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GB Male Suicidality at a Glance! Results of 30 studies in four tables.

 "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 140 Studies!
At Another Website (Includes Transgender Study Results)
InfoSource: Gay & Bisexual
Male Suicide Problems
(Part 2 of 6: Internet Links - B)
Internet Links: GB Male Suicide Problems
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Papers, Theses, Articles, Books.
ABSTRACTS / HIGHLIGHTS: Papers, Articles,  Books
ABSTRACTS: Ph.D. & Master's Theses
Graphics by Websight West: Acknowledgments and Information Limitations
 

See "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 140 Studies!

See: More Than 250 Full Text Papers and Documents Related to GLBT Suicidality.

Two Studies Are Re-Analysed by Plöderl et al., (2013) In The Published Study: "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review."
Conclusion: Sexual Minority Adolescents Are At Greater Risk for Dying by Suicide. The Expanded Analysis Related to This Study is Available!

"While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence- based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within [the LGBT] population." Marshall A (2016). Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89: 205-213. PDF Download.

A World First! - - Jacobs R, Morris S (2016). National LGBTI Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Strategy: A New Strategy for Inclusion and Change: An Australian Government initiative. Related Article. Document PDF Download.

 
INTERNET LINKS By Country, State, Province: Part 2 (Part 1)

Page Index: GLBT Suicide Issues in... - The United States - Canada - Australia / New Zealand - England - Ireland & Northern Ireland - Scotland - France - Italy - Belgium - Switzerland - Germany - Austria - Slovenia - Albania - Hungary - Greece - Sweden - Norway - The Netherlands - Denmark - The Caribbean - Asia / Pacific - Africa - The Middle East - Latin America 


Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)

Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
Will these GB adolescent males also be ignored as it was done by HIV/AIDS Prevention Researchers?

To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010)
Shutting LGBT Students Out: How Current Anti-Bullying Policies Fail America’s Youth (2011)
LGBT youth suicide reports show need for more studies (2011).

Suicide Prevention among LGBT Youth:
A Workshop for Professionals Who Serve Youth (2014)


Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
It Gets Better Project. - Related Thesis. - The “It Gets Better Campaign”: An unfortunate use of queer futurity.
Why should LGBTQ students have to wait for it to get better? We have the power to make it better now.
School should not be about survival. PDF.
Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Anti-gay bullying leads to another tragic teen suicide (2011): Nicholas Kelo Jr... was 13 years old.
It is unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences.
Make It Better Project (2011). - Does it ever really get better? (2011)
Negative gay community description, with the white racism missing.
The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!

Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011: Amazon: 2012 - Reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Interview):
For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough
.
43 Percent of Black Gay Youth Have Contemplated or Attempted Suicide. Survey Results.

Document Containing the Resources Available for GLBT Adolescent Suicide Prevention in Schools:
SAMHSA (2012)
. Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit for High Schools. PDF Download.


...The report details the findings of a national study of the mental health and well-being of 2,264 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people in Ireland (1,064 of the participants were aged between 14-25). The findings are stark. 56% of LGBTI 14 to 18 year olds had self-harmed, 70% had suicidal thoughts and one in three had attempted suicide. Compared to the My World National Youth Mental Health Study, LGBTI young people in this study had twice the level of self harm; three times the level of attempted suicide; four times the level of severe or extremely severe stress, anxiety and depression. Report Download.

United States:

Social institutions contribute to homosexual youth suicide (2009). - LGBT Students Remain Suicide Risks Despite Changing Attitude & Laws (2009). - Gay Teen Suicide, Homophobia, Bullying and the Elephant in the Room: Religious Bigotry (2010). - Victimization of College Students Up Suicide Risk (2007): New research indicates that being victimized because of sexual orientation is a chief risk factor for suicidal behavior among gay, lesbian and bisexual college students... “A lot of people stop thinking about sexual orientation related victimization and suicide as a problem beyond the K-12 school years,” she said. “But suicide doesn’t stop after high school. I thought I wouldn’t find very much victimization in Seattle, and I certainly wasn’t expecting these kinds of numbers.” The study was provoked by a question from a 15-year-old gay male while Murphy was working on an internship as a school psychologist at a high school. The youth, who was suicidal and using drugs, asked her, “Does it get better in college”” She didn’t know. - Gay Family Values: My Suicide Story (Video). - HHS awards up to $22.4 million for suicide prevention (2010): The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) this month announced a grant of up to $22.4 million for suicide prevention, some of which will be used to address the needs of LGBT youth. 

Gay Suicides (2010). - Ellen DeGeneres 'Devastated' over Rutgers Student Suicide (2010): Noting the three other deaths that have been reported with gay teens this month, DeGeneres says, "Something must be done." - An Important Message - From Ellen DeGeneres (Gay Suicide, Video). - Raymond Chase, 19-Year-Old Sophomore From Johnson and Wales University, Has Also Committed Suicide (2010). - Raymond Chase, 19 Year Old Gay Male Is 5th Suicide In Last 3 Weeks (2010). - A Small Town Gay Teen’s Suicide: Homophobes Who Pushed Him Over The Edge Speak (2010).  - September’s Anti-Gay Bullying Suicides – There Were A Lot More Than 5 (2010, Related): Thanks to our readers, we believe we have found nine. - Coming Out Day Marked by More Gay Teen Suicides (2010). - Gay Oakland University student found dead of suicide on campus (2010). - Police deny bullying led to suicide of gay Oakland University student (2010). - There Is No Gay Youth Suicide Epidemic (2010, Alternate Link). 

Suicides Put Light on Pressures of Gay Teenagers (2010). - Suicidal ideation and Attempts in North American School-Based Surveys: Are Bisexual Youth at Increasing Risk? - Daniel Radcliffe Films PSA For Gay Suicide Prevention (2010). - 'Teachable Moment' In Gay Teen Suicides (2010): Gay Americans Now Have Nation's Attention - And Sympathy. - Silence Equals Suicide (2010, Video). - Activists partner to address suicide among gay teens (2010). - A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010): Several federal departments under President Obama have made moves to benefit the LGBT community, but the Department of Education has done little. This is despite growing evidence that LGBT youth are among those most at risk and that safe-schools programs benefit all students, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. - Education Officials 'Silent' Over Rash of Teen Suicides (2010). -  Troubling Times: Suicide of two young girls highlights the hurdles faced by gay youth (2007). - 'It's hard to be different': Gay advocacy group seeks to increase awareness about bullying, suicides (2010). - Connie Schultz: How we’ve taught our kids to hate (2010). - GLBTQ Youth and Suicide (2010).

YouTube channel prompted by gay teen suicides maxes out in messages about how 'It Gets Better' (2010): Last week, relationship and sex columnist Dan Savage heard about yet another suicide of a young gay person and called his husband of 16 years, Terry Miller, with the idea to start a YouTube channel called 'It Gets Better', where they tell their personal stories of harassment and torture at the hands of their classmates and show what their lives are like now... Savage said now that the YouTube channel is full, people are posting videos on their own and having conversations with people through the comments sections and communicating through e-mail. "People are talking to kids who are in the exact situation they were in and giving them hope - and not just hope, but also practical advice." - IT GETS BETTER Project. - Against 'Bullying' or On Loving Queer Kids (2010). - "Connecting The Dots": Christianity As The Cause of Gay Bullying (2010). - LGBT Flash Mob of Hundreds at Grand Central (2010): October 8 die-in dramatizes violence, bullying facing queer community, need for full civil rights protections. - Queer suicides: Complicate the issue (2010). - What Gay Teens Need (2010):  Hillary Clinton told gay teens yesterday to hang in there. She said "Your life is so important -- to your family, your friends, and to your country. And there is so much waiting for you, both personally and professionally -- there are so many opportunities for you to develop your talents and make your contributions." As well meaning as that is, I can see these teens rolling their eyes. Does she understand that if these teens felt they were important to family and friends, then they wouldn't be committing suicide?? A teen can't look beyond the here and now. It's just the way they are. If you tell them things will get better, it doesn't help them at all. They just don't see it. 

Warren J. Blumenfeld: The Media, Suicide, and Homophobia (2010): Throughout the past week, I have attempted to monitor the media to determine any themes in the way they have represented these tragic incidents. For many of the news outlets, it appears they are portraying these events as some sort of new trend they have deftly unearthed. In reality, however, the media and our society generally suffers from a collective memory loss. This issue has arisen numerous times over the decades, but then appears in the media from time to time as if it were a unique and previously unrecorded development...  Back in 1989, for example, the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued its "Report on the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide," which found that "A majority of suicide attempts by homosexuals occur during their youth, and gay youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide than other young people. They may comprise up to 30 percent of (the estimated 5,000) completed youth suicides annually.” [U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, "Gay Male and Lesbian Youth Suicide," by Paul Gibson, in Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, ed. Marcia R. Feinleib, Washington, DC, January 1989.]... The causes for these suicides have also been known and documented for decades as well. For example, Kevin Berrill, Director of the Anti-Violence Project of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force at the time of the 1989 report’s release stated correctly pinpointed the societal impact: "The increased risk of suicide facing these youth is linked to growing up in a society that teaches them to hide and to hate themselves.” ...I suspect in a week or so, even as the suicides and homophobic assaults continue, the media will move onto its next so-called “trend.” In a few years, maybe ten or so, they will issue yet another “wake up call” and (re)discover homophobia and its impact on the lives of our youth all over again. [Gibson P (1989). Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide. In: Feinlieb, MR., Ed. Vol. 3: Prevention and Intervention in Youth Suicide, Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 1989. Full Text. Full Text. PDF Download.] 

Why GLB Commuities Have Ignored GLBT Youth Suicidality: Cover, Rob (2010, Author Information). 'Politicising Queer Issues and Activism: Disciplinarity, Biopolitics and the Means by which Activist Issues Enter the Public Sphere.' Reconstruction: Studies in Contemporary Culture, 10(3) (Special Issue: Inventions of Activism). Full Text. Excerpts related to GLB youth suicide issues being ignored by GLB communities: Why queer youth suicide tends to be marginalised as a political issue within lesbian/gay politics is due to a complex set of relationships. Partly, it results from the fact that suicide remains a relatively ‘taboo’ topic in many cultural formations even today (Battin 1995: 19-20). Where suicide is deemed to be not only a sin, an illness, a crime but also a failure, absenting it from public discourse results from lesbian/gay political imperatives to present a figure of the homosexual that is stable, sane, law-abiding and successful. Michael Warner makes the point that this has been common in much recent gay politics, most recently witnessed in the challenges against military rules banning homosexuals or discrimination within the Boy scouts movements: great pains are taken to find test cases in which the victim is a “model victim because he or she has never done anything wrong” (Warner 1999: 29). Warner’s point here can be expanded to suggest that it is not just sexually active citizens who are banned from portrayal as model test-cases, but young suicidal citizens whose suicidality can inadvertently be read to suggest that homosexuals are less-than-stable individuals, are mentally-ill or are in some other way defective—precisely as old stereotypes of the ‘sad young man’ (Dyer 1993: 22, 42, 73-92) or the unstable, monstrous lesbian (Creed 1995:87) indicated... Absenting the issue from public perception can be understood, then, as a non-conscious action to protect a positive image of non-heterosexual persons as stable, sane, happy and moral. That is, any identifiable social problem among a minority group is seized by those opposed to that group’s rights agenda, often recirculating negative stereotypes (Cover 2004). Heavy recreational drug use among gay men (Lewis & Ross 1995: 98), for example, has often been utilised in damning attacks by Christian conservatives on gay culture. Submerging issues such as the high rate of youth suicide, the high levels of same-sex domestic violence (Island & Lettelier 1991) or the degree of economic disparity among lesbians and gay men (Pharr 1997: 54-55) has been an important political tactic. However, while these arrangements and choices certainly contribute to the silence from lesbian/gay political activists on the topic, and while they stem from both lesbian/gay organisations and community media’s roles in political ‘agenda setting’ (Goddard 1996), the mechanisms by which lesbian/gay political organisations operate do not foreclose on the possibility to introduce topics, goals and plans for lobbying and other political activities within areas that might be unpopular or controversial. Understanding how and why a broad, globalising lesbian/gay culture itself has not taken the ‘necessary risk’ of more openly incorporating youth suicide into its array of cultural and political concerns involves the important reason that lesbian/gay lobby politics internationally is dominated by a liberal ‘civil rights’ approach that seeks legislative change and anti-discriminatory protections on the understanding that such reforms will invoke a trickle-down effect and alter the state of cultural marginalisation of lesbian/gay youth. It is more difficult to intervene directly in areas of discursive change that do not have at least a gestural structure for dialogue or intervention, as does the political lobbying arena. Such lobby politics has focussed more recently on issues of same-sex marriage rights or civil union bills, and this has been the result of particular ideological perspectives that have dominated lesbian/gay politics since the mid-1980s (Cover 2004). Such liberal-democratic perspectives are arguably ‘middle class’, and ‘middle aged’, and rarely take into account factors that affect sexually diverse youth such as suicide, homelessness, a sense of cultural isolation or access to the necessary resources through which to forge identity. The funding and time of any broad-based rights movement is always finite, and some fields of intervention are inevitably ignored. - Note: - Two more related papers by RobCover that are related to GLB suicidality issues should become available:  Cover, Rob (forthcoming). 'Sad, Sick & Alien Identities: Representing Queer Suicide in Popular Culture'. Sexualities. - Cover, Rob (under review). ‘Mediating Suicide: Print Journalism and the Categorisation of Queer Youth Suicide Discourses.' Journal of Communication Inquiry.

Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Herman JL, Harrison J, Keisling M (2010, Full Text. Full Text. Download Page). National Transgender Discrimination Survey Report on health and health care. Findings of a Study by the National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Over 7,000 people responded to the 70 question survey, providing data on virtually every significant aspect of transgender discrimination—including housing, employment, health and health care, education, public accommodation, family life, criminal justice, and identity documents... Lifetime "Attempted suicide" incidence: 41%. By 'Ethnicity': White (38%), Asian (39%), Latino/Latina (44%), African American (45%), Multiracial (54%), American Indian (56%). - Study: Anti-transgender bullying alarmingly high (2010): "Our study participants reported attempting suicide at a rate more than 25 times the national average." Rates of attempted suicide rose dramatically -- to 59 percent -- when the victim’s teacher or professor was the perpetrator of bullying or harassment. Among those who had been physically assaulted by a teacher or professor, 76 percent reported having attempted suicide. "These shocking and disheartening numbers speak to the urgency of ending bullying in our nation’s schools and ending discrimination in our nation’s workplaces.
Those who were bullied, harassed, assaulted, or expelled because they were transgender or gender non-conforming in school also reported significantly elevated levels of suicide attempts (51% compared with 41% of our sample as a whole). Most notably, suicide attempt rates rise dramatically when teachers were the reported perpetrators: 59% for those harassed or bullied by teachers, 76% among those who were physically assaulted by teachers and 69% among those who were sexually assaulted by teachers. These numbers speak to the urgency of ending violence and harassment of transgender students by both their peers and their teachers. Education and income both correlate with suicide rates, with those earning $10,000 annually or less at extremely high risk (54%), while those making more than $100,000 are at comparatively lower risk (26%), while still astronomically higher than the general population. Those who have not completed college attempted suicide at higher rates (48% among those with no high school degree, 49% for those with a high school degree only, and 48% for those with some college education) while those have completed college (33%) or graduate school (31%) have significantly lower rates.    

Queer Youth Suicide: On Bullies, Love, And Homophobia: Against ‘Bullying’ or On Loving Queer Kids (2010): "So when faced with something so painful and complicated as gay teen suicide, it’s easier to go down the familiar path, to invoke the wrath of law and order, to create scapegoats out of child bullies who ape the denials and anxieties of adults, to blame it on technology or to pare down homophobia into a social menace called "anti-gay bullying" and then confine it to the borders of the schoolyard. It’s tougher, more uncertain work creating a world that loves queer kids, that wants them to live and thrive. But try-try as if someone’s life depended on it. Imagine saying I really wish my son turns out to be gay. Imagine hoping that your 2-year-old daughter grows up to be transgendered. Imagine not assuming the gender of your child’s future prom date or spouse; imagine keeping that space blank or occupied by boys and girls of all types. Imagine petitioning your local board of education to hire more gay elementary school teachers."

Tim Gunn: Gay Suicide Survivor (2010): Tim Gunn, the lovable host of Lifetime's "Project Runway," has a little to say on the subject.  In an upcoming interview with People Magazine, Gunn notes that at the age of 17 (that would be 1970, for folks counting), he attempted to commit suicide by overdosing on pills. Why? Because he faced rejection, felt isolated and alone, and felt rejection from his parents over his sexual orientation. "In my parents' home, the term 'gay' wasn't even in our vocabulary," Gunn said. "If I tried to talk about anything remotely related they'd say 'We've never heard of this!'" That was 1970. How sad it is that 40 years later, in 2010, too many young people hear the same mantra from their parents, teachers, and fellow students... - Schools confront gay suicide surge, minus specifics (2010): School officials choose to confront "bullying" without addressing the issue of homophobia.

Gideon Who Will be 25 in the Year 2012: Growing Up Gay Today (2007): But most kids are still experiencing isolation and vulnerability in enemy territory, and for them these admittedly problematic media images are far from trivial psychic/cultural resources... “I begin this letter by being blunt and upfront. I am a 22–year–old homosexual male... Life has been so hard for me. I’ve tried suicide, I was threatened with expulsion from my high school, I ran away  and I was nearly stabbed by some people at my college. Storyline may be fiction, but mine was not - it was an ugly reality. I write this letter in hopes I can get help and need any advice you can give me. Ever since I was 13, I’ve been scared and alone.” ... She was also the “Girl Saved by E-mail,” whose story ran last spring on CNN. After mood swings plummeted her into a profound depression, Kali - like too many gay teens - considered suicide. Her access to GayNet at school gave her a place to air those feelings, and a phone call from someone she knew online saved her life. 

Out of the Darkness: March Confronts Suicide (2006): We needed a gay-affirmative group,' said Yomtoob, who was also on the executive board of AFSP of Chicago and who has been trained by AFSP to facilitate survivor groups. 'We wanted a group where people wouldn't have to legitimize or justify anything; they could just talk about their losses. So, people don't feel like they're being judged walking in, they don't feel like their loss won't be equally understood.' ... 'I have that box where I keep that pain,' McRaith said earlier. His boyfriend, Eric, hanged himself in 1996 after an argument.... 'Our community needs to be able to acknowledge that challenges in mental health are a problem for us,' McRaith said. 'Until we confront that, the symptoms of those challenges are going to come out in other ways. More people in Illinois die from suicide than from homicide. That is also certainly true of people in the gay and lesbian community. When Eric killed himself, I would estimate conservatively that 15 to 20 people that I knew came to me and said, 'I have confronted suicide myself,' or 'I have contemplated it,' or 'my father killed himself' or 'my mother battles bipolar disorder.' Those were a revelation to me.'

Gay Youth (2004):  Washington, D.C.: Are you going to discuss gay teenagers in general? I think it would be good to show the increased risk for suicide among gay teenagers due to homophobia and isolation. Anne Hull: I received a hostile email from a gay man who lives in Washington who said wrote a "melodramatic re-run of a stoary that might have been written 30 years ago" and that I was way out of touch on the more tolerant atmosphere of 2004. He also said the high number of suicide attemps for gay teens is a myth. I don't doubt the scientific data that suicide attempts are higher for gay kids than their peers.    

In August, 1999, a 31-year-old female informant who moved to Georgia in 1998 wrote the following to the author of this webpage: "In case you're wondering why I am intrigued by this subject matter - I, myself, have lost 3 male friends to suicide and personally contemplated the act seriously after the death of my best friend in 1994. Mike K. (CA, grew up upstate NY) was 22, a Navy Seal.. his folks refused to even consider the possibility of his homosexual tendencies. John V. (St. Louis, MO) was 26, "out," and an active member in a local gay group... John F. was 25, an accomplished artist/carpenter... (OH when he died, originally from upstate NY) It was suspected that John loved Sean and had been rejected by him... - An American Grade 9 boy commits suicide at school. Only two individuals knew he was gay and they did not reveal the boy's secret: Dead Gay Kids Don't Talk, but.... Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study (Full Text). - AMA Hopes to Reduce Suicide Among Gay Youth (2001). - Miguel's Story (2000, Must Scroll): "I met Miguel when he was seventeen years old and shortly after his third suicide attempt. His story is all too familiar amongst gay and lesbian youth that find themselves in a world of exclusion, heartless ridicule and vicious abuse..." - Victimization for sexual orientation increases suicidal behavior in college students (2007, PDF).

Rev. Peter Lau (Sacramento): "And simply because he discovered that he was a homosexual person, he committed suicide. I believe he's an Asian. Knowing that, coming from an Asian background, I understand the kind of pressure that this kind of -- I would say, something unbelievable, unbelievable that something like this can happen to him and he just cannot accept that. And then I believe later I read similar news like that as another young person committed suicide because of that. Then I began to say to God that there must be another way to deal with this. We cannot just let people commit suicide because they discover that they are homosexual people." - Some of the people FUAH has supported and worked with: a mother whose lesbian daughter committed suicide. 

Suicide of a Washington bisexual youth, May, 1995. - Gay suicide after becoming part of a gay community (1995). - At the age of 17, Tom Beddingfield  attempted suicide soon after his boyfriend had committed suicide (1998). - Young, gay and scared to death at school (CNN, 1999). - 2007 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Harassed. - Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009). - Homosexual Teen Suicide (2007). - Searching for a Way Out: Stopping Gay Teen Suicide (1995).

Coming Out in Middle School (2009): A middle-school counselor in Maine summed up the view of many educators I spoke to when she conceded that her school was “totally unprepared” for openly gay students. “We always knew middle school was a time when kids struggle with their identity,” she told me, “but it was easy to let anti-gay language slide because it’s so imbedded in middle-school culture and because we didn’t have students who were out to us or their classmates. Now we do, so we’re playing catch up to try to keep them safe.” ... The challenging school experience of so many gay and lesbian students — and the suicides last spring of a sixth grader in Massachusetts and a fifth grader in Georgia, both of whom were relentlessly bullied at school for appearing gay — reinforces the longtime narrative of gay youth in crisis. Studies in the ’80s and ’90s found gay teenagers to be at a significantly higher risk for depression, substance abuse and suicide than their heterosexual peers. [Comment: Same for studies from 2000 to 2009.) 

Release of 2003 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light on the Experiences of LGBT Students in America’s Schools: "At the same time, more than 4 out of 5 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students report being verbally, sexually or physically harassed at school because of their sexual orientation. “This year’s findings clearly demonstrate that despite modest measurable gains, violence, bias and harassment of LGBT students continues to be the rule, not the exception, in America’s schools,” said GLSEN Executive Director Kevin Jennings. “This research reveals what must be inherent to so many educators and parents: harassment has a negative impact on LGBT students’ academic performance and college ambitions. To ignore these numbers is an irresponsible message to all students that any promise of equal access to education remains forged and fictitious.”- Grading Our Schools - homophobia (Last Article). (Related Information) - GLSEN's 2005 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light on Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: "75.4% of students heard derogatory remarks such as "faggot" or "dyke" frequently or often at school, and nearly nine out of ten (89.2%) reported hearing "that's so gay" or "you're so gay" - meaning stupid or worthless- frequently or often." - The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief - 2007 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Harassed. - From: "Growing Up Gay: Are Schools Doing Enough to Support Gay Students?": "Eight U.S. school districts received the highest grade of "A"... More than twenty of the 42 large U.S. school districts received failing grades." What is an "A"? "Everything is relative," Cimino told the Herald. "If you're going to put it on a normal scale of what we should have, we're a D-. But when we're compared to what's going on in other school districts, we're an A." - 2009 National School Climate Survey. - GLSEN Article on Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Gay Youth Published. - Silence is the Voice of Complicity: Addressing Homophobia in Schools (Abstract). - GLSEN's Anti-Bullying Resources. - GLSEN" Safe Space Kit: What you can do to make your school safe for LGBT youth. - GLSEN" Tools to Develop and Implement a Safe Schools Campaign: Launch and sustain effective campaigns. - GLSEN's Jump-Start Guide for Gay-Straight Alliances: Download guides for students and gay-straight alliances/gsa. - The 2001 National School Climate Survey by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network Summary (PDF Download).

Teen turns to suicide to end nonstop torment (Robbie Kirkland, 1998). - The Robbie Kirkland Suicide Story.Robbie Kirkland "Remember Me!" - Robbie Kirkland Memorial. - Robbie's Story: How A Fragile 14-Year-Old Boy Was Crushed In His Struggle To Accept Being Gay. - A Mother Speaks Out.

Just the facts: on gay, lesbian, and bisexual students and schools [a place of abuse] made available by GLSTN (1987-1995).  - A 16-year-old Miami Gay school dropout: "I would go to gay bars because it was the only place I could find community. I was feeling stupid and with no future. I did a lot of drugs. I tried to commit suicide twice." (1997)

The first openly gay (newly graduated) police officer in Philadelphia - Thomas G. Kalt Jr. - commits suicide (January, 1998) at the age of 26 (1999, Must Scroll).  - Death of Philadelphia Policeman Spurs Coverage of the Blue Closet (1999).- Philadelphia: First Gay Cop Recruit is Suicide (1999). 

From the Past: Sandy Tipper, the author of Exodus: Coming out as a faith journey, reports on his two suicide attempts: religious beliefs are implicated. - The well known gay author and activist, Larry Kramer, attempted suicide in 1953 when he was at Yale University. - The founder of the Metropolitan Community Church, Troy Perry, attempted suicide after being deserted by his lover. (Alternate Link, Related Information: 1, 2, 3) - Brian McNaught, the godfather of gay sensitivity training, attempted suicide: "For over thirty years, McNaught has drawn on personal experiences — including a failed suicide attempt, coming out to his parents and co-workers, and being fired for being gay — in order to help audiences understand what it's like to grow up gay."  (2007, 2010 Update). - Suicide Attempters & Completers were not uncommon for GB male students at Harvard University. Examples given. - American born film director reports having been thrown out of house at age 18, working as a prostitute throughout the U.S., "and ended up in a psychiatric ward after a suicide attempt N/A." - George Whitmore: Whitmore wrote of his own three attempts at suicide, the first when he was only seventeen. In one attempt, he overdosed on drugs prescribed to "calm" him. Suicide was something, he says, that he applied himself to "with dedication... Like so many others. I was doing everything I could not to come to terms with an identity. I'd been carefully taught to abhor."  Drugs, suicide attempts, and risky sex (N/A).

Utah: - "I am glad to hear that Earl Cherry and Jeana Berube will be making a video to help prevent youth suicides in Utah." - (Salt Lake Tribune, June 7, 1998) - "But unlike KUED's local program on the problem a while back, this video will hopefully address the suicide risk for gay and bisexual youth - the highest for all risk groups." - Jacob Orosco commits suicide. - Matis wrote in his suicide note, which was read at the memorial, that he first realized he was gay at age 7 (2001). - "I could be your son": Letter by gay youth in Salt Lake Tribune - reporting more than 4 suicide attempts (1996). - Despite small introads of tolerance, harassment of young gays and lesbians continues in public high schools (1997). - Advocates see rise in gay suicide (2010): As the number of suicides among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations continues to increase across the nation, concern among the Utah LGBT community has begun to push the issue into the spotlight. - Mesa vigil aims to prevent suicides of gay Mormons (2010).

USA Mormon Church / University History - An ongoing problem.  From the 1997 lecture, "Private Pain, Public Purges: A History of Homosexuality at Brigham Young University," delivered by Connell O'Donovan in 1997 at the University of California, Santa Cruz. "In this 1975 article, McQueen reported that five Gay men he had known at BYU had gotten caught in the Purge of '75, were coerced into therapy, expelled from BYU, outed by church officials, and then excommunicated. Rather than face the bigotry of family, friends, church, and state, each one committed suicide.[17] Another man who was caught in that purge remembers that a BYU professor shot and killed himself that year after being entrapped at a local off campus restroom.[18] Local police and other agencies as well got involved in the purge as it spilled over into 1976. Another male student, after being arrested at a highway reststop (known affectionately as the Blow-n-Go), took a bottle of aspirin to kill himself. He was taken to Utah Valley Hospital where the medical personnel there recognized the suicide attempt and contacted BYU Security immediately. BYU Security, who had a file on him because of his arrest at the rest stop, then outed the man to his bishop and wife. - Legacies, a documentary by Sean Weakland (1997): "We had several people who committed suicide during the therapy. We had three different people who hung themselves in the Harris Fine Arts Center on BYU campus. In Mormon theology, you will be eternally punished for committing suicide. If you die as a homosexual, you will be punished all the worse."

Gay Mormon hoped suicide would help change church (February, 2000): "In the note Matis urges his parents to use his death to teach other church members and church leaders 'the true nature of homosexuality.' ...'I implore the students at BYU to re-assess their homophobic feelings. Seek to understand first before you make comments. We have the same needs as you. We desire to love and be loved. We desire to live our lives with happiness. We are not a threat to you or your families. We are your sons, daughters, brothers, sisters, neighbors, co-workers and friends, and most importantly, we are all children of God,' he wrote in the letter to the Daily Universe." - Affirmation - Virtual Memorial for Gay Mormon Suicides. - Queer Mormons - Between a Rock and a Hard Place (2007). - Todd Ransom: Mormon family breaks silence about gay man’s suicide (2010).

Aaron's Story (Alternate Link): "Back at Church, the word got out that I was homosexual. I was not longer allowed to be around children, prepare sacraments, or pray though I had done nothing wrong. People became scared of me, and longtime friends refused to associate any longer. The psychiatrist at this point told me to try electroshock therapy. He said in severe cases it was the only way. I refused. The Church excommunicated me at this point. Even though they knew I had done nothing sexual, they put me on trial and questioned me. I was shocked—they probed me with sexual questions of things I had never heard of. I was kicked out forever with a letter and warning that said I was outside the Church's reach. Because I once held the priesthood, I now was a candidate for Outer Darkness. I then came out, 7 years ago. I am so glad I have. My life is so much better than ever before. I no longer struggle with my sexuality because I know who I am. Sadly, a friend who was in the same exgay program committed suicide after 2 years of electroshock. He had burns on his arms where they would shock him for showing sexual response to pictures. They even had him get married and have children to prove his straightness. Instead, he was visiting parks and alleys for sex. He injected himself with drugs and left behind two beautiful young daughters. I could have been him."

Living Outside the Lines: A Story of Personal Discovery and Self-Acceptance (2004, Alternate Link): "John's suicide brought clarity to my life and convinced me that it was time to stop waffling. How many more Johns were out there? How many Janes? I knew there were others in the world just like me who struggled to fit in but did not know how to. They needed to know that they were not the only ones. I had an ethical responsibility to come out and to live my life openly. If John had known there were others like him, perhaps he would have opted to talk instead of taking his life. It was too late for John but I could do something for others, starting with myself. I was afraid, but my fear was irrelevant. I had to move forward, come out of the closet, and make a difference in the world."

A Three-Part Examination of GLB Suicide Problems by Outlines Magazine (1997): Suicide A Community Epidemic, A Community Solution. Part One: Death and dropout of gay and lesbian teens blights America's school system. - High School Confidential. Part Two: Suicide and Depression Among High School Age Gay and Lesbian Youth. -  Part Three: The Grown Ups.

In the case of Jamie Nabozny, now 21, the epithets began in 7th grade and escalated into a daily routine of homophobic abuse that led him to attempt suicide twice and to drop out of high school in his junior year.  (Gay Student Wins Sexual Harassment Case With NASP Support.) - Nabozny v. Podlesny - U.S. Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit (1996): "Toward the end of the school year, the harassment against Nabozny intensified to the point that a district attorney purportedly advised Nabozny to take time off from school. Nabozny took one and a half weeks off from school. When he returned, the harassment resumed, driving Nabozny to attempt suicide. After a stint in a hospital, Nabozny finished his eighth grade year in a Catholic school..." - Who's at Risk? Gay and Lesbian Youth. - Gay and lesbian youth at risk (1997). 

Within the Baha'i faith in the United States: - A group of homosexually oriented members present some recommendations to the group: "Our devotions on Sunday morning included the naming of the many people we once knew who had passed on due to suicide or complications from AIDS..."

The American Midwest (1998): A live-in observer the the GLB youth situation reports on an "at least bisexual" male youth who committed suicide after being placed in jail. Another youth "asphyxiated himself with a car in the garage" after it was believed that he had become "comfortable with his sexuality," which included having visited a local gay group.

Texas: Gay Youth at Risk: "At five years old, I knew I was sexually attracted to men. I internalized all of the negative images surrounding homosexuality; at 18, I attempted suicide in my parent's home. Right after that I left. I still carry the wound; no one should have to believe like I did that they are the only one in the world." - Texas Suicide-Prevention Panel Makes Recommendations N/A: "The commission urged... special programs to reach out to groups often overlooked in suicide prevention programs, including the elderly, ethnic minorities, youths, gays, lesbians and the homeless." A suicide Prevention Tookit (PDF Download): "Within the larger community many populations exist that may be at special risk for suicide, such as women in certain age groups, men, the elderly, people from different ethnic groups, gay/bisexual/lesbian/transgendered people, and youth." - Gay Houston Teenager Driven to Suicide By Bullies (2010). 

Success Stories - McAllen, Texas (2003): "In May of 2002, a letter arrived at the ACLU from McAllen, Texas, a small town near the Mexican border. Crystal Mendoza and Orlando Campa, two high school students, needed help. Students in their school had been harassed for years, and school leaders did nothing to stop it. Then that spring a gay student committed suicide because he couldn't take it anymore. For the first time ever, classmates at the school got together to talk about the harassment and other LGBT concerns..." - Point Foundation grants scholarships to 30 lgbt students (2006): Jacob Weldon: Jacob grew up in Port Neches, TX, a the conservative Bible Belt town in the heart of southeast Texas. After coming out, Jacob experienced a world of backlash from family and friends that led him down a self-destructive road, concluding with a suicide attempt.  Finding strength in his Christian faith, Jacob found the strength to accept himself. Jacob will attend Columbia University to pursue an individualized program in Human Rights Advocacy and Law.

Colorado: Suicide Risks for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender teens (Youth Risk Behavior Survey): LGBQ teenagers are at significantly greater risk for suicide attempts than heterosexual teens. In Boulder County, 44% of LGBQ youth said they’d attempted suicide, compared to 13.5% of heterosexual youth.  - Suicide-prevention effort focuses on gays. - Suicides of bullied gay kids in other states jolt Colorado educators to action (2010). - Suicides and school safety for LGBT youth (2010). - Colorado Anti-Violence Program Newsletter: Working to eliminate violence within and against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer communities of Colorado.  

Preventing Suicide inColorado: Progress Achieved & Goals for the Future (2009): There are some Colorado data available regarding sexual-minority youth. In a 2003 youth risk behavioral survey conducted among high school students in the Boulder Valley and St. Vrain Valley school districts, 44% of sexual-minority respondents reported having attempted suicide, compared to 13.5% of their heterosexual counterparts. More recently, an analysis of data on adolescents served by the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Community of Colorado’s Rainbow Alley program found that suicide risk factors included hopelessness, victimizationby bullies, methamphetamine use and homelessness.

