6, OR: 3.3
    37.1% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 3.5, OR: 4.9
    15.8% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 1.6, OR: 1.8
    31.7% vs.
    8.0%
    RR: 4.0, OR: 5.3
    Attempted
    Suicide
    27.0% vs.
    5.7%
    RR: 4.7, OR: 6.1
    22.3% vs.
    5.1%
    RR: 4.4, OR: 5.3
    33.1% vs. 
    6.4%
    RR: 5.2, OR: 7.2
    25.8% vs.
    6.3%
    RR: 4.1, OR: 5.2
    25.4% vs.
    3.8%
    RR: 6.7, OR: 8.6
    Suicide
    Attempt(s)
    & Medical Care
    12.9% vs.
    1.5%
    RR: 8.6, OR: 9.7
    N/A
    15.1% vs.
    2.2%
    RR: 6.9, OR: 7.9
    12.4% vs.
    3.9%
    RR: 4.3, OR: 4.7
    13.4% vs.
    1.1%
    RR: 12.2, OR: 13.9
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .



    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
    American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
      Bisexual vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Delaware
    Bisexual
    (n = 396, 3.8%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 9,801, 93.5%)
    Maine
    Bisexual
    (n = 432, 3.4%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =9,513, 93.3%)

    Massachusetts
    Bisexual
    (n = 536, 3.2%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =15,780, 93.6%)

    Rhode Island
    Bisexual
    (n = 287, 5.2%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =4,836, 90.7%)

    Vermont
    Bisexual
    (n = 941, 3.7%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =21,466, 93.0%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    46.1% vs.
    10.9%
    RR: 4.2, OR: 7.0
    36.4% vs.
    10.1%
    RR: 3.6, OR: 5.1
    46.2% vs. 
    13.2%
    RR: 3.5, OR: 5.6
    40.2% vs.
    9.9%
    RR: 4.1, OR: 6.1
    N/A
    Suicide
    Planned
    34.0% vs.
    8.5%
    RR: 4.0, OR: 5.5
    37.0% vs.
    15.7% 
    RR: 2.4, OR: 3.1
    36.4% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 3.4, OR: 4.8
    35.7% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 3.7, OR: 5.2
    37.7% vs.
    8.0%
    RR: 4.7, OR: 7.0
    Attempted
    Suicide
    29.3% vs.
    5.7%
    RR: 5.2, OR: 6.9
    20.6% vs.
    5.1%
    RR: 4.0, OR: 4.8
    28.0% vs. 
    6.4%
    RR: 4.4, OR: 5.7
    32.0% vs.
    6.3%
    RR: 5.1, OR: 7.0
    26.7% vs.
    3.8%
    RR: 7.0, OR: 9.2
    Suicide
    Attempt(s)
    & Medical Care
    11.3% vs.
    1.5%
    RR: 7.5, OR: 8.4
    15.9% vs.
    0.9%
    RR: 17.7, OR: 20.8
    11.2% vs.
    2.2%
    RR: 5.1, OR: 5.6
    10.1% vs.
    3.9%
    RR: 2.6, OR: 2.8
    10.8% vs.
    1.1%
    RR: 9.8, OR: 10.9
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
    American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
      "Not Sure" vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Delaware
     "Not Sure"
    (n = 136, 1.3%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 9,801, 93.5%)
    Maine
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 324, 2.1%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =9,513, 93.3%)

    Massachusetts
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 377, 2.1%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =15,780, 93.6%)

    Rhode Island
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 137, 2.5%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =4,836, 90.7%)

    Vermont
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 610, 2.3%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n =21,466, 93.0%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    40.4% vs.
    10.9%
    RR: 3.7, OR: 5.5
    27.6% vs.
    10.1%
    RR: 2.7, OR: 3.4
    29.1% vs. 
    13.2%
    RR: 2.2, OR: 2.7
    18.6% vs.
    9.9%
    RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
    N/A
    Suicide
    Planned
    30.1% vs.
    8.5%
    RR: 3.5, OR: 4.6
    31.7% vs.
    15.7% 
    RR: 2.0, OR: 2.5
    24.6% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 2.3, OR: 2.7
    20.0% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 2.1, OR: 2.3
    22.4% vs.
    8.0%
    RR: 2.8, OR: 3.3
    Attempted
    Suicide
    26.7% vs.
    5.7%
    RR: 4.7, OR: 6.0
    20.7% vs.
    5.1%
    RR: 4.1, OR: 4.9
    20.9% vs. 
    6.4%
    RR: 3.3, OR: 3.9
    16.1% vs.
    6.3%
    RR: 2.6, OR: 3.8
    16.6% vs.
    3.8%
    RR: 4.4, OR: 5.0
    Suicide
    Attempt(s)
    & Medical Care
    12.0% vs.
    1.5%
    RR: 8.0, OR: 8.9
    16.8% vs.
    0.9%
    RR: 18.7, OR: 22.2
    10.2% vs.
    2.2%
    RR: 4.6, OR: 5.0
    5.6% vs.
    3.9%
    RR: 1.4, OR: 1.5 ns
    10.8% vs.
    1.1%
    RR: 7.6, OR: 8.2
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
    American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
    Gay / Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Boston
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 79, 1.1%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 6,792, 93.4%)
    Chicago
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 102, 2.6%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 3,534, 90.5%)