New Mexico: - New Mexico’s Progress in Collecting Sexual Orientation Health Data and Its Implications for Addressing Health Disparities (2010): Suicide and Depression (2006): Compared to straight adults, LGB adults, 18 years and older, were much more likely to have thought about or attempted suicide. Nearly five times the percentage of LGB adults had thought about suicide and over three times the percentage have attempted suicide. Similarly, nearly three times the percentage of LGB adults reported depression than straight adults (43.0% vs. 17.2%). - Focus on Gay Teen Suicides (2010): Hard data about New Mexico gay and lesbian youths who attempt or consider suicide is scarce, but some data is available about gay adults. A New Mexico Department of Health report published in April found that one in four gay, lesbian and bisexual adults reported having attempted suicide, compared with only one in 20 straight adults.

New York: Much of my church work was near New York City, and on Times Square I found my first friendships with a variety of gay males - all of whom are gone now due to suicide, hate crimes and AIDS. (From: Celebrating Howard's Lifetime of Ministry; My Life Began with Stonewall and PLGC N/A (Alternate Link) by the Rev. Howard Warren (1999). Must scroll to locate reference). - In the Closet or Out on the Edge: Teens at Greater Suicide Risk (1999): "James, a bisexual teen, says he’s tried to kill himself twice. Every day at school, he is taunted with "fag," "gay," "queer" and other names too ugly to mention." - Predicting the Suicide Attempts of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth (2005, PDF Download). - Tyler Clementi, Other Gay Suicide Victims Remembered At New York Vigil (2010): NYU students and local politicians gathered to send message that bullying can kill. - Mental Health of New York City Youth (2008): Teens who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, or who are questioning their sexual identity have much higher rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

2005 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual youth,  the odds of having attempted suicide were greater for Gay, Bisexual and Unsure male students:  6.2, 12.8, 6.9, respectively, or 9.0 for the combined 3 groups (3.4, with control variables). For Lesbian, Bisexual and Unsure females, the odds were 0.9, 5.3, 2.4, respectively, or 3.7 for the combined 3 groups (2.5, with control variables). - Gay High Schools Offer a Haven From Bullies (2008): But the schools in Milwaukee and New York also reawaken the debate over school segregation 

Rhode Island: - Gay R.I. Student In Apparent Suicide (2010).  - School Shouldn't Hurt: Lifting the Burden from Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Youth: A report of the Rhode Island Task Force on Gay, Lesbian,Bisexual and Transgendered Youth (1996).

Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE, 2008). "Band-Aids Don’t Cut It" - Rhode Island Develops First Statewide Plan for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Queer, and Questioning (LGBTQQ) Youth. PDF. - Rhode Island Departments of Health and Elementary & Secondary Education (2009). Sexual Orientation and Health Risks Among Rhode Island Public High School Students in 2007. PDF. - Jiang Y, Perry DK, Hesser JE (2010). Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 38(5): 551-5. Abstract.

Pennsylvania: "In a May 31 article distributed by Knight-Ridder, Wilkes-Barre (Penn.) Times Leader staff writer Bob Nocek profiled a self-identified "gay jock teen" in Pennsylvania. The piece begins: "His parents had finally gone to sleep, and now it was time for Greg Congdon to die... For the second time in barely more than a month, Greg Congdon, 17 years old, wanted to end his life... After that attempt, Greg admitted to the emergency room doctor that he was gay, and subsequently told his parents, who were supportive, but things at school were more difficult." (From: 2) Greg Congdon: a Leader for our Times. (Alternate Link) Select: "misc news, 06/22/99: (15K)". Must scroll to locate reference.) - Death without justice: after their teen son committed suicide in a panic, Pennsylvania parents sued the police who'd threatened to out him. The resulting court case is a landmark for gay and lesbian privacy rights (2001, Related).

Illinois - Chicago: - Task force talks suicide prevention [for GLBTQ youth] (2010). - Suicide A Community Epidemic, A Community Solution - Part One: Death and dropout of gay and lesbian teens blights America's school system . - Letter from Asian American 17-year-old coming out (1998): "Denying who I am was the worst form of torture. I thought if I came out I'd lose my parents, friends, everything. I constantly thought of suicide. Hiding almost destroyed me." - Stigma and suicidality: Prevalence and patterns among Latino gay men in Chicago and San Francisco (2005): The sample consisted of 200 Latino gay men (n=100 in Chicago, n=100 in San Francisco), recruited through respondent-driven sampling, who completed a Computer Assisted Self Interviewing survey (CASI). Results show a high percentage of both recent suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. One out of three men reported at least one previous lifetime suicide attempt...

Chicago Stands Up Against Anti-Gay Bullying & LGBT Suicide (2010): The Trevor Project, which runs the nation's only 24-hour suicide and crisis prevention helpline for LGBTQ youth (1-866-4-U-TREVOR  or 1-866-488-7386), has been reaching out to the Chicago community to help in its mission. They are doing this by establishing the Chicago Ambassadors of The Trevor Project, ... volunteer organization that seeks to aid in crisis and suicide prevention among LGBTQ youth by establishing a vibrant presence in the Chicago Area, leveraging the community's unique history of diversity and legislative development concerning civil rights and education. I am honored to be part of the group helping to organize the Chicago Ambassadors. The group is hosting its first official Chicago event next week... Chicagoans respond to gay teen suicide issue with videos (2010): Lakeview GLBT Community Center hosts recording session as part of "It Gets Better Project." 

Sullivan, Shannon (2007). Chicago Public High Schools: Differential Risk Factors for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Identified Students: 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results. Chicago: The Illinois Safe Schools Alliance. PDF. - Sullivan, Shannon (2007b). Chicago Public High Schools: Differential Risk Factors for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Identified Students: 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results. Chicago: The Illinois Safe Schools Alliance. PDF. Results are those given by .... Horn SS, Szalacha LA (2007). Chicago Public Schools Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005: Executive Summary. Chicago: Board of Education of the City of Chicago. PDF. - 2005 GLB suicidality results in: Illinois Department of Public Health (2010). 2009 Suicide Prevention Report. Chicago: Illinois Department of Public Health. PDF. - 2009 GLBU suicidality data: Smith TL, Syeinhuasen G, Carland J (2010). Risk Behaviors Among Illinois and Chicago High School Students by Sexual Orientation [2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results]. Presentation: Adolescent Health Disparities Summit, Springfield, IL, October 26, 2010. PDF: PPT.


Ohio: "For defying gender norms so blatantly she paid the price at school. Classmates taunted and ridiculed her. The problems grew worse when she entered 8th grade. Life became miserable for her. 'It wasn't just guys, it was girls too that were harassing her,' said her mother. Nicole kept her problems to herself. Even school officials were unaware of the severity of the situation. On 13 Oct 98 Nicole could take it no longer. She killed herself using her father's .22 rifle. (From: Gender-Questioning Teen Suicide in Cleveland. (Alternate Link) Select: "gender questioning teen suicide, 03/28/99") - A Commission on Youth and Suicide? Will GLB issues be included? (1998)"According to an article in the Akron Beacon Journal (February 15, 1998), Ford said that the inclusion of gay and lesbian youth is in response to the ABJ's recent Suffering in Silence series about glbt youth in the Akron-Canton area, many of whom tried to commit suicide. To date, the bill has bipartisan support with approximately 25 co-sponsors." - The Robbie Kirkland Pages - Ohio Paper Tells Tragic Story of Gay Teen Suicide (1998, Must Scroll). - A [gender nonconformable] teen-age girl's battle for acceptance ends in suicide,

Deaths of 4 bullied teenagers at Ohio school produce lawsuits, soul-searching (2010): Eric Mohat was flamboyant and loud and preferred to wear pink most of the time. When he didn’t get the lead soprano part in the choir his freshman year, he was indignant, his mother says... Mohat’s family and friends say he wasn’t gay, but people thought he was... Bullies once knocked a pile of books out of his hands on the stairs, saying, “‘Pick up your books, faggot,’” says Dan Hughes, a friend of Eric’s. Kids would flick him in the head or call him names, says 20-year-old Drew Juratovac, a former student. One time, a boy called Mohat a “homo,” and Juratovac told him to leave Mohat alone... Eric Mohat shot himself on March 29, 2007, two weeks before a choir trip to Hawaii.His parents asked the coroner to call it “bullicide.” --- “Meredith ended up coming out that she was a lesbian,” he says. “I think much of that sparked a lot of the bullying from a lot of the other girls in school, ‘cause she didn’t fit in.” Her best friend, Kevin Simon, doesn’t believe that bullying played a role in Rezak’s death. She had serious issues at home that were unrelated to school, he says.

Oklahoma: - Another Tragic LGBT-Bullying Related Suicide: Zach Harrington, 19, of Norman (2010): There has been another tragic suicide of a teenager, who was bullied for being gay.  Zach Harrington killed himself a week after witnessing a "toxic" city council meeting in Norman, Oklahoma, where "concerned citizens" gathered en masse to hurl their hatred and homophobia, decrying LGBT persons as deviant, sinful, damned, etc. etc. etc.  

Indiana: - Indiana teen’s suicide thought to be result of anti-gay bullying (2010): “Some people at school called him names,” Hughes said, saying most of those names questioned Lucas’ sexual orientation, and that Lucas, for the most part, did little to defend himself. - Teacher suspended for running pro-gay editorial in school paper (2007). 

Safe Education Environment for Gays and Lesbians: A Plan to Implement GLBT Youth Education in Schools (2008, Melanie Pasillas, Honors Thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana): The purpose ofthis thesis project is to develop an implementation plan in order to complete the final steps in the process ofcreating the new program SEEGL, an educational program aimed at combating GLBT youth suicide. The program implementation framework, described in Netting, Kettner, and McMurty's (2008) textbook Social Work Macro Practice, will be applied. Before the discussion ofthe implementation plan, the problem ofGLBT suicide will be identified, the need for the program will be assessed, and the details ofthe program will be explained.

Wisconsin: - Film showing students effects of bullying gay peers follows student who had tried suicide (2010): Jamie Nabozny's teenage years were hell: He was called nasty names, was beaten so badly he wound up in the hospital, ran away from home and even tried to kill himself. All because he was gay. When officials at his Ashland, Wis., middle school and high school refused to do anything about the bullying, Nabozny sued the school district — and won. His case is the subject of a new film from the Montgomery, Ala.-based Southern Poverty Law Center and will be viewed by school children across the country.  - Gay Wis. teen victim of suicide (2010):  Cody J. Barker, 17, of Shiocton, Wis., took his life on Sept. 13... Maria Peeples, Barker’s peer mentor through GSA for Safe Schools, said he was a passionate activist for all students, especially those, “targeted or ostracized for their sexual orientation or their gender identity and expression. … He really cared about making schools a safe place for students. That wasn’t always his own experience with school.”

A teen book burns at the stake: A Christian group hopes to set fire to library copies of Francesca Lia Block's novel about a gay boy coming of age (2009):  Francesca Lia Block, an award-winning author of young-adult books (the "Weetzie Bat" series among them), has known for a while now that one of her novels, "Baby Be-Bop" is at the center of a controversy in West Bend, Wis. A few days ago, she found out that it might be burned at the stake. "Baby Be-Bop" is on a list of titles that a local group calling itself the West Bend Citizens for Safe Libraries objects to seeing in the public library. Wisconsin Professor in Trouble for Sending Anti-Gay E-Mail to Student (2010). Wisconsin Teacher’s Anti-Homophobia Class Horrifies Christian Right (2009).  

Wisconsin colleges join push to end bullying of gay students (2010): Dozens of students and staff at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater held a rally Friday after an assault on campus in which a student wearing a shirt with the slogan "Legalize Gay" was punched in the face. Students at Carthage College held a similar vigil last week, invoking the name of an Appleton gay teen who committed suicide last month after he experienced harassment at school. - Parade Commodore to 14-year-old Girl: “Go To A Country Where They Hang People Like You” (2010).

2007 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Word Download N/A): Sexual minority students were 3.7 times more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual students. - Risk Behaviors and Factors of Youth Engaging in Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors (PDF Download): One in four same-sex youth (7.5% het-sex youth) had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months. More than one in seven (15%) same-sex had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months serious enough that it required medical attention, compared to 2.5% of het-sex youth, a six-fold difference...

Benditt L, Engel E, Gavin M, Stransky E (2009). Addressing Health Disparities Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth and Adults in Wisconsin. Workshop in Public Affairs. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, HIV/AIDS Program, Division of Public Health. Reports suicidality results (controlling for many variables) for GLB students compared to heterosexual students in the Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The odds for GLB high school students having attempted suicide in the past year were 3.9-times greater than for heterosexual students. PDF Download.  

California: "Spahr had hoped that Robin Reed, a sophomore at Petaluma High School, would be the last gay teen suicide in town. He believes, however, that two other gay teens have since killed themselves." (From: Teen's fate ignited activist (1999, Must Scroll). - Honoring Robin Reed, a 15-Year Old Suicide (2002). - Gay Teens in School Focus of Weekly Newsmagazine Segment (1998). Slurs like "faggot," "dyke" or "That's so gay," are sometimes not readily addressed or put a halt to, said Highlands Elementary teacher Eric Heins. "Sometimes I've heard students say that teachers just seem to ignore them (slurs) or pretend not to hear." Lauren, a San Leandro High School dropout...  has also contemplated, and attempted, suicide. -  Bay Area gay man's suicide may be basis of TV movie (1998). - Décès mystérieux de deux lesbiennes en Californie. - Family Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White and Latino Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults (2009).  - Mourning at Howard (2010): Former [lesbian] student commits suicide, seemingly related to sexuality, though father says she was not bullied directly. 

Teen Line Reaches Out To LGBT Youth (PDF): "California children are inheriting a society more multicultural and multiracial than ever before witnessed in modern history.  With these gifts of diversity, there sometimes comes ugly intolerance of differences.  Gay and lesbian youth are often at higher risk for emotional problems, abuse, and neglect – not because of their sexual orientation but because of such intolerance, ignorance, and some people’s inability to accept individual differences. LGBTQ youth face great difficulties growing up in a society where homophobia and heterosexism run rampant. Many may feel isolated at home and within their communities." - Another dead gay designer (2004). - Seth Walsh, California Teen Who Endured Gay Taunts, Commits Suicide (2010). - Prop. 8 Can Cause Gay Suicide, Columbia Prof Testifies (2010). - Mormon church in California faces new criticism on gay stance after suicide of Marie Osmond's son (2010).

San Francisco Middle / High School Studies (2008, 2009): - One-Third of Gay Middle Schoolers In S.F. Have Attempted Suicide, Study Claims (2010): According to recent studies, 34 percent of gay middle schoolers, and 23 percent of high schoolers had attempted suicide in the last year alone... 34 percent of middle schoolers identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) had attempted suicide in the last year -- compared to 7 percent of hetero kids. Forty-three percent of LGB students had made a suicide plan; 56 percent had seriously considered suicide. In high school, the numbers go down -- a bit. Twenty-three percent had attempted suicide in the past year, compared to 31 percent who'd made a plan, and 38 percent who'd seriously considered suicide. While the San Francisco school district was the first in the country to establish support services for LGBTQ youth 20 years ago, it seems anti-gay slurs are rampant within the city's schools: 84 percent of middle schoolers had heard slurs like "fag," "dyke," or "that's so gay," thrown around, while only 59 percent had ever heard teachers or staff stop students from making those remarks... As far as experiencing actual violence, queer kids are more likely to get in fights. Forty-six percent of gay high schoolers had been in a fight, while only 20 percent of hetero kids had in the past year. Things get even worse for transgender kids: 56 percent report being in a physical fight. Gay kids were also astronomically more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use cocaine, inhalants, or marijuana. -  Supporting gay youth is a core San Francisco value (2010, Same data reported, with additional information). - LGBTQ Student health (PPT): Contains suicidality results.

Louisiana: Sadly, Gay Anti-Discrimination Laws Are Needed in Louisiana: "Sen. Lynn Dean, R-Braithwaite, had told a Senate committee of personal knowledge of a number of gays who committed suicide."

Massachusetts:  From The Unofficial Site of the... Massachusetts Governor's Commission on Gay & Lesbian Youth - Availability of all related Reports/Documents, many with suicidality information. - Massachusetts Governor's Commission on Gay & Lesbian Youth: Publications & Reports of the Commission. - The "suicide" section in Prevention of Health Problems Among Gay & Lesbian Youth: Making Health & Human Services Accessible and Effective for Gay & Lesbian Youth (August, 1994). - Countering the Backlash Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students, Families, and Staff in Minnesota Schools: A Primer on the Minnesota Family Institute’s Anti-LGBT Agenda for Public EducationPlus: Steps Toward Stopping the Backlash (2005, PDF Download). - Study Says Perils of Adolescence Greater for Gay Teens (1998). - Massachusetts Study Shows High Suicide Rate for Gay Students (2001). - The Friends of GLBT Youth (2007): Youth in schools with a Gay-Straight Alliance have decreased victimization at school and fewer suicide attempts. These are allvictories that should make anyone in Massachusetts proud. 

"% Attempted Suicide in The Past Year" Results, Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: % GLB vs. % Others, 2005 (24.8% vs. 5.7%, 4.4-times greater), 2007 (29.1% vs. 6.4%, 4.5-times greater), 2009 (24.7% vs. 5.6%, 4.4-times greater). - Another 11-Year-Old Commits Suicide: Anti-Gay Taunts Cited (2009). - Transgender Identified In Mass: About A Third Thought About Suicide In Past 12 Months (2009): [The study] found that about 31 percent of transgender respondents said they have considered attempting suicide in the past year, compared to just 2 percent for heterosexual residents, 4 percent for gay and lesbian residents and 7 percent for bisexual residents. 

Suicide Prevention in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Communities (2010). - State House Vigil Remembers LGBT Suicide Victims (2010). - In Response to the LGBT Youth Suicide Crisis… (2010). - Where’s the gay anti-bullying reform in our schools? (2010) - Massachusetts Anti-Bullying Bill Fails to Adequately Protect LGBT Students, According to Joint Statement by National and Local LGBT Organizations (2010). 

Minnesota: - Gay youth at higher risk of suicide (1997). - Study Confirms High Suicide Risk in Gay Youth (1998). - Youth at risk - statistics of suicide risks among gay teenagers (1997).  - The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: results of a population-based study (1998, Full Text). - Minnesota's GLBT Students. - Suicidality among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Protective Factors (2006). 

Gay student suicides underscore problem of LGBT bullying (2010): As one Minnesota school district continues to mourn the suicides of three LGBT students within the last year, another gay teenager some 600 miles away killed himself. Billy Lucas, 15, took his own life inside his family’s barn in Greenburg, Ind., on Sept. 9. His and the other suicides point not only to bullying as a lingering issue facing many LGBT youth, but also to a culture that continues to condone anti-gay harassment and discrimination in schools across the country... The controversy surrounding the recent suicides in Minnesota and Indiana coincide with the release of GLSEN’s biennial National School Climate Survey, which paints a sobering picture of LGBT students’ safety nationwide. The survey of more than 7,000 students reported nearly nine out of 10 respondents experienced some form of harassment. Specifically, 61 percent of students felt unsafe at school due to their sexual orientation-nearly 40 percent of respondents felt the same way due to their gender expression. More than 84 percent of students were verbally harassed andnearly 19 percent of respondents reported being physically assaulted because of their sexual orientation.

Suicide surge: Schools confront anti-gay bullying (2010): The district - Minnesota's largest - serves nearly 40,000 students in 13 towns. The school board adopted the neutrality policy in 2009 as a balancing act, trying not to offend either liberal or conservative families. Rebecca Dearing, 17, a junior who belongs to the gay-straight alliance at the district's Champlin Park High School, said the neutrality policy caused teachers to shy away from halting anti-gay harassment - sometimes leaving her gay friends feeling vulnerable to the point where they don't come to school. 

Yet Another Gay Teen Lost to Bullying Suicide - in Minnesota (2010). - Three LGBT students in one district attempt suicide (2010). - Mother of suicide victim speaks out on bullying at Anoka-Hennepin (2010). - String of Teen Suicides Linked to Gay Bullying at Minnesota School (2010). - Recent teen suicides make strong case for Minnesota Safe Schools Bill (2010). - Anti-bullying bill to be filed in special session (2010). 

Nebraska: - Stopping Gay Suicide Hurts Traditional Values (2006): Bear in mind that gay teenagers have an enormously high rate of attempting and committing suicide, many times higher than the rest of the teenage population, for obvious reasons. Preventing this from happening, helping those kids handle their difficulties in a healthy way, is clearly a good thing to any sane human being. But according to these bigots, helping gay teenagers avoid suicide "undermines traditional values." Only if those values are vile and barbaric, of course.- Gay Teen Suicide is Not the Enemy (2006).

Washington: - Safe Schools Coalition of Washington: Suicide. - A summary of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results relating to GLB adolescent suicide problems (available as PDF Download): Seattle, Massachusetts, Vermont, Minnesota. - Gabi Clayton's Resources - GLBT Suicide.

Victimization of College Students Up Suicide Risk (2007): New research indicates that being victimized because of sexual orientation is a chief risk factor for suicidal behavior among gay, lesbian and bisexual college students... “A lot of people stop thinking about sexual orientation related victimization and suicide as a problem beyond the K-12 school years,” she said. “But suicide doesn’t stop after high school. I thought I wouldn’t find very much victimization in Seattle, and I certainly wasn’t expecting these kinds of numbers.” The study was provoked by a question from a 15-year-old gay male while Murphy was working on an internship as a school psychologist at a high school. The youth, who was suicidal and using drugs, asked her, “Does it get better in college”” She didn’t know.

Oregon: - Suicide Awareness Week, My Struggle, My Story (2009). I struggled with this identity for a number of years and shortly after coming out turned to self-harm to deal with the rough emotions that I was going through. I have never really spoken openly about my experimentation with self harm and have a difficult time reflecting on these experiences because of the stigma that is placed on youth who think about or attempt suicide. During high school my Mom tried varies means to “turn” me straight. After each of these episodes (once even consisted of an exorcism) I would hide in my room or run to the field behind our house and cut my thighs or wrists. I would use the pain to help deal with the ostracism that I was facing within my own family. Eventually I tried suicide by swallowing pills with my best friend (we had made a pact to commit suicide together) and only survived because I didn’t understand the strengths of medicines and thought twenty pills would be enough for both of us. Luckily I found the Trevor Project before ever wanting to commit suicide again. Their volunteers gave me the help I needed at a time that I needed it the most. I found local resources and now am a volunteer for The Trevor Projects Youth Advisory Council.  

Washington, DC: - Gay students more likely to consider suicide: study. Survey shows D.C. gay youth face bullying, harassment (2008). "30.6 percent of gay teens considered suicide in the previous year, 28.9 percent made a plan to commit suicide and 32.6 percent attempted suicide. That compares to 13.8 percent, 12.1 percent and 8.6 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts. DC 2007 High School YRBS: Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (PDF Download N/A: removed from website) - Serious Issues for Gay Teens Emerge in Youth Risk Behavior Survey  2008, Related data given).  - Gay man’s death ruled suicide (2010): The D.C. Medical Examiner’s office disclosed Monday that Mark Gower, the 26-year-old gay man found dead in his apartment in the city’s Mount Pleasant neighborhood last month, took his own life... Gower, a native of Oregon, worked as an employee of the Sephora cosmetics store in Reston, Va. and was a part-time dancer at Secrets, a D.C. gay nightclub. 

Virginia / West Virginia: - Out Of The Closet And Out Of The Family: - At the hospital a doctor observes the following after a closeted lesbian youth had attempted suicide: "He looked at his parents with hatred in his eyes 'my sister who I love could have died today. You sound as If you would rather her be dead than gay.'" The doctor then told his "significant other" about the event who, in turn, recalled his own problems as a youth: "Before long I was at the top of a huge hill, and instantly I knew that I no longer wanted to live. I pressed the gas as hard as I could. I saw where there was a sloping hill on the side of the road and steered the car off the road. When I saw a large tree in the cars pathway I closed my eyes and felt at peace for the first time in years." - Suicide of two young girls highlights the hurdles faced by gay youth. - Interview with Openly Gay Candidate for West Virginia Senate, Scott Regan- Funds Needed Now (2010): West Virginia is a breeding ground for gay hate, pursued with a vigor that is reminiscent of a corporate mission statement; it is taught via religious ideology with crime perpetuated as a result. 

New Virginia Governor Quietly Removes Gays From Anti-Discrimination Policy (2010). - WVU promotes fairness as host and co-sponsor of statewide conference, film screenings (2010): The recent suicide of a gay college student in New Jersey following his public humiliation reinforces the immediate need to examine our common sense of justice, decency and fairness, said Jennifer McIntosh, executive officer for the President’s Office for Social Justice at West Virginia University... Fairness West Virginia, an advocacy organization that works for the fair treatment and civil rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender West Virginians, is organizing and sponsoring the conference. This will be the organization’s first statewide leadership conference. - GLSEN - gay activist group - targets 60 Virginia middle schools (2010): Should we allow gay advocacy groups to access our children through public schools to persuade them to make a choice concerning their sexuality during the teen years? I say no. But don't just take it from a mom like me. Read what the foremost lesbian thinker of our time - Camille Paglia - has written.. 

Georgia: Youth Suicide Prevention (From Atlanta's YouthPride.org): For many years, we have known that young people, particularly GLBTQ youth, are at an increased risk of committing suicide... A Gay Teen Suicide Note (Must Scroll). Introduction to Suicide Note: "The following suicide note was written by Steven, a gay 16-year-old high school student. After he wrote this note he attempted suicide by taking an overdose of medication. He survived. He was hospitalized, treated, and not long after his suicide attempt, moved with his family to another state. Steven was suffering from severe depression when he wrote this note. Anyone who was mistreated, bullied, threatened, and emotionally tortured like Steven could very easily become severely depressed - and suicidal. The note has been left intact, complete with misspellings, grammatical errors, and profanity, except for inserting "[name removed]" in the place of some names. Steven's suicide note is extremely disquieting to read. And it is one more reminder of the outrageous bullying LGBTQ youth endure."

Black Church Summit Takes Stand Against Anti-Gay Discrimination: "Another example of changing attitudes and principled stands among the participating clergy was Rev. Ken Samuel, pastor at the Victory for the World church in Stone Mountain, Georgia. Samuel also used to condemn homosexuality from the pulpit, but he says that he changed his views as he recalled a childhood friend who committed suicide because he felt ostracized by his church for his homosexuality. When Samuel began to preach against anti-gay discrimination, he lost about half of the 5,000 members of his mega-church, but he stood his ground."

North Carolina: Bad Days For Gay Teenagers: "Someone I know committed suicide this past Father's Day. His dad had kicked him out of the house because he was gay. He was just a kid, a teenage boy, on the way to becoming a young man. He liked horror and action movies. He moved around and lived with friends. He worked various low-income jobs to get by. On Father's Day, he decided there was no place for him in this world, so he killed himself." - Homophobic Language and Verbal Harassment in North Carolina High Schools (2006, Report).

South Carolina: Principal Censors Pro-Gay School Paper (2008). 

Michigan:   Pastor Youngchild (MCC Church, Battle Creek, Michigan) reports on his experiences with being contacted by GLB youth in a letter ot the Battle Creek Inquirer (Aug. 22, 1999): "...within the first 6 months alone of SOCMCC's existence, 5 different teenagers put out the effort, borne of desperation, to contact me and discuss their feelings... their experiences of discovering their gay or lesbian or bisexual orientation... and most pointedly their experiences of hatred and even violence being directed at and against them in our Battle Creek Public School system, not only by a number of students but even by some teachers, simply for being "queer."  Five kids in our first 6 months, after 15 years of silence in my previous ministry, because we appeared safe enough to them to seek out.  Three of those teens had attempted suicide.  One of them had tried three times.

God gave me a gay son . . . and I did not always think it a blessing (2004): So on this Saturday morning Mark realized nothing really mattered anymore. It could only get worse. And while it frightened him -- having considered it for quite a long time -- he also knew how he could fix it. The only way to confront this demon was to end it all. Nobody would understand it anyway. He didn't understand it. But he knew he was gay, and he knew being gay was an abomination. So he would put an end to his agony. Suicide, he had decided, would be less painful to his family than revealing to them who he really was... Mark defied all the popular stereotypes I believed about what being gay means. I was sure I could recognize a gay person a mile off. But my son was just too masculine. He never displayed the effeminate traits that I was certain a homosexual male would exhibit... Nothing during Mark's childhood indicated any sign of homosexuality. There was none of the verbal violence many young gay people endure from earliest childhood; no derisive jeering, no "faggot" or "queer" talk. He was seemingly happy, well-adjusted and "straight."... Not only was I unaware, but my pontificating moral certitude had actually been adding to his anguish. Iwas unwittingly encouraging my son toward suicide.

Florida: - School Can't Tolerate Gay Tolerance Club (2007).  

Depression, isolation, rejection lead many gay youths to attempt suicide (2009): Switchboard of Miami, Miami-Dade's crisis center, launched a gay suicide hotline in 2005. It became the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Suicide Hotline in 2006. Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008, Switchboard took about 400 calls from people identifying themselves as gay, including 56 that counselors declared ''crisis calls,'' or people at immediate risk. It's not just young gay people contemplating suicide, said Ed Straub Jr., a Switchboard board member who founded the hotline. ''In the first year of our program, . . . 52 percent of the people calling the Switchboard were between the ages 35 and 59,'' he said. Both gay men and lesbians are at risk. ''Absolutely,'' Straub said. ``In fact, women are twice as likely to consider suicide as men, even though the number of male suicides is higher.'' The gay hotline has a $30,000 annual budget, with funding from groups including Dade Community Foundation and private donors. ''We try to spend half or a third of that in advertising,'' Straub said. ``We advertise mostly in the local gay press. That increases the call volume back to Switchboard.'' Straub became involved with suicide prevention after three friends killed themselves in 2004. ``I'm like a lightning rod. People come to me. I come to the bars. We talk at cocktail parties. On Lincoln Road. People want to open up about it. It's amazing how many people are touched by suicide.'' Straub said he has observed three factors that often contribute to gay suicide attempts: • Financial and health-related issues. • Drug and alcohol use. • Loneliness or feeling unable to achieve life goals. 

Alaska: Alaska Suicide Follow-back Study Final Report: Study period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2006 - 426 suicides (PDF Download): "4% were involved in a homosexual relationship." Note: Most homosexual people may not be in relationships.

Guam Pinhey TK, Millman SR (2004) Asian/Pacific Islander Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk in Guam. American Journal of Public Health,  94(7): 1204-1206. (Abstract) Full Text: PDF DownloadThe Odds for GB Males Attempting Suicide in the Past year is About Five Times Greater than Odds For Other Males. Estimated by Web Page Author: Risk Ratio = 3.2 - 43.5% of GB males attempted suicide, versus 13.5% for other males. For all Males: 14.5%.  3.5% of 674 males studied = GB Males. A profile of Suicide on Guam (2009): GLB youth mentioned.

Hawaii: - Island Voices: Gay Youth Still at Risk - by Kauanoe Bombard (1998). 
 

Canada:

Reaching Out: A Report on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues in Canada. Prepared for the United Church of Canada, EGALE. "As a society, we have been slowly killing these children over a period of years. With their suicides, they are simply finishing the job we started." - In Canada, a bright and diligent 14-year-old student leapt to his death from a bridge (2002). He left a seven-page suicide note saying he was killing himself because his classmates tormented him by calling him "gay" or "faggot". - Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009).

Egale Canada. (2009). Youth speak up about homophobia and transphobia. PDF Download. Summary: A recent national survey on homophobia in Canadian schools conducted by Egale Canada (2009) found that schools can be a hostile environment for sexual minority youth. The survey involved almost 1700 students from across Canada. Among the findings: • Almost three quarters (73%) of LGBTQ students felt unsafe in at least one place at school (i.e., change rooms, washrooms, hallways). • Over a quarter (28.5%) of LGBTQ students said that they had skipped school because they felt unsafe compared to 8.4% of non-LGBTQ students. • Over three quarters (76.7%) of students heard homophobic expressions like “that’s so gay” every day at school. • About half (50.6%) of LGBTQ students agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement “It is hard for me to feel accepted at my school” compared to 19.3% of non-LGBTQ students. • Six out of ten LGBTQ students said that they had been verbally harassed about their sexual orientation. • One in four LGB students reported that they had been physically harassed about their sexual orientation (EgaleCanada, 2009).  

Western Canada:- "..the life I lived as a gay man was too disappointing and held too much tragedy. Of my six other friends, two died of AIDS related illnesses, one of suicide, and another attempted suicide." (1989) -  Suicide of an Alberta gay teenager (1994).  -  Canada: Generally homonegative environments (including in schools) are described leading to many problems for GLBT adolescents, including suicidal problems. - Social Determinants of Suicide Attempts in a Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (PDF Download).(Related Published Paper: Correlates of suicide attempts in an open cohort of young men who have sex with men.) 

Calgary, Canada (From the files of  Pierre Tremblay): Five parents of male adolescents who had committed suicide (within about a one-year period) were part of a group - SPAN - concerned about the youth suicide problem. Two youngest boys (about age 13) had a history of gender nonconformity and related peer problems. One hung himself in jail after having been arrested, and after having become a clone who was not feminine-like; his mother reported that he had been in the "feminine" category since a very young age. A CTV's W-5 program reported that the other suicide victim was deemed "a sissy" by peers and was treated accordingly.  A 17-year-old male suicide victim was discovered to be homosexually oriented from a female friend, and he was definitely a Save-The-World kid given the information supplied by his mother. The fourth was Bobby Steele, and Information was not solicited or received on the fifth suicide victim. Near the end of 1996, I learned about the suicide of a male youth soon after he had  made contact with a GLB youth group (A related Article, but Bobby's name is not mentioned.). In 1997, I met a 20-year-old gay male who had just come out and was seeking a relationship with someone. He met a gay male, became lovers, and they moved to a location a few hundred miles from Calgary. When he returned, he reported that his boyfriend had attempted to kill him, after he had expressed a desire to end the relationship. He had done this by driving his vehicle into an 80-foot ravine, but both survived. If they had died, however, it may have resulted in the belief that they committed suicide. In August 1998, I learned about a 35-year-old Vancouver gay male (schizophrenic, but did not apparently have suicidal problems) who committed suicide by exiting from a 8th-floor window. A number of factors may have been implicated in this suicide, including the end of a relationship with another gay male (I have known for 12 years) about a month before the suicide, but he was not HIV-positive. I recently learned that he had gone to a hospital about two hours before his death but a lack of space precluded his admission.

From Lloydminster, Alberta, via Edmonton's GLB Times. Ten magazine: Often enough someone knows about the homosexual orientation of a suicide victim: "Dear Editor... That first night of my stay in North Battleford, I was stunned to learn that I was only the second of six SUICIDE/ATTEMPTS for Lloydminster. It was disconcerting to find that two were successful, one of them being a guy I had slept with on a regular basis." Information supplied about another suicide known to him: "While I recovered, another young man took his own life just ten days ago. It would seem that his farewell note said it all too clearly for him "that there was nothing gay about being GAY!" -  Being Gay in Rural Alberta: "I would still be drinking a lot. I would very much be avoiding (the issue)," he says, stating in all seriousness that, "Suicide was an option."