    New York
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 468, 1.4%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 24,553, 91.2%)

    San Francisco
    Gay / Lesbian
    (n = 121, 1.4%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 7,546, 90.3%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    20.4% vs.
    11.7%
    RR: 1.7, OR: 1.9 ns
    30.0% vs. 
    11.9%
    RR: 2.5, OR: 3.2
    29.7% vs.
    11.8%
    RR: 2.5, OR: 3.1
    18.8% vs.
    12.1%
    RR: 1.5, OR: 1.7 ns
    Suicide
    Planned
    20.2% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
    18.8% vs.
    9.4%
    RR: 2.0, OR: 2.2
    21.2% vs.
    10.0%
    RR: 2.1, OR: 2.4
    20.6% vs.
    11.9%
    RR: 1.7, OR: 1.9
    Attempted
    Suicide
    34.3% vs.
    8.9%
    RR: 3.8, OR: 5.3
    32.6% vs. 
    9.6%
    RR: 3.4, OR: 4.5
    21.5% vs.
    7.2%
    RR: 3.0, OR: 3.5
    15.1% vs.
    7.3%
    RR: 2.1, OR: 2.3
    Suicide
    Attempt(s)
    & Medical Care
    15.7% vs.
    3.0%
    RR: 5.2, OR: 6.0
    9.9% vs.
    3.4%
    RR: 2.9, OR: 3.1
    7.8% vs.
    2.1%
    RR: 3.7, OR: 3.9
    7.0% vs.
    2.2%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 3.3
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
    American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
    Bisexual vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Boston
    Bisexual
    (n = 215, 2.9%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 6,792, 93.4%)
    Chicago
    Bisexual
    (n = 148, 3.7%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 3,534, 90.5%)

    New York
    Bisexual
    (n = 1,353, 4.3%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 24,553, 91.2%)

    San Francisco
    Bisexual
    (n = 296, 3.7%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 7,546, 90.3%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    40.5% vs.
    11.7%
    RR: 3.5, OR: 5.2
    35.4% vs. 
    11.9%
    RR: 3.0, OR: 4.1
    40.5% vs.
    11.8%
    RR: 3.4, OR: 5.1
    38.8% vs.
    12.1%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 4.6
    Suicide
    Planned
    34.5% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 4.4
    30.0% vs.
    9.4%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 4.1
    34.8% vs.
    10.0%
    RR: 3.5, OR: 4.8
    35.8% vs.
    11.9%
    RR: 3.0, OR: 4.1
    Attempted
    Suicide
    28.9% vs.
    8.9%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 4.2
    26.3% vs. 
    9.6%
    RR: 2.7, OR: 3.4
    30.5% vs.
    7.2%
    RR: 4.2, OR: 5.7
    24.7% vs.
    7.3%
    RR: 3.4, OR: 4.2
    Suicide
    Attempt(s)
    & Medical Care
    13.0% vs.
    3.0%
    RR: 4.3, OR: 4.8
    11.3% vs.
    3.4%
    RR: 3.3, OR: 3.6
    8.3% vs.
    2.1%
    RR: 3.9, OR: 4.2
    12.1% vs.
    2.2%
    RR: 5.5, OR: 6.1
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
    American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
    "Not Sure" vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Boston
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 184, 2.5%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 6,792, 93.4%)
    Chicago
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 115, 3.2%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 3,534, 90.5%)

    New York
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 786, 3.2%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 24,553, 91.2%)

    San Francisco
    "Not Sure"
    (n = 368, 4.7%) vs. 
    Heterosexual (n = 7,546, 90.3%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    19.8% vs.
    11.7%
    RR: 1.7, OR: 1.9
    20.9% vs. 
    11.9%
    RR: 1.8, OR: 2.0
    26.5% vs.
    11.8%
    RR: 2.2, OR: 2.7
    17.5% vs.
    12.1%
    RR: 1.4, OR: 1.5
    Suicide
    Planned
    19.9% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
    20.9% vs.
    9.4%
    RR: 2.2, OR: 2.5
    20.7% vs.
    10.0%
    RR: 2.1, OR: 2.3
    17.8% vs.
    11.9%
    RR: 1.5, OR: 1.6
    Attempted
    Suicide
    21.8% vs.
    8.9%
    RR: 2.4, OR: 2.8
    18.5% vs. 
    9.6%
    RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
    18.3% vs.
    7.2%
    RR: 2.5, OR: 2.9
    13.0% vs.
    7.3%
    RR: 1.8, OR: 1.9
    Suicide
    Attempt(s)
    & Medical Care
    10.3% vs.
    3.0%
    RR: 3.4, OR: 3.7
    6.8% vs.
    3.4%
    RR: 2.0, OR: 2.1 ns
    6.7% vs.
    2.1%
    RR: 3.2, OR: 3.3
    4.4% vs.
    2.2%
    RR: 2.0, OR: 2.0 ns
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
    American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
      "Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OSSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Conn.
     OSSSP
    (n = 104, 2.5%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 2,229,
    52.9%)

    Del.
    OSSSP
    (n = 100, 1.0%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 5,497, 53.6%)

    Maine
    OSSSP
    (n = 137, 2.4%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 2,668, 51.7%)

    Mass.
    OSSSP
    (n = 340, 2.1%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 8,634, 53.3%)

    R.I.
    OSSSP
    (n = 159, 2.7%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 2,915,
    56.0%)

    Vt.
    OSSSP
    (n = 246, 0.7%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 13,638,
    39.0%)

    Wis.
    OSSSP
    (n = 82,
    1.9%) vs. OOSSP

    (n = 2,436,
    54.7%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    22.1% vs.
    14.4%
    RR: 1.5,
    OR: 1.7 ns
    27.8% vs.
    13.7%
    RR: 2.0,
    OR: 2.4
    19.7% vs.
    15.9%
    RR: 1.2,
    OR: 1.3 ns
    25.3% vs.
    16.4%
    RR: 1.5,
    OR: 1.7
    19.4% vs. 
    12.4%
    RR: 1.6,
    OR: 1.7
    ---% vs.
    ---%
    RR: ---,
    OR: ---
    30.8% vs.
    15.6%
    RR: 2.0,
    OR: 2.4
    Suicide
    Planned
    20.9% vs.
    9.8%
    RR: 2.1,
    OR: 2.4
    28.2% vs.
    10.6%
    RR: 2.7,
    OR: 3.3
    16.9% vs.
    14.3%
    RR: 1.2,
    OR: 1.2 ns
    19.2% vs.
    13.2%
    RR: 1.4,
    OR: 1.6
    20.0% vs.
    10.9%
    RR: 1.8,
    OR: 2.0
    32.5% vs.
    14.1%
    RR: 2.3,
    OR: 2.9
    24.9% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 2.3,
    OR: 2.8
    Attempted
    Suicide
    19.5% vs.
    8.2%
    RR: 2.4,
    OR: 2.7
    19.0% vs.
    8.0%
    RR: 2.4,
    OR: 2.7
    13.1% vs.
    7.7%
    RR: 1.7,
    OR: 1.8 ns
    21.1% vs.
    8.5%
    RR: 2.5,
    OR: 2.9
    16.5% vs. 
    8.2%
    RR: 2.0,
    OR: 2.2
    20.4% vs.
    8.3%
    RR: 2.5,
    OR: 2.8
    19.8% vs.
    6.7%
    RR: 2.9,
    OR: 3.4
    Suicide
    Attempt(s) &
    Medical Care
    3.3% vs.
    3.0%
    RR: 1.1,
    OR: 1.1 ns
    8.4% vs.
    2.6%
    RR: 3.2,
    OR: 3.4
    4.2% vs.
    2.7%
    RR: 1.6,
    OR: 1.6 ns
    8.5% vs.
    3.1%
    RR: 2.7,
    OR: 2.9
    11.6% vs.
    3.6%
    RR: 3.2,
    OR: 3.5
    9.2% vs.
    2.9%
    RR: 3.2,
    OR: 3.4
    8.1% vs.
    2.1%
    RR: 3.9,
    OR: 4.1
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
    American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
      "Both-Sex Sex Partners" (BSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Conn.
     BSSP
    (n = 215, 4.8%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 2,229,
    52.9%)