Ontario: - Keeping Our Children Safe: Adolescent Suicide and Sexual Orientation (In: Homosexuality and the Catholic High School: A compilation of newsletters with new material, 2001, Aternate Link): The high rate of suicide among homosexual adolescents and youth is a phenomenon which has only recently been studied... Unlike their heterosexual peers, most gay teens have neither social approval, family support, positive role models, nor safe social opportunities to assist them in their maturational struggle... The response awaiting a gay teen in the schools and community is no better than in the family... The studies show (9), (10) that the gay teens that have the highest risk for suicidal actions are those whom because of appearance or mannerisms are early suspected of being homosexual or who at an early age reveal their sexual orientation... Still for school aged children emerging in awareness of their homosexual orientation, homophobia is the context at home and in school within which feelings of self worth, morality and affection are formed. For a gay student homophobia in an educational setting is proof that school is not a safe place to demonstrate a positive sense of self and form affectionate relationships, as do other students. The result is isolation, despair, arrested emotional growth, loss of faith, and for somesuicide.

British Columbia: - BC Teen Suicide Aftermath:  Conflict Ensues Over Prevention N/A. - B.C. Study Shows Gay Youth Face High Suicide Risk (June 14, 1999, Alternate Link). - Study: Lesbian Teens More Likely To Attempt Suicide (2006, Alternate Link): (Vancouver, British Columbia) A study of teenagers in British Columbia schools has found that lesbian teens are far more likely to attempt suicide than gay teens or heterosexual teens. The survey was conducted by the McCreary Center Society an organization that advocates for young people in the province. The researchers report that 38 per cent of teenage lesbians and 30.4 per cent of bisexual girls said they had attempted suicide in the previous year, compared to 8.2 per cent of heterosexual girls. They also found that  8.8 per cent of gay teens, 2.8 per cent of bisexual boys [Correction, 12.8%, See: B.C. researcher says American group distorting her research on teen (2006)] and 3.3 per cent of heterosexual boys said they had attempted suicide.   - Focus on the Family distorts work of University of British Columbia researcher. - Sexual Orientation, Risk and Resilience Study (2005, Alternate Link). - Proposed Framework for GLBT Youth Suicide and Abuse Prevention (2005, PDF Download).

British Columbia's 2008 Adolescent Health Survey (PDF Download, 6 megs): "86% of students identified as heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” ... Those at greater risk of having attempted suicide: ... Aboriginal youth (11% vs. 4% non-Aboriginal), lesbian, gay and bisexual youth (28% vs. 4% heterosexual: 7-times the risk), obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight) and youth with a health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a disability)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%) or sexually abused (22% vs. 4%). - Students Plan Cross-Dressing Protest of Homophobic School District (2010): Students at a school in British Columbia feel that homophobia from parents and the school district is behind the decision to cancel or reschedule several events aimed at promoting tolerance, so they've decided to cross-dress on Friday in protest.  - One In 10 Students Gay (2007): A Kelowna organization says Central Okanagan schools are unsafe for gay students and has the numbers to back up its claim. The Indigo Spirit of Awareness Society (ISAS) says up to 10 per cent of the Central Okanagan student population is either gay, lesbian or bisexual and that many of those students do not feel safe in their schools.

Child Death Review Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking for Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth, and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation in the months prior to death.

Maritime Provinces: - High school confidential: Gays and lesbians in Nova Scotia high schools (1991). - New Brunswick teachers have decided to fight homophobia in the province's schools (2001). - Nova Scotia Strategic Framework to Address Suicide (2006, GLBT Issues Noted).

Quebec: - Déficiente, la prévention du suicide chez les gais: "Si l'on souhaite un jour franchement s'attaquer à la question du suicide au Québec, il faudra commencer par cerner l'une de ses cibles les plus vulnérables, les homosexuels." Préfère-t-on encore les voir morts ? ou Le suicide chez les jeunes qui vivent l'homosexualité. - Le suicide chez les gais et lesbiennes Suicide-Action Montréal s'implique davantage. - Le phénomène du suicide au Québec et l'homosexualité: "On ne peut parler d’homosexualité sans mentionner l’homophobie. On sait maintenant avec certitude que le fait d’avoir à vivre le harcèlement répété des homophobes à leur endroit est une cause très importante de tentative de suicide, chez les jeunes garçons en particulier. L’homophobie est très répandue : un autre problème de société." - L’urgence d’agir: La prévention du suicide chez les personnes homosexuelles: Une question de santé mentale: Rapport d’un groupe de réflexion initié par Gai Écoute (PDF Download)

Quebec was the first major jurisdiction in North America (province, state, or country) to include "sexual orientation in their charter of rights (1977). Homophobia and related abuses remain rampant, however, as reported in Quand l'autre en soi grandit: les difficultés à vivre l'homosexualité à l'adolescence - Bill Ryan et Jean-Yves Frappier (L'adolescence: une réalité méconnue). French Canadian GLBT adolescents have all the problems of their English counterparts, including attending highly homo-negative schools where administrations have gone as far as stating: "We do not want any homosexuals here!" "Peu après, une travailleuse sociale contactée par Pierre et sa famille recevra le même type de réponse de la part de la direction de l'école: "On ne veut pas d'homosexuels ici!" Quebec and Alberta have a history of having the highest youth suicide rates in Canada. - Suicide an ongoing issue in the gay community. - L’homosexualité vue par les Québécoises et les Québécois: Les trois quarts de la population se disent ouverts et tolérants. - Suicide and GLB Youth - A document prepared by Project 10 of Montreal exploring the psycho-social and counselling issues related to suicide among gay, lesbian and bisexual youth N/A (PDF Download Available).

Avril 2002 (Must Scroll): "Un sondage en ligne réalisé par Citegay.com propose quelques données chiffrées sur la perception de l'homosexualité durant l'adolescence. Sur 6308 votes, 5,8% considèrent que la perception de leur homosexualité les ont amené à tenter de se suicider, 10,4% disent avoir envisagé le suicide. La perception de leur homosexualité fut une cause de souffrance pour 54,1% ( soit 3410 personnes). Pour seulement 12,6% de personnes participant au sondage, elle fut source d'épanouissement. Pour 10,7 %, la perception de leur homosexualité durant leur adolescence leur fut indifférente... Qui oserait dire que l'homosexualité ne pose pas problème chez les jeunes, et qu'une "homosexualité" traitée à l'école n'est pas une urgence sociale?" - Adolescence et homosexualité: souffrance, tabou social et inertie éducative: "...ton homosexualité...a été une cause de souffrance: 53.4%" 

Mort ou Fif: Contexte et mobiles de tentatives de suicide chez les adolescents et jeunes hommes homosexuels ou identifiés comme tels. Excerpts: Nicolas était depuis des années la cible de propos blessants et homophobes... - Les adolescents homosexuels: profils et scénarios: Deux profils. - Dans « Mort ou fif » (« fif » est l'équivalent de « pédé » en québécois), après avoir recueilli des témoignages de jeunes homosexuels qui parlent de leurs tentatives de suicide, le chercheur québécois Michel Dorais analyse le motif et le contexte de ces actes de désespoir. - Homsexualité et Suicide: Michel Dorais: Mort ou fif: La face cachée du suicide chez les garçons. - État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download) (Related Information): Les jeunes gays et le suicide, Michel Dorais. - Mort ou fif (Must Scroll): "Tous les jeunes qui découvrent leur homosexualité ne font pas une tentative de suicide. Mais cette circonstance multiplie par 16 le risque de passage à l’acte. Il n’y a rien d’étonnant à cela, tant la stigmatisation sociale est encore forte concernant cette orientation sexuelle. Chaque année, des dizaines de jeunes continuent de mourir parce qu’ils se croient seuls au monde ou monstrueux et sont victimes de l’intolérance, de l’incompréhension et, pour tout dire, de la bêtise de leurs contemporains..."

Le rejet social tue parfois (2001): Conférence sur le suicide et les jeunes hommes, le mercredi 14 février, au Grand Salon du pavillon Maurice-Pollack. "La conférence du Groupe de prévention du suicide, intitulée: ""Quand t'es seul au monde": rejet social et suicide chez les jeunes hommes"..." - Masculinisme et suicide chez les hommes (2003). - Suicide: "J'entends montrer dans ce bref article que les jeunes qui vivent l'homosexualité présentent de multiples facteurs de risque en ce qui concerne le suicide. Bien sûr, cela ne signifie pas que tous les jeunes qui vivent l'homosexualité ou qui s'identifient comme étant homosexuels deviennent tous suicidaires, mais que cette population présente des caractéristiques reconnues pour accroître la vulnérabilité personnelle et sociale..."

Pas facile d'afficher son homosexualité sans choquer: Quelque temps plus tard, il tenta de s'enlever la vie en bouchant le tuyau d'échappement de sa voiture. "L'intervenante a rappelé trois fois pour me garder éveillé. Une fois à l'hôpital, on m'a dit que si les secours étaient arrivés 15 minutes plus tard, c'était fini", confie Marc. Marie-Line St-Arnaud, directrice générale de Suicide Alerte, confirme que le rejet et les pressions sociales rendent les homosexuels plus vulnérables aux tentatives de suicide. "Il y a plus de détresse et les homosexuels sont confrontés à de nombreux stéréotypes et préjugés. Nous tenterons de l'aider dans l'immédiat, mais la personne devra aller chercher de l'aide", dit-elle...

Le phénomène du suicide chez les jeunes hommes: "L'auteure traite ce délicat sujet en exploitant des entrevues de trois jeunes hommes dont deux sont homosexuels. On pourrait s'étonner de l'insistance mise sur l'homosexualité comme facteur déterminant. En fait, ces propos rejoignent des études qui montrent que les homosexuels, les victimes d'agressions sexuelles et les autochtones sont les principaux candidats au suicide..." - Suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels : Le cercle vicieux. - Comment les parents peuvent contribuer à la prévention du suicide et à la lutte contre l’homophobie auprès de leur enfant et dans leur milieu (PDF).

From "Index N/A" - L'hebdo gai du Québec - October, 98 - Two suicide related articles: La corde au cou and L’homosexualité: facteur de risque, oui ou non?  Cases are noted to reveal that French Canadian gay boys are also attempting suicide for reasons related to their sexual orientation: lack of self-acceptance to abuse by others. One - Pierre - totaled a car in his attempt to kill himself by driving a car at 140 k/hr down a 150-feet embankment and a seat belt was not being used in the hope that death would result. Projet 10 - reports dealing with 10 to 15 suicide attempters per year, while a youth group - Jeunesse Lambda - somewhat minimized the problem. In an inadvertent way, however, the youth group had presented Pierre (suicide attempt described above) with a situation which precipitated his decision to kill himself. [In Calgary, in 1996 or 1997 - a male had attended a GLB youth group once and, soon after, committed suicide.] -  Carrefour Intervention Suicide (Québec): - La problématique du suicide dans les populations gaie, lesbienne et bisexuelle.

Le suicide et l'homosexualité. - Le suicide chez les jeunes hommes homosexuels (2001, Alternate Link). - Le suicide chez les gais et lesbiennes. - Le suicide chez les jeunes gais: Gai Écoute à l’origine de la première recherche québécoise portant sur le suicide chez les jeunes gais et bisexuels. - Une réalité à reconnaître: le suicide chez les jeunes gais. - Vous (Claude Charron) avez fait un reportage percutant sur le suicide chez les jeunes gais.Et vous êtes associé à l’organisme Gai Ecoute. C’est important pour vous?  - Histoire de vie: "Je voudrais tellement être comme tout le monde, avoir femme et enfants, mais les hommes m'attirent...Au début de la vingtaine, des pro-blèmes de santé mentale se révèlent de plus en plus chez Denis. Il devient étrange et imprévisible. Les membres de sa famille sont inquiets, on le sent souffrir beaucoup moralement. Durant deux ou trois ans, ses proches le voient dégringoler, jusqu'au jour où il devra être hospitalisé en psychiatrie. Là, on conclut à un diagnostic de schizophrénie. À partir du début de la vingtaine et jusqu'à sa mort, Denis sera épisodiquement suivi en psychiatrie. Régulièrement, il devra faire de nouveaux séjours à l'hôpital psychiatrique...La confusion sur son orientation sexuelle : un obstacle à la « normalité » de Denis... Pour Denis, vivre une vie « normale », c'est entretenir des rapports amoureux avec une personne de l'autre sexe. Au-dedans de lui-même, il n'en est pas moins confronté à la réalité complexe et ambivalente de sa libido. Son orientation sexuelle est confuse. Tout comme il a aimé avoir des relations hétérosexuelles, les hommes l'attirent et l'excitent... Deux ou trois ans avant de se suicider, il forme un couple avec un jeune homme et il fréquente des bars gais. À ses proches, il révèle alors clairement ses tendances. Cette expérience de vie commune se termine au bout de quelques mois. Selon sa famille, « ...c'était difficile à vivre pour Denis d'être ainsi tiraillé sexuellement et de ne pas répondre aux normes de la société ».

Le suicide chez les gais; la Cohorte Oméga signale de nouvelles statistiques qui soulèvent des inquiétudes: "La haute prévalence des idées suicidaires et des tentatives de suicide chez les hommes gais montréalais ainsi que les liens observés entre ces événements et l'acceptation personnelle et sociale de leur orientation sexuelle, soulignent l'urgence d'inclure ces préoccupations de façon formelle aux priorités de santé», termine le communiqué."  - Forte tendance suicidaire chez les homosexuels: (Must Scroll) Pas moins de 36% des hommes homosexuels participant à un vaste ensemble de recherches sur le sida ont déjà tenté de s'enlever la vie, révèle la première étude québécoise qui établit des liens évidents entre l'homosexualité et l'incidence du suicide... Plus encore, près de 72% des participants ont pensé au moins une fois en finir avec la vie, révèle l'étude." - Suicide et coming-out chez les gais et bisexuels montréalais.  Ya-t-il un lien? "Parmi nos participants [Cohorte Oméga], 71,3 % déclarent qu’il leur est arrivé au moins une fois d’avoir des idées suicidaires (23,5 %, une seule fois et  47,8 %, plus d’une fois). L’âge moyen à ce premier événement est de 19 ans (18,7 ans) alors que chez ceux qui rapportent avoir songé à se suicider plus d’une fois, l’âge moyen au dernier événement est de 30 ans (29,9 ans)." - Taux record de tentatives de suicide chez les homosexuels.

L'affaire Pinard: "Le 15 mars 2000, monsieur Daniel Pinard... faisait publiquement son ''coming-out'' à l'émission Les Francs Tireurs... révélant son homosexualité, et ceci, à titre de porte-parole pour le mouvement Gai-Écoute qui tente de sensibiliser la population au phénomène grandissant du suicide chez les jeunes gais. Il y dénonçait la méchanceté gratuite de certains humoristes québécois, ne se contentant pas de rire des minorités, mais pointant directement du doigt des personnalités connues. - Demystifying Homosexuality in Schools in the Chaudière-Appalachia Region: An Aid to Intervention, 1997 (PDF Download) (Download Page)

Special Issue on "Sexual Orientation" in "Vis-à-vie" by the Quebec Association of Suicidology is now available online.  La revue le Vis-à-vie, vol. 10 nº 2, 2000: Le thème de ce numéro est « Suicide et orientations sexuelles »: Un double tabou. - Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. - La honte d'être. - Mort ou fif, différence assassinée. - Événements suicidaires chez les hommes gais. - Gai écoute, 20 ans d'espoir. - Suicide-Action Montréal et Gai écoute : un projet conjoint de formation et de sensibilisation. - L'intervention dans Chaudière-Appalaches. - Histoire de vieNote: The English version of "Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions" by Pierre Tremblay and Richard Ramsay is available as "Suicidal problems of youth with homosexual or bisexual orientations: research, problems, and proposals.

Le suicide des jeunes à orientation sexuelle non conventionnelle... - L'amour entre femmes dans l'Église catholique par Débora et Judith, aux Éditions AdA Inc.: "On y retrouve également des témoignages et des statistiques qu'on ose à peine dévoiler concernant le suicide de trop nombreux gais et lesbiennes."  - L’émergence des réalités homosexuelles. Séminaire sur les chartes et les différentes formes de discrimination Juges de la Cour du Québec. Présentation de Laurent McCutcheon 17 septembre 2007. PDF., New Link

Documents PDF: - Impact du «Projet 10» sur le mieux-être sexuel de jeunes gais et bisexuels. - Faire les premiers pas - Un livret pour les jeunes gais, lesbiennes et biseuxuels N/A. - Jeunes gais/ lesbiennes 14-17 ans - Modèle d'intervention de groupe (ville de Québec). - Le suicide et l'orientation sexuelle. Document de Projet 10 Montréal sur les aspects psychosociaux du suicide chez les jeunes gais, lesbiennes et bisexuel(les). - Le livre Blanc: La prévention du suicide. - Le Suicide: Ce que vous devez savoir (PDF Document).
 

Australia / New Zealand:

Panel Presentation by Phong Nguyen (2004, PDF, Must Scroll: 'Living and Loving in Diversity' Conference Proceedings) First of all I would like to pay tribute the first people of the land and I also would like to pay tribute as a social worker in the Vietnamese community for many years and I think I’m also aware of other communities as well in multicultural communities. Today I would like to, before I say my words, I would like to pay tribute to all the young people who have died, committed suicide because of who they were. Unfortunately in some cases the only time they can say who they were was through a note after they have died and to say that they are who they were - Gay or Lesbian - and so I’d like to pay tribute to them and I think we should at conferences like this going forward to have a minute of silence to pay tribute to those young who have died becausethe only way they can show their truth, who they are, their identity is through death so I would like to pay tribute to that. 

Katherine's Purple Heart (2010): While the world has been shocked by the story of US student Tyler Clementi...“I saw the recent spate of suicides in America and there were four last week, and my friend sent me a link to an Ellen DeGeneres video about it and I confess I cried across my keyboard, I was so shocked,” she told Sydney Star Observer. “It prompted me to think if this is happening in America, what’s happening in Australia? ... The picture for Australian teens is no less bleak, with studies showing young GLBT people up to six times more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexuals. Further research also shows around 80 percent of GLBT Australians have experienced public insult, 70 percent verbal abuse, 20 percent explicit threats and 13 percent physical assault. A 2005 nationwide study of same-sex attracted (SSA) youth found that nearly 38 percent of SSA young people had experienced discrimination, with almost 50 percent reporting verbal abuse because of their sexuality, 74 percent of that abuse at school. Self-harm rates are higher for GLBT young people, particularly young females, and GLBT Indigenous Australians and those living in remote areas face increased pressures. Katherine said these statistics have prompted her to call on Australians to wear a purple armband on October 15. - Depression is rife in the lesbian community, particularly among younger women, but a range of solutions are available, Katrina Fox reports (2006). Rainbow Dreaming (2009): This year a contingent of Indigenous men will march down Sydney's Oxford Street with a very clear message: that homosexuality has always been an intrinsic part of Aboriginal culture... The sad reality is many Indigenous men who identify as gay or transgender struggle to connect with their communities and families. They're at a higher risk of suffering from depression or abusing substances and many often commit suicide.

Coming out: gay friendly schools form rainbow alliance (2010): As an openly gay teenager, Samuel Rodda has endured his share of bullying over the years. Sometimes it's been verbal abuse, other times social exclusion - like the school camp where his classmates refused to share a room with him at night, simply because of his sexuality. The 16-year-old nonetheless considers himself one of the lucky ones. He has never been bashed for being gay but knows of several teenagers who have or, worse still, attempted suicide when the homophobic attacks became too much. But, having been to four different schools in four years, he knows that ''coming out'' can be brutally tough for young people without a supportive environment. ''There's definitely a lot of ignorance in schools when it comes to gay students. Some of the schools I've been to haven't even recognised that there are gay students there,'' he says. Samuel is now in year 10 at Princes Hill Secondary College, which he says is open and accepting of its students, regardless of sexual orientation. Today, in a pre-election bid to tackle homophobia in Victoria's education system, Princes Hill will be one of 11 schools to form a ''Safe Schools Coalition''. Under the program, schools will be encouraged to set up ''gay/straight student alliances'', share resources and provide teacher training that identifies - and stamps out - homophobia in the classroom. Students and teachers will get access to support networks and be encouraged to create posters, newsletters or forums that promote sexual diversity in schools. - Gay youths face serious challenges (2007).

The Australian National Epidemiological Study of Self-Injury (ANESSI). Centre for Suicide Prevention Studies: Brisbane, Australia (2010, by Martin G, Swannell S, Harrison J, Hazell P, Taylor A). Question Asked: "Which of the following best describes you? •Heterosexual (straight)  • Homosexual (gay/lesbian) • Bisexual (bi) • Other • Don’t know/unsure" but, so it seems, no questions about transgender identities or gender nonconformity. Many questions were also asked about self-injury and having attempted suicide (Present & in the Past). Preliminary results should be published as soon as possible, but this may not happen. Note: "Data was collected from 12,006 Australians aged 10-100 years in short telephone interviews. Parental consent was required for those under 18 years. Before respondents were interviewed, they received information in the mail about the study and their rights as a participant. Interviews were conducted in six different languages." To Mention: There is some American evidence indicating that GLB (especially bisexual) University Student are at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury, will all being at risk for having attempted suicide (See: Whitlock J, Knox KL (2007). The Relationship Between Self-injurious Behavior and Suicide in a Young Adult Population. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(7): 634-640. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Full Text.). However, in the Australian document "Seeking Solution to Self-Injury: A Guide for Young People" (2010), nothing is mentioned about non-heterosexual people. "3. WHO IS LIKELY TO SELF-INJURE? There is no particular type of person who is likely to self-injure. While people who self-injure tend to be young, some adults and older people also self-injure. Boys and girls, rich and poor people, and people from all different backgrounds self-injure."

Breaking the Silence (2010, PDF): A Seminal Report from Lifeline Australia, The Inspire Foundation, OzHeIp Foundation, Centre for Mental Health Research, ANU. Suicide Prevention Australia, the Salvation Army, and the Brain and Mind Research Institute... The Report has a 2-page section on "Sexuality, Sex, Gender Diversity and Suicide" and related Recommendations: 4.13 That gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender communities be recognised as a higher risk group in suicide prevention strategies, policies and programs, and that funding for targeted approaches to prevent suicide in LGBT communities be made available. Rationale: LBGT people attempt suicide at rates between 3.5 and 14 times those of their heterosexual peers. Although it is difficult to gather statistics on completed suicides by LGBT people, LGBT people are clearly a higher risk group when considering other evidence. - 4.14 Training programs that improve the cultural competency of mainstream service providers to provide non-discriminatory and culturally appropriate services to the LGBT community need to be developed and implemented as a matter of urgency. Rationale: Discrimination and stigma are barriers to service access by LGBT people. To ensure that the LGBT community can access essential services, mainstream services require support to build their capacity to understand and deliver services to the LGBT community in a non-discriminatory and culturally appropriate manner. - 4.15 Develop and fund anti-homophobia and anti-transphobia campaigns across educational settings in Australia, and online environments. Rationale: Schools are a very common location for homophobic abuse and violence for same-sex attracted youth in Australia. Reducing homophobic abuse and violence in schools would address key risk factors for suicide, including discrimination, abuse and violence and peer rejection. Similarly, LGBT young people are high users of the internet and associated technologies and increasingly this environment is also an environment for abuse and violence. This environment needs to be utilised to better effect, as a setting for suicide prevention work for LGBT young people.

Minister for gay for Australia? (2010):  Should there be a minister for gay and lesbian affairs? The National LGBT Health Alliance has raised the question, as newly released figures show the rates of poor health in the community could be higher than thought.Previously unpublished statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, released at the recent Health In Difference conference, have prompted calls for greater inclusion of LGBTI people in national health strategies. Gay and lesbian people are four times more likely to have attempted suicide, twice as likely to have psychological problems and are more likely to suffer from a chronic illness. Compounding those problems are statistics showing that they are twice as likely to have no contact with family members, and are four times more likely to have been homeless. “Most equity groups have significant government infrastructure,” National LGBT Health Alliance chair Paul Martin said, “including a named minister or parliamentary secretary, a national advisory group, a resourced departmental unit, a national strategy and one or more funded NGO peak bodies. The LGBTI community has none of this.” Operating as a peak body representing 76 different LGBTI organisations, the Alliance remains unfunded by Government.

Position Statement: Suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender communities (2009, SPA: Suicide Prention Australia): Research findings demonstrate that suicide attempt and self-harm rates among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) communities are significantly higher than among non-GLBT populations. However, estimating reliable suicide mortality statistics for these populations remains highly problematic as sexual orientation and gender identity, unlike other demographical characteristics, are not necessarily publicly known, or readily identifiable, through existing data collection methods (such as coronial records). It is important to acknowledge the diversity within and between GLBT communities. Factors such as gender, age, cultural background, location and disability may significantly impact on life experience and the determination of appropriate responses to individual situations. Sexual orientation and gender identity should also be distinguished as independent from one another, while also recognising that individuals may or may not identify with the commonly used terms ‘gay’, ‘lesbian’, ‘bisexual’, and/or ‘transgender’. The risk of suicide and self-harm among GLBT communities is complex and is compounded by experiences of stigma, discrimination, and ‘minority stress’. Sexual orientation and gender identity alone do not necessarily elevate risk; rather, experiences of heterosexism, homophobia and transphobia are known to contribute to social isolation, poorer mental health outcomes, substance misuse, and other sociocultural and economic problems and conditions, which in turn place GLBT individuals at greater risk of suicide and self-harm. SPA recognises that strategies aimed at reducing suicide and self-harm among GLBT communities must:...

Ministerial Advisory Committee on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Health and Wellbeing (2009, PDF). Well proud: A guide to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex inclusive practice for health and human services.  Melbourne: Department of Health Victorian Government: Ministerial Advisory Committee on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Health and Wellbeing:  3.5 Services in rural areas: GLBTI people in rural areas can face additional challenges, as certain sub-groups of people in rural areas may be less tolerant of diversity in general and more homophobic. GLBTI people living in rural areas are more likely to hide their sexual orientation or gender identity, which stresses the need for the practices outlined in Section 2 (with confidentiality being particularly important). GLBTI people in rural areas can also be more isolated, with fewer social and support networks, and may have fewer opportunities to find compatible partners. There are higher rates of suicide among young people in rural areas. The risk of suicide is particularly high for same–sex-attracted or gender-questioning young people at the time of acknowledging their sexual orientation or gender identity. Suggested strategies include: • identify and work with GLBTI support groups, information networks, directories and GLBTI-sensitive health care providers and agencies so that clients can be referred to appropriate services if needed • actively address GLBTI issues in service planning and delivery, and seek input from any local or regional GLBTI community groups • respond positively when any same-sex attracted or gender-questioning client acknowledges their sexual orientation or gender identity – your service may beone of the few places where they feel they can share this. .. 6.2 Rural: Research indicates that same-sex attracted and transgender young people (SSATYP) living in rural and regional Victoria may face added pressures due to increased levels of homophobia and reduced access to SSATYP-related information, resources and organisations (Leonard, 2003). Australian research suggests that SSATYP in rural areas are at particular risk of depression and attempted suicide (Hillier et al., 1998). One report suggests that rural SSATYP are six times more likely to attempt suicide than the population as a whole (Quinn, 2003).

Uneven Ground: Mapping the terrain for LGBT young people: A Brisbane mapping report on LGBT young people and the service providers who work with them (2007. PDF Download): Twenty seven percent of gay men, 60 percent of lesbian women and 50-60 percent of transgender people experience depression and anxiety issues. Thirty to 60 percent of gay men and lesbian women have contemplated or attempted suicide, and 30 percent of transgender people have attempted suicide. The suicide rates in the LGBT community of all ages are estimated to be 2-7 times higher than the heterosexual rates... The Office for Youth, Department of Communities are currently exploring issues of suicide and self harm prevention for LGBT youth, and as such they have distributed a consultation survey to distribute to LGBT and mainstream services to collect information regarding the prevalence of these behaviours. The findings will be analysed to identify ways of ensuring the specific needs and issues of LGBT young people are considered as a part of the Office forYouth’s suicide prevention work... Compounding this lack of knowledge is the issue of paperwork changes in relation to changing gender identity, and the difficulties and hurdles inherent in this. This, and other forms of vilification and discrimination were identified by service providers as leading to increased rates of mental health issues and suicide for the transgender community. Finally, the most consistently cited gap in LGBT work was work taking place with students in schools, specifically being sexual health issues incorporating LGBT issues, and work around homophobia/sexuality. - Invisibility, safety and psycho-social distress among same-sex attracted women in rural South Australia (2004).

Coming Out Alone: An Assessment of the Needs of Same Sex Attracted Youth, Their Families, and Service providers in Western Australia (2009, PDF): Australian research found that 27% of responding gay men and 60% of responding lesbians experienced depression. Research also suggests that bisexual identifying people who are in heterosexual relationships experience significantly poorer mental health than all other sexualities but similar rates of suicide (Brown et al, 2004). Young men and women who are undecided about their sexuality have shown higher rates of deliberate self-harm than heterosexual youth or SSAY (Nicolas & Howard, 2001). Research comparisons between same sex attracted people and heterosexual people has concluded no significant differences in overall adjustment or psychiatric status (Patterson cited in Brown, Perlesz & Proctor, 2004). However, exposure to discrimination is a major risk factor associated with psychological stress and mental disorders suggesting that it is the marginalisation and discrimination of SSAY, which leads to reduced self-esteem social withdrawal and isolation. All of which are considered risk factors that contribute to mental ill health.

Submission to the Vulnerable Youth Framework discussion paper on behalf of the Ministerial Advisory Committee on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Health and Wellbeing (2008, PDF, Download Page): Homophobic abuse had a profound effect on young people’s health and wellbeing. Young people who had been abused fared worse on almost every health and wellbeing indicator in comparison to those who had not. The research suggests that the homophobic abuse and social exclusion experienced by SSAY leads to poorer health outcomes for these young people compared to their heterosexual peers. They 1. felt less safe at school, at home; on social occasions and at sporting events, 2. more likely to self-harm, report an STI, and use range of legal and illegal drugs, 3. 35% reported two main methods of self harm: self mutilation and attempted suicide, 4. more likely to have talked to someone or accessed a support organisation.

Gay slurs led to suicide (2010): Homophobic taunts played a significant role in the suicide of a 14-year-old boy, a coronial inquest has found. On July 25 2008 Kadina High School student Alex Wildman was found dead in the garage of his Lismore home. Two days earlier, months of harassment by other students culminated in Wildman being struck in the head while two other boys held his hair and a group of students looked on. Just months earlier students had left homophobic messages on MySpace, calling him gay and a faggot. - Bullying played part in suicide of Alex, 14: coroner (2010). - How bullies can wreck our lives (2010). - Gender on the agenda: Being gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender in our community (2010): How does it affect your physical and mental health if you're cast as an outsider because of your sexuality? If you're gay, bisexual or transgender in Queensland you're more likely to have depression, experience violence, be homeless, take drugs, be discriminated against or have suicidal thoughts. It can be a tough journey. On Monday, July 12 until Friday, July 16, ABC Far North will put gender on the agenda. We're telling powerful, human stories about sexuality in our community and offering you the opportunity to share your own. We'll talk and about the hurdles and triumphs.
  
Open Doors: LGBT Youth Suicide Prevention Project: The Open Doors LGBT Youth Suicide Prevention Project was funded from 2008 to 2009 by the Queensland Department of Communities. This project is no longer funded, however information produced by this project is available: - Open Doors Suicide Prevention Project Final Report (PDF 1.52MB) - Suicide Prevention Workshops - Suicide prevention manual – Department of Communities (PDF 620kB) - Living is for Everyone (PDF 3.3MB)Research and evidence in suicide prevention. - Bullying 'pushing homosexual students to suicide' (2008): The report by LGB support organisation Open Doors has prompted calls to make Queensland schools more LGB-friendly, with the report - to be published on Friday - finding around two-thirds of respondents felt unsafe at school. Open Doors surveyed 164 LGB students across the state, and 37 per cent of respondents said they had attempted suicide in the last 12 months, with 82 per cent considering taking their own life. The report also revealed a general attitude of fear among LGB students, with 81 per cent saying they had experienced bullying based on their sexuality... Sixteen-year-old Jimmi came out as a lesbian in 2006, and she said after that point she was harassed by teachers and the principal at her school... "They singled me out because they said I wouldn't fit into the mainstream school. A teacher told me that I should consider other options." She said the one teacher who supported her did so quietly, without mentioning anything to other teachers in the school...  One of the solutions he proposed was the promotion of homosexual role models in schools, but he conceded there were a lot of prejudices that needed to be overcome first. "To come out in a school as a teacher is to take a huge risk really, it's not just young people who can be discriminated against, teachers and other workers in schools can be discriminated against and not receive support from principals and whoever else," he said. - Thorpy et al. (2008). Open Doors Action Research Report 2008: There’s No Place Like Home: An Investigation into the Health and Housing of Queensland’s Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Young People. Full Text .- Queensland fails gay teens (2008).

Private Lives: A report on the health and wellbeing of GLBTI Australians (2006, PDF, Download Page): Out of the 20,000 participants in the Sex In Australia study, those who are same sex attracted reported higher levels of psychosocial distress (Smith et al, 2003). The authors attribute this phenomena to levels of homophobia in Australian society. This conclusion is born out by the work of Warner (2004) and Hillier et al (2005), both of whom are able to demonstrate the connection between mental health problems and experiences of verbal and physical abuse which is presumptively homophobic. In this study we also found a quite distressing picture of depression and suicidal ideation (thoughts). - Discrimination Damaging Gay Health: Study: Respondents to the Private Lives survey, to be released today, reported higher levels of depression compared with heterosexuals. And sixteen percent of participants said they had thought about suicide in the two weeks prior to completing the survey. Gay men and lesbians are also regular victims of verbal abuse. Sixty percent of male and 56 percent of female respondents said they had experienced personal insults because of their sexuality. Nearly 70 percent of participants said they changed their behaviour to avoid such discrimination, and about 90 percent said they refrained from showing public affection to a same-sex partner. This simple everyday pleasure, which is commonplace among heterosexuals, is clearly seldom safely experienced by same-sex couples, the study said.

Kicking and screaming (2004, PDF, Must Scroll: 'Living and Loving in Diversity' Conference Proceedings) by Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli (): What about those who send me hate mail? I’ve had letters from Christians saying I should have been drowned at birth. No, I don’t mind being thought of as a witch, I love it. Or they tell me they’re praying for [my] death. One mother wrote to tell me my book Boy’s Stuff caused her son’s suicide. Letters like that do hurt and they hurt on behalf of the young people I work with. This young man had come out in this rural area of Victoria after he’d read Boy’s Stuff. I’ve also had my old brown car scratched because I had a rainbow sticker on it. Instead of a nice little note that said, "Sorry for scratching your car, here’s my number, come and see me", it basically said, "Faggot lover". And those who harassed my daughter in primary school saying your mum works with freaks, that kind of stuff. So being straight and doing queer work means other straights decide you’re worthless. But strategically those of us who are straighties in this queer community... 

Health and sexual diversity: A health and wellbeing action plan for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex (GLBTI) Victorians (2002, PDF, Download Page): An Australian study of 403 gay men reported that 27 per cent of respondents were suffering major depression.45 In a study of 200 lesbians, 60 per cent of respondents reported feelings of depression related to their sexual orientation while 63 per cent had contemplated suicide and 30 per cent had attempted suicide.46 Studies suggest that the suicide rate among homosexuals is 2–7 times higher than that among heterosexuals.47 Estimates of the percentage of same sex attracted people who have contemplated or attempted suicide range from 31 per cent to 63 per cent.48 There is some evidence that bisexual Australians have higher levels of anxiety, depression and suicide than gay men and lesbians.49 This study also indicated that both young and middle aged GLB people had higher levels of mental illness than heterosexual people, with more adverse life events and less positivesupport from family. 