    Del.
    BSSP
    (n = 293, 2.8%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 5,497, 53.6%)

    Maine
    BSSP
    (n = 178, 3.0%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 2,668, 51.7%)

    Mass.
    BSSP
    (n = 563, 3.4%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 8,634, 53.3%)

    R.I.
    BSSP
    (n = 258, 4.9%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 2,915,
    56.0%)

    Vt.
    BSSP
    (n = 827, 2.0%) vs. OOSSP
    (n = 13,638,
    39.0%)

    Wis.
    BSSP
    (n = 167,
    3.6%) vs. OOSSP

    (n = 2,436,
    54.7%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    43.3% vs.
    14.4%
    RR: 3.0,
    OR: 4.5
    44.7% vs.
    13.7%
    RR: 3.3,
    OR: 5.1
    44.3% vs.
    15.9%
    RR: 2.8,
    OR: 4.2
    46.4% vs.
    16.4%
    RR: 2.8,
    OR: 4.4
    38.0% vs. 
    12.4%
    RR: 3.1,
    OR: 4.3
    ---% vs.
    ---%
    RR: ---,
    OR: ---
    45.6% vs.
    15.6%
    RR: 2.9,
    OR: 4.5
    Suicide
    Planned
    37.2% vs.
    9.8%
    RR: 3.8,
    OR: 5.4
    35.3% vs.
    10.6%
    RR: 3.3,
    OR: 4.6
    35.4% vs.
    14.3%
    RR: 2.5,
    OR: 3.3
    37.9% vs.
    13.2%
    RR: 2.9,
    OR: 4.0
    35.8% vs.
    10.9%
    RR: 3.3,
    OR: 4.6
    45.8% vs.
    14.1%
    RR: 3.2,
    OR: 5.1
    35.2% vs.
    10.7%
    RR: 3.3,
    OR: 4.5
    Attempted
    Suicide
    29.7% vs.
    8.2%
    RR: 3.6,
    OR: 4.7
    35.7% vs.
    8.0%
    RR: 3.5,
    OR: 6.4
    28.9% vs.
    7.7%
    RR: 3.7,
    OR: 4.9
    30.7% vs.
    8.5%
    RR: 3.6,
    OR: 4.8
    29.9% vs. 
    8.2%
    RR: 3.6,
    OR: 4.8
    40.7% vs.
    8.3%
    RR: 4.9,
    OR: 7.6
    27.7% vs.
    6.7%
    RR: 4.1,
    OR: 5.3
    Suicide
    Attempt(s) &
    Medical Care
    12.8% vs.
    3.0%
    RR: 4.3,
    OR: 4.7
    15.6% vs.
    2.6%
    RR: 6.0,
    OR: 6.0
    15.9% vs.
    2.7%
    RR: 5.9,
    OR: 6.8
    13.5% vs.
    3.1%
    RR: 4.3,
    OR: 4.9
    8.2% vs.
    3.6%
    RR: 2.3,
    OR: 2.4 ns
    21.9% vs.
    2.9%
    RR: 7.5,
    OR: 9.4
    14.7% vs.
    2.1%
    RR: 7.0,
    OR: 8.0
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
    American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
      "Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OSSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Boston
     OSSSP
    (n = 183, 2.7%)
    vs. OOSSP

    (n = 3,834,
    57.3%)

    Chicago
    OSSSP
    (n = 119, 3.2%)
     vs. OOSSP

    (n = 2,195,
     56.5%)

    Milwaukee
    OSSSP
    (n = 133, 3.9%)
    vs. OOSSP

    (n = 2,145,
    60.9%)

    New York
    OSSSP
    (n = 743, 2.5%)
     vs. OOSSP

    (n = 13,815, 49.3%)