Sexuality and Youth Suicide Project (West Australia). (Not available (Archive Link), and some information related to Sexuality & Youth Suicide N/A (Archive Link) or The 'Here For Life' Youth Sexuality Project was still available, but it is now gone (Nov. 2001, Archive Link). - See the 1999 report: 'Here for Life' Youth Sexuality Project. An overview of some early results by Graham Brown (Manager, Peer Education WA AIDS Council) accessed (PDF Format N/A,  Archive Link) from Youth Suicide Prevention Bulletin No.3 June 1999 N/A, Archive Link. - School's Out: Homosexuality, Bullying and Suicide. - A Report from the Skool’s Out Forum on Homophobic Bullying and Harassment in and around Schools 2002 (PDF Download). - School's Out: Homosexuality, Bullying and Suicide (2002). - A Report from the Skool’s Out Forum on Homophobic Bullying and Harassment in and around Schools 2002 (PDF Download N/A, Archive Link, New Link).

Bisexuals at high risk for mental health problems and suicide: Homosexuals have poorer mental health than heterosexuals. Study: "Sexual orientation and mental health: results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults." Full Text. - PubMed Abstract. Study results used as part of a presentation of 'higher risk" status for individuals not belonging to socially constructed categories... People in 'No Man's Land': Link to PowerPoint Presentation. - Towards a sociocultural analysis of youth suicide: Researching the everyday narratives of urban and regional communities (PDF Download, Must Scroll, Archive Link): For example, the study will explore the nature of beliefs produced through living with youth unemployment, a difficult home life or being gay in an urban/rural community... Research suggests that young gay/lesbian/bisexual people experience homophobia and marginalisation, both of whichare associated with increased risk of suicide attempts(Nicholas and Howard 1998).

Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Hidden in the Crowd: The Need for Documenting Links between Sexuality and Suicidal Behaviours among Young People, 2003 (PDF Download, Alternate Link, Alternate Link) - Gay and Lesbian Suicide (including youth suicide). - Rural suicide and same-sex attracted youth: issues, interventions and implications for rural counsellors (2003, PDF Download, Alternate Link) (HTML Copy) Rural and Remote Health  (online), 2003: no. 222. Abstract: "Recent research into same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) suicide and rural youth suicide suggests there may be an association between the two. A literature review explores this proposal. While contributing issues to rural SSAY suicide, such as homophobia, isolation, availability of information, and acknowledgement of issues are discussed, little hard evidence is found to support the the rural and SSAY suicide connection. Further and on-going research is recommended into this under-represented topic."

Australian Government rejects anti-suicide poster: it presents being young & gay/lesbian too positively N/A (Must scroll to locate information). - 'Out of line' Judy sets back suicide prevention 50 years [for GLB youth] (Not Available: A 1997 News item from Australian Democrats). Youth and Sexuality Final Report available as Word or Text Zip file at Freedom Centre site: 'Here for Life' Youth Sexuality Project Executive Summary (Zip Word File N/A) and Final Report (Zip Word File N/A) Download Page (Gone Forever? Why?). - Health and Support for Australian Gay Males. - Spirituality, Sexuality & Suicide - bringing God & Spirituality out of the closet: "Suicide? Well there's plenty of surveys and statistics about this and the work of dozens of  organisations trying to research, understand and prevent it, like SPA and this conference. Remarkably though, few organisations have included the gay population in their research, even though this sector is one in which suicide ideation is often part of the gauntlet  which the young gay person may often face in their rocky process of coming out as someone whose sexuality flies in the face of the heterosexist model of the rest of the world around them."

Youth suicide strategy evaluated (Sydney Star Observer, Issue 533) by By Sarah Bacon (2002):"... the only project funded by the Strategy which dealt specifically with gay and lesbian youth suicide issues was the Here For Life Youth Sexuality Project (WA AIDS Council in conjunction with the Gay and Lesbian Counselling Service) which  received $250,000. Graham Brown, the health promotion officer on the Here For Life Project, says the project "went really well" considering the number of challenges - such as political battles and homophobic backlash - they had to overcome. - Australia's Valuing Young Lives: Evaluation of the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (2000, As One PDF File). - Issues Paper: Mental health issues for GLBTI Victorians (PDF Download N/A: Brown, R., Perlesz, A., & Proctor, K., ‘Mental Health Issues for GLBTI Victorians,’ in What’s the Difference? Health Issues of Major Concern to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (GLBTI) Victorians. Melbourne, Victoria (PDF Download, Download Page).  Research Report prepared by the Ministerial Advisory Committee on Gay and Lesbian Health. Published by Rural and Regional Health and Aged Care Services Division Victorian Government Department of Human Services)... Reaction to MACGLH discussion papers by Transgender Victoria (2002).

Suicide Prevention Australia 8th Annual Conference 2001 - A Human Odyssey (6 - 9 April 2001) - Session (1) "Suicide in the Gay & Lesbian Community" - Jonathan Nicholas: The Reach Out Program, Sydney - (90 minute workshop):  The incidences of suicide in the gay and lesbian community are dramatically high. Many do not have expertise in counselling in this area. The first in-depth  Australian research into completed suicide within this community sampling more than 400 people to the age of 30 has just been completed with some dramatic findings. This workshop is a must for anyone working with young people. - Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective (Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health (AeJAMH), Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2002: PDF Download, Alternate Link).

Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective (Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health (AeJAMH), Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2002: PDF Download). - Suicide Prevention Australia 8th Annual Conference 2001 - A Human Odyssey (6 - 9 April 2001): Session (1) "Suicide in the Gay & Lesbian Community" - Jonathan Nicholas: The Reach Out Program, Sydney - (90 minute workshop):  The incidences of suicide in the gay and lesbian community are dramatically high. Many do not have expertise in counselling in this area. The first in-depth  Australian research into completed suicide within this community sampling more than 400 people to the age of 30 has just been completed with some dramatic findings. This workshop is a must for anyone working with young people. - Nicholas J, Howard J (2001). Same-Sex Attracted Youth Suicide: Why are we still talking about it? Presented at the Suicide Prevention Australia National Conference, Sydney, April. The PowerPoint presentation was made available to the authors by John Howard. Study results also presented a 2006 Suicide Prevention Day Forum. PDF.

Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Ridder EM, Beautrais AL (2005). Sexual orientation and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 35: 971-981 (PDF Download, Download Page): "Cohort members with a predominantly homosexual orientation had rates of mental disorder and suicidal behaviours that were between 1.5 to 12 times higher than for those with an exclusively heterosexual orientation. These associations persisted after adjustment for confounding. The associations between sexual orientation and mental health were more marked for males than females."

Suicide and Self-harm (2002): "Suicide is a tragedy which occurs all too often and which can prevented. This book examines Australia's suicide rate and focuses on the groups most at risk - young people; middle-aged men; Aboriginal people; gays and lesbians; people from rural and remote communities; and the elderly. This book also explores the risk factors and warning signs for people who self-harm, and for those who attempt suicide; the myths of suicide; treatments for depression; understanding suicide and developing prevention strategies; and how to deal with the grief of losing someone who has taken their own life." - Jorm AF, Korten AE, Rodgers B, Jacomb PA, Christensen H (2002). Sexual orientation and mental health: results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults. British Journal of Psychiatry. 180: 423-7. PubMed Abstract. Australian study: "A community survey of 4824 adults was carried out in Canberra, Australia... Results: The bisexual group was highest on measures of anxiety,  depression and negative affect, with the homosexual group falling between the other two groups. Both the bisexual and homosexual groups were high on suicidality. Bisexuals also had more current adverse life events, greater childhood adversity, less positive support from family, more negative support from friends and a higher frequency of financial problems. Homosexuals reported greater childhood adversity and less positive support from  family. Full Text.

Tasmania: - Release on Tas gay suicide study - 2.5 times more likely to be suicide attempters (1998). - Gay Youth Study: Government response Essential (Tasmania) N/A. - Under 21: Youth Suicide. - I remember wanting to die and wanting others to feel the depth of my suffering and hopelessness: Sticks and Stones May Break Bones, But Names Hurt Even More (1999).

Outlinks - Rural GLB Youth Network:  - Summary: Sexuality & Suicide: An Investigation of Health Compromising and Suicidal Behaviours among Gay and Bisexual Male Youth in Tasmania. - An Investigation of Health compromising and Suicidal Behaviours among Gay and Bisexual Male Youth in Tasmania, Kent Fordham, 1998: "Following an earlier study which found that 10% a sample of rural 14-18 year olds report same sex attractions, a study in 1998 of a sample of rural, regional and some urban 14-18 year old same sex attracted youth by Lynne Hillier and Jenny Walsh from the Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society at La Trobe University found that 46% reported verbal and physical abuse 70% of which occurred at school. 11% reported IV drug use compared to 1% of all young people. They also report higher rates of drinking and marijuana and heroin use. Only 5% of same sex attracted youth sought help from counsellors and 14% from teachers." -  Outlink National Gay and Lesbian Rural Youth Project. - "Rural youth suicide: the issue of male homosexuality" by Edward Green (Social Change in Rural Australia, 1996).

Sexuality & Suicide (K.Fordham, Sexuality and Suicide: An Investigation of Health Compromising and Suicidal Behaviours among Gay and Bisexual Male Youth in Tasmania, Division of Community and Rural Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tasmania, September 1998, pp. 1-78. ) Study Summary: The gay and bisexual men had seriously considered suicide at twice the rate of the heterosexual men, and were more likely to have run away from home, been arrested, been involved in prostitution, to have driven while under the influence of alcohol and to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the six months preceding the survey. The gay and bisexual men generally reported lower levels of substance use than the heterosexual sample, although the rates were higher than expected in both groups. Twice as many gay and bisexual men were in a relationship compared with the heterosexual men. They were twice as likely to live alone and half as likely to be living with their parents. Consistently higher rates of health risk behaviours and psychosocial stressors were measured among those gay and bisexual men who had seriously considered suicide (suicide ideators), compared to their gay and bisexual counterparts who had not considered attempting suicide (non- suicide ideators). They were more likely to have run away from home, engaged in high levels of teenage sexual activity, had unsafe sex and been involved in prostitution. They were also more likely to have regularly been in fights, been arrested, argued with parents and teachers, lost friends as a result of coming out, been sexually abused and been the victim of homophobic violence. The suicide ideators consumed cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drugs more than the non- suicide ideators. Compared to gay and bisexual non- suicide ideators, suicide ideators had a later age of first awareness of same-sex attractions, and a younger age of both self-labelling as gay or bisexual and first same-sex sexual experience. Overall, the gay and bisexual men demonstrated a higher prevalence of suicide risk factors than the heterosexual men. Furthermore, the gay and bisexual men who considered suicide showed higher rates of suicide risk factors than those who had not.

Rural gays in misery: Report. "Their misery often led them to alcohol and drugs and even suicide." (Information was once available at the Reach Out web site. Must register and use site's search engine). - Working it Out - "Working It Out" Committee: Adressing Sexuality Issues. - Rural youth suicide: convention, context and cure: Speech by Chris Sidoti, Human Rights Commissioner to the Australian College of Health Service Executives (SA) Seminar, Adelaide, 14 October 1999. - Rural suicide and same-sex attracted youth: issues, interventions and implications for rural counsellors (2003, PDF).

Tasmania: ...a 16 year old man, Captain of his Launceston high school, killed himself last week after being constantly harassed for being gay (Sept. 1999). He died because this society did everything it could to encouraged his death and nothing to stop it. It instilled in him a deep and abiding sense of shame and worthlessness. It filled his peers with a profound ill-will, armed them with the words to inflict their malice, and permitted them to attack. Then, having systematically made his young life hell, society just as systematically denied him all hope. - Rodney Croome Says Society is Encouraging Deaths: Youth Suicides Due to Narrow Social-Sexual Pressures (1999): "Tasmanian gay activist, Rodney Croome condemned what he described as the' tyranny of heterosexuality' at the launching of the Victorian Law Foundation's new book, A Just Society?

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health and Wellbeing Needs Assessment. Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services’ Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Reference Group (Blanch Consulting Pty Ltd., 2003, PDF): Contemporary research indicates that health and wellbeing issues faced by GLBT people include higher rates of suicide and drug and alcohol use and are they are at increased risk of homelessness than the general population. The research also finds that these health and wellbeing issues are an outcome of homophobic/transphobic harassment and discrimination... 4.7.1 Suicide: Studies indicate that a range of factors is associated with increased suicide risk, though there is much debate over the level of risk of suicidal behaviour and resultant protective measures necessary. Whilst mental illness is considered one of the highest risk factors, it is erroneous to assume that all suicidal behaviour is connected to mental illness or mental health problems... • A study of 403 gay men in Australia in 2000 indicated that 27% experienced major depression; • A study of 200 lesbians in Sydney (1992) found that 60% reported feeling depressed, 63% had contemplated suicide and 30% attempted suicide30; • A study of the transgender/transsexual group that found that 32% attempted suicide; and • Department of Human Services Youth Suicide Task Force Report in 1998 found same-sex attracted young people (SSAY) in Victoria to be six times more likely to attempt suicide than the population as a whole... The results of the first Australian population-based study that involved a comparison of the health status of young lesbians and bisexual women with heterosexual women were released at the Health in Difference 4 Conference in Sydney, November 2002. More than 9,000 young women participated in the Women's Health Australia study and among its findings were that young non-heterosexual women reported higher levels of depression and anxiety than young heterosexual women and twice as many non-heterosexual women reported that life was not worth living. The Tasmanian Sexuality and Suicide paper32 found that more than twice the proportion of the gay and bisexual male participants considered suicide compared to heterosexual participants. This was found to correlate with other studies about suicide ideation among gay and bisexual male youths. The interviews conducted with sexual minority young people in the North West (Working it Out) also found that extremely low self-esteem and reactions or fears about coming out directly contributed to suicidal thoughts and self-harm... [Tasmiania citations: 32 Fordham, K, (1998) Sexuality & Suicide, An Investigation of Health Compromising And Suicidal Behaviours Among Gay and Bisexual Male Youth In Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Thesis Study.33 Hogge, R. (1998) Working it Out, A Needs Analysis of Sexual Minority Youth in North West Tasmania]

Special Report: Queer Street Youth: In an OUTinPerth special report, journalist Scott-Patrick Mitchell examines how the rise in homelessness has affected queer street youth in Western Australia: ‘When I first came out on the streets, I was meeting say maybe one new kid a week, or even one a fortnight,’ says Dwayne, a 24-year-old homeless gay man. ‘But now it seems to be getting to the stage where it’s half a dozen to a dozen new people every week.’ ... For those who are not only homeless but also queer – be that gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual or transgender – the struggle to survive on the street is often even harder... Esben Kass, from mobile youth service Step One, agrees in part with Dwayne about the difficulties GLBT street youth face. ‘We have quite an issue with a lot of same-sex attracted young people entering into crisis accommodation because of the harassment they get from the other kids. It contributes to them returning to the streets. It [GLBT youth] is a difficult group to place into accommodation services, especially if you are dealing with transgender or any sort of those issues. Accommodation services just seem to give up with that.’

Corboz J, Dowsett G, Mitchell A, Couch M, Agius P, Pitts M (2008, PDF). Feeling Queer and Blue: A Review of the Literature on Depression and Related Issues among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Other Homosexually Active People. A Report from the Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University. Prepared for beyondblue: The National Depression Initiative.

There is a pervasive tendency in the literature to exclude bisexual people or to obscure them by collapsing bisexual samples into gay, lesbian or same-sex-attracted categories. The studies that did explore bisexual people separately from homosexual people consistently showed that bisexuals have higher rates of depression or depressive symptoms than heterosexual people and, further, in some cases are at the same or even higher risk of depression than homosexuals. In an important study that analysed data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health, McNair et al. (2005) found that in a cohort of women aged 22 to 27 years, bisexual women showed consistently poorer mental health outcomes than exclusively heterosexual, bisexual and exclusively/mainly homosexual women on almost all measures. Further, in a cohort of women aged 50 to 55, mainly heterosexual women had the poorest mental health outcomes on all measures when compared with women in any other group. In another Australian study conducted in Canberra, Jorm et al. (2002) sampled both men and women and found that the bisexual group had significantly higher depressive symptom scores than the homosexual group which, in turn, had significantly higher depressive symptoms scores than the heterosexual group (respectively: 3.93 vs. 2.93 vs. 2.62, p < .001). These results are strongly confirmed by the ARCSHS studies. For instance, in the Writing Themselves in Again study (Hillier et al. 2005), young bisexual people were significantly more likely than homosexual respondents to report dissatisfaction with both themselves (23.3 percent vs. 14.5 percent, z = 4.02, p < .001) and their lives (17.2 percent vs. 6.7 percent, z = 6.26, p < .001). Overall, the literature suggests that higher rates of depression in non-heterosexual people may be slightly inflated due to even higher rates of depressive symptoms in bisexuals.   

Ignored to death: Representations of young gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in Australian youth suicide policy and programs - 1996 (Alternate Link). - "A [1998] mental health conference in Sydney addressing gay and lesbian youth suicide has heard the problem is still largely ignored by governments and rural communities." - Suicide prevention projects Ignore Sexuality (1998). - Call for action to combat youth-gay suicide rate (1998). - Gay youth suicide prevention may be missing the mark (1999). - Youth suicide in Australia: What are the causes and risk factors for suicide among young people? Multiplicity of factors linked to youth suicide (Homosexuality is not mentioned in the document "Youth suicide in Australia - A Background Monograph". Is this an example of "being ignored to death"?). - The Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society has published a report "Don't ask, don't tell - Hidden in the crowd: the need for documenting links between sexuality and suicidal behavious among young people" in May 2003... Gay Issues continue to be ignored?: "The series on male suicides and the letters following their publication (The Age, August 2003) all seem to have ignored one of the main at-risk groups - gay males, particularly in the 15-24 year- old age group. Is this because our society continues to be so homophobic or is it because the mainstream media continue to ignore the issue? The recently issued report: "Don't Ask Don't Tell - Hidden in the Crowd: Documenting the links between sexuality and suicidal behaviours among young people" (Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, 2003) states that suicide is one of the leading causes of death among 15-24 year olds in Australia. The report further states that research in Australia has identified that same-sex attracted young people may be up to six times more likely to attempt suicide than the population in general, with those in rural areas being particularly at risk. Nowhere in your reports or letters were these matters raised. Maybe you should now spend some time on asking questions about these at-risk young people in our communities - or are we now a society that no longer worries about our younger people, particularly if they are gay or lesbian?"

Ian's goal to educate kids (1998): - Roberts, Australia's first leading sportsman to declare his homosexuality, has received hundreds of letters from youths frightened and bewildered about their sexuality. He proposed the development of an education kit to be made available in all schools. "If people read the letters I've had about kids being suicidal, and knowing people who have committed suicide, you know it wouldn't be a problem to be introduced," he said. - A challenge to the stereotypes (1997. Ian Roberts: Finding Out, by Paul Freeman): "The social problem of homophobia, as Freeman shows, still remains, of course. Gay youth are made homeless by being thrown out by intolerant parents; gays are victims of hate crimes, verbal harassment and the assault of images of heterosexuality as “normal”. All this drives some gay youth to suicide attempts." -  Ian Roberts slams Jason Akermanis over gay comments (2010): And retired Olympic swimmer Daniel Kowalski has also attacked comments from Akermanis, who controversially encouraged gay players to stay in the closet... "One of the things that really upsets me is the kids in the suburbs who aren't dealing with their sexuality. The gay suicide rate is high. There are kids out there wanting advice and a knucklehead says things like these.

Finding the Message in the Story (2008): When I started thinking of writing articles about being young and gay, I immediately became acutely aware of not lapsing into the instances of cliché that dominate young and gay writing. I didn’t want to be mentioning the “what about kids” question, or the “coming out” saga, or the loneliness. With my intelligence and sophistication (yeah, right), I believed I could rise above that shit. I was beyond that – those thoughts and issues would offer me nothing. Many groups of people, but none more so than arrogant teenagers, detest clichéd emotional expression. They hate its contrived sentimentality, the meaninglessness of the language teenagers use to describe their feelings. They perceive the poems of the two girls who suicided in Melbourne two months ago as pathetic, unintellectual, naïve and immature... It is those who wage unconditional war on the cliché that we should be worried about. Those who believe emotional expression can only be validated by a standard of what they deem “artistry” are denying themselves a body of artistic possibilities from which they could really benefit. I think this is especially valid for gay boys and girls in high schools, who are often lonely and isolated from any prospect of a relationship but who might not seek the stories of those who have experienced the same pains. Opening our minds can yield valuable reassurance, and those kids need all the reassurance they can get. 

I’m From Sydney, Australia (2009): I’ve always known that I was gay. Well before I had even heard the word, or knew its full implications. I never believed it to be wrong, how could love be so? But growing up in a small country town with a combination of conservative Catholic parents and religious schooling,... It was probably more a cry of help than any real serious attempt, but at twenty one I attempted suicide. An overdose of pills, washed down with scotch. I can remember being completely surprised at how many family and friends visited me in the hospital. I remember thinking they don’t understand me. I didn’t even feel that I understood myself. Unfortunately, it was beyond me at the time to give any real explanation for my actions, and so any chance to do so was lost... So what’s a closeted, gay, alcoholic madman to do? Marry her, of course. We married the following year. It seemed to an outsider looking in that I was getting my life back together. Could that be so wrong?  A few years later our only child, a daughter, was born... I am writing this now sitting in my inner-city studio apartment. Forty three years young. I love my gay friendly neighbourhood, and I love this city. My Indonesian born boyfriend and I live with a gay feline diva we call Oscar. My uni-attending daughter, now jokingly referred to as the fag hag, comes over every second weekend. Ten years of Buddhist practise has grounded me, nearly seventeen years of being sober and clean has healed me of many demons. I reflect on all those years living the lie, and trying to drown the truth away in a sea of booze and alcohol. Being gay is simply a part of me, as it has always been.   

  From XY Magazine (1995): "Young male suicide - reversing the trend." (Alternate Link) Reporting on a suicide prevention conference: "One other excellent paper, by Kenton Penley of the Second Storey Youth Health Centre in Adelaide, reported the dearth of research into the effects of heterosexism and homophobia on youth suicide rates." "But two out of 50 [papers presented] is a damming illustration of how the community of "anti-suicide workers" regards the need to ask how gender construction effects suicide rates." - Homophobia and masculinities among young men (Lessons in becoming a straight man) (1997): Many lesbian and gay young people have negative experiences and memories of schools and education [Nickson, 1996: 163]. They experience verbal and physical harassment and violence,[4] marginalisation, and other injustices in what is a systematic pattern of bigotry, exclusion and oppression. The consequences of this for gay and lesbian students are increasingly well documented, and include isolation, confusion, marginalisation, higher rates of personal stress and alienation, lowered self-esteem and self-hate, poor school performance, dropping out of school, homelessness, drug and alcohol abuse, and suicide.

Silence is where the hate grows (1997, Alternate Link): - in reference to mainstream suicidologists avoiding "homosexuality" issues in adolescent suicide research and prevention work:  "Although Casey reckons he "always knew" he was gay, he became one of the kids who was "forced into doing it". After moving to Sydney, Casey was drawn into a string of abusive "relationships"...Because of his low self-esteem borne of the silence, Casey says he was easy pickings for deeply-closeted homosexual "sick tickets" who found more pleasure in hearing screams for mercy as they held knives to the throats of other parents' sons than in real and open love... Starved of real love and left with little hope, Casey, like many young gays, turned to chemical "friends" to fill the void. His only human friends became the other youngsters traded by the "sick tickets"... "Of the thirteen of us, I'm one of only three that's still alive today," Casey says. "Most of my friends blew their heads off, some of them OD'd and some of them have died from AIDS. They were all bright kids with talents and promising futures."

Christmas can be Gay, but not Very Merry (1997): "Youth worker Ralph Graham says that while Christmas is a hard time for many people who cannot be with their loved ones, it is particularly hard for homosexuals. Coming to terms with their sexuality and fear of rejection can be too much. The pressure is reflected in homosexual suicide statistics around the festive season... Last year Ralph received three calls from people attempting suicide in the lead-up to Christmas. All three were young men trying to come to terms with their sexuality. One had the support of his parents, another had not yet told them and the third was not comfortable with being gay, fearing rejection from his parents, family and friends." - A gay man who survived a mutual suicide pact with his lover (1995, Alternate Link).

Shane Hughes is a 23 year old bisexual who lives in Adelaide, South Australia. "Between the ages of 14 and 21, Shane attempted suicide several times because he could not deal with his sexuality and the feelings he was having." More on Shane Hughes: How a Gay Son Finally came out to his Parents (1998, Must Scroll): "Mrs Hughes, who lives at Victor Harbour with husband Graham, said that after the initial shock, there was a sense of relief. He’d had suicide attempts and we didn’t understand why. We questioned ourselves." Mrs Hughes said. "...Mrs Hughes, who lives at Victor Harbour with husband Graham, said that after the initial shock, there was a sense of relief. He’d had suicide attempts and we didn’t understand why. We questioned ourselves." Mrs Hughes said... Shane Hughes is 25 and happy – but it wasn’t always the case. He recalls his primary school days, when he noticed he was attracted to boys as well as girls. "I didn’t really do anything about it until my early high school days, when I started feeling my way around, if I can put it that way," he said. "I got mixed up from there. I had a hard time of it. Maybe because it was all happening for me and I didn’t have any positive gay role models..."

The Wakeup Call (1998, Alternate Link): I just received the news that my friend Robert killed himself early this morning. I was not surprised. Indeed at the time I felt absolutely nothing; a kind of emotional numbness I guess. He was a difficult man to like, let alone love, but I could see the hurt child in him and I loved that child. Robert called me last night. I guess his call was a type of suicide letter. The pain he was in was obvious, the deep sense of isolation he felt was palpable. His 27 years of life had been a long series of rejections, one after another... Summary: Robert was sexually abused as a boy, expelled from his adopted Christian family when his homosexual orientation was discovered at age 14, survived via street prostitution in Brisbane, contracted HIV, developed AIDS, and killed himself in a way that may be deemed "an accident" by the investigating authorities. Sometimes a friend, such as Martin Worterding, may know that it was not an accident and he remains emotionally troubled because he is part of a society not deemed "innocent" with respect to such ultimately fatal outcomes.

Homosexuality and Suicide (1995, Part 2, Part 1) by Ed Green with Margaret Appleby (From: The Suicide-Prevention Information Centre): Difficulties experienced in the 'coming out' stage..., Difficulties in the school environment..., Lack of friends and role models..., Discrimination in the workplace..., Violence towards gays and lesbians..., Problems when sexuality is hidden..., Attitudes of some religious denominations..., Isolation in rural communities..., Higher risk for AIDS..., Providing support for homosexuals..., Bibliography. (Extract from the "Suicide Awareness for Aboriginal Communities" by Margaret Appleby & Dr. Raymond King Colleen, Brown Publishers - Rose Education). - Crucial statistics about same sex attracted youth: The following statistics are based on a range of social research conducted at Australian universities [1995-1998]. It paints a picture of difficulty and marginalisation for same sex attracted youth - all the more reason to adopt and promote tolerant attitude in schools, homes and workplaces.

Homo! Poofter! Faggot! Youth Focus Article (1998, Must Scroll) : A 17-year-old gay male describes his adolescent environment, a life a many suicide attempts, the uselessness of psychiatrists (at least for his problems), and a bleak outlook for the future "I've been rejected enough by family in my life, so losing friends would have just thrown me," he explained. But school was not easy for him. "Along with friendship break-ups at school, being gay just topped it off." He attempted suicide over a dozen times. "I lose count! I swallowed half a dozen different pills, drank nearly every household chemical we had, and slit my wrists."" - Youth at Risk: "Homelessness, Sexual Abuse, Family Rejection HIV: All are contributing to Gay Youth suicides." - An Australian expert reports that  New Zealand has done very little to stop young gays and lesbians from committing suicide. - Gay Catholics Challenge Archbishop Pell on Youth Suicide.

Prejudice can Affect Health: Australian Medical Association: "he cited a 1996 Australian study that showed that over half of gay male youths had attempted suicide. "Because of homophobia, people are suffering. Young people are dying. There can be no excuses for delays in achieving justice and human rights for all people. Lives depend on it," said Phelps. "There was very wide consultation in reaching this position statement," Phelps told Reuters Health. "I believe that it's a very important document, and it's one which the AMA will be disseminating widely to community groups and medical colleges and universities." - AMA Federal President, Dr Kerryn Phelps, To The Amnesty International Global Human Rights Conference (2002): "Why Homophobia is a Health Issue." - Sexual Diversity and Gender Identity Position Statement of AMA (Alternate Link).

"Combating Lesbian and Gay Youth Suicide and HIV/AIDS Transmission Rates: An Examination of Possible Education Strategies in Western Australian High Schools in Light of Prevailing State Statutes" by Christopher N Kendal & Sonia Walker (E Law - Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, Vol 5, No 4, 1998): All of the above create an environment where suicide is considered a tangible option by far too many young lesbians and gay men...  - Aspects of youth suicide: summary report of a seminar (1997): 21. Sexuality is also a suicide risk factor for young people. Although there is little statistical data on whether young people who are confused or harassed over their sexuality are at greater risk of suicide, anecdotal evidence suggests that sexuality can be a strong influencing factor. Professor Kosky told the seminar that although statistics do not show an over-representation of homosexuals in completed suicides, clinical psychiatrists feel that in truth, they are over-represented. This is because many suicides linked to feelings of, or abuse because of, homosexuality may not be reported as such. 22. One invited representative pointed out that for all teenagers, including young gays and lesbians, there are four main support groups - their family, their peers, the church and school. For young homosexuals, these support groups may become alienating and/or hostile when homosexuality is revealed. Many young homosexual people fear alienation and rejection, placing them in a situation of depression, loneliness and despair, factors recognised as triggers for suicidalbehaviour.

Talking Sexual Health: A teaching & learning resource for secondary schools (2001, Implementing the National framework for Education About STIs, HIV/AIDS and Blood-Borne Viruses in Secondary Schools) PDF. Note: the section on sexual minority (gay, lesbian, bisexual) students and teachers leaves much to be desired. For example: "Teachers who are not gay and lesbian can challenge stereotypes and affirm diversity by not revealing their sexuality to students. They can also use inclusive terms when referring to relationships e.g. partner instead of husband and wife. It is easy and safe for a teacher to place gay and lesbian people as ‘other’, by ensuring that students know they are heterosexual. It is more powerful for this to be unknown to assist in breaking down myths and discrimination." Comment: The first part is good but the proposition that heterosexual teachers are NOT to mention the existence of their wives and children - all meaning that they are heterosexual - or will be presumed to be - is to live in dreamland, as if heterosexual teachers would ever accept to be closeted heterosexual, as it is inherently suggested that GLB teachers should remain closeted.

Smith A, Agius P, Mitchell A, Barrett C, Pitts M (2009). Secondary Students and Sexual Health 2008, Monograph Series No. 70, Melbourne: Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society, La Trobe University (PDF - Note: Report does not contain survey results related to homosexuality, but related information was solicited).  - Secondary students and sexual health 2008 (2009): "Same sex attraction: The proportion of students reporting a sexual attraction exclusively to those of the opposite sex declined between 2002 and 2008 surveys. This decline was most marked for young men in Year 12, with the proportion of students reporting heterosexual sexual attraction dropping from 96% to 90%. There was also a marked increase in the number of students from this group who were unsure of their sexual attraction. This may well be indicative of schools dealing better with the issues and students feeling more comfortable to sit with their uncertainty rather than feeling rushed to a decision. Almost one in 10 students surveyed reported their most recent sexual encounter was with someone of the same sex. For young men, the likelihood of having a same sex encounter at the most recent sexual experience had increased from 2% in 2002 to 8% in 2008."

The primary report of the Australian Study of Health and Relationships is published as the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Volume 27, Number 2, April 2003. Sex in Australia: Summary findings of the Australian study of health and relationships (PDF): Sexual identity, attraction and experience: In presenting the results of the survey the terms ‘lesbian’, ‘gay’ and ‘bisexual’ are used to describe only those people who identify by these terms and not those who are attracted to others of the same sex or who have had sexual experience with others of the same sex but do not themselves identify with these terms. In this study 97.4% of men identified as heterosexual, 1.6% as gay and 0.9% as bisexual. For women 97.7% identified as heterosexual, 0.8% as gay and 1.4% as bisexual. Nevertheless, 8.6% of men and 15.1% of women reported either feelings of attraction to the same sex or some sexual experience with the same sex. Half the men and two thirds of the women who had same sex sexual experience regarded themselves as heterosexual rather than homosexual. This illustrates that same sex attraction and experience are more common in Australia that is indicated by the relatively fewpeople reporting a homosexual or bisexual identity.

Our son committed suicide because his Church regarded him as a sinner and his state regarded him as a criminal (1999). - Cranebrook is the fourth school he has had to leave. He has attempted suicide three times and receives regular psychological counselling (1997). - Help for parents dealing with youth suicide and homosexuality. A program run by Jesuit Social Services N/A.- In Queensland, schools left to decide whether GBL-positive materials will be incorporated in their suicide prevention programs N/A

Between 40,000 and 60,000 young Australians attempt suicide each year. Thirty per cent of those attempts are related to homophobia and sexuality. Despite this, only 300 out of 853 youth suicide prevention projects mention the “gay issue”, and only 12 address it in their programs. - Study examining lives of gay, lesbian teachers, students and ex-students in schools found (1994). - College hate campaign sparks reform call (2000, Note: White Print on White Background. Use: "ctrl + a"): ."The offending students in this case clearly intended to use homophobia as a weapon to inspire others to hatred and violence towards an innocent person. People who engage in hate speech must be held accountable for the results of that speech." Walker's comments were supported by Union Secretary Lisa Chesters, who urged LGBTs to join the Silver Wheat Society's campaign for anti-vilification coverage. Chesters told Queensland Pride the union had received information from individual students for several years that homophobic and sexist harassment were rife in a number of residential colleges on the campus. "The difficulty the union has faced has been that, until recently, none of these students had been willing to lodge a formal complaint or to come forward openly to make allegations. These students have been understandably fearful that retaliation would follow any such publicity." Chesters said.

Boys learn to be homophobic in the primary school playground, an academic says. (Melbourne Herald Sun, 27/12/'99) "...homophobia peaks in the mid to late teens, with boys in Years 8 and 9 reporting they use the word "poofter" 25 to 50 times a day... "At that age it is extremely powerful - in fact 'poofter' was ranked as the worst thing that a boy could be called." - Anti-homophobia plan may curb suicide rate: (Alternate Link, must scroll) "It started after surveys found bullying of same-sex attracted students was rife. A study of 1200 rural high school students found 11 per cent of teens aged 14-16 were attracted to the same sex. Another study of same-sex attracted teens found 13 per cent had suffered physical abuse and 46 per cent had suffered verbal abuse. Nearly 70 per cent of the abuse happened at school: 60 per cent by other students, 10 per cent by friends and 3 per cent by teachers. "It is total bullying," said Mr Rojas-Morales. "It begins at primary school."

Students admit same sex attraction. (Sydney Morning Herald - 29/12/'99 - Smith A, Lindsay J, Rosenthal D (1999). Same-sex attraction, drug injection and binge drinking among Australian adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23-6, 643-6 - Abstract):  6% of grade 10-12 students report having same-sex attractions and are at higher risk for a number of problems. - Silencing (Homo)Sexualities in School ... A Very Bad Idea (2005): A good deal of research has positioned SSA young people as ‘at-risk’, using data which places heterosexual-identifying adolescents as a ‘control group’ and citing elevated drug and alcohol use, suicide attempts/ideation, and risky sexual practices among the population of SSA young people. This type of research problematises the SSA young people themselves, rather than the environments which they are subject to and the harassment they may be experiencing therein. - 11 Year Old Youngest In Australia To Undergo TG Therapy (2003): "The suicide rate amongst transgenders is so high (43 per cent of transgenders in Australia have committed suicide or have made an attempt) and I don't want a dead child." (Alternate Link)  

The abuse of a gay male adolescent in a Melbourne school is implicated in suicide. A newspaper, The Age, printed a related article (Nov, 1998 - not available online) resulting in two letters to the editor that outline the highly negative situation existing in schools for gay and lesbian youth. - From a May, 1998 "The Age" article: "Parents need to ask themselves if they would prefer our schools to deal sensitively with homophobia, or read about a child's anguish in a suicide note." From the Hunter Institute of Mental Health: An innovative mental health education program, servicing the Hunter Region and Northern New South Wales - Module 10: Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide. - Module 10 available as PDF Download: Despite the current controversy surrounding the actual prevalence of suicide among gay and lesbian young people, it is likely that a young gay or lesbian person will experience some form of prejudice due to their sexual orientation. It has been argued that, as a consequence of such prejudice and discrimination, gay and lesbian young people are more likely to experience risk factors for suicide such as depression, substance abuse and homelessness. The issues relevant to gay and lesbian young people include both external and internal pressures. 

 

Some of the Submissions Containing GLBT Suicidality Related Information.  Submissions to The 2009-2010 Senate Community Affairs References Committee Inquiry into Suicide in Australia (Download Page) (The Report, June 2010: The Hidden Toll: Suicide in Australia - PDF, Download Page and HTML Version):

ACON's Submission to The Senate Community Affairs References Committee Inquiry into Suicide in Australia (PDF): International and national research estimates that the rate of suicide attempts for GLBT people is 3.5 to 14 times higher than for their heterosexual peers. Further, it is well recognised that suicide and self harm rates for same-sex attracted youth and GLBT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are even higher. Given this unacceptable and alarming situation ACON welcomes the opportunity to comment on this very important issue... Part B. Accuracy of Suicide Reporting in Australia: Suicide statistics reported by government authorities such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics currently do not contain figures on suicide of GLBT individuals. The data is not and cannot be disaggregated by sexual orientation or gender identity because the data collected do not contain sexual orientation or gender identity indicators. Current demographic indicators include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, age, sex and location. By expanding the number of indicators to include sexual orientation and gender identity, our understanding of which priority groups commit suicide at disproportionate levels would be improved, which would enhance the accuracy of suicide reporting in Australia and a create stronger of evidence base for policy and program development. Creating an opportunity to report on the sexual orientation and gender identity of an individual in coronial reports and collecting this data is however not sufficient to ensure accuracy... - 2008 ACOSS Conference Speech: Mark Orr, ACON President: Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) perspectives on social inclusion/exclusion: A snapshot of the GLBT community 

The Causes of the Causes: Oppression and Suicide - Beyond an Individualistic Mental Illness Perspective (by Catherine Keating, Hanna Rosenthal, Jacinta Wainwright & Kate Bennett, 2009, PDF): Oppression, Power & Suicide: Women; & Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) People: • Research evidence demonstrates that the discrimination, rejection and abuse experienced by LGBT people has a negative impact on their health and wellbeing and significantly increases the risk of suicide. • Addressing the higher risk of suicide for LGBT communities requires changing the social and institutional norms that support discrimination and prejudice due to sexual orientation. Interventions should also target family, school and workplace settings given the high prevalence of rejection, abuse and prejudice in these contexts... Social norms and institutions that significantly advantage some people or groups and disadvantage others are evident across society. Increasingly, research has highlighted that the discrimination and prejudice experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in their everyday life is linked with depression; alcohol and drug use; and suicide (Diaz et al., 2001; Harper & Schneider, 2003; Hillier et al., 2005; Johnson et al., 2007; McNair et al., 2001; Pitts et al., 2006; Rogers, 2007). Of interest to this submission, one British study (Johnson et al., 2007) identified that an incident of discrimination often preceded suicide attempts, suggesting that suicidal distress is not simply the result of individualised problems but the response by some LGBT people to institutionalised discriminatory practices perpetrated through education, health services, religion, media and the family. As a result of heterosexism and homophobia in the broader social and political context, LGBT people experience feelings of guilt, shame, and fear of their sexual orientation being identified, and often modify their daily activities and behaviour due to fear of prejudice, discrimination and abuse (Diaz et al., 2001; McNair et al., 2001; Pitts et al., 2006). The capacity to develop a positive self identity and self worth is hindered under such conditions, (Johnson et al., 2007) and negative beliefs and feelings related to gender stereotypes and homophobia experienced in the broader social context is often internalised (Harper & Schneider, 2003; Oritz-Hernandez, 2005). Those who experience discrimination and prejudice across a number of areas are even further disadvantaged... Unlike the experience of other marginalised groups, LGBT people often experience rejection and abuse from family and friends due to their sexual orientation (Brown, 2002; Harper & Schneider, 2003). The threat and everyday experience of harassment, violence and abuse particularly for young LGBT people in their home, school and their workplaces is alarming Many same sex attracted young people hide their sexual orientation or lead a double life to protect themselves from abuse and rejection adding a significant burden of personal stress (Harper & Schneider, 2003). It is evident that if we are to address the increased psychological distress experienced by LGBT people, we must remove discrimination, positively recognise same sex relationships and increase the legitimacy and acceptance ofdiverse sexual orientation within the social and political context (Pitts et al., 2006)...

Jake Lucas (PDF): Early 2001 a young man named Mark had accepted his sexual orientation, until he was repeatedly told by his church that God did not support him being homosexual. He tried in vine to explain to them he didn't choose this, it was who he was. Mark couldn't take the pressure anymore, he ended his life leaving this note to God "I just don't know how else to fix this." ... Mary Wallner, a very devoted Christian was led by the Church to condemn her Lesbian daughter, after Anna her daughter hanged herself. Her grieving mother Mary now says "If I can sheer just oneperson away from the pain and anguish I've been living, then maybe Anna's death will have meaning."

The Gender Centre Inc., Sydney, Australia (A, PDF): LGBT Organisations: Issues of Sex and Gender Diversity are often seen as an “add-on” for organisations focused around sexuality and/or sexual health. This ‘inclusion’ is not a comfortable one – either for Sex and Gender Diverse people, or for many of the organisations affected. Issues of Sex and Gender Diversity are fundamentally different from issues of sexuality, and organizations whose primary goal is focused around sexuality generally have little motivation to direct resources to Sex and Gender Diverse issues. Roughly 40% of Sex and Gender Diverse people identify as heterosexual and are not comfortable accessing services that have been designed to meet the specific needs of gays and lesbians. Levels of discrimination against Sex and Gender Diverse people from within the gay and lesbian community are at least as high as they are within in the broader community... In Conclusion: As already said the issue of suicide is pertinent for all Australia and for the transgender population the issues of extremely significant because of the risks and experiences transgender people are exposed to that make them more vulnerable to succumbing suicidal behaviors and actions. The Gender Centre as the leading Centre for advocacy of this marginalized community urge the senate to take note of the issues and ideas discussed in this paper and recognize that there is a great need for action to resolve the threat to the health and well being of the transgender population inAustralia in an appropriate and open understanding framework.

The Gender Centre Inc., Sydney, Australia (B, PDF): The Gender Centre as the peak organization for transgender people in NSW has a plethora of anecdotal evidence on the subject of suicide. It is by combining this anecdotal evidence with the statistical data available that a picture of transgender suicide in Australia can be formulated. The SPA position Statement (2009) does argue that the current research that is available indicates that the prevalence and rates of self harm and attempted suicide are significantly higher amongst transgender people than among non transgender populations.

Tasmanian Council for Sexual & Gender (PDF): Diverse People IncWithin six months of entering work Laurence had suicided. The investigation brought no understanding to his parents beyond the comment of the police that ‘there was some evidence of bullying at work from comments on the toilet wall’. The coronial inquiry and investigation gave no reason or motivation about the suicide. In Laurence’s parents opinion the right questions were not asked and everyone seemed to be in denial. Laurence’s parents were desperate in their grief to understand and find some meaning to Laurence’s terrible final act. Stories were rife in town. People actually crossed the road to avoid the family. Michael finally broke his silence to tell of Laurence’s awful burden and secret – he was also at breaking point and has never recovered from his depression. Laurence’s mother blamed herself - in having signed the pledge to bring her son’s up Catholic she felt she had signed Laurence’s death warrant...

Stephen Kilkeary: Social Stressors and Male Suicide (2009, PDF): 4. Male suicide afflicts certain men in particular contexts: Male suicide does not affect all men equally but instead, affects certain men in specific contexts in particular. For example, Page, et al. (2006) found that while there has been a downward trend in the overall suicide rate for young men in Australia, for young men from low socio-economic backgrounds, the suicide rate is actually increasing. Moreover, young gay men are much more likely to attempt suicide than their straight counterparts, a tragedy that is directly linked to the high incidence of homophobia in Australia (Dyson, et al., 2003; Hillier, et al., 2005). It is stunning policy hypocrisy that the same Christian organisations that governments fund to provide suicide prevention services aggressively perpetrate hatred toward gay men. I know of gay men who have been suicidal and who have contacted such organisations for support, only to be abused because of their 'depraved' lifestyles.

National LGBT Health Alliance Submission (2009, PDF): Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islands people Health outcomes for Australian Indigenous people are the poorest of any demographic group in Australia across all areas, resulting in average mortality 17 years earlier than the general population. LGBT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islands people face the same challenges as other Indigenous Australians, with some issues being compounded by their sexual or gender identity... Almost no research has been conducted on the specific experiences of LGBT Indigenous Australians so that there is an extremely limited evidence base in relation to their suicidality and self-harm. The Indigenous samples in the research that has been conducted in Australian LGBT populations have tended to be too small to allow comparative analysis. A small number of community-based support services and peer-support groups exist in urban centres, who provide knowledge. The diversity of cultures within Indigenous Australia is reflected in the diversity of experiences of Indigenous LGBT people, although some experiences do appear to be shared. Indigenous National LGBT Health Alliance stakeholders note that this population is even more likely to be socially isolated than other LGBT people - especially those from rural and remote areas who have often felt pressure to move away from family and cultural support networks in order to openly live as who they are. This often leads to weakening of the social resources represented by family, community and culture, and increased risk behaviour. Mental health, and in particular suicide are consistently raised by our Indigenous members as the most significant issues facing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islands LGBT people. “When making the decision to come out we often feel a sense of isolation and disconnection of country we identify with and the land location we identify our kinship, often resulting in drug and alcohol dependency to suppress feelings connected to the whole ‘Coming Out’ process. In our home communities we practise our roles as expected in a female or male capacity then fly back to the city where our sexuality is openly accepted and community and support allow us to express and be ourselves in regards to sexuality although discrimination presents many challenges. There is a mental challenge to balance culture ,connection to land and sexuality acceptance within our kinships.” Available evidence confirms that factors known to contribute to suicide risk, such as discrimination, loss of cultural identity and family belonging are particularly high among Indigenous LGBT people. A respondent to the Tranznation study noted: “I feel that as Aboriginal and a sistergirl, we face more discrimination and stigma than non-Aboriginal trannies. We have to deal with our own communities attitudes and values, not alone deal with the broader community. I have noticed that living in a large city, I face some form of discrimination at least 3 to 4 times a week.”
This means that the risk of suicide for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islands people who are LGBT is compounded and further increases the already high suicide rates among these communities.


National LGBT Health Alliance Submission (2010, PDF):  At that hearing Senator Moore inquired whether the National LGBT Health Alliance has been involved or consulted by Wesley Mission in regard to their funded LifeForce program, which includes community suicide prevention networks. During the Committee hearing Wesley Mission explained that this national suicide prevention program develops and delivers educational programs in communities to help people look at wellbeing and related issues and to deal with the issues of potential and actual suicide. .. I was able to inform the Committee that the National LGBT Health Alliance has not been approached by Wesley Mission, however I also undertook to ask our members whether any of them had been approached or had any involvement in the LifeForce program This was put on notice... I can now inform the Committee that my inquires indicate that none of the current members of the National LGBT Health Alliance has been approached or involved in any way by Wesley Mission in regard to its LifeForce program. We note that Wesley Mission is not an exception in this regard. Few generic programs or organisations seek to engage with the LGBT sector or respond to documented needs of these populations in a proactive way, thereby reproducing the exclusion of LGBT people from efforts that aim to assist all Australians. 

Leonore Hanssens' Submission (2009, PDF): This submission will address the impact of suicide and need for postvention model of response for Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory... In 2004 November a Tiwi Island Indigenous man from Wurankuwu, Bathurst Island, twenty one years of age completed suicide by hanging in the context of being acutely intoxicated with alcohol. He had been drinking with his sister at the Ranku Club where he was drinking VB full strength beer but was not regarded as a heavy drinker. He left the club with his father and then went to talk with his uncle about being teased because he was gay and also disclosed that he intended to end his life because of the teasing. His uncle talked to the deceased and telling him told him strongly not to do it and walked home with him. Once at home he became violent and throwing things at his sister but also pleading with his sister to “help me” but she said she could not help him while he was drunk but would talk to him when he was sober. He left the house very angry and didn’t return but was found the following morning hanging at a landmark site (Telstra radio compound) in the community. The Ranku clinic staff attended but he was deceased. It appears the he had become “overwhelmingly upset by feelings that he was being discriminated against by others in the community because of his sexuality” as he identified as a “Sister Girl” a term used by the Tiwi to describe homosexuality. While heavily intoxicated with alcohol he was overwhelmed with these feelings of rejection and he took his own life.

Inspire Foundation: Suicide prevention through online technologies (2009, PDF): The risk of suicide and self-harm among sexuality, sex and gender diverse communities is complex and is compounded by experiences of stigma, discrimination, and ‘minority stress’. Sexual orientation, sex and gender identity alone do not necessarily elevate risk; rather, experiences of heterosexism, homophobia and transphobia are known to contribute to social isolation, poorer mental health outcomes, substance misuse, and other socio-cultural and economic problems and conditions, which in turn place these young people at greater risk of suicide and self-harm.
I have a few concerns when it comes to youth and mental health: 1) Targeted programs/mental health services for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender,questioning (GLBT) young people. Rates of poor mental health, illness and suicide disproportionately affect young people who are gay. I can't think of anyone within my circle of glbt friends and acquaintances that HASN'T had depression, anxiety or another mental health issue. I know of too many young people who have taken their own lives due to issues around their sexuality and there are many for whom we will never know that it was a factor. A new friend told me during the week that his 16yo bf of two years recently committed suicide. Neither the person who died or my friend had/has support around them because it is not safe for them to be out. The issues/concerns that affect that are specifically glbt related. Female - age 23
SPA - Suicide Prevention Austalia (2009, PDF):  v. Suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender communities: SPA recognises that strategies aimed at reducing suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) communities must: • Promote socially inclusive and supportive environments that affirm sexual and gender diversity. This, in itself, is a complex task that will require efforts to address the often hostile social environments in which many GLBT individuals live, work and study. Challenging homophobia and transphobia at the interpersonal, sociocultural, and institutional levels is critical.  • Be collaborative, multidisciplinary and incorporate both mental health promotion and crisis intervention strategies that are accessible and, where appropriate, are culturally specific to GLBT individuals... It is important to acknowledge also the diversity within and between GLBT communities. Factors such as gender, age, cultural background, location and disability may significantly impact on life experience and the determination of appropriate responses to individual situations. Sexual orientation and gender identity should also be distinguished as independent from one another, while also recognising that individuals may or may not identify with the commonly used terms ‘gay’, ‘lesbian’, ‘bisexual’, and/or ‘transgender’. It should also be recognised that conflicts between spiritual or religious beliefs and sexuality can result in significant psychological dissonance as well as division and exclusion from family, friends and community, and that there remains conflicting evidence regarding whether any association exists between HIV/AIDS and depression, suicide and/or self-harm. Studies do support, however, the proposition that GLBT people utilise the internet as a primary means of learning more about sexuality and gender identity, as well as a way to connect with peers through participation in online communities and social networks (Hegland & Nelson, 2002; Hillier et al., 2001). Both Hillier et al (2001) and Hegland and Nelson (2002) report that the positive self-worth gained from online experiences further enables young people (in particular) to feel confident in coming out to their friends and families and seeking offline help to support them in coming to terms with gender identity and sexuality issues. More recently, research has also identified the significance of online communication to older people, indicating that older GLBT people could benefit from online intervention and support (Aguilar, Boerema, & Harrison, 2009).

Mannie De Saxe, Lesbian and Gay Solidarity, Melbourne (PDF):  We have a web site which was started when we became involved with groups trying to overcome the homophobia generated by the religious institutions in this country who have a direct link to government through various ministers and lobby groups. The web site is: http://home.zipworld.com.au/~josken/suicide.htm - We started the web page in 2001 and now, in 2009, not only has nothing changed, the situation has deteriorated during those 8 years. We are making this submission in the hope that the apathy and homophobia surrounding the issue of the suicide of young and older gay people will actually be drawn to the attention of policy-makers and politicians who will do something to ensure that the problems in indigenous and gay communities causing so many to be driven to suicide will finally be addressed.

Dr Jo Harrison, School of Health Sciences. University of South Australia (2009, PDF): Doctoral research which I conducted investigated the lack of recognition of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex (GLBTI) issues in all areas of gerontology and aged care, including government policy and quality assurance, in Australia and the USA. The research revealed a serious lack of attention to concerns related to sexuality and gender identity in the Australian context. In the US context, a history of recognition of GLBTI concerns at all levels of aged care was apparent. The thesis is available online at http://arrow.unisa.edu.au:8081/1959.8/24955. The deficit in Australian gerontology is reflected in a complete lack of mention of GLBTI elderly people in aged care policy, education and training, research priorities, program guidelines and consumer related initiatives. This absence of mention of or attention to the special needs of GLBTI elders and their carers and advocates reinforces invisibility, which in turn reinforces discrimination by neglect and exacerbates anxiety, depression and thoughts of self-harm as well as attempted suicide (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 2007(a)(b))... Consequently, many older GLBT Australians may not identify with the GLBT community, resulting in severe social isolation and stigma that significantly increases risk of suicide and self-harm. Older GLBT people have themselves referred to the impact of ageing amidst a youth-oriented gay cultural milieu, which harms self-esteem through the promotion of negative ageist stereotypes (Harrison, 2005). There is an urgent need to resource further research and service development to better understand and respond to issues connected to suicide and older GLBT people... A recent survey of a group of older gay men in Sydney with the highest attendance rate of any community group in that city revealed that one third of the members of the group had considered suicide. Such data requires urgent further analysis and the immediate generation of additional research investigating the causative factors behind this statistic. Such research could also investigate from the perspective of older gay men themselves what interventions and strategies could assist them amidst such serious thoughts of self-harm (Ostrow, 2009). As a researcher with experience in service provision I am approached frequently by others in gerontology and the GLBTI community about issues connected to depression and self-harm. Often this approach relates to a specific incident which has occurred and the source of the information is seeking advice. Such experiential incidents have included: • A manager of a residential aged care facility who was himself gay but not out to his staff reported that a resident had committed suicide and the manager was certain that depression related to sexual identity and isolation were causative factors. The manager decided to come out to his staff and initiate awareness training so that such an incident never recurred.  • An elderly gay man caring for a partner with cancer was advised to attend a carers’ support group to seek some support at a time of great distress. He was subjected to ostracism and abuse by members of the group, run by a mainstream church in his local area, once he revealed that he was caring for a same sex partner. He subsequently became seriously suicidal and attempted to contact Beyond Blue but only found a recorded message. He relied on personal contacts overnight for support and eventually rang Lifeline (Pollard, 2009) http://www.starobserver.com.au/soapbox/ 2009/10/20/a-cancer-of-the-soul/17406 - • A lesbian in her 60s reported that she had clarified with her family that she intended to commit suicide rather than become a consumer of any aged care services, because, she reported, they were homophobic and could not be trusted. She had completed documentation and discussed her decision with her partner and son (Harrison, 2004).  • A social worker reported that a gay man in his 70s was being deliberately moved from a residential to a psychiatric facility because he was ‘entertaining male visitors’. He became depressed and at risk of self-harm.  • A gay man in his 60s was a client of a day centre and became open about his sexual identity. The Director of the centre announced to the Occupational Therapist that he would have to wear latex gloves at all times or leave the centre, due to ‘risk of HIV infection’. He became depressed and suicidal while the issue was negotiated and a resolution reached (Harrison, 2001). Beyond Blue has produced a booklet Older People and Depression which addresses the matter of depression in people over 80 years of age. No mention of GLBTI people is made in this booklet, despite particular reference to culturally diverse groups with special needs.

Professor Graham Martin, The University of Queensland, Mental Health Centre (2009, PDF): Nothing mentioned about sexual minority groups and suicidality or self-harm, except for - at the ned - the questionnaire of a major study - ANESSI - having solicited sexal orientation but NOT transgender information nor gender nonconformity information. Information related to the study: The Australian National Epidemiological Study of Self-Injury (ANESSI). Centre for Suicide Prevention Studies: Brisbane, Australia (2010, by Martin G, Swannell S, Harrison J, Hazell P, Taylor A). Question Asked: "Which of the following best describes you? •Heterosexual (straight)  • Homosexual (gay/lesbian) • Bisexual (bi) • Other • Don’t know/unsure" Many questions were also asked about self-injury and having attempted suicide (Present & in the Past). Preliminary results should be published as soon as possible, but this may not happen. Note: "Data was collected from 12,006 Australians aged 10-100 years in short telephone interviews. Parental consent was required for those under 18 years. Before respondents were interviewed, they received information in the mail about the study and their rights as a participant. Interviews were conducted in six different languages." To Mention: There is some American evidence indicating that GLB (especially bisexual) University Student are at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury, will all being at risk for having attempted suicide (See: Whitlock J, Knox KL (2007). The Relationship Between Self-injurious Behavior and Suicide in a Young Adult Population. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(7): 634-640. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Full Text.). However, in the Australian document "Seeking Solution to Self-Injury: A Guide for Young People" (2010), nothing is mentioned about non-heterosexual people. "3. WHO IS LIKELY TO SELF-INJURE? There is no particular type of person who is likely to self-injure. While people who self-injure tend to be young, some adults and older people also self-injure. Boys and girls, rich and poor people, and people from all different backgrounds self-injure."

Don Baxter, Executive Director, Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations, Inc. (2009, PDF): We have long sought for better funding for research into the social determinants of health so as to develop strategies targeting Australians most in need. The Alliance’s submission to the Inquiry into Suicide clearly sets out the overwhelming evidence of disproportionately high rates of mental illness, self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicide among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and inter-sex (LGBTI) Australians, and the evidence that the fundamental causes of these high rates are stigmatisation, discrimination and violence. While mainstream health promotion campaigns are appropriate at times, the success of Australia’s partnership response to the HIV epidemic has shown that the impact of well researched, targeted health promotion cannot be overestimated. Given the alarmingly high rates of self-harm and suicide among Australia’s LGBTI communities, there is a pressing need for suicide prevention strategies that specifically target LGBTI people. I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate the Government for its decision to undertake this important Inquiry.


Sexual orientation, sense of belonging and depression in Australian men (2007, Full Text): Abstract: This research examined whether a sense of belonging in the community and sexual orientation were associated with depression among men. Australian heterosexual (n = 136) and gay (n = 137) men were recruited through a variety of media, including newspapers, radio, and email, and directly at public events and in the street. Responses on the Sense of Belonging Instrument and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales indicated that gay men reported lower levels of sense of belonging to the community and higher levels of depression compared with heterosexual men. Results revealed that sense of belonging to the community mediated the relation between sexual orientation and depression. The findings did not support the additive or moderation models. The results imply that, for the mental health of gay men to improve, their sense of belonging needs to increase but that a reduction in the level of homophobia in the general community would seem necessary for this to occur.


New Zealand

New Zealand: - Youth’07: Youth'07 The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New Zealand: Results for Young People Attracted to the Same Sex or Both Sexes (2009, Download Page): "These aside, it is of concern that same/both-sex-attracted students did not experience the same improvements as their opposite-sex-attracted peers between 2001 and 2007. For example, same/both-sex-attracted students did not show the increase in those who felt happy or satisfied with life seen among opposite-sex-attracted students, and of even greater concern, nor did they share the same decreases in suicide attempts observed among opposite-sex-attracted students between 2001 and 2007." Attempted Suicide results - same-sex attracted vs. heterosexual: 2001 (22% vs. 7% = 3-times the risk), 2007 (20% vs. 4% = 5-times the risk). See Other Results From This Study on This Webpage. Related New Story:  The challenges New Zealand's gay/bi teenagers face (2009): "Youth '07 launched tomorrow, it's not all gloom and doom ya know. Queer young peeps rock," Rainbow Youth chairperson Toni Reid 'Twittered' the night before New Zealand's biggest-ever insight into the lives of gay/bi young people was presented to the public. She's right of course. The Rainbow Youth crew see hundreds of healthy and happy LGBT young people visit their centre, join their groups, and even tell their 'coming out' stories to other students in the classrooms they're invited to. But this week's headlines tell a different story: Half of gay/bi students have self-harmed. Gay students are three times more likely to be bullied at school. And, heartbreakingly, gay teens are five times more likely to attempt suicide than their straight peers. "There were some challenging findings," agrees researcher Mathijs Lucassen. "But they can inspire us to make changes in our schools and communities." Many same-sex specific "at risk" results are given in the article.

Ministry of Health (2008). New Zealand Suicide Prevention Action Plan 2008-2012: The Evidence for Action. Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Health (PDF). Note: GLB youth issues are noted but their suicidality is mentioned in such a way that the problem is somewhat "minimized." The following was written: "Recent research strongly suggests that people of non-heterosexual orientation are at increased risk of developing mental disorders and have higher rates of suicidal behaviour (Fergusson, Horwood and Ridder et al 2005; Herrell et al 1999; Russell and Joyner 2001; Skegg et al 2003). Among New Zealand young adults, the rate of mental health problems was higher for those with a predominantly same sex orientation than for their exclusively heterosexual peers – five times higher for males and twice as high for females (Fergusson, Horwood and Ridder et al 2005). A United States study of high school students found that those with a same-sex orientation were twice as likely to attempt suicide as their heterosexual peers (Russell and Joyner 2001). Initial indications are that transgender and intersexpopulations are also at increased risk (Fitzpatrick et al 2005; Johannsen, Ripa et al 2006)." The Risk Ratios for the Russell and Joyner 2001 study was about 2.5 for both same-sex attracted males and females, this being the near-lowest RR produced in American studies. Not mentioned was the RR of 3 for males and females combined in the 2001 NZ school survey given above, that would become and RR of 5 in the 2007 school survey. Also not mentioned is why New Zealand is NOT producing studies of child/youth suicide as it was done in British Columbia, Canada... with likely results that would then permit the mainstream New Zealand "suicide" authorities to state that non-heterosexual children/youth are at risk for suicide.

Child Death Review Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking for Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth, and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation in the months prior to death.

 From The National Centre of Mental Health Research, Information and Workplace Development: Funded Research in Progress or Published (September, 2010):

In Progress: Review and update of suicide prevention guidelines for schools. Research team: Dr Sunny Collings (University of Otago), Barry Taylor.
These researchers will review and update the existing suicide prevention guidelines for schools. New evidence and services have emerged since the original guidelines were developed over 10 years ago. The guidelines update will be informed by stakeholder consultation, literature review and pre-testing of the updated guidelines. The researchers will produce a full guideline, literature review and summary guideline aimed at school stakeholder audiences. These documents will include evidence-based recommendations for safe and effective suicide prevention in schools. Note: May contain "at risk" GLBT adolescent related guidelines.

In Progress: Report to inform the provision of mental health promotion and prevention services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex populations in New Zealand.  Research team: (SHORE and Whariki Research Centre) Jeffery Adams, Dr Pauline Dickinson, Dr Launuola Asiasiga, Dr Tim McCreanor, Associate Professor Helen Moewaka Barnes.
This project will produce a needs assessment report on mental health promotion and prevention service requirements for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex (GLBTI) populations in New Zealand. The report will include a review of the evidence, a description of existing services and programmes and identification of gaps in service provision.  It will also provide recommendations for service provision and funding which would improve mental health promotion and prevention service provision and inter-agency collaboration for resourcing services.

Published: Youth '07: Fact Sheet  - The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New Zealand (2010): Notes that... Another group that is particularly vulnerable are students who are attracted to the same sex or both sexes (4% of students). Of these students, 20% reported making a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months which is five times the rate reported by students attracted exclusively to the opposite sex. PDF. Download Page. Download Page.

Published: Fortune S, Watson P, Robinson E, Fleming T, Merry S, Denny S (2010). Youth’07: The health and wellbeing of secondary school students in New Zealand: Suicide behaviours and mental health in 2001 and 2007. Auckland: The University of Auckland. PDF. Download Page. Download Page. Notes that... "Another group that is particularly vulnerable are students who are attracted to the same sex or to both sexes. These students show much higher levels of significant depressive symptoms, self-harm and suicide behaviours than those who are attracted to the opposite sex (Rossen, Lucassen, Denny & Robinson, 2009 [See Study Results on This Webpage]). Analysis of the 2007 survey results showed that students who were attracted to the same sex or to both sexes were much more likely to report a suicide attempt (20.0%) in the past 12 months than students who were attracted to the opposite sex (4.0%). Comment: Results should at least be given separately for sexual minority males and females. Also separately for bisexual students." The report also supplies Useful Links for Youth Mental Health: Young People Attracted to the Same Sex or Both Sexes: - Rainbow Youth. - OUTlineNZ: OUTLine is a free, confidential telephone counselling service for the rainbow community New Zealand wide. - Out There! Project: OUT THERE! was a Joint National Youth Development Project between the New Zealand AIDS Foundation (NZAF) and Rainbow Youth. Out There aimed to enhance the wellbeing of queer youth within Aotearoa New Zealand by providing resources, running workshops, commissioning research and organising hui (conferences). Due to multiple reasons Out There was unable to continue. - The "Making Schools Safe for People of Every Sexuality – PPTA Guidelines" link is not available,


SAFETY IN OUR SCHOOLS - KO TE HAUMARU I O TATOU KURA: An action kit for Aotearoa New Zealand schools to address sexual orientation prejudice (2005): During the past year 30.4% of non-heterosexual students report that they have thought of killing themselves - During the past year15.3% of non-heterosexual have attempted suicide [ Le Brun C, Robinson E, Warren H, Watson PD (2004). Non-heterosexual Youth - A Profile of their Health and Wellbeing. Findings of Youth2000. A National Secondary School Youth Health Survey. Auckland: The University of Auckland. Download Page. Study Results.]. Note: Results are from the 2001 survey. "Youth2000 survey" Reports (2001 & 2007 Surveys): Download Page.

Fleming TM, Merry SN, Robinson EM, Denny SJ, Watson PD (2007). Self-reported suicide attempts and associated risk and protective factors among secondary school students in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(3): 213-21. Abstract. Study Results.

The Significance of Diversity for Suicide Prevention Initiatives (2007, Download Page): ‘GLBTI’people: Rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and mental health problems associated with suicide are between 1.5 and 12 times higher for GLB people than for heterosexuals in NZ (eg Fergusson et al. 2005, Skegget al. 2003, Fleming et al. 2007 ) - Transgender and intersex people also have higher risk of psychological distress, suicidal thoughts and behaviours (egFitzpatrick et al. 2005, Johannsenet al. 2006) - Many people are aware of same-sex attraction by age 13, but few disclose this to anybody before leaving school (eg Le Brunet al. 2004) - Most GLB youth who attempt suicide have not ‘come out’ - Many GLBTI people are reluctant to access health services or ‘come out’ to professionals for fear of a negative response (eg Semp2006, Fish 2006, Myers et al 2005, Meckler et al. 2006, Neville & Henrickson 2006)

Queer Subjects of Suicide: Cultural Studies, Sexuality and Youth Suicide Concepts in New Zealand (2001, by Rob Cover, Must scroll): Abstract: This paper undertakes a brief examination of current trends in New Zealand youth suicide research and policy, arguing that the extent to which youth sexuality is addressed is comparatively limited. Although lesbian/gay/bisexual sexualities, concerns and identities are relatively absent, it is important not merely to add minority sexualities to suicide concepts in New Zealand research and policy development; rather these are well-placed to take on-board highly-nuanced understandings of sexuality that (a) draw on culturalist, queer theory and postmodern/poststructuralist approaches, and (b) are more in line with a culture of sexual fluidity among contemporary youth. Personal and identity-related anxieties around such a sexual culture, it is argued, may be among risk factors for youth suicide. By showing how youth sexuality is either marginalised or mis-read by policy-makers and researchers, some early indicators of directions suicide research might take with regard to sexuality are asserted here.

New Zealand: First New Zealand study to explore GLB suicidality issues: Longitudinal Youth Study (By age 21: Suicide attempt incidence for GLB identified youth is 32.1%, and 7.0% for the others (Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Beautrais AL (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10): 876-80. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.). The risk also continues after the teenage years: Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Ridder EM, Beautrais AL (2005). Sexual orientation and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 35(7): 971-981. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download. - A 2000/2003 study of suicidality and gay youth by John Fenaughty: "Life on the seesaw: an assessment of suicide risk and resiliency for bisexual and gay male youth in Aotearoa / New Zealand.

New Zealand: New study to eventually be ready for peer review and likely publication - "A New Zealand study being conducted by researchers at the Dunedin School of Medicine will determine the association between sexual orientation (based on a measure of sexual attraction) and a range of behaviours indicative of deliberate self-harm (suicidal, non-suicidal intent). The study is based on the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS). The findings are expected to complement those reported by Fergusson and colleagues (1999) in the Archives of General Psychiatry." (Cited from a March 21, 2000 email from Shyamala Nada-Raja written in response to a request made by Pierre Tremblay for related information.). - The study was then published in the American Journal of Psychiatry: Lifetime suicide attempt incidences for young adult males: Heterosexual (6%), Minor Homosexuality (16%), Significant Homosexuality (25%). For females: Heterosexual (9%), Minor Homosexuality (11%), Significant Homosexuality (33%). Skegg K, Nada-Raja S, Dickson N, Paul C, Williams S (2003). Sexual orientation and self-harm in men and women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(3): 541-6. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

New Zealand: - In Ya Face - Like, for example, the mis-conception that sexuality has nothing to do with some people killing themselves. I disagree. Large numbers of gays and lesbians have grappled with the thought of putting a gun to their head, or jumping off the bridge. Why? Because being gay, lesbian or transgendered in Aotearoa, despite the changes in the past decade, is still a bloody hard thing to be. It's incredibly hard, and the pressures are such that it pushes too many youths, literally, off the edge... Let's get very real, very quickly, and start to recognize that a large proportion of youth suicides may be attributed to the pressures of being gay or lesbian. - Andrew, a married man with 3 children, attempted suicide 3 times before coming to terms with a secret few would have known - except for the males he had sex with - had he died from his suicide attempts (1998).