    San Diego
    OSSSP
    (n = 83, 1.7%)
    vs. OOSSP

    (n = 1,904,
    37.2%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    17.8% vs.
    11.7%
    RR: 1.5,
    OR: 1.6
    27.5% vs.
    12.8%
    RR: 2.1,
    OR: 2.6
    17.3% vs.
    11.8%
    RR: 1.5,
    OR: 1.6
    27.5% vs.
    14.3%
    RR: 1.9,
    OR: 2.3
    45.5% vs. 
    23.6%
    RR: 1.9,
    OR: 2.7
    Suicide
    Planned
    19.5% vs.
    11.1%
    RR: 1.8,
    OR: 1.9
    11.4% vs.
    10.5%
    RR: 1.1,
    OR: 1.1 ns
    19.4% vs.
    10.5%
    RR: 1.8,
    OR: 2.0
    19.2% vs.
    12.1%
    RR: 1.61,
    OR: 1/7
    31.5% vs. 
    18.7%
    RR: 1.7,
    OR: 2.0
    Attempted
    Suicide
    22.8% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 2.4,
    OR: 2.8
    23.3% vs.
    11.2%
    RR: 2.1,
    OR: 2.4
    15.8% vs.
    10.6%
    RR: 1.5,
    OR: 1.6
    18.7% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 1.9,
    OR: 2.2
    26.0% vs. 
    14.4%
    RR: 1.8,
    OR: 2.1
    Suicide
    Attempt(s) &
    Medical Care
    7.8% vs.
    3.3%
    RR: 2.4,
    OR: 2.5 ns
    6.5% vs.
    4.3%
    RR: 1.5,
    OR:1.5 ns
    5.3% vs.
    4.2%
    RR: 1.3,
    OR: 1.3 ns
    6.6% vs.
    2.7%
    RR: 2.4,
    OR: 2.5
    6.3% vs.
    4.6%
    RR: 1.4,
    OR: 1.6 ns
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .




    Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
    Youth Risk Behaviour Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
    American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
      "Both-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (BSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

    Survey ->
    / Suicide
    Behaviour
    Category
    Boston
     BSSP
    (n = 193, 2.8%)
    vs. OOSSP

    (n = 3,834,
    57.3%)

    Chicago
    BSSP
    (n = 129, 3.1%)
    vs. OOSSP

    (n = 2,195,
    56.5%)

    Milwaukee
    BSSP
    (n = 189, 4.9%)
     vs. OOSSP

    (n = 2,145,
    60.9%)

    New York
    BSSP (n =
    1,169,4.0%)
    vs. OOSSP

    (n = 13,815,
    49.3%)

    San Diego
    BSSP
    (n = 100, 1.9%)
     vs. OOSSP

    (n = 1,904,
    37.2%)

    Suicide 
    Seriously
    Considered
    38.3% vs.
    11.7%
    RR: 3.3,
    OR: 4.7
    36.0% vs.
    12.8%
    RR: 2.8,
    OR: 3.8
    47.9% vs.
    11.8%
    RR: 4.1,
    OR: 6.9
    36.5% vs.
    14.3%
    RR: 2.5,
    OR: 3.4
    56.4% vs. 
    23.6%
    RR: 2.4,
    OR: 4.2
    Suicide
    Planned
    28.0% vs.
    11.1%
    RR: 2.5,
    OR: 3.1
    26.3% vs.
    10.5%
    RR: 2.5,
    OR: 3.0
    36.9% vs.
    10.5%
    RR: 3.5,
    OR: 5.0
    33.5% vs.
    12.1%
    RR: 2.8,
    OR: 3.7
    48.8% vs. 
    18.7%
    RR: 2.6,
    OR: 4.1
    Attempted
    Suicide
    27.7% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 2.9,
    OR: 3.6
    20.2% vs.
    11.2%
    RR: 1.8,
    OR: 2.0 ns
    43.7% vs.
    10.6%
    RR: 4.1,
    OR: 6.5
    27.7% vs.
    9.6%
    RR: 2.9,
    OR: 3.6
    42.9% vs. 
    14.4%
    RR: 3.0,
    OR: 4.5
    Suicide
    Attempt(s) &
    Medical Care
    17.6% vs.
    3.3%
    RR: 5.3,
    OR: 6.3
    7.4% vs.
    4.3%
    RR: 1.7,
    OR:1.8 ns
    14.2% vs.
    4.2%
    RR: 3.4,
    OR: 3.8
    9.8% vs.
    2.7%
    RR: 3.6,
    OR: 3.9
    20.3% vs.
    4.6%
    RR: 4.4,
    OR: 5.3
    Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
    * Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
    Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
    RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
    .



    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001- 2009. MMWR Early Release 2011; 60. June 6: 1-113. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss60e0606a1.htm?s_cid=ss60e0606a1_w.




    Caveat for studies soliciting "taboo" information (socially disapproved behaviors, including illegal behavior) from adolescent and young adult males. The "pencil & paper" method produces great underestimates.