Factors influencing the risk of suicide for gay and lesbian people include (NZ Site): (Home Page): Awareness of being gay or lesbian and first sexual experience - Total rejection by family over coming out - Rejection by society - Promiscuity and unsafe sex - Homophobic assaults and cruel taunts. - Risk Factors for Youth Suicide (2002): "Sexual Orientation: There is growing international evidence to confirm that young gay, lesbian and bisexual people have higher rates of suicidal behaviour, arising from lack of support for their sexual orientation and the discrimination they face."

Suicide in New Zealand II: a review of risk factors and prevention (Annette Beautrais, New Zealnad Medical Journal, 2003): "Psychosocial stresses... Sexual orientation Clear linkages have been established between sexual orientation and suicide attempt behaviour. These findings have been reported for New Zealand, with results indicating that young people of gay, lesbian and bisexual orientation had rates of suicidal ideation and attempt that were over five times those of heterosexual youth."

Samoa: - The Closet in the Locker Room: "Many young gay people commit suicide and this is about saving lives.” Tuaolo was shocked when a woman on a Samoan Web site, responding to his announcement, said her son had committed suicide because he was gay. Others on line responded that suicide is exactly what any gay person should do."

New Caledonia / Nouvelle-Calédonie: Lert F, l’Unité 687 de l’INSERM (2008). Situation sociale et comportements de santé des jeunes en Nouvelle-Calédonie: Premiers résultats. PDF. Orientation homosexuelle: L’attirance sexuelle pour le même sexe et l’existence des rapports sexuels avec une personne de même sexe sont deux des trois indicateurs classiques pour rendre compte de l’homosexualité dans les enquêtes en population générale. Le troisième - l’identité sexuelle - correspond à une autodéfinition de soi qui ne s’affermit souvent que plus tard dans la vie et la question de l’identité n’a pas été posée à cette population de jeunes. Les jeunes qui ont déjà été attirés dans leur vie par quelqu’un du même sexe qu’eux (6% au total) sont plus nombreux parmi les filles (8%) que les garçons (4%). Ils sont plus urbains que ruraux (8% dans le Grand Nouméa versus 3% dans les autres régions)***. Ce sont les Européens métropolitains qui déclarent le plus une attirance homosexuelle (17%) et les Kanaks le moins (2%)***. En France, chez les 18-24 ans en 2006, 7,4% des filles et 4,8% des garçons déclarent avoir été sexuellement attirés par une personne du même sexe (38). Parmi les jeunes qui déclarent cette attirance, moins de la moitié (46%) ont déjà eu un rapport sexuel avec un partenaire du même sexe. Les déclarations d'expériences homosexuelles doivent cependant être considérées comme des estimations minimales dans la population jeune... Une association forte est observée avec les violences physiques dans la famille (36 % versus 26%), les violences sexuelles subies dans l’année (55% versus 27 %) et les insultes (31 % versus 22%). Le risque associé à l’orientation homosexuelle est très élevé que l’on considère l’attirance homosexuelle (71% versus 26%) ou les relations homosexuelles (80% versus 26%). L’analyse multivariée montre que tous ces facteurs, à l’exception des violences intrafamiliales dans l’année, augmentent de façon indépendante la suicidalité. Il faut remarquer que l’association avec l’orientation sexuelle est particulièrement élevée : le risque est multiplié par 7 chez les garçons et par 2 chez les filles... Enfin, l’orientation homosexuelle apparaît très difficile à vivre en Nouvelle-Calédonie aujourd’hui pour les adolescents et de façon exceptionnellement forte chez les garçons... Si le niveau des idées suicidaires est proche de celui observé en France métropolitaine, les tentatives de suicides sont deux fois plus fréquentes. Tentatives de suicide et idées suicidaires sont à des niveaux comparables entre les différentes communautés de Nouvelle-Calédonie, sans distinction entre les régions. Elles sont nettement associées aux difficultés et aux traumatismes dans l’enfance, à la précocité des addictions, et pour les garçons plus encore que pour les filles à une orientation homosexuelle. S’y ajoute pour les garçons l’isolement social... Les facteurs de la vie quotidienne liés aux idées suicidaires chez les garçons sont l’absence d’un groupe de copains avec qui on est souvent et le fait d’avoir perdu au moins un parent.. La problématique suicidaire chez les garçons et les filles ayant une orientation sexuelle pour le même sexe est un phénomène connu59, ce qui est inattendu c’est le niveau très élevé de ce lien avec un OR proche de 7 chez les garçons après prise en compte des autres facteurs. Les jeunes ayant déjà été insultés dans les lieux publics ont plus d’idées suicidaires que les autres jeunes...
 

Europe:


England

England: - Rates and predictors of mental illness in gay men, lesbians and bisexual men and women: Results from a survey based in England and Wales (Pub Med 2004 Abstract) (Full Text): "Of the 1285 gay, lesbian and bisexual respondents who took part, 556 (43%) had mental disorder as defined by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS - R). Out of the whole sample, 361 (31%) had attempted suicide. This was associated with markers of discrimination such as recent physical attack (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3) and school bullying (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0)..." - Boy, 10, hangs himself after telling his mother: 'I want to be a girl' (2008). - Another Gay Male Suicide in Cornwall (with Police involvement?) (2008). - Lesbian couple found dead in suspected suicide pact (2009). - Gay torment drove me to suicide bid (2008-1996). - Frazer M (2005)Some Queers are Safer Than Others: Correlates of Hate Crime Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in Britain. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Philadelphia, PA. Readable online a unformatted document text. - GLBT show educates community: Outloud! advocates for suicide prevention, rights (2010).

Study: Mental health and quality of life of gay men and lesbians in England and Wales (Abstract) (PubMed Abstract) (Full Text): "Gay men and lesbians were more likely than heterosexuals to have consulted a mental health professional in the past, deliberately harmed themselves and used recreational drugs. Lesbians were more likely to have experienced verbal and physical intimidation and to consume more alcohol than heterosexual women." - New Study Indicates Gays and Lesbians Prone To Psychological Symptoms and Substance Abuse - But School Harassment Rates Not Higher for Gay Males. - Boy, 15, lay down in front of train after gay taunts (2007). - Suicide teen told to stop wasting taxpayer's money (2009). - Britain ‘more comfortable’ with homosexuality but two-thirds of gay students are bullied (2010). 

Salford National Union of Teachers (2010). Prevalence of Homophobia Survey. Salfrod N.U.T. (National Union of Teachers). Full Text.

The results. The results confirm the growing body of evidence from both academic research, human rights and LGBT groups indicating the cultural prevalence of homophobia in our schools. The overall reported incidence of homophobic abuse/ hate crime in Salford secondary schools is disturbingly high. In fact it is to be hoped that if any other form of criminalised discrimination was reported at this level (e.g. racism, sexism) there would be formal governmental demands for the immediate implementation of child protection measures.

Cull M, Platzer H, Balloch S (2006). Out On My Own: Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth. Brighton & Hove, England: Health and Social Policy Research Centre, Faculty of Health, School of Applied Social Science, University of Brighton. Internet: PDF. Research Summary: PDF: Nearly all the young people in our study reported a history of mental health problems or substance misuse. Over two thirds had a history of attempting suicide and half reported alcohol or substance misuse.

Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse (Pub Med 2004 Abstract): "Until recently in England, Section 28 of the Local Government Act (1988), forbidding the promotion of homosexuality, further reinforced negativity towards this group of people. This compounded the negative mental health consequences for those developing a gay sexual orientation in a climate of heterosexism. Current health care policy in England concerns itself with the rising number of suicides among young people but fails to acknowledge the importance of the research findings relating to gay people by integrating them into the development of mental health policy. This paper reviews the literature relating to homosexual people and suicidality, and addresses the seriousness of a policy rhetoric which results from ignoring the evidence while dictating mental health nursing practice." - A greater awareness of the mental health needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people is required.

Suicide problems after becoming part of gay community: No Way Out - "The shocking statistics for suicide amongst gay teenagers have traditionally been attributed to the pressures of coming out in a hetero-defined society. Murray Healy discovers an alarming new trend amongst twenty-somethings who find the promised land of the urban gay community isn’t all they expected it to be... Last year, six friends of mine tried to kill themselves. All men in their twenties, all intelligent, attractive, popular, and seemingly happy; and all, to a greater or lesser extent, identifying as gay. I started the year never having known anyone who’d attempted suicide. By christmas it felt like my world had been struck by an epidemic:" Three cases are described.  "The Project for Advice, Counselling and Education N/A (PACE) recognize that gay suicide is not a problem restricted to the pre-coming-out years of adolescence. "It’s an ongoing problem", one counselor told me. Many gay men don't find the support they need on the gay scene." It's a telling indictment of gay society that, far from providing a solution to the homophobia of conventional life, the gay scene, and it's me-generation hedonism, makes gay people feel more isolated and alienated. - Warning over gay community's suicide rate (2007): Gay and transgender people are up to three times more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexuals, a charity has claimed. MindOUT, a mental health group for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in Brighton, says it deals with at least 150 people a year who have either made suicide attempts or had suicidal feelings... "If you come with high expectations of lovely LGBT Brighton and then don't fit in or are confronted with as much homophobia than ever it seems like there is no hope at all"... MindOUT has been working on a suicide prevention project which culminated with planting a weeping cherry tree in St Ann's Well Gardens, Hove, last month."  - LGBT Suicide Prevention Strategy for Brighton & Hove (2008, PDF). - Community Psychology and LGBT Suicide Prevention in Brighton and Hove (2008, PPT): A central concern for participants at MindOut was ‘double stigma’ being alienated from the LGBT community because of mental health issues was as problematic as being isolated, and sometimes pathologised, within mental health services because of their LGBT identification. - MINDOUT & The Stigma (2009): MindOut was created as a response to the poor service LGBT people received from mental health service providers and to change the way LGBT people were being treated at the time. It now reaches 300 people a year in every part of the community including trans people. It has recently launched BlackOUT for BME people in the community. 

Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association News Release - 1999 (Alternate Link): - "Take the case of Simon Harvey, son of George Harvey who runs a so-called counselling service for gays in East Anglia. Simon killed himself because he couldn't reconcile his homosexuality with the stance taken by his evangelical Christian father. More recently, a young man in Rotherham killed himself after listening to the American evangelist Pat Robertson condemning homosexual relationships - a tragedy brought to light by the coroner at the inquest. - Gay star reveals suicide attempt (2006): "Gay actor Stephen Fry will reveal his struggle with depression and suicide contemplation in a new BBC documentary highlighting the condition later this year."

The cultural context of youth suicide: Identity, gender, and sexuality (2005, PDF. Research in Progress: (PDF Download (Alternate Link) - Downloads): "There is growing international evidence that young people struggling with issues of sexuality and gender identity face increased likelihood of attempting suicide. This has been raised repeatedly as an issue in the U.K. though not yet researched in detail. The proposed study will explore the cultural context of youth suicide in England and Wales, with a focus on the significance of gender identity and sexuality." On The Edge Project: Research on young people in distress: Project Summary. Handout: One-Day Workshop. - LGBT young people's experiences of distress: resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour (2009): The empirical basis for the paper is qualitative research that was carried out in the North West of England and South Wales. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with a total of 69 young people, with a purposive sample to reflect diversity of sexual identity, social class and regional and rural-urban location. The paper presents a thematic analysis of the data specifically relating to the experiences of LGBT young people. A range of strategies that LGBT young people employ in the face of distress are described. These are categorised as resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour (including self-harm and suicide). The potential implications for health and social care of these strategies include the need for ecological approaches and for sexual cultural competence in practitioners, as well as prioritisation of LGBT risk within suicide prevention policies. - Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours (2008): Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours... The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.  

'Suicide wish' of gay bullying victims (07/18/00, BBC): "A large proportion of lesbian, gay and bisexual pupils who are bullied by their classmates try to commit suicide, according to research.  A study suggests that half of them contemplate killing or harming themselves, and four in 10 actually harm themselves at least once... The research also indicates that 17% - nearly one in five - display symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder later in life... The findings by Dr Ian Rivers, of the College of Ripon and York St John, were being presented to The British Psychological Society's Lesbian and Gay Section Conference at the University of Surrey on Tuesday. " - Rivers I (2000). Social exclusion, absenteeism and sexual minority youth. Support For Learning, 17(1): 13-18. Abstract. Study Results. - Victims of gay bashing suicide link. - Rivers I (2004). Recollections of bullying at school and their long-term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Crisis, 25(4):169-75. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Full Text.  

On October 6, 1998, in a news item titled "UK 'Teachers bully gay pupils'" BBC News reported that some teachers abuse boys known (or believed) to be gay, thus creating and/or exacerbating problems - including suicide problems - for these adolescent. Anecdotal suicide-related information is given. (Alternate article link.) - A 1996 double lesbian youth suicide.

At the time of his suicide Fashanu was wanted by police after fleeing America, where he had a coaching job, in the wake of charges that he performed a sexual act on a 17-year-old boy N/A. - Peter Tatchell says it was homophobia that ultimately destroyed the career and life of football star Justin Fashanu (1998). - The last days of a footballer, by Brian Deer. - Darren Steele (N/A, 1998) had suffered a five-year ordeal of taunting and beating from fellow pupils at de Ferrers High in Burton because he was thought to be gay, purely because of his love of cookery and drama classes. Darren left a suicide note naming those he blamed for his death, and this resulted in the arrest of 11 pupils, although the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to prosecute them. Choirboy [Darren Steele] hanged himself after years of bullying. More related items: 1, 2, 3, 4. - Let's talk about sexuality (1998): The Samaritans and the London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard have been building bridges to improve services available to the despairing and suicidal. - Student who died under train told family he was gay (2002): "A gifted Cambridge University student was killed under a Tube train hours after revealing his homosexuality to his parents, an inquest was told yesterday.... An argument erupted after Frederick Hodder, 21, made his announcement and he had left the family home in a "distressed state". His family did not learn until the next day that he had died after drinking the equivalent of a bottle of whisky."

Straight Talk (2000):  One of the top four causes of young people committing suicide is conflict due to sexual orientation (according to the Department of Health booklet  Sometimes I Think I Can't Go On Anymore published in 1995). If young gay men and lesbian women were to receive supportive education, and their peers were encouraged to become more understanding of homosexuality, many of the suicides committed by young people will be avoided.

The UK Childline states (1998): "Groups particularly at risk of suicide include unemployed or homeless young people, young gay men and lesbians and young people who have problems with drugs."

Suicide and deliberate self-harm N/A (2001): The Fundamental Facts from The UK Mental Health Foundation. Includes some information on gay and lesbian suicide problems.

Gay Health Issues: In 1992 The Department of Health set a target to reduce the suicide rate among the general pollution by 15 per cent by the year 2000.. A group called 'Esteem' is currently researching attempted suicide rates among the lesbian, gay and bisexual young people as it is believed that the rates are alarmingly high.

The Community News" May 1999: "Young gay men have the highest percentage of attempted suicide. A recent study (Toner et al 1999) found that 54.1 % of their sample of gay men had made at least one suicide attempt. Indeed their sample was 30 times more likely to attempt suicide than the generic population." (From the "AIDS Education Unit N/A (Archive Link): HIV health promotion in Barnet and surrounding areas..." web site, London).

  Suicide Is Everyone's Concern: A Thematic Review by Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons (1999). - Inquest opens into lesbian prison suicide (2009). - Gay prisoners: "5.19 Young people who are gay can be seen as particularly vulnerable to the risk of suicide or self-harm. This is not because of their sexual orientation as such, but due to their isolation, fear of being misunderstood or abused, and lack of people to trust and talk to. Again we stress the importance of increasing understanding and tolerance of diversity.

Discrimination Hurts: New Research Reveals the Damaging Impact fo Homopnobia on Mental Health (1998). "More than half of mental health workers have helped gay men and lesbians left emotionally scarred by discrimination because of their sexual identity, according to a national survey by the Health Education Authority for World Mental Health Day... Fifty three per cent of those surveyed said they had helped patients who had been discriminated against because of their sexuality, accounting for nine per cent of the patients of psychiatrists, 13 per cent of Community Psychiatric Nurse cases and a third of primary care specialist cases." ... A spokesperson for PACE said: 'We are pleased that this campaign recognises that the discrimination and homophobia faced by lesbians and gay men can have detrimental effects on their mental health.' ... According to those surveyed, the most common results of discrimination were: * lower self esteem (94 per cent) * social isolation/exclusion (89 per cent) * depression and anxiety (77 per cent) * drug and alcohol misuse (58 per cent)* suicidal feelings (51 per cent)  

Lesbian Information Service reports on "a qualitative study conducted 1990-1991." IT "found high levels of attempted suicide and self-harm ( 14 out of 20 participants: Word Download )." Study Results are reported in Bridget J and Lucille S (1996). Lesbian Youth Support Information Service (LYSIS) : Developing a distance support agency for young lesbians. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6 (5), 355-364. (Note: The study also reports high levels of abuse of the young lesbians studied by older lesbians). - Meads C, Buckley E, Sanderson P (2007). Ten years of lesbian health survey research in the UK West Midlands. BMC Public Health, 19(7): 251. Full Text. Abstract: Results: The mean age of respondents varied between 29–33 years and 5–7% were from a non-white ethnic background. The smoking rates varied from 42% o 55%, being twice the West Midlands regional average of 21% for women aged 16 or more. Similarly, problems with alcohol were reported in 25–37% of respondents, higher than the West Midlands regional average of 7% for women aged 16+. The prevalence of any mental health problem varied between 31–35% and any suicide attempt between 20–31%. Only 29–45% had revealed their sexual orientation to their GP and of these, approximately 50% had experienced a positive reaction.

 Inaugural European Conference: Gay and Lesbian Identities N/A: Working with Young People, their Families and Schools - University College London - 29-30 March 1999 -- ‘Improving and Informing Theory and Practice’ - Changing Families: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identity work in mental health: An evidence-based guide for people who work with families (2006, PACE: PDF Download).

2008 National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Conference: Children who do not fully conform to traditional gender stereotypes (whether or not they self-identify as lesbian, bisexual or transgender are frequently emotionally, verbally and physically bullied not only by their peers but even by the adults in their lives. This can lead to children becoming withdrawn, social outcasts and in some cases result in severe depression and suicide. The effect on self-esteem, social interaction, confidence and academic achievement can often continue into adulthood and significantly reduce future employment prospects and workplace confidence. Institutional transphobia and lack of recognition of gender diversity within families by educational and social service provider's often results in lesbian, gay, bisexual transgender (LGBT) families receiving discriminatory or inappropriate service provision. Conference is extremely concerned that the United Kingdom (UK) Government currently fails to recognise the need for protection of children and families from transphobic discrimination and harassment in education service provision.


Ireland & Northern Ireland

Ireland & Northern Ireland: -A fifth of gay people tried suicide - study (2009): Almost 20 per cent of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people have attempted suicide and almost all saw this as related to their sexual identity and the experiences of being abused and feeling isolated, a report to be published today has found. The study, Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People, also found almost one-third of respondents had self-harmed at least once. Report Download Page: Report PDF, PDF. Report's Key Findings (PDF): Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People (Mayock et al, 2009) is the most significant and comprehensive study of LGBT people and their lives in Ireland to date, and it has a special emphasis on young people. The online survey gathered data from 1,110 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, and face-to-face interviews were carried out with 40 people. The study was commissioned by BeLonG To Youth Services and GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network), funded by the HSE’s National Office for Suicide Prevention (NOSP), and conducted by the Childrens’ Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin, and the School of Education, University College Dublin.- Irish president warns of link between anti-gay bullying and suicide. - I'm gay myself -- but even I was shocked by this new Irish survey. - LGBT Health: Towards meeting the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (2009, PDF). - A framework to support social inclusion for lesbian, gay & bisexual people (2008, PDF).

Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Students in Post-Primary Schools: Guidance for Principals and School Leaders (2009, PDF, Download Page). School leaders often find themselves having to deal with these challenges without supports and resources being readily available. In response to this, the Department of Education & Science has worked collaboratively with GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network) to produce this resource. It is intended to support school leaders when addressing the challenge of homophobic bullying and when addressing other sexual orientation issues in their school. The resource is set out in stand-alone sections and provides information and practical suggestions on how school leaders can support young people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual. - Minister for Lifelong Learning Speech (2009, Word Download, Download Page). - Comments by Sandra Gowran, Director of Education Policy, GLEN at the launch (2009, Word Download, Download Page). Related Press Release (2009, Word Download, Download Page).

Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual People: The Irish Institute of Mental Health Nursing: A Good Practice Guide for Mental Health Nurses (2010, PDF, Download Page): "This good practice guide has been developed by the Irish Institute of Mental Health Nursing (IIMHN) in collaboration with GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network) to inform mental health nurses of what they need to know when providing a service to a lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) person. In recent years, a number of national policies have highlighted the need for lesbian, gay and bisexual people’s needs to be considered by health professionals and for health care providers to be more inclusive of lesbian, gay and bisexual people in their practice. There are specific issues that mental health nurses need to be aware of when providing a services to LGB people. By being aware of these issues nurses can help to reduce or eliminate the barriers to accessing support services that LGB people face. This guide is intended to support mental health nurses to provide services that are accessible for LGB people and one that is appropriate to theirneeds." Suicidality Study Results Given: "17.7% of respondents had attempted suicide, just under two thirds of whom had tried to end their lives on more than one occasion. 85% of those who had attempted suicide saw their first attempt as in some way related to their LGB identity and almost 50% saw it as very or very much related to their LGB identity. A quarter of all female survey participants and fifteen percent of male participants had attempted suicide at least once in their lifetime. A higher proportion of those identifying as bisexual (25%) had attempted suicide than those who identified as gay or lesbian (17%). 13% of participants had actually made a suicide plan during the previous twelve months and almost a fifth of these had gone on to attempt suicide. The average age of first attempted suicide was 17.46 years (with an age range of 8 to 42 years), which supports existing evidence that it is young LGB people who are most at risk of suicidal behaviour. Over half of those aged 25 or younger admitted to ever having given serious consideration to ending their own lives while just under a fifth admitted to ever having attempted suicide. Over a third of those aged 25 years and under had thought seriously about ending their lives within the past year. This indicates that a significant sub-group of young of LGB young people in particular are at risk for suicidal ideation and attempting suicide.

Supporting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) Callers: An Introduction for Samaritans Volunteers (2010, PDF, Download Page): This guide is written for Samaritans volunteers to support them in providing a confidential, non-judgemental listening service to LGBT callers. It aims to advance their understanding of the circumstances and experiences of LGBT people in Ireland so that they may better understand the issues callers may be dealing with. In addition to the general reasons for someone calling Samaritans, there are specific issues that LGBT callers may be facing. They can also face challenges and barriers which Samaritans volunteers can help reduce or eliminate. The guide includes good practice guidelines for Samaritans volunteers and the appendix contains a list of LGBT organisations and services in Ireland as well as a reading reference list.

Report: Suicide prevention plan largely ignored (2009): Only a fifth of recommendations from a major suicide prevention plan have been properly acted on three years after it was first published, it emerged today. The report – The High Level of Suicide in Irish Society – was launched in July 2006 by the Oireachtas Health Committee with 33 actions aimed at tackling the country’s high suicide levels. But a review found work has been carried out on just seven, with limited or no progress made on the rest by the agencies responsible, including the Department of Health, HSE and gardaí. “We absolutely have to challenge it because it can result in young people, who are trying to come to terms with their sexual orientation, self harming or worse and that’s not acceptable,” he said. “There are a lot of people who would consider this to be inappropriate in certain schools. “I think some places don’t even have proper sexual education never mind discussions about the danger of homophobic bullying so we do have a bit work to do.” Mr Andrews said he was concerned over reports teachers have victimised youngsters over their sexual orientation. “If it exists at all it’s a real worry to me,” said Mr Andrews. “I was a school teacher myself and I find it hard to believe that teachers would be, in the first instance, that ignorant about homosexuality but also to bully children about it. - A fifth of gay people tried suicide – “Step up and Speak out”

Invitation to Tender (2010, Word Download): The Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN) in collaboration with Age & Opportunity wish to commission a research project entitled, Identifying the experiences and needs of older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) people in Ireland and recommending positive ageing strategies and actions to promote their full participation and inclusion in Irish society. Full details, including tender guidelines, are attached... No large-scale research has been carried out in Ireland that specifically identifies the experiences and needs of older LGBT people in Ireland.  As a result, the Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN) wish to commission a research study to identify the circumstances and needs of older LGBT people in the Republic of Ireland (55 and over).  The research will also recommend mechanisms for addressing the identified needs of older LGBT people in an Irish context... In an Irish context, the most significant research to-date on LGBT people is the Supporting LGBT Lives study (Mayock et al 2009).  This study was commissioned by BeLonG To Youth Service and GLEN and was funded by the National Office for Suicide Prevention.  The aim was to examine LGBT mental health and well-being, including the identification of suicide risk and resilience factors among Irish LGBT people... While the findings of Supporting LGBT Lives give an in-depth picture of what it is like to grow up and live as an LGBT person in Ireland, LGBT people over 50 were under-represented in the sample.  This further highlights the need to examine the particular circumstances, experiences and needs of older LGBT people and to carry out research on this sub-group of the LGBT population.

Responding to the needs of vulnerable lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered youth (2005, Word Download). By: Michael Barron, Belong To Youth Project  and Eoin Collins, Gay and Lesbian Equality Network. Paper Presented to: Irish Association of Suicidology 5th National Conference ‘Partnerships for Reducing Youth Suicide’: One of the most alarming findings from research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people has been evidence of elevated rates of suicide and attempted suicide, and mental health problems among young LGBT people. The 2004 ShOut Report, commissioned by the Department of Education in Northern Ireland for example, found that that among young people surveyed across Northern Ireland, those who identified as LGBT were: •    At least three times more likely to attempt suicide;   •  Two and half times more likely to self harm;   •  Five times more likely to be medicated for depression; and  • Twenty times more likely to suffer from an eating disorder than their heterosexual counterparts (YouthNet, 2004). These problems are directly linked to the additional challenges that LGBT youth face in their lives, challenges that others of the same age may not experience, or experience to the same degree. These include:... 

Suicide shocks Derry gay community (2007): "Eamon Johnston, the winner of Mr Gay Derry 2003, has committed suicide. He was 22... Mr Johnston was a hairdresser and support counsellor for gay group Rainbow Project... His mother told Derry Journal that her son was a "lovely wee boy" and appealed to other suicidal peopleto seek help instead of taking their lives...- Ireland’s First Gay & Lesbian Awareness Week for Young People (2010). 

GLBT suicide problems are expected to be similar in magnitude to the situation existing in countries where related research had been carried out (1998). - The Irish Times (1998): Mr Kieran Rose of the Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN), which made a submission in 1996, accused the task force of willfully ignoring the issue of gay and lesbian suicide (Must subscribe). - Ulster's Young Gay men 30 Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide: An alarming report, conducted by the Northern Ireland Science Shop, has recorded that young gay men are 30 times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual counterparts: some have made as many as nine unsuccessful attempts to kill themselves. - Study: 1 in 4 young Irish gays tried suicide. - Call for research into gay-suicide link (2001). - Suicide Creates Waves of Sorrow: With his pink hair and polished nails, teen's shortlife was gay but hardly happy (2006, PDF Download, Must Scroll: The Irish Associatoion of Suicidology Newsletter, 2006). - School bullies forcing gay students to drop out early (2006): He said 90pc of teachers reported that their school's anti-bullying policy did not include any reference to gay and lesbian issues.

Kelleher C (2009). Minority stress and health: Implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) young people. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22:4, 373-379 (PDF).  The sample consisted of 301 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 16-24 years, who were residing in the Republic of Ireland. Respondents had a mean age of 20.78 (sd 2.486) years, and identified their sexual identity as lesbian (15%), gay (55%), bisexual (19%), questioning (9%), heterosexual (1%) and ‘other’ (1%), and their gender identity as female (25%), male (69%), transgender (3%), and questioning (3%). Participants were recruited via a recruitment advertisement placed on community resource websites and linked to an online survey, which was available for 12 weeks... The current study addressed the link between sexual/transgender identity and psychological distress among LGBTQ youth in Ireland. Clearly it is necessary to identify socially induced stressful conditions and to further understand their negative impact on LGBTQ youth. Attention needs to be focused on changing the oppressive cultural context in which LGBTQ youth live and so interventions need to address challenging heterosexism at both the cultural and individual level and to promote social change toward an inclusive society. The knowledge created through this research can contribute to the development programmes aimed at ameliorating the effects of stigma and heterosexism. In addition to challenging heterosexism, appropriate support for young LGBTQ people in Ireland must be developed. While attitudes to LGBTQ identities appear to be improving, identifying as LGBTQ remains highly stigmatising and often elicits negative reactions. However, many young LGBTQ persons cope effectively with stigma. This highlights the resiliency of LGBT youth and emphasises the need to fully understand the complex processes in operation. The minority stress framework recognises the power of the individual to respond to adverse conditions. Clearly, further research, education and training are required.

Study: Suicide rate high for Irish gay teens (Alternate Link): "Inside Story January 20, 2004 - Belfast, Northern Ireland | Nearly a third of young lesbian and gay people in Northern Ireland have tried to kill themselves because of ongoing persecution and bullying, according to a new survey. Just over 29 percent of gay respondents to the Department of Education (news - web sites) poll said they had attempted suicide, with as many as 50 percent saying they suffered some sort of bullying regarding their sexuality. Additionally, 26 percent of young people self-harmed as a way of dealing with the pressures they faced regarding their sexuality." -  Boys Don't Cry: How many gay Irish men have taken their lives in the last year? Nobody knows (2003, Alternate Link): "The report's findings on the experiences of gay men and women show an increased risk of suicide - though this varies considerably according to individual, social, economic and sociopolitical circumstances... Will Peters of Gay HIV Strategies says: "Personally I believe the rates have always been very high. It is a hard thing to say publicly because of the families who have been bereaved by suicide, but I think that a lot of these young men who are being mourned were gay. And they were gay 20 or 30 years ago." ..."People had plenty of anecdotal evidence. Schools, for example, told us that most bullying manifests itself in homophobia." - Mental health: lesbians and gay men: Developing Strategies to Counter the Impact of Social Exclusion and Stigmatisation (2003, PDF) by Brian Dillon & Eoin Collins. Report prepared for Gay HIV Strategies and The Northern Area Health Board.

Gay Suicide problems (Ireland) N/A: "Ross White, the winner from The Queen's University of Belfast, undertook his research with The Rainbow Project. Together they looked at the incidence of suicide among gay men in Northern Ireland. Both students have now undertaken further study at their respective Universities... Ross's project looked at the relationship between factors associated with a gay lifestyle and attempted suicide. "The number of suicide attempts among the people we spoke to was very high, with some reporting four, five and even nine attempts to take their own life. Thirty-two percent of those who took part in the study had attempted suicide. Although the project stands on its own as a body of work, my involvement with the Rainbow Project and the gay men who participated in the study educated me over and above what can be written in a report. The experience had a profound effect on me and the stories of those I met will stay with me forever." - Ulster's Young Gay men 30 Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide (1999): "The number of suicide attempts among the people we spoke to was very high, with some reporting four, five and even nine attempts to take their own life. Thirty-two percent of those who took part in the study had attempted suicide. According to Ross, most of those who tried to kill themselves had taken a drug or alcohol overdose: Men who had been sexually assaulted or bullied at school were more likely to attempt suicide. Those who had lost a friend through suicide or who had low-self esteem/high hopelessness were also more likely to try and kill themselves. It is clear that problems exist and they are not being adequately addressed."

Research into Male Suicide (2008, Ulster):  Researchers at the University of Ulster are urging young men in north and west Belfast who have considered suicide to speak to them in a bid to help others in this situation. They hope to speak confidentially to men aged between 16 and 34 who have thought seriously about or acted with the intention of suicide, in order to develop care and support programmes for those at risk. During the interview the men will be asked to talk about issues in their lives that have influenced their thoughts about suicide and the types of help and support that they have used when feeling suicidal. Around 50 of the 242 people registered in 2007 in Northern Ireland as taking their own lives were men in this age group according to statistics released this month by NISRA... Dr Joanne Jordan, from the School of Nursing and Midwifery at QUB, is leading the study, which is entitled Providing Meaningful Care: Learning from the Experiences of Suicidal Men. - Related Conference Presentation: Engaging Men in Research on Service Improvement around Sensitive Issues: Some Insights from a Study on Suicidal Behavior amongst Young People in Northern Ireland (2009, PDF): In seeking to engage potentially emotionally vulnerable young men, efforts to date have concentrated on establishing the necessary infrastructure to ensure a methodologically rigorous and ethically sound approach to understanding suicide. Consequently, this study has consulted with a diverse range of agencies, organizations, and individuals within both the statutory and non-statutory sectors in Northern Ireland. These consultations have been invaluable in ensuring that researchers are cognizant of, and respond appropriately to, the needs of all those involved in the study. Discussion: The presentation discusses a number of issues encountered in the course of preliminary research activity and the steps taken by way of research design, associated training activity, and support mechanisms put in place for the young men, the clinicalinterviewers, and wider research team.

NI survey shows extent of gay suicide issue (2006): early two-thirds considered killing themselves and 30% self harmed, according to the survey, which was carried out over three years by the Rainbow Project in Belfast. The survey of 190 young gay or bisexual men revealed one third were diagnosed as having a mental illness at some time in their lives with almost as many having had a potential psychiatric disorder. A quarter had attempted suicide and over two thirds thought about taking their own lives. Four out of five who had thoughts of suicide indicated those were related to same sex attraction. Among the key factors which contributed to suicidal thoughts and self harm were negative experiences in school such as bullying. The findings of 'Out On Your Own' were released at a conference in Belfast opened by the Chief of the Equality Commission, Bob Collins. 

McNamee H (2006). Out on Your Own: An Examination of the Mental Health of Young Same-Sex Attracted Men. Belfast: The Rainbow Project. Internet: Download Page. PDF Download. Alternate Link, Alternate Link: Over one quarter (27.1per cent) of the respondents had attempted suicide and over two thirds (71.3 per cent) of respondents had thought about taking their own life. Four out of five (80.5 per cent) of the respondents who had suicidal thoughts indicated that the suicidal thoughts were related to their same-sex attraction. Within the survey, 30.7 per cent of the respondents had self harmed. One fifth (20.6 per cent) of the respondents had self harmed more than once and 11.1 per cent had self harmed once. Two-thirds (64.4 per cent) of those who had self harmed indicated that the selfharmingwas related to their same-sex attraction. - The USL GLBT Mental Health Campaign: ""A recent survey carried out in Northern Ireland showed over ‘one quarter (27.1 per cent) of respondents had attempted suicide and over two thirds (71.3 per cent) of respondents had thought about taking their own life’ (Out on You Own, McNamee). This is a huge problem within the LGBT community and further research and initiatives are needed to help solve the problem."

Carolan F, Redmond S (Youthnet, 2003). ShOut: Research into the Needs of Young People in Northern Ireland Who Identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and/or Transgender (LGBT). Commissioned by the Department of Education. Belfast, Ireland: Youthnet. Internet:  Full Text. Full Text. Full Text. Download Page. Full Text. Full Text: N = 362, 14 (4%) = Trannssexual/Transgender, 52 (14%) = Bisexual - Lifetime Suicide Attempt Incidence: Males (28%, N = 232) - Females (30%, N = 130) - TS/TV (64%, N = 14).