    In 1994, Bagley et al. reported on the "at risk" nature of males who were "sexually abused," defined to have experienced "unwanted sexual acts."  The study of a stratified random sample of 750 18- to 27-year old males had used a portable computer to solicit "taboo" information [See Bagley & Tremblay  (1996) - published as Bagley & Tremblay, 1998 - for details]. The indications were that this method for soliciting sensitive taboo information related to child sexual abuse, for example, was more effective than other methods previously used. One result of using this method was that, as adults (reported in Bagley et. al. 1994), 1% of males (8/750) reported having had sex with children less than 13 years of age; this is a highly "taboo" illegal activity and males are also unlikely to report related desires, but 4.5% of males (34/750) did report having sexual desires for children. This is not information adult males would readily reveal to anyone (probably not to a researcher in a "face-to-face" situation, nor to anyone requesting such information on the telephone) and they may also be quite reluctant to disclose related information on paper.

    Therefore, the data soliciting method used by researchers may make the difference between a study reporting that a certain type of "taboo" behavior is 'non-existent' in a human group (asking men "face-to-face" if they have has sex with children, or even asking men related questions on the telephone), and another study reporting related data. A major research question must therefore focus on the reliability of research studies reporting the extent of "taboo" behaviors in society, especially for the studies reporting the percentages of teenage or adult males homosexually active with (1) older males (may be intergenerational), (2) plus/minus same-age males, (3) younger males (may be intergenerational), and pre-puberty males (may be pedophilia). All such activities are "taboo" and the "taboo" degree will vary depending one one's immediate environment - such as one's culture ot subculture - and life circumstances), noting here that homosexuality was decreed to reflect "mental disorder" in North America until 1973-4. Homosexual behavior also has a history of being illegal, and the illegality of such activities still exists in about 22 American states. The decriminalization of male homo-sex behaviors only began after 1960 in North America.

    On the basis of the "admission" results related to men sexually interested in children in the Bagley et al. (1994) study, the demographic part of the study (Bagley & Tremblay, 1998; available on the Internet by 1996) was predicted to most likely have decent reliability with respect to its effectiveness at soliciting less taboo information, such as men reporting being either homosexual or bisexual (Many males in these categories are still guarded with respect the ones to whom  such 'identity" information will be revealed.), and with respect to men reporting being homosexually active (having sex at least once with a male in the last six month). These men may quite reluctant to let anyone know about such activities, although their male sexual partner(s) may "know," but they may have been in the "anonymous" category, and their reluctance may be great if these homo-active males are married to a female and are fathers.  See Bagley & Tremblay (1996)  for the results indicating that about 10% of males (both on the basis of self-identification and of being currently homosexually active) may be deemed homosexual or bisexual. The study results also challenged the 1-3 percent estimates of recent studies done using face-to-face interviews; they were deemed to produce highly unreliable "male sexuality" estimates in the [gross] "underestimate" category ranging from about 400% for homosexual behavior and up to 800% for self-identification as homosexual or bisexual. In this respect, Bagley & Tremblay stated: "Studies producing 200 to 800 percent underestimates for male homosexual realities should be unacceptable as social science research" (Bagley & Tremblay, 1998, Journal of Homosexuality, 36(2), p. 14).

    In May, 1998, the following study was published and it reports on the response differences between two methods used to solicit taboo and illegal behavior information from adolescent males ranging in age from 15 to 19 years:

    Turner CF, Ku L, Rogers SM, Lindberg LD, Pleck JH, and Sonenstein FL (1998). Adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and violence: Increased reporting with computer survey technology. Science Magazine, 280(5365-8), 867-73.

    Abstract Access:  Access to the abstract may be made via the Science Magazine web site (http://www.sciencemag.org), but registering at the site is required - free.  Use this URL (http://intl.sciencemag.org/) for faster access in these countries: Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, The Netherlands, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the UK. A document delivery service is also a available and a fee is charged to access the full text of the article. When in the site, use this link to immediately access the abstract. (http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/280/5365/867) or (http://www.intl.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/280/5365/867) if you are at the international web site. (PubMed abstract, Full Text.)

    Research Highlights:

    Sample: A random survey of 1672 males (number used for analysis) aged 15- to 19-years old living at a fixed address in the continental United States from February to November, 1995.

    Study: Subjects were asked a number of questions, including questions relating to same-sex activity and illicit drug use. This was done using a pencil and paper method, and also via computer, supplemented by a verbal rendition of the questionnaire heard through headphones.

    Results: The difference in "the effectiveness" of the two method for collecting sensitive data was remarkable. For example, "no male who was behind in school reported any of the six male-male sexual behaviors when completing the paper SAQ. In the audio-CASI condition, 6.2%...(answered affirmatively on one or more of these questions).  As a group, however, there was a "fourfold" increase (400%) in males reporting homosexual activity when the computer-audio system was used: from a 1.5% to 5.5% positive response rate; the homosexual behavior with the greatest reporting difference (eightfold, adjusted) was to the question "Ever had receptive anal sex with another male (his penis in your rectum or butt)": 0.1% to 0.8%.  For illicit behaviors such as "ever shared needle," the difference was about tenfold (adjusted): from 0.1% to 1.1%. For "ever taken street drug using a needle: from 1.4% to 5.2% - a fourfold increase.

    Discussion: .It was noted that differences in response response rates generally did not occur with the two data intake methods when soliciting information not deemed to be illicit or taboo, thus leading to the conclusion that, at least for adolescent males 15- to 19-years of age, something 'special' occurs in their mind (in terms of withholding taboo information) when it is requested asked for this information via a paper-and-pencil questionnaire, and the difference is most significant for males behind in their grade level. The implications are that these boys - in addition to being like other boys in terms of withholding sensitive information - may also have difficulty reading and this problem would be overcome with the audio part of the computer-based data soliciting method. Furthermore, using expressions like "having a penis in your butt" is also a way to solicit information in a most non-ambiguous ways; males are not likely to misinterpret the question.

    THE GREAT IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CDC's YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEYS (YRBS)   and   THE RELATED PUBLISHED  1998  ANALYSES CONFIRMING THAT SELF-IDENTIFIED GAY/BISEXUAL MALE YOUTH   or  MALE YOUTH REPORTING BEING HOMOSEXUALLY ACTIVE  are  AT (STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT) GREATER RISK FOR A NUMBER OF PROBLEMS, INCLUDING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS:

    The YRBS are pencil-and-paper questionnaires, meaning that they it would be one of the least effective method to use (the worst probably being face-to-face interviews)  for identifying adolescent males who have been engaging in illicit activities (such as street drug use) and highly taboo (possibly illegal) behaviors such as homosexual activity.  On the basis of the Turner et al. (1998) study summarized above, an informed conclusion would be that the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys are grossly underestimating male (and possibly female) homosexual activity in adolescence. Therefore the result reported by Faulkner & Cranston (1998) for the Massachusetts' 1993 YRBS study (homosexual activity reported by 3.5% of male and female adolescents (106/3054) and by Durant et al. (1998) for 1995 Vermont YRBS study: 8.7% of males reporting homosexual activity) would be underestimates. If, for example, the 4-times underreporting factor from the Turner et al. (1998) study is used, the "2.6%" estimate for boys being homosexually active in Massachusetts would lead to the informed speculation that about 10.4% of adolescent boys (age 15 to 19) are homosexually active in Massachusetts, but most (75%) did not identify this fact on the pencil-and-paper questionnaire given to them for the YRBS study. This "10.4%", however, is higher that the 5.5% estimate reported by Turner et al. (1998), and also higher than the  How could this be? There are many factors which can influence study results such as, for example, the fact that the Vermont study is a school sample and the Turner et al. study is a random sample requiring living at a fixed address. Gay adolescents, however, are at risk for being street youth and they may also be living with a man who, when contacted by the ones doing a random survey, may not revealed that the requested adolescent male was residing in his home. Such life situations, if they applied to some of the surveyed households, would lead to underestimates of homosexually active males in the adolescent population. On the other hand, a similar "underestimate" would also apply to school samples given that homosexually oriented youth are at greater risk for not being at school - thus increasing the likelihood of not being present the day the survey was administered, thus resulting in an underestimate for school samples.

    There are many factors which will affect estimates for homosexually active male adolescents, and others which will affect estimates of homosexual- and bisexual-identified males. Furthermore, all such samples have been used for statistical analyses to establish, for example, that gay/bisexual male adolescents are significantly more at risk for suicide attempts than their heterosexual-identified counterparts. The Remafedi et al. (1998) study, for example, left out male adolescents "not sure about their sexual orientation" from the analysis. Therefore, although it could be said that 2% of gay/bisexual males with a lifetime attempted suicide rate of 28% would not account for 30% of the male youth attempted suicide problem, the "2%" would represent a small subset of the estimated 10 to 12 percent of homosexually oriented males who, let's say by the age of 18 to 27 (average age of 22.7 years, as reported by Bagley & Tremblay, 1997), would then account for about 25% of the males who reported self-harm activities in their lifetime, and 62.5% of males reporting a deliberate attempt at self-killing. A number of reasons account for the great differences between the spectacular Bagley & Tremblay (1997) "suicide attempt" results and the  more modest results resulting from studies of adolescent male:

    1. In studies of adolescent male samples where "being homosexually active" is used as the study's sampling and analysis criteria, males who are not homosexually active but already self-identify as gay or bisexual (and are having related problems, such as attempting suicide), are either excluded from the sample or they are placed in the "heterosexual" group simply because they report having had "sexual intercourse" with a female and not with a male.