On Tuesday 19th March, OUThouse at 105 hosted a Panel Discussion on the topic of LGBT youth suicide (Word Download).  To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time a discussion has been held to discuss the issue of suicide in the Gay community, and particularly among younger members of that community... During his input on the evening, Cathal Kelly spoke of his disappointment and that of other Community groups who made a submission to the Government’s Task Force in 1996.  This Task Force purported to look at the higher rates of suicide and identify what might be done to reduce them.  Submissions were requested via the media, and the NLGF and Lesbian Line Dublin responded.  Submissions were based on research conducted abroad, and by the Combat Poverty Agency.  They included a list of recommendations such as specifically mentioning LGBT’s in targeted activities to reduce suicide rates.  In relation to LGBT youth, the submission identified key people in the Community, Gardaí, doctors, youth workers etc. who particularly needed to be made aware that clients they encounter could potentially be LGBT, and this needs to be factored into how these clients are dealt with.  Despite this submission, there was a resounding silence on the issue of LGBT suicide when the Report was published... Fergal Carroll based on his own research and clinical experience, outlined some of the factors contributing to this increased vulnerability.  While it is obvious that LGBT adolescents will face the same stressors as any adolescent, in the case of LGBT youth, these stressors are enhanced by the lack of positive role models and positive messages about their sexuality.  There are also issues around the education system and the lack of gay positive messages, and anti-homophobic policies in the school system.  These means that as well as internalised negative images, there are external factors that may come into play such as bullying or harassment.  All of this at a time of life when pressure to conform is at its highest can increase suicide risk for LGBT youth.     

Growing up as a gay young person in Ireland - so what's the story? (2000) "I feel so trapped and isolated that my life doesn't feel worth living... He attempted suicide by overdosing deliberately on paracetamol. He survived and is lucky to have suffered no long term effects on his health... To pretend the problem of homophobic bullying does not exist as an issue in every school is just naive... The levels of gay youth suicide are alarming and if one looks at these type of situations, is this surprising? A report in Northern Ireland, conducted by the Science Shop - a joint initiative by the University of Ulster and Queen's University - revealed that: "YOUNG gay men are 30 times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual counterparts." "Some have made as many as nine unsuccessful attempts to kill themselves. About 54 per cent of those interviewed had seriously considered suicide and one in three had attempted suicide. More than half had been bullied at school as a result of being gay." Queen's student Ross White carried out the research for the Rainbow Project, a health organisation for gay and bisexual men. He looked at the relationship between factors associated with a gay lifestyle and attempted suicide. "The number of suicide attempts among the people we spoke to was very high, with some reporting four, five and even nine attempts to take their own life," Mr White said. "Thirty-two per cent of those who took part in the study had attempted suicide." Most of those who tried to kill themselves had taken a drug or alcohol overdose. "Men who had been sexually assaulted or bullied at school were more likely to attempt suicide," Mr White said. "Those who had lost a friend through suicide or who had low self-esteem/high hopelessness were also more likely to try and kill themselves." The Rainbow Project has launched an anti-bullying campaign in the north. Adrian McCracken of the Rainbow Project said: "We knew there was a problem but didn't realise how big it was. "It's particularly high here because a lot of young gay men are not able to come out at school, there are no support services."

Statements on Suicide Prevention Strategy - 24th October 2007: "[Homosexuality for young gay men] is a discovery, not a decision and for many it is a discovery which is made against a backdrop where ... they have long encountered anti-gay attitudes which will do little to help them deal openly and healthily with their own sexuality. The multiplier effect relating to suicide is significant for young gay people and is an established fact so I will put supporting research on the record of the House of which I hope the Minister of State is aware..."

The gay youth suicide issue is noted in the article Young, Queer & Proud!, published in Worker's Solidarity, No. 53. Jan. 1998). A Workers Solidarity Movement position paper titled Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Oppression is also available at the same web site: The Gay Liberation movement has been active in Ireland since the early 1970s. A small number of activists have been successful in putting the issue of discrimination at work, in housing, and socially on the public agenda. Two public sector trade unions passed anti-discrimination policies. In the late 1980s this position was adopted officially by the Irish Congress of Trade Unions.  

The 1995 report - Poverty - Lesbians and Gay Men: The Economic and Social Effects of Discrimination - published by the Combat Poverty Agency, Ireland (ISBN 1 871643 53 8 reports facts possibly implicated in suicide problems. "The study found that 21 per cent of respondents were living in poverty and over half (57 per cent) of respondents said they found it difficult to make ends meet. The findings also outlined clearly the range of effects of harassment and discrimination, and the extent of social exclusion experienced by lesbians and gay men."

Researching lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues in Northern Ireland (2004, PDF Download). 


Scotland

Live To Tell: Finding of a study of suicidal thought, feelings and behavior amongst young gay and bisexual men in Edinburg (2003, PDF Download. Download Page. PDF)

Research highlights: 95 Gay/Bi Males aged 15-26 (Average age = 20.8 years). 28% of respondents had at some point deliberately injured themselves with no suicidal intent. This compares to 2% of men in the general population.. 54% of respondents had seriously considered taking their own life, compared to 13% of men in the general population who have ever considered suicide. 51% of respondents who had previously considered suicide now no longer felt suicidal. However, 15% of respondents still seriously considered suicide at least once a month. 27% of young gay/bisexual men have attempted suicide compared to 4% of the general population. Suicide attempts were most common in those young gay/bisexual men aged 14 to 20. 58% of those who had attempted suicide made only one attempt. 35% had made three or more attempts. 23% made five or more attempts. 54% of respondents who had attempted suicide had at some point deliberately injured themselves without wanting to take their own life.

Overview of mental health services: Ausit Scotland (2009, PDF): Edinburgh Crisis Centre: Edinburgh Crisis Centre was established in August 200 to provide support to people who are using, or have used, mental health services in Edinburgh and their carers.The service is community-based and can be accessed 24 hours a day, 3 5 days a year. The Centre provides crisis support through a free telephone helpline, face-to-face support and also has facilities for people who need to stay overnight... Monitoring data based on 78 callers show that 23 per cent of Centre users define themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender and 4 per cent identified themselves as disabled.

Truth Hurts: Report of the National Inquiry into Self-harm among Young People (2008, Mental Health Foundation). PDF. Download Page. GLBT issues mentiones, nothing that there is a lack of related research specific to Scotland.

Challenging Prejudice: Changing Attitudes Towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People In Scotland: Recommendations of the LGBT Hearts and Minds Agenda Group (The Scottish Government, 2008, PDF).

Whittle S, Turner L, Al-Alami M (2007). Engendered Penalties: Transgender and Transsexual People’s Experiences of Inequality and Discrimination. Manchester Metropolitan University. A Research Project and Report Commissioned by the Equalities Review. PDF Download.

Investigating the links between mental health and behaviour in schools (2005, PDF): A report to the Scottish Executive Education Department Pupil Support and Inclusion Division. "Agencies such as the Mental Health Foundation, Stonewall and LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) Youth Scotland have found levels of suicide among young gay men to be higher than among the male population generally. Equally, homophobic bullying has been recognised as a major issue within schools but little systematic work has taken place on this. Levels of understanding about the experiences of young lesbians in schools remains poorly understood. Particular fears about disclosure are likely to influence the ways in which research with these groups takes place.

Towards a Healthier LGBT Scotland’ - report [October, 2003] on LGBT health in Scotland: (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) "The INCLUSION Project, working for LGBT Health, was launched in October 2002, a partnership between Stonewall Scotland, representing Scotland’s LGBT communities and the Scottish Executive Health Department. The project has been gathering available evidence, undertaking new research, co-ordinating demonstration activity and supporting community capacity building, to identify the support needed by local NHS services to better meet the needs of individuals from LGBT communities... 25% of respondents in a Scottish survey of LGBT people had experienced inappropriate advice or treatment due to sexual orientation or gender identity and 24% had experienced homophobic staff... Research investigating the link between suicide and sexual orientation suggests unusually high rates of attempted suicide in the range of 20 – 42%... 75% gay men under 36 yrs have tried drugs compared to 47% general population - 80% lesbians / bi women stated they had been affected by their own drug / alcohol use or someone close to them...

Scottish Government Publication: The case for LGBT equality (2008): Results of studies given.

On the basis of a report on the Equality for All Conference held on June 20th 1997 in Edinburgh City Chambers, the following problems negatively affecting GLB youth - listed in the "youth" section - are similar to the ones negatively affecting their North American counterparts who are at high risk for having suicide problems.

General social and legal discrimination.

Becoming "homeless after coming out to parents." "Parent support - often absent for young LGBT people." "Often when coming out they may face rejection from family and friends, they may need to become independent at an early age and this may lead to financial problems, leading to prostitution and abuse."

Ignorance of GLBT issues in education, and anti-gay abuse by peers ("bullying"). "Gay bashing."

"Lack - a general lack of services for young LGBT people... Support networks - support networks are mostly heterosexist for young people."

"Gay scene - baptism of fire, expensive and predatory... off-putting, exploitative... lack of diversity on the gay scene."

"Prostitution - need for money for living, confirmation of sexuality in absence of school or other support."

"Marginalisation - young people's needs marginalised, high priority on needs of older men especially i.e. fucking."

Summary Excerpt: "The workshop raised a number of issues in terms of interconnections between various areas not noted above: ...Most young LGBT people are not out and so have no access to information, little positive imagery or support networks, this will normally lead to low self-worth, lack of confidence, under achievement, isolation, development of damaging emotional defences, participation in damaging relationships, self-harm, premature independence and associated effects."

Scottish Parliament Scraps Clause 28 (June 2000)

A Suicide Problem Indicator: Robertson AE (1998). The mental health experiences of gay men: a research study exploring gay men's health needs. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 5(1), 33-40. (A PubMed abstract)

From the Abstract: A study of 37 gay men reports that they "faced profound social difficulties when coming to terms with their sexuality, a process that can occur throughout their life time." Married gay males were especially at risk and "cited alcohol misuse and depression amongst the effects of this stressful [double] lifestyle."

ScotsGay Magazine has an occasional mention of suicide issues related to a number of situations.

Morrison C, Mackay A (2000). The Experience of Violence and Harassment of Gay Men in the City of Edinburgh. The Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Internet: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2000/07/6540/File-1


France

France: - Détresse psychique et homosexualité: état des connaissances et enjeux méthodologiques de recherche (2008, PDF, PDF): À la lumière des résultats avancés par les études relatives à la santé mentale des homosexuels, et quelle que soit l’approche préconisée, il existe une détresse psychique importante dans cette population. - Le Mal-être Des Jeunes Homos [enquête] (2009): Un tiers des jeunes homos de 14 à 21 ans disent avoir été victimes d'actes homophobes, la moitié rencontrent des difficultés à assumer leur homosexualité, 1 sur 5 a fait une tentative de suicide : ce sont les principaux enseignements de l'enquête du MAG.- Le suicide révèle la souffrance singulière des jeunes homosexuels (2005). - HES et le MAG livrent les premiers résultats de l'enquête qu'ils ont menée sur le vécu des jeunes populations trans en France (2009): Un tiers (34%) des jeunes trans déclarent avoir tenté de se suicider. Par ailleurs, 98% des jeunes trans interrogés expriment un mieux-être une fois le parcours de transition de genre commencé. - Le suicide, un mal homosexuel ? Nombre de jeunes gays français se donnent la mort (2010).

Le risque de suicide chez les jeunes a orientations sexuelles non conventionelles (lesbiennes, bisexuelles, gais) (PDF Download, Homosexualites et Socialism, Rapport, 2001). - Le rejet social comme origine du suicide (2003). (Alternate Link) - Avoir 16 ans et être homo (2004): "La vie est très difficile lorsqu'on se découvre gay au collège et au lycée. Un petit aperçu de mon histoire à moi et mes conseils... C'était également un moyen d'annoncer mon homosexualité aux gens qui m'entourent. Grave erreur. Dans le cercle de mes amis, je me suis découvert des ennemis suite à cette annonce. ça a été un calvaire cette dernière année. Insultes, sous-entendus mal placés, et même des crachas..." - Suicide et dépression: "Suicide et sexualité sont encore aujourd'hui en France des sujets relativement tabous. De nombreux experts estiment que les statistiques sur le suicide sont sous-évaluées. De plus, à la différence des États-Unis, du Canada et de l'Italie, aucune étude n'a été menée à ce jour sur les risques suicidaires dans la population des jeunes gais et lesbiennes et celles réalisées sur le suicide chez les jeunes n'interrogent, ni ne prennent en compte les difficultés liées à l'acceptation de l'homosexualité ou de pratiques homosexuelles...

Suicide et dépression chez les adolescents homosexuels, l'urgence d'une action!!! -  Le suicide qui n’ose pas dire son nom: "Le livre Homosexualité & suicide, au travers d’études et de 13 témoignages, propose une explication du taux de suicide apparemment plus élevé chez les gays et lesbiennes et particulièrement les jeunes... Je cite un paragraphe du livre qui résume les principaux facteurs à risque pour le jeune gay : « on s’aperçoit que les risques suicidaires les plus élevés sont, soit associés à un vécu persécutif de la part de membres de la famille, de pairs, ou de professionnels référents ; soit à une difficulté extrême à traverser la prise de conscience et / ou la révélation de l’homosexualité ; soit enfin à une incapacité à vivre l’un de ses premiers amours, à un rejet de sa part ou à une rupture amoureuse.." - Tentatives de suicide à l’adolescence: souffrance singulière et mal-être social: "Les jeunes face à l’homophobie" par Eric Verdier, Coauteur de Homosexualité et suicide (p. 14-16. PDF Download) -  Suicide Mortelle homophobie: Entretien réalisé par Dany Stive: Éric Verdier et Jean-Marie Firdion, Homosexualités et Suicide (Alternate Link). - Contribution d’Eric Verdier À L’amphi 2005. - Une recherche action d’Éric Verdier: Préférence sexuelle, niveau social, origine ethnique : la discrimination conduit à la prise de risque..

Modes de consommation d’alcool et tentatives de suicide chez l’homme jeune: "Population et méthodes: Il s’agit d’une population exclusivement masculine, représentative des 400 000 sujets sélectionnés tous les ans dans l’ensemble des 10 centres de sélection de métropole [Paris]. 9 758 sujets ont été tirés au sort. 9 270 réponses furent exploitables (taux de participation : 95 %). L’âge moyen est de 20 ans, les extrêmes se situant de 17 à 29 ans. Le taux de réponse aux 119 items de l’autoquestionnaire varie entre 88 % et 99 % selon les questions. L’enquête s’est déroulée entre novembre 1992 et février 1993... Conclusions: ...D’autres facteurs du risque suicidaire, non étudiés en détail, ont été relevés, tels l’usage de drogues illicites, de tabac et l’homosexualité. Parmi les sujets ayant fait un geste suicidaire, un sur deux présente deux facteurs de risque ou plus."

État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download): "Depression, tentatives de suicide et trise de risque parmis les lecteurs de la presse gay francaise" (Philippe ADAM, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, France): "4753 questionnaires remplis par des hommes... Pour ce qui est des répondants masculins, l ’échantillon se caractérise par une forte représentation des personnes qui vivent en région parisienne (42%) et qui sont allés à l ’université (62%). L ’âge moyen est de 35 ans. La plupart (91%) des répondants se définissent comme gays. La moitié ont un partenaire stable. 12% des répondants sont séropositifs pour le VIH... Nous commencerons par dresser un état des lieux à partir des autodéclarations des répondants. Parmi eux, 17% déclarent avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie... Le graphique précédent montre que le taux de déclaration de tentatives de suicide est déjà à son maximum (27%) parmi les moins de 20 ans puis il décroît régulièrement avec l’âge pour se stabiliser autour de 15% après 35 ans."

Evaluation de l’effet éventuel de la sursuicidalité sur les comportements sexuels à risque chez les jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux. Conséquences sur la pratique du dépistage du VIH (PDF Download, PDF Download): "La sursuicidalité des jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux (HSH)... Cette étude exploratoire a été réalisée en 2001 en milieu ouvert (à l’occasion d’une manifestation festive) sur un échantillon (n=368; F=55%; âge médian: F=19 ans; [ET=6,7]; H=21 ans; [ET=8]), vivant principalement en région parisienne –sur-représenté en HSH (17%) – rapportant pour environ 12% au moins une tentative de suicide (TS) durant la vie. Les résultats obtenus confirment la sursuicidalité des HSH (30%; p<0.05 ; 6 fois supérieure à celle des hommes hétérosexuels) strictement comparable aux données épidémiologiques disponibles..."

Suicide et tentative de suicide parmi les personnes à orientation homo-/bisexuel (Alternate Link, 2003): - Prévalence des tentatives de suicide (France) selon le sexe et l’orientation sexuelle... Hommes: 17%. 17%; Femmes: 25%. - Vos avis au sujet de l'homosexualité: "Bonjour à tous.... je m'appelle Vanessa, je vais avoir 20 ans au mois de juin 2003. Je suis homosexuelle (lesbienne, gwenn, comme vous le désirez...). Je n'ai pas choisi d'être comme celà! Je me suis rendue compte malgré moi que j'aimais une femme! Autre chose, c'est grâce à des homophobes comme ceux-ci qu'à mes 17 ans, j'ai fait une tentative de suicide! ...Un jour il a tenté de se suicider mais sa mère est arrivé avant pour éviter la catastrophe. Ensuite il a dit à toutes les personnes qu'il connaissait qu'il était homo. Tout le monde l'a plus où moins accepté mais il est quand même retourné avec un fille à cause de la pression et des regards. Maintenant il vit avec une fille, mais il fait dépression sur dépression, tentative de suicide sur tentative de suicide, il est terriblement malheureux, il ne sort plus beaucoup à cause du regards des gens. En gros, il est en train de se détruire et de mourir tout ça à cause de ces crét... d'homophobes!"

En prison, être homosexuel, c’est la pire des choses: "Mais le pire s’est produit récemment et au moment où vous lisez ce témoignage, mon ami est dans un service psychiatrique, suite à une tentative de suicide. J’ai effectivement appris récemment qu’il a été violé par trois détenus sous les douches quelques jours avant son transfert. Comme d’habitude en prison, ses cris n’ont pas été entendus. Les trois détenus et les surveillants ont probablement tous supposé qu’un homosexuel apprécierait de se faire enculer violemment par des inconnus. En 11 ans, mon ami aura donc subi deux viols en milieu carcéral. Première incarcération : premier viol : transmission du VIH. Deuxième incarcération : second viol : tentative de suicide..."

Les chiffres noirs du suicide: "Selon les nouvelles données de l’Enquête presse gay 2000, que «Têtu» présente en exclusivité, un gay sur six a déjà fait une tentative de suicide. Et les liens entre dépression et prise de risques sexuels font froid dans le dos... Le premier mérite de cette enquête est qu’elle nous donne, enfin, des chiffres précis sur la dépression et les tentatives de suicide chez les gays. Malgré les informations alarmantes en provenance d’autres pays depuis quelques années, ces problématiques, bien documentées chez les hétérosexuels, étaient jusqu’à présent complètement ignorées en ce qui concerne les gays. Parmi les hommes ayant répondu à l’Enquête presse gay, 17 % déclarent avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie, soit environ un homo sur six. Ces données sont similaires à celles de plusieurs enquêtes menées à l’étranger, notamment aux États-Unis..."

Le Refuge: L'Association nationale: Agir contre l'isolement des adolescents attirés par une personne du même sexe. - L'association dresse un constat troublant sur la situation des adolescents homosexuels en France. Face à cet état des lieux, il était urgent de réagirJeanne (Alternate Link): "Mon fils s'est suicidé il y a de cela quatre ans, il avait 17 ans. Personne n'a compris ce geste à l'époque, même s'il présentait depuis quelques temps des signes de dépression. Pour moi ce fut un choc. En rangeant ses affaires, j'ai compris, il y a trois an de cela, son " secret ". Je pense que mon fils était homosexuel. J'ai retrouvé des revues érotiques masculines sous son lit et des lettres assez équivoques. Je comprends maintenant cette douleur qui le hantait." -  Le suicide de jeunes homosexuel/le/s. - Et si votre enfant était homosexuel?

L'université euroméditerranéenne des homosexualités: ..."Le ministère s'intéresse également à la santé des lesbiennes, cible du cancer du sein et peu touchée par les campagnes de prévention. Mais surtout, dans le cadre de la prévention du suicide chez les jeunes - l'une des premières causes de mortalité dans cette population -, la DGS mène des actions spécifiques pour prévenir les dégâts générés par l'homophobie. Robert Simon rappelait « il y a un lien très fort entre violation des droits de l'Homme et santé »." - Suicide : un risque plus eleve chez les jeunes homosexuels. - La place de l'homosexualité dans l'éducation sexuelle en milieu scolaire: L'homosexualité à l'adolescence (2002, Alternate Link). - Adolescence, Homosexualité et Violence - Projet Daphné. - Adolescence et homosexualité: souffrance, tabou social et inertie éducative. - Autour du coming-out: Quand la sortie est mal acceptée par la famille Réfléchir avant de sortir de son placard.

Le suicide du jeune gai, réalité ou mythe? - Les adolescents homosexuels et le suicide: "Notre propos ne portera pas sur l'interprétation à donner aux articles de Gageure, mais il nous a semblé important de les évoquer afin de montrer à quel point la question peut être tabou tant chez les homos que chez les hétéros. Pour aborder le plus objectivement possible la question du suicide chez les adolescents homos ou bisexuels, il faut avant tout présenter ces statistiques que certains mettent en doute..." - Controverse sur l'existence d'un risque accru de suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels.

Prévention du suicide et pratiques de réseaux-congrès international-Liège du 18 au22/11/2002 (PDF): " Les résultats obtenus : • confirment la sursuicidalité des HSH (30% ; p<0.05 ; 6 fois supérieure à celle des hommes hétérosexuels..." - Suicide des jeunes : premiers chiffres français. - Péril suicidaire chez les jeunes homos: Une enquête indépendante révèle qu’un homo ou bisexuel homme a treize fois plus de risques de faire une tentative de suicide qu’un hétérosexuel. Extrait de l’article paru dans liberation.fr. - Le suicide révèle la souffrance singulière des jeunes homosexuels (2005): "Les résultats préliminaires du travail de Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique et responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l’hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal, font apparaître que, "toutes choses égales par ailleurs" ­ âge, lieu de résidence, niveau d’études, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, structure familiale parentale, modes de vie (couple ou célibat) ­, les jeunes homosexuels ont treize fois plus de risque de faire une tentative de suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. Ces résultats confirment les chiffres issus des études américaines, canadiennes et australiennes : elles aboutissent, chez les homosexuels, à des chiffres de "sursuicidalité" variant de six à treize." 

A French politicians outs himself and states the following (N/A): "Je suis et resterai persuadé que plus de visibilité (de tous en général, mais des hommes et femmes publics en particulier) éviterait sans doute un certain nombre de suicides de jeunes (ou moins jeunes homosexuels)." - Les suicides: " En réfléchissant à cette première tentative des années plus tard, il est possible que cela soit le refoulement de mon homosexualité qui était encore endormie, je me souviens étant à l'internat à cette époque dans une école d'horticulture, dans le dortoir le thème homo avait été employé et d'ailleurs certains mecs étaient passé à la pratique pendant la nuit et que moi je ne savais pas ou j'en étais, le sexe, la masturbation était inconnue jusqu'à 20ans environ...  Pourtant de nouveau quelques années plus tard je fais ma deuxième tentative de suicide, juste environ 1an avant mon coming out, pourquoi cette nouvelle tentative de me supprimer, je ne le sais toujours pas, je sais que je suis quelqu'un de très différent des autres, plutôt fragile, c'est comme ça surtout que je suis en pleine période d'anorexie physique et mentale, je veux un suicide rapide et aussi un suicide morbide, j'ai décidé de ne plus manger et de me laisser mourir à petit feu..." - Le suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels.

Pas de mission sur le suicide pour Christine Boutin (communiqué Inter-LGBT - 26 mai 2003): "A l'unanimité, le Conseil de l'Interassociative lesbienne, gaie bi et trans, réuni ce samedi 24 mai, a voté une décision demandant à Jean-Pierre Raffarin de retirer la mission qu'il a confiée à Christine Boutin sur les taux de suicide en France (cf. décision ci-dessous). Constatant que "Christine Boutin s'est faite le relais d'une homophobie des plus violentes, et sans doute des plus destructrices auprès des jeunes en construction de leur identité", le Conseil de l'Inter-LGBT estime que "la mission confiée par le Premier Ministre à Christine Boutin est une provocation à l'égard des associations LGBT". Les associations font remarquer que la députée " a offert une tribune inédite à une haine homophobe qu'elle n'inscrira probablement pas dans son rapport comme une cause de suicide"." - Ex Aequo écrit à Christine Boutin sur le suicide des jeunes gays. - Suicide, prévention : deviner le risque chez l'adolescent. - Le suicide à l'adolescence

Italy / Italie: - Enquête Italienne: (Must Scroll) "L'Associazione gay e lesbica de Florence a mis en place une enquête sur internet à laquelle 800 gais et lesbiennes du monde entier ont répondu (les deux tiers des réponses provenaient d'Europe). Cette enquête fait suite à une série de suicides de jeunes gais en Sardaigne, en Sicile (immolation par le feu) et en Lombardie ainsi qu'à la mise à mort publique d'un jeune homosexuel par son père à Foggia dans les Pouilles. Les résultats de l'enquête internet sont frappants. Si 65 % des gais et 61 % des lesbiennes avouent avoir pensé au suicide, 22 % des hommes et 21 % des femmes ont effectivement un jour tenté de mettre fin à leur jour. 28 % des répondants ont effectué un traitement psychologique ou psychiatrique (11 % contre leur volonté). Enfin la moitié environ des ques­tionnaires fait état de violences subies en raison de l'orientation sexuelle, ces violences pouvant être physiques (le plus souvent les parents et les camarades d'école), psychologiques ou sexuelles."

Le suicide de jeunes homosexuel/le/s: "En Italie, par exemple, selon une enquête réalisée dans le cadre du programme Daphné financé par l'Union européenne, 40 % des personnes interrogées avaient envisagé le suicide, et 13 % avaient tenté de se suicider. C'est dans la tranche d'âge des 14-16 ans que prévalaient les idées de suicide, tandis que les tentatives de suicide avaient généralement lieu entre 16 et 18 ans." - Situation des lesbiennes et des gays dans les États membres du Conseil de l'Europe:  "En Italie, par exemple, selon une enquête réalisée dans le cadre du programme Daphné financé par l'Union européenne, 40 % des personnes interrogées avaient envisagé le suicide, et 13 % avaient tenté de se suicider. C'est dans la tranche d'âge des 14-16 ans que prévalaient les idées de suicide, tandis que les tentatives de suicide avaient généralement lieu entre 16 et 18 ans." - Situation of lesbians and gays in Council of Europe member states (2000):  In Italy, for example, in a study within the framework of the EU funded Daphne programme 40 % of respondents had contemplated suicide and 13% had attempted suicide. The age in which thoughts about suicide were most prevalent was between 14 and 16, whereas the suicide attempts tended to take place in the following two years.

Italy has been rocked by the suicide of a teenager who was subjected to anti-gay taunts at school N/A:  According to Italy's Gay Help Line, more than one third of the calls it gets are from students distressed by taunting and bullying at school. On Friday homophobic graffiti was sprayed across the front of a well-known gay and lesbian bookshop in Milan. Also on Friday, the Rome chapter of Arcigay claimed that local priests were pressuring mothers to have their gay children exorcised. Arcigay also complained about RAI state TV broadcaster news reports implying that the dead boy was picked on not because he was gay but because he was seen as a 'swot'..."

Self-harm and suicidal behaviour among young Italian lesbians, gays and bisexuals (2007, Conferene Paper, by A. Buffoli University of Padua, Word Download): 720 Italian partecipants (605 M and 115 F) , 18-24 years old, who identified themselves as lesbian, gay or bisexual answered to an on-line survey hosted on an internet website. Data collected through the semi-structured questionnaire are compared for gender, geographical provenience and sexual orientation. More than 80% of the sample reported to have thought about suicide and 20% reported one or more suicide attempts. Participants living in rural areas in South Italy were at greater risk of suicide.

Belgium / Belgique:- A study referenced on the Unit for Suicide Research's Current Research Page. (Unit for Suicide Research, University of Gent, Belgium) Study Title: Controlled cross-sectional study of suicidal thoughts, impulses, and behaviour among homosexual adolescents (1998). - Homosexualité et suicide: liaisons dangereuses? - Les jeunes gays et lesbiennes et le suicide: etat de la question et listes de prevention. - État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download).

Le taux des tentatives de suicide est plus élevé chez les jeunes homosexuels (6 octobre 1998, Must Scroll): "Une étude menée en Flandres par l'université de Gand montre que les jeunes homosexuels de 15 à 25 ans ont 2 à 5 fois plus de risque de tenter un suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. 25% des femmes bisexuelles ou lesbiennes et 13% des hommes homosexuels avaient tenté un suicide, contre 5.4% des femmes et 5.9% des hommes hétérosexuel-le-s. 45% des femmes bisexuelles ou lesbiennes et 33% des hommes homosexuels avaient envisagé un suicide, contre 24% des femmes et 16% des hommes hétérosexuel-le-s. L'étude a été conduite par le sociologue John Vincke et le psychologue Kees van Heeringen auprès de 404 jeunes, homosexuels pour la moitié et présentée au 7ème Symposium Européen « The Suicidal Process: Challenges for Treatment and Prevention » du 9 au 12 septembre.

Cycle de séminaires: Regards croisés sur la sexualité (Observatoire du Sida et des sexualités, Belgique, 2005): ... Séance 3 : Les orientations sexuelles, l’homophobie et l’hétérosexisme... 1. Le paradoxe du processus de normalisation de l’homosexualité... Processus de médicalisation de ’homosexualité... L’évolution du statut de l’homosexualité et le paradoxe de la reconnaissance : la visibilité
de l’homosexualité sous tension... Santé et vulnérabilité des personnes homosexuelles... Fonction sociale des stéréotypes de genre et vulnérabilité des personnes homosexuelles... L’origine de l’homophobie : la pyramide socio-historique des sexes, de genre et des orientations sexuelles et la construction du modèle de la virilité... Une hiérarchisation sociale et une pyramide socio-historique... La construction du modèle de la virilité et l’homophobie...  

Switzerland / Suisse:  - Un jeune gai sur quatre a tenté de se suicider! - Statistiques relatives aux tentatives de suicide commises par les adolescents homosexuel(le)s. (Must Scroll) - Parler d'homosexualité à l'école? La question gay déchire leRoyaume-Uni. (Et la situation en Suisse?) - Un jeune gay sur quatre a tenté de se suicider: "Selon une étude suisse, les garçons âgés entre 13 et 17 ans qui aiment les garçons traversent une crise profonde. Le psychiatre lausannois Pierre Cochand propose d'aborder le sujet dans les écoles. Il note que plus on parle des comportements homosexuels, plus leur fréquence diminue..." -   Suicide et tentative de suicide parmi les personnes à orientation homo-/bisexuel.

Etude et statistiques sur les jeunes gays en Suisse Romande: - Le questionnaire ciblait explicitement des jeunes hommes de 16 à 25 ans... Durant ces 6 derniers mois, avez-vous eu des idées de suicide? non, jamais: 68.3%; oui, rarement: 16.3%; oui, parfois: 9.8%; oui, souvent: 5.7%... Avez-vous par le passé tenté de vous suicider? Oui: 24.4%; Non: 74.4%; ne répond pas: 1.6%. Echantillion: n = 102 jeune hommes homosexuels et bisexuels. - Le suicide et l'homosexualité

Germany / Allemagne: - A study summary from - Statistiques relatives aux tentatives de suicide commises par les adolescents homosexuel(le)s: 217 GLB individuals aged 15 - 27 years. 18% have attempted suicide at least once, 50% responded to negatively in their families, and 66% were abuse verbally and/or physically in their families. Reference cited:"Sie liebt sie. Er liebt er." Etude berlinoise sur la situation psychosociale des adolescents homosexuels (217 personnes entre 15 et 27 ans), Administration du Sénat, Berlin, 1999 (www.sensjs.berlin.de). Study Summary (Etude et statistiques sur les jeunes gays en Suisse Romande): 18% des adolescents homosexuel(le)s affirment avoir tenté au moins une fois de mettre fin à leur jours. A l'annonce de leur homosexualité, plus de 50% des adolescents reçoivent une réaction négative de la part de leur environnement familial. 66% affirment subir des violences verbales, voire physiques au sein de leur famille. Plus de 50% des adolescents interrogés affirment (ab)user de substances nocives (tabac, alcool, drogues) pour amenuiser leur mal-être. "Sie liebt sie. Er liebt er." Etude berlinoise sur la situation psychosociale des adolescents homosexuels (217 personnes entre 15 et 27 ans), Administration du Sénat, Berlin, 1999 (www.sensjs.berlin.de). 

Austria: - The Contribution of Schools to the Feeling of Acceptance and the Risk of Suicide Attempts among Austrian Gay and Bisexual Males (2007, Word Download, Poster Presentation PDF: 2007, Abstract: Published Paper, 2010) by M. Plöderl, G. Faistauer, R. Fartacek: 18% of the participants reported having attempted suicide. - The Relation Between Sexual Orientation and Suicide Attempts in Austria (2010). - Suicidality and associated risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual compared to heterosexual Austrian adults (2005): This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%), including higher incidences for most suicidality-related risk factors. - Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Harassment as Predictors of Suicidality among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Austrians (2009). 

Slovenia: - "Tednik" also conducted an interview with gay leader Sandi Perdih at the largest cemetery in Ljubljana, the capital, as Perdih paid his respects to gays who were driven to suicide by homophobia N/A.  (Must scroll to locate article.) - Alternate Link. - Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Slovenia: A Report by SKUC-LL (2001 Survey, Full Text): One particular response brought home just how profound the effects of this discrimination can be: one gay man reported that his partner had committed suicide because he could no longer deal with the problems brought about by his sexual orientation. - The social situation concerning homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in Slovenia (2009). 

Albania: - Country Summaries - Europe (2008): Many MSM reported extreme frustration at their social and economic circumstances, while nearly one third reported having suicidal thoughts.  

Hungary: - A father wrote, that his son was gay. His wife, the sons mother, couldnt accept it and attacked her son. He committed suicide. She couldn't cope with that and she also committed suicide." - Social Exclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People in Hungary (2008): An acquaintance, who works at OMSZ (National Ambulance Service), encouraged a suicidal transgender girl to continue her attempt to end her life, and was not prepared to call her by another name than that on her identity card. He does not tire himself too much either when attending to Roma people in critical condition. 

Romania: - The right that dares not speak its name: "Two young gay men from the Romanian town of Timisoara, Mirel Ciprian Cucu and Milorad Mutascu, who had been living together in a flat, were arrested in January 1993. Mirel Cucu was charged with having sexual relations with a person of the same sex. Milorad Mutascu was charged with relations with a minor (a heterosexual relationship between people of the same ages as Cucu and Mutascu would have been lawful). They received suspended sentences of one and two years respectively. The two men also faced vilification in the official police newspaper which published their names, photographs and addresses even before formal charges had been brought against them. The paper described their relationship as a 'social danger'. Milorad Mutascu was subsequently unable to find work because of his 'criminal' record. Two years after his trial, he committed suicide." -  Looking For Acceptance: "The conference heard testimonies from older participants who had attempted suicide or been subjected to blackmail; almost without exception, most had chosen to live a clandestine life, either with a partner or more likely alone, to escape the attention of a state which in the Ceausescu era, gaoled homosexuals and subjected them to electric shock treatment." - Romanian MPs vote to decriminalise homosexuality (2000): Coman, while unable to give any data or numbers on gays and lesbians in Romania, said human rights watchdogs estimated that thousands of homosexuals had been put in jail, thrown out of their jobs and houses, committed suicide or fled the country since 1989. 