    2. In studies of adolescent male samples where "self-identifying as homosexual/gay or bisexual" is used as the study's sampling and analysis criteria , males not in this category - but are homosexually active - and may later keep on being homosexually active with or without self-identification as homosexual/gay or bisexual and report that they were having serious problems (even including suicide attempts), will either be left out of the analysis or be placed in the "heterosexual-identified" category because they identified as heterosexual at the time. This would happen because these boys are desperately attempting to make themselves believe they were not homosexual or even bisexual, in spite of the behavioral evidence. Many men in many cultures are homosexually active, but only in dominant "insertive" ways; they behave sexually with a male as they would with a female, and identify as 100% heterosexual. In other words, their definition of homosexual or bisexual is not the one assumed by researchers. Another example of this happens when boys have somehow accepted the common belief that homosexuals are only men who have sex with boys; they therefore cannot report identifying to be homosexual. Boys who also commonly believe that gay (or homosexual) boys are effeminate will not report being homosexual (or even bisexual, meaning that they are effeminate only a part of the time) even if they are having sex with other boys and even men.

    3. Adolescent male samples studied may have an average age of 15 or 16 year if the sample ranges from grade 8 or 9 to grade 12, meaning that about half of the gay/bisexual males who attempt suicide during their adolescent lives have not yet done so. Only a study of older males, such as the one carried out by Bagley & Tremblay (1997) (but even better studies may be designed), will render a decent 'picture' - or estimate - of what was the "suicide attempt" situation was during adolescence for homosexually oriented males compared to heterosexual males; the Bagley & Tremblay 1997 results also includes a few years into into young adulthood (to the age when they participated in the study: 18- to 27-years, average = 22.7 years, therefore an average of 3 years beyond adolescence) for most of the sampled males..

    To date, the Bagley & Tremblay (1997) results form the best estimate of the proportion of North American adolescent male suicide attempter who are homosexually oriented (62.5%), and the study also replicated the Bell & Weinberg (1978) suicide attempt relative risk factor for homosexual males compared to heterosexual males. This estimate was obtained using a stratified random sampling process and "being homosexually oriented" was determined on the basis of subjects being either currently homosexually active (in the past six months) and/or by self-identifying as "homosexual" or bisexual", with an approximate 80% overlap for the two categories. A suicide attempt was defined to be "an attempt at self-killing," which may be different than the "suicide attempt" criteria used in adolescent samples. Often enough, self-harm activities (which are not be attempts at self-killing) are listed as suicide attempts - even by adolescents. Furthermore, the Bagley & Tremblay study used computer technology (the same as the Turner et al. (1998) study, but not including the audio via headphones) was used to solicit relevant "taboo" information from subjects, meaning that the likelihood of not identifying "homosexually oriented males" was reduced, thus improving the reliability of results.

    The Turner et al. (1998) study therefore serves as a serious caveat for all pencil-and-paper surveys involving the request for "homosexuality" information from adolescent (and probably young adult male) subjects studied and the subsequent analysis of the "at risk" status of homosexually oriented adolescent males compared to their heterosexual counterparts:

    The "at risk" male adolescent population being identified may only represent about 25% of the targeted population which could have been identified had a better data-soliciting/intake method had been used.  The additional caveat is that, no matter what method is used to solicit "homosexuality" information from adolescent males (and probably young adult males), the ones responding affirmatively to the requested "homosexuality" information will always represent an underestimate of "homosexually oriented" males in the study sample (Bagley & Tremblay, 1996).
    Bagley C, Wood M, Young L (1994). Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.Child Abuse & Neglect, 18(8), 683-97. A PubMed "abstract".

     SUMMARY OF HOMOPHOBIA-RELATED  SUICIDALITY FROM THE 1995 SEATTLE PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS

     Data and Results on New Page.



    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

    The development of this GBLT information web-pages was made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children/youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination.

    Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site.





    Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist, especially for the use of Word Perfect 7 program. Some of its time-saving functions are not yet available in Microsoft word writing programs.


    INFORMATION LIMITATIONS:

    The information made available on this web-page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications. Nonetheless, a wealth of information on GLB suicide problems has been made available.

    This web-page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information to individuals who may be seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender issues.



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