Greece: - Konstantin Tsolakis on the persecution of gay people in Greece N/A: "I grew up in a society that still considers homosexuality a grave taboo, despite the fact that it ceased to be illegal a long time ago. I will never forget watching the Greek Orthodox archbishop, Christodoulos, preaching on television that “all homosexuals are sinners and will definitely end up in Hell,” imagine the impact that had on me, a gay boy of 17, struggling to come to terms with my sexuality in a country where gays are constantly humiliated, albeit mainly verbally, in the media, the tabloids and everyday conversations one happens to overhear. During the summer, a young gay man committed suicide in jail after being arrested in a police raid in an Athenian gay bar, giving thus “proof” to many conservative Greeks of homosexuality’s “ungodly” nature that “only leads men to destruction.”" - Gay activists stage public kiss protest in downtown Athens (2003). (Article on Doc Download): One homosexual committed suicide in jail after a police raid on a gay club earlier this year, Mr Yiannelos said.  - Gay, transvestite activists stage public kiss demo in downtown Athens.  

Sweden / Suède: - La Suède aux prises avec un grave taux de suicide N/A. - Justin Lundsten (1997): "I suppose I should devote my first column to myself. So read my life story, and I hope you enjoy it, that's why it's here... I have been clear with my sexuality as long as I can remember. I can't say a date or a year when it "came to me" that I was gay. But it is only in the last few years that I have realized what it means. I slipped in to a depression and cried a lot. I didn't meet any new people, or went with my friends out or to parties. I isolated myself, living of my own egoism. I even thought of committing suicide! ..." - Le suicide inquiète en Suède (2003). - Les communes doivent se mobiliser contre le suicide des jeunes homosexuels: Plus d'un tiers des jeunes suédoises homosexuelles ou bisexuelles, de 16 à 24 ans, ont commis une ou plusieurs tentatives de suicide en 2002. Un quart des garçons du même âge ont essayé de mettre fin à leur jour. - Stockholm veut aider les jeunes homos, bi et transsexuels (2003). A Webpage on GLB Suicide Issues in Sweden. - Belonging (2005): Despite this development, gloomy statistics show that the frequency of suicide is much higher among lgbt youth, who are left to the mercy of an adult world slow toabsorb rapidly changing perspective shifts.

Norway: - "The need for developing strategies for suicide prevention among young lesbian women and gay men: empirical and theoretical rationales written on the subject," was presented at the Conference on the Status of Nordic Health Promotion Research: Progress during the Decade after the Ottawa Charter. - The National Plan for Suicide Prevention 1994-1998: Chapter 3: Homosexuality mentioned without explanations. - A web page on Norway's GLBT suicide problems. - Friis, Eva: Suicide and suicide prevention among gays and lesbians (First published in the Norwegian journal Suicidologi 1998, no. 3.) - Is there an elevated risk of attempted suicide among homosexual adolescents? - Suicide Attempts among Norwegian Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youths (2007): The national non-probability sample included 407 GLB youths aged between 16 and 25 years of age, among whom 26 per cent of both genders reported a previous suicide attempt. - Webpage on Norway's GLB Suicide Issues (Alternate Link).

The Netherlands: - Suicidality and Sexual Orientation: Differences Between Men and Women in a General Population-Based Sample From The Netherlands (2006): Younger homosexuals were not at lower risk for suicidality than older homosexuals in comparison with their heterosexual counterparts. Among homosexual men, perceived discrimination was associated with suicidality. This study suggests that even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality, homosexual men were at much higher risk for suicidality than heterosexual men. This relationship could not only be attributed to their higher psychiatric morbidity. In women, there was no such clear relationship. 

Denmark: Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003)Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a First-Time Research Result! See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does not mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. [Epub ahead of print]. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married."  

 

Caribbean:

Trinidad: - Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two interrelated destructive forces in our society. An open letter to the people of Trinidad and Tobago.  -  Jessie: I had to visit delusive shrinks who got rich off of my  misery.  I still have this scar on my wrist, an ugly memento of the power he once had over my decision to live or die. I may never get to tell him, "Even after all the blows, ostracism and emotional turmoil, I'm still gay... - NM:  "I hate the fact that I hurt inwardly and no one can tell. I hate the inalienable truth that being gay is like living a whole other existence...  I had that happy place in my mind that I would retreat to whenever everything was bad. However everytime I retreated into it, it grew smaller until there was nothing left. Now when I really need it there is nothing that I could go to. I need that place and I have to find it back otherwise I will end up doing something really drastic. Right now, I need to retreat into that place otherwise I swear I am going to go mad." - Trinicontact: "But finally, deciding that telling everybody I was gay would be marginally more fun than committing suicide... One of the big things I get is that homosexuality wrong, but because this is a free country I can be gay if I want. This is an improvement over the kill-the-faggots attitude of #7, but still not good enough." - Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two interrelated destructive forces in our society: "The recent suicide of Surajdeo Lall is a prime example. This young gay man committed suicide at his work place just after some co-workers outed and harassed him." - In Trinidad, Putting Gays and Lesbians Lower Than Adulterers and Rapists (2010).


Jamaica: - Bisexual woman struggles with identity (2001):  "My situation is very common with other gays in this country," she added. "If only society was just a little kinder, life would be so much easier for all of us. There are homosexuals who have committed suicide because they couldn't deal with their sexuality. There are gays in the church who have to sit in congregation after congregation and listen to their pastor blasting homosexuals. The prospects of coming out of the closet are very frightening and which explains why so many gays are so reluctant to go public. To openly declare one's sexuality in today's Jamaica could be the difference between life and death. We have to maintain the faith and keep fighting though."  - Homos at risk (2001): "Kids can be merciless," explained one principal who requested not to be identified in the story. "I have had to both suspend and expel students for brutally beating up on other schoolmates believed to be homosexuals. Sometimes even the taunting can be vicious. I have spoken to principals of other schools and they also have similar experiences with their students."

Puerto Rico: - Suicide, adolescents and Puerto Rico: Risk factors that correlate highly with the Puerto Rican experience include homosexuality, due to the hostility that the person may experience, depression, gender, prevalence of psychiatric disorders, lack of social integration and social skills, military experience, cultural and religious factors, alcoholism, substance abuse and unemployment/poverty. The literature reviewed indicates that the Puerto Rican adolescent male is in a high risk group for suicide and that the risk increases with age, sexual preference, dysfunction in the family and substance abuse. - Strengths and Vulnerabilities of a Sample of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents in Puerto Rico (PDF Download): Participants were 61 highly educated GB youths living in Puerto Rico. Levels of depression, perceived social support, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behavior were assessed. Results show that 45% of participants reported high levels of depression. However participants reported low levels of alcohol and drug consumption, no unprotected sexual behavior, and high satisfaction with social support... 

Asia:

China: Official gay bar to open in China's Dali  (2009): Zhang Beichuan, a professor at the Qingdao University specializing in sexual health, said among Chinese homosexuals, 60 percent feel extremely distressed, between 30 and 40 percent show strong inclination to committing suicide, and between 3 and 13 percent have attempted suicide.  - China: The death of a lesbian (2007):  Li yinhe blogs about the death of Juan Zi, a lesbian who committed suicide because her mother locked her up for six months upon finding out her sexual orientation. -  Coming out in China (2002): Zhang recalls his search for sexual identity nine years ago --- when he was 19. "I found a thick medical book and read this little section, which said homosexuality is abnormal and perverse and gays get AIDS. I got very scared," says Zhang. So scared that he tried to commit suicide. Later, he met other gays in Beijing. "That made me feel that homosexuality is something perfectly normal . . . There was nothing wrong with me," Zhang said. - Chinese lesbians commit suicide (N/A, 1994) (Must scroll to locate information.).

China's opening up : nationalist and globalist conceptions of same-sex identity (2007, PDF): My marriage was a failure it was largely to please my parents. Prior to my marriage, I was in love with a woman for more than ten years. However, this woman had to leave China for Singapore. as she was involved with Falungong [a religious group which is still considered to be subversive by Chinese government authorities]. I miss her immensely. I feel insanely lonely from time to time. On a few occasions. I seriously wanted to commit suicide. My parents do not know that I am a lesbian. My brother and sister know something about it. But my family members do not want to talk about it. They are not open enough (Jie Fan 2004, pers. comm., 27 April)... According to Zhang Yun [himself], he openly proclaimed his gayness at the first HIV/AIDS Conference which was held in Beijing in 2001. He has been pursued by the local and foreign press since this proclamation. Long before this proclamation at the age of nineteen, he attempted to commit suicide. He used to think that lie was perverse as lie was attracted to men. 

South Korea: Life and Death in Queer Korea: "I consider myself lucky, though. Between 1997 and 1999, three of my gay friends in South Korea committed suicide. In May 1998, Oh disclosed his homosexuality to his family. They immediately rejected him and expelled him from their home. After living and suffering on the streets for months, and at one point sleeping in an office, Oh killed himself. The other two went to Seoul National University, which is South Korea's Harvard or Yale. One was in Law School; the other was a graduate student in biology. Their success in society was "guaranteed." However, when they came to the age of marriage, they both faced a brutal dilemma. Neither wanted to marry. But they also didn't want to disown their families and disappoint their parents. So, they chose to kill themselves. One in 1997, the other in 1999. No funerals were held for these three young men: their families considered them "bad" sons..." - South Korea: Solidarity Messages Requested in wake of Suicide of Gay Youth Activist (2003). - Homosexualité en Corée du Sud (2008):  Octobre 2008, le modèle de 23 ans, Kim Ji-hoo s'est suicidé à la suite de l'harcèlement d'internautes sur son homosexualité. Selon la police, son suicide reflète le préjudice du public envers les homosexuels et leur difficulté à réussir dans l'industrie du divertissement. Suite à l'annonce de son orientation sexuelle, l'Agence de gestion de Kim n'avait pas renouvelé son contrat et de programmes de télévision et de nombreux défilés de mode avaient annulé ses apparitions. Son blog a été bombardé de nombreux messages dénonçant son orientation sexuelle. 

Interview, with, "Lesbian, Censorship, School", Director (2007): Showing and talking about those soul-revealing wounds was clearly the hardest part of her story for Cheon-jae to tell. Nobody directed her to do it. We never expected for her tell the story of her self-injury, and speaking so frankly about it on screen is the most moving of her reports." "There are cases of teens committing suicide after being outed by irresponsible news reports." ... At the time, after a friend was outed by that TV show, I realized he was being treated as subhuman. One kid was forced from his home to be confined in a mental institution, and another was forced to drop out of school. Parents felt revulsion at their children being gay, mistreated them and finally drove them into treatment for depression... In the course of those events we learned of one child who chose suicide. Her story is in the trailers for Lesbian Censorship in School 2. - 2 openly gay, trans South Korean actors commit suicide (2008): In just one week, three Korean actors are dead from apparent suicides. According to a police investigator, the 39-year-old Choi Jin-sil, who was one Korea's most popular actors, hanged herself in her Seoul home on the morning of Oct 2. The next day, 26-year-old transgender entertainer Jang Chae-won was found dead under similar circumstances. And on Oct 7, police say that Kim Ji-hoo hanged himself in his bedroom. An apparent suicide note from the 23-year-old actor said, "I'm lonely and in a difficult situation. Please cremate my body." Transgender entertainer Jang Chae-won (top), 26, was found dead on Oct 2. Days later, openly gay actor Kim Ji-hoo, 23, hanged himself in his bedroom, according to the police. Jang and Kim were among Korea's coterie of openly gay and transsexual celebrities in a society that still attaches significant taboos to homosexuality and transsexuality. 

Taiwan: - Kuang M-F, Nojima K (2005). The Mental Health and Sexual Orientation of Females: A Comparative Study of Japan and Taiwan. Yushu University Psychological Research, 6: 141-148. Full Text.

Hong Kong: Leslie Cheung Kwok-Wing commits suicide (2003). - Biography for Leslie Cheung. - Wanbao's coverage of Leslie Cheung's death (2003). - Shiu-Ki TK (2004). Queer at Your Own Risk:  Marginality, Community and Hong Kong Gay Male Bodies. Sexualities, 7(1): 5-30. PDF Download. Download Page...Tony usually goes to beaches or cottages to find sexual partners; he seldom goes to bars or clubs. He is very keen to find a boyfriend but his physical vulnerability prevents him from finding one. He constantly thinks about suicide.

Decriminalisation of homosexuality in Hong Kong (2005): From a historical perspective, the issue of homosexuality began to gain attention in Hong Kong in 1980 when an inspector of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force was found to be a homosexual and committed suicide. After this incident, the Hong Kong government appointed the Law Reform Commission to investigate the law governing homosexuality to see if any necessary changes were needed in the present laws of Hong Kong. 

Japan: - Hidaka Y, Operario D (2006). Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the Internet. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(11): 962-7. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. - Hidaka Y, Operario D, Takenaka M, Omori S, Ichikawa S, Shirasaka T (2008). Attempted suicide and associated risk factors among youth in urban Japan. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(9): 752-7. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. - Kuang M-F, Nojima K (2005). The Mental Health and Sexual Orientation of Females: A Comparative Study of Japan and Taiwan. Yushu University Psychological Research, 6: 141-148. Full Text.

Political shift gives hope to gays (2009): According to Kashiwazaki, many who call OCCUR for advice say they feel isolated. "Matters of homosexuality are not really taught in sexual education, and it is still taboo to have a homosexual in the family or in the workplace. They need to go underground for information or to meet other homosexuals, resort to pornography or dating Web sites," he said. Gays and lesbians in Japan face serious problems, including HIV, bullying and suicide, and the use of derogatory words related to homosexuality in everyday conversation can make them feel bullied, Kashiwazaki said. "If they hear someone saying to someone else, 'You're a creepy homosexual' or 'They're so friendly they're like lesbians,' they feel as if it's being aimed at them," he said, adding that until gays and lesbians feel OK to come out, discrimination will remain. However, Kashiwazaki said a change in government may be a defining first step on the road to more recognition. "We do feel the door will open, so when it does we have to make sure it doesn't close again."  

Singapore: From Aunt Webby: Being gay, in the closet, and suicidal in Singapore (1997): Many times I contemplated committing suicide, but was constantly held back because I hold a respectable job which would affect my working partners, and also the shame my family members must come to term with. I find life extremely meaningless and especially in a place like Singapore where gays are clamped down and criminally ousted for their carnal activities; which in many ways are outright discrimination like the oppression of the blacks in America. I may want to end my life soon if I have the chance to do it in another country where my decomposed body would remain undiscovered eternally. Please pray for me. -  Oogachaga presents SOS Suicide Awareness Talk: Better Dead than Queer? (2007). - Gay suicide in Singapore: Have you had suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide before? (2007, Survey Results: Attempted Suicide: 9.5% once, 7.1% more than once, Total = 16.6%). - Sir Ian McKellen Mocks at Singapore's Gay Laws (2007). - Television company fined for making gays look ‘normal’ (2008). 

Turning the Lion City Pink: Interrogating Singapore’s New Gay Civil Servant Statement (2005, by Chris Tan, PDF): The worst of these operations was carried out in March 1992 at the popular cruising grounds at the East Coast Parkway beach. The consequences of the raid went far beyond the monetary fine that was slapped on each of the eight arrested men. One of the four men whose incriminating picture was published felt so ashamed that he committed suicide (Leong, 1995: 15 – 6). - Peter Nazareth Talks to Suchen Christine Lim in Singapore (2009, PDF): Growing up in a multicultural, multi-religious, multieverything society i.e. Singapore, it’s the writer’s job to open doors, to include people who are marginalized in their fiction, and that’s part of why I wrote The Lies That Build a Marriage, the short stories about gay men and lesbians who are marginalized, about transsexuals who have to live marginalized lives, but seen through the eyes of family members, a mother, an uncle, a daughter, instead of politicians, preachers and pastors. It is so easy to be part of mainstream society but so difficult to be at the margin. And so many people are secretly at the margin. 

Thailand: A problem of image: Life in Thailand's twilight zone (1998, Alternate Link, Alternate Link): Mention the word katoey and Thais immediately think of the slightly soiled image of the feminine end of the gay spectrum - the man dolled up as woman, the limp wrist and exaggerated postures of the lady-boy. But as Thai gays seek a higher level of social acceptance, so the country's transvestites and transsexuals are trying to cast off their image as the unacceptable face of homosexuality... Still, all is not well in the sexual twilight zone. Trapped in the wrong gender, sometimes desperate to make the change from male to female, katoey are often prone to depression, anger and rash behavior. A minority turn to prostitution, others to crime. According to Peter Jackson, author of Dear Uncle Go: Male Homosexuality in Thailand, a large percentage of Thai transsexuals kill themselves." - Sporty Little Number: Thai audiences are lapping up a controversial movie that deals with gay and transsexual issues: "A box-office smash, Satree Lex, chronicles the country's gender-bending 1996 volleyball champion... the lead characters include a lesbian and five katoey - a Thai term that covers transsexuals, transvestites and effeminate gay men."

Activists want gay rights in charter: CDA called on to add diverse sexuality clause (2007, Must Scroll): Meanwhile, Chantalak Raksayoo of the Sapan Group stressed how important it was for the constitution to clearly state a specific timeframe for legal amendments to recognise diverse sexuality and gay rights. 'Otherwise such rights will exist only on paper,'' she said.  According to Ms Anjana, half of young people who attempted suicide in Thailand were homosexuals and transgendered people who could not put up with severe pressure and condemnation from their own families and society. In addition to legal changes, Prof Suporn Koetwang, a noted public health expert, called for better public education to rein in homophobia among the general public. - Gay Rights in Thailand 2007. - Gay Activist Triggers Sex Panic Against Buddhist Monks: Kiss Thailand's Tolerance for Gays Goodbye (2009).

Malaysia: - Religion and Me: "In Islam, no one really wants to talks about sex. I don't dare confront my parents about what is sex. I've been to some religious talks and stuff, especially if it deals with the topic of sexuality and homosexuality. What I really hate about going to such a gathering is that, usually it gets me mad...furious actually. There's no actual revelation about what is gay, just basically people condemning gays without any reason why, and joking about it. When the speaker jokes about the number of gays that committed suicide, that's something that really saddens me: how Muslims value human life as some kind of a joke! That...and I am also a suicide survivor, so I take it as a personal attack on myself. Hey, I'm all into freedom of opinion and beliefs, but no way I'm listening to some ignorant fool talking nonsense. - Malyasia: Homosexuality And The Church Dialogue: "They are living a double life ? putting up a happy mask upfront in the church and society, but privately suffering from shame and guilt because of their homosexual inclinations. Or they resort to committing suicide to ease the pressure from family and society..."

Sri Lanka: - The founder of a gay-rights group in Sri Lanka: ""Often Sri Lankan homosexuals have committed suicide because they had no support from their families, from their community and from the state," de Rose said. "We want to change that attitude."" - In Sri Lanka, sexual orientation puts gays at risk (2007): In her native Sri Lanka, a land of sandy beaches licked by the emerald-hued waters of the Indian Ocean, Rosanna Flamer-Caldera almost lost her wrestling match with homosexuality when she attempted suicide in her teens. 

India: - Activists welcome India gay ruling (2009): This ruling will contribute in making society's attitude more positive. Cases of police harassment may reduce. I have seen people driven to suicide. I hope this decision gives more confidence to gay people to come out, be less afraid. - For gays in India, fear is way of life (2008): In reality, gay and lesbian Indians say, they have few places to meet openly. Studies show that they often lead dangerous, closeted lives, with high rates of suicide and mental illness. Lesbians have reported being fired from their jobs and raped for not being feminine enough.Most gay Indians are married, often with children, and have covert relationships with lovers, activists said. - Queer India: The Fire Inside (2008):  In the light of such treatment, it comes as no surprise that the suicide rate for lesbians in India is high. Hardly a week passes without a story appearing in the papers about young couples who have chosen to die rather than live in a society that refuses to believe they exist - there were 24 documented cases of lesbian suicide pacts between 1996 and 2004 in the state of Kerala alone.[1] In May 2008 there was the particularly shocking case of Christy and Rukmini from Chennai. Both had husbands and after years of torment from their families they set themselves on fire. Relatives found their charred bodies still hugging each other. It has been suggested that the high suicide rate is also related to the fact that support structures for lesbians in India are scarce. Chennai, for example, does not have a helpline for lesbians. Some say resources are dwindling even further. 

Is there anything gay about them? (2006) " Recently, Baguiati residents Nisha Singh and Nisha Upadhyay committed suicide. The reason was the refusal of society to accept their same-sex love. In the past two years, this is the fourth such incident in the state where couples have ended their lives. So, how difficult is it for city lesbians to stay afloat in such an unsympathetic environment? Says Malobika, spokesperson of Sappho, Kolkata's first lesbian organisation, "It is very unfortunate that two young girls had to commit suicide only because of lack of social acceptance. Until and unless Section 377 of IPC is amended, we are simply helpless. Earlier lesbians usually came from the elite class. But now, there is no class barrier as such. Two girls, who worked as domestic helps in North 24 Parganas, had committed suicide in January this year. If homosexuality wasn't considered a crime, we could have lodged a complaint against the parents for abetting suicide." ... Not just in West Bengal, the rate of same sex couple suicide is on the rise throughout India, says the record books of Sappho. "Even in Kerala, more than 45 couples have committed suicide in the past five years,"Malobika adds."

Transcript of CNN coverage of homosexuality in India (2000): "- SATPATHY: I thought better to commit suicide and get lost, that would be the best thing I thought. BINDRA: Satpathy says he attempted suicide twice again. He says his family was sympathetic, but he moved thousands of miles to Mumbai to save his family members further shame and humiliation. Satpathy's agony is shared by thousands of other gays, and they are slowly sharing their experiences in cyberspace. Mumbai's first gay site, gaybombay.com, gets 800 hits a week. The site was put together by Bhavesh Kharia. Until just a few months ago, Kharia says, people were even scared to come out on the net. Now gays are using their real names on the net, a cyberspace network of gays is slowly evolving. BHAVESH KHARIA, WEB DESIGNER: Most of the concern is we don't want our parents to find out. You feel that you are somehow letting them down. And that's where the guilt and the shame comes in..." - Adams  turning to Adams for the apple (2002, Must Scroll): "he does not want to marry a girl, but a boy, his partner for a year, now. Robin is a gay, a homosexual. Recently, he attempted suicide after his parents resisted his plans to marry his partner, but he has no regrets and wears the gay badge with pride. Having a brilliant academic background and being well-informed, he presents his case strongly..."

Pakistan: Gays and lesbians in the Muslim community are quietly shattering one of the final taboos of Islam (2003)."[He] attempted suicide twice before he turned 18. "Growing up in Lahore, Pakistan, the eldest son of devout Muslim parents, he could never come to terms with, let alone explore, his attraction to other men. His best attempts to fake interest in girls failed to impress his peers, who began to bully the self-described "effeminate" man..."

Gadit AAM (2009). Homosexuality: are we adequately equipped to address this issue in clinical practice? Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 59(3): 185-186. PDF. Lately, patients visiting clinicians have talked about their homosexual inclinations. Generally, they had problems of anxiety and depression and occasionally for distress associated with the sexual preferences. One young man, aged 21 mentioned that his heart starts beating faster when he heard a masculine voice. The same gentleman shared the information that many such individuals get acquainted with each other through the internet or common friends and meet in self designated parks located in various regions of Karachi. The activity goes on secretly owing to the stigma attached with this issue. 
 

Africa:

African homosexuals come out of the closet (2006): Smith, along with the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC), launched a book at the conference titled Tommy boys, Lesbian men and Ancestral wives: female same-sex practices in Africa. It documents female homosexuality in east and southern Africa through personal narratives from women in Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania and Uganda where lesbianism is little understood and not accepted. "We are invisible in Africa, but a naturally occurring phenomenon in the universe," Smith said. "People discriminate against us and say things carelessly about us. This has led to suicide and violence."

Africa and Homosexuality (2004): I have spoken to over 50 African gays and lesbians in the past two years. The conversations revealed that their lives seem worthless in a society that gives them little protection against the hatred for their sexual orientation. Although I'm gay and living in a foreign country, I still fear the hatred that comes from my own country.   Just a few weeks ago I went back to Nigeria to visit family and friends, but also to take part in one of the rare public events for lesbians and gay men in Nigeria. It was the fifth anniversary symposium of Alliance Rights of Nigeria, led by its president, Dare Odumuye, a very brave gay man. It was a rare occasion for Nigerians to discuss the issues affecting sexual minorities. Michael Akanji of INCRESE another organisation championing gay issues in Minna, Niger State, explained the struggles of sexual minorities and facilities available in Nigeria. There are many cases where violence is perpetrated against gays and lesbians and where family relationships breakdown. Those known to be gay or lesbian are seen as outcasts, bringing terrible shame to their family name and harming the families' values and reputation. Powerful organisations like the church, which could make an enormous difference, add fuel to the stigma and undermine all efforts to change attitudes. African gays and lesbians therefore go underground; leading to a lack of self-esteem, increased insecurity, loneliness and sometimes suicide. The Christian churches are among the worst perpetrators of homophobia, using the Bible to support their attitudes and arguments.  

South Africa: - If they are discovered to be gay at school they are often sent to psychologists as if they had a disease. You find many of them on the streets, or they commit suicide (N/A). (Must scroll to locate article.).

Theuninck AC (2000). The traumatic impact of minority stressors on males self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Master's Dissertation, the Faculty of Arts, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Study Summaries and Thesis Download available:  http://www.q.co.za/news/2000/11/001123-gaystress.htm N/A. (Archive LinkHighlights: "In the present S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made suicide attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South African gay/bi adolescents, 38.7% have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality." "The sample consists of 329 males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample were from 15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were white (73.8%), with 16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either Indian, Coloured, or unspecified." "When considering the influence of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in gay/bi men, it was found that internalised homonegativity had the strongest influence. This is perhaps not surprising since loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing that sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related to a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide. Having witnessed people being victimised for being gay was the next strongest factor related to suicidal tendencies. Witnessing others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places the gay/bi person in a catch 22 position..."

20% Of South African Gay Students Raped (2006, Alternate Link): Focusing on young people in the municipalities of Pietermaritzburg and Durban researchers found that 20 percent of gay and bisexual teenage males and 19% of lesbian and bisexual female teens had been raped or sexually assaulted. They also found that one third of all LGBT students had been physically assaulted at school because of their sexuality. The study was conducted for Out LGBT Well-being and the Durban Lesbian and Gay Health and Community and Health Center. The researchers found that black and Indian students were more likely to be victimized because of their sexuality than were white students... "More alarming is the victimization by teachers and principals," said Pietermaritzburg Gay & Lesbian Network convener Anthony Waldhausen... The situation in the province is so severe the researchers said in their report that almost one in five LGBT students said they had attempted suicide. - Gay teens' ordeal (2006): One in five gay and lesbian schoolchildren in Pietermaritzburg and Durban are raped or sexually abused at school.... One in three was physically assaulted in school because of their sexual orientation. Gay men reported a far higher rate (68%) of victimisation at school than lesbian women (42%), with blacks and Indians experiencing more victimisation than whites. Most of this victimisation in school was perpetrated by other pupils (65%), followed by teachers (22%), school principals (9%) and other staff. ..  The fear of victimisation led to a decrease in self esteem and an increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost one in five surveyed had attempted suicide, according to the report.

Graham T, Kiguwa S (2005). Experiences of Black LGBTI Youth In Peri-Urban Communities in South Africa. PDF. For LGBTI Radio Drama Being Produced by Community Media for Development/CMFD Productions and The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA). This research study was commissioned to uncover and explore the central issues facing the black lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) communities in townships and semi-urban areas around Johannesburg. The results of this research will be used to create relevant and appropriate storylines for a 13 part, youth focused radio drama produced by The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) and Community Media for Development/ CMFD Productions and aired on community, and possibly mainstream radio stations... 2.2.4 Suicide: There was some evidence from the respondents that suicide is a problem in the LGBTI community, due to the amount of stress they face. One respondent said: “you know, eish, people they commit suicide, gay people they commit suicide, especially blacks, they kill themselves because of these things.” ‘These things’ being discrimination, violence, lack of respect and understanding, etc., essentially all of the themes previously discussed. This theme was explored in detail in the OUT LGBT Well-being study, discussed in section 3.0... 3.3 Suicide: The study by OUT LGBT Well-being found that 31% of South African LGBTI people had thought about committing suicide and 21% had actually attempted it (OUT 2004). The study found positive correlations between thoughts of suicide and the following: fear and/or experience of victimization in any sector of daily life and alcohol abuse. The study also mentioned that youth may be more at risk for suicide attempts due to  their lack of resources, lack of support, as well as the stress of being different from the norm at a time developmentally when fitting in is seen as extremely important. Thoughts of suicide were highest among white males (9.5%), followed by black females, black males and with white females thinking about suicide the least (5.6%).These figures are for people who think about suicide often or always. 

Taking Gay Pride to SA's townships (BBC, 2005, Alternate Link): "Tradition, ritual, family is paramount in any African culture out there, so as a young black man I would need to be looking for a wife, making babies, and because I am not fulfilling those roles, society does not know how to deal with me. "You risk not being part of the community, not being part of the family, not being part of society." Africa Melane has seen two responses - friends becoming introverted, denying it to themselves, and some even committing suicide because of the pressure. Others go to the other extreme as transvestites or transsexuals.

Voicing gay experience in South Africa (2002-2005): democratization, minorities and cyberspace (2005, PDF): The same happened to a Dutch Reformed reverend, rev. Laurie Gaum after his ex-lover revealed his personal lifestyle to an Afrikaans tabloid magazine in April 2005. This revelation had tragic consequences for all parties involved. Rev. Guam’s ex-lover committed suicide soon after his revelations and in September 2005 the Dutch Reformed Church expelled rev. Gaum from his duties at the St. Stephen’s Dutch Reformed Church in Cape Town.

Polders LA, Nel JA, Kruger P, Wells H (2008). Factors affecting vulnerability to depression among gay men and lesbian women. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(4): 673-687. PDF Download. Download Page: Multiple regression analysis indicated that lowered self-esteem and more frequent experiences of hate speech were the only significant predictors of vulnerability to depression. The regression model accounted for 21.7% of the variance in vulnerability to depression scores.

Zimbabwe: Carlos Mpofu, from Bulowayo, Zimbabwe, was twenty years old when our researcher spoke to him in 2000... I first realized about my sexuality when I was about twelve. I realized I wasn't attracted to girls: my first wet dream wasn't with a girl, but a man. It first made me think of the sexual side, and what side I was on. And then I was always a feminine child. But I didn't have a word for it. The only word I knew was incubikile-an Ndebele word, but it wasn't specific for gays, it meant anyone who was handicapped or deformed.... I was suicidal for about a month. I attempted to commit suicide; but my friends found me and revived me... I was very depressed again. I moved out of the house permanently, and became a heavy drinker. My home became the nightclubs; in the day I slept at my friend "Teresa's" place. I went way down below zero. I became down and out, in the dumps, as we say in gay circles. I was very promiscuous, in and out of everybody's bed, leading a very dangerous life. I began to realize the type of gay men we have in the city. I had no contact with my family for a while; I stopped thinking about HIV/AIDS; I knew all the blackmailers. I attempted suicide again..."

Totally unacceptable to cultural norms: Gays in Zimbabwe fight institutionalized homophobia, see slow gains in social acceptance - First of four parts (2000): For this concession, Joanetti nearly paid with his life. In the months after his visit to the traditional healer, Joanetti slowly began to believe there was, in fact, evil in his behavior. He drank a bottle of rat poison in an attempt to kill himself. It was the first of three suicide attempts over the next two years, each of which came following a period in which his family shunned him for his attraction to men. His was not an extraordinary reaction. In the past year, of the 20 or so regular faces at Harare's Gay community center, 11 have tried to commit suicide. It has become so commonplace that a conversation about someone who "drank tablets" the night before could be easily mistaken for one about someone who had too many beers. After Joanetti's third suicide attempt, he moved to bustling Harare -- the New York City of Zimbabwe -- to live with an aunt who had traveled around the world. This aunt allowed him to explore his sexuality, and even encouraged him to. In her care, he was able to contact an organization he had heard about through the grapevine -- the fledgling Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe.

Under African skies, part 3 (2000) In early October, GALZ was rocked by the suicide of one of its long-time leaders. The man, 32-year-old Siphangilizwe "Panghi" Nyathi had been a pillar of stability in a group that has seen 11 suicide attempts in the last year. But what was equally stunning to GALZ members was the reaction of the media, which got wind of the suicide a month later. First, a new independent daily paper ran a page one, largely sympathetic, story on Nyathi and his family's reaction. Then, as if as an answer, the state-run Sunday paper ran a story. In its version, Nyathi's partner - a conservative man who is the spokesperson for the University of Zimbabwe and feels GALZ should not challenge Mugabe or the state's anti-Gay laws - spoke about the relative ease with which GALZ is able to operate without interference from the government. The man, Herbert Mondhlani, has not participated in GALZ since it became an overtly political organization in 1995. And he has managed to maintain a government job with officials aware of his homosexuality. The article was a sort of backhanded slap at the group, but GALZ members took it as an important concession by the government - the story's implication was that, contrary to Mugabe's assertions, black Gay people do actually exist in Zimbabwe. 

Pangi Nyathi, Zimbabwean Gay Leader, Commits Suicide (1999).


Nigeria: - Do you have a right to be gay?  (BBC, 2006): My friend committed suicide last year simply because he was feed up of being attracted to men. He was born in Africa and had never been overseas. He was a good person, a Christian as well. He got married but the likeness towards men never left him. Can someone explain this? I hope Africans will grow up someday; we have to stop being the backward continent.  

Uganda: - An interview with a ugandan lesbian activist (2004): MN: "How has it been for the organisation since it's inception in the year 2002, is it easy for other lesbians in your country to know about you or are you underground?" V: "It's easy, we are not underground. This means that we are not really hiding the activities of our association. In Uganda where lesbianism is seen as a crime and the extent to which we have taken our activities public, we believe we are not underground. We have, for example, started speaking out about our nature, our objectives… on radio stations. Others are not doing it yet. We also spoke out openly on radio, on the issue of the student Paula Rwomushana, who committed suicide because of the harassment that she went through when her parents and teachers found out that she was lesbian. We are planning to do more things publicly." - Uganda debates death penalty for gays (2009).  

An Open Statement from the Psychological Society of South Africa to the People and Leaders of Uganda Concerning The Anti-Homosexuality Bill 2009 (PDF): Both international and South African research has found significant negative effects of exclusion and other forms of discrimination based on sexual orientation. Sexual orientation-based discrimination presents the same risks of psychological and other harms as discrimination on the basis of race, religion or gender. Notably, among youth who identify as homosexual or bisexual or who think they may be, research concludes that family rejection and exclusion, as well as bullying by peers, correlates highly with a range of high risk behaviours and outcomes ranging from truancy to substance abuse to attempts at suicide. In much of sub-Saharan Africa, homosexuality is firstly interpreted as “foreign,” portrayed as “un-African” and a “white import.” In some traditional African beliefs, those of a same-sex sexual orientation are considered cursed or bewitched; that is, damned by the forefathers and the gods. In primarily Christian and Muslim African countries alike, gay men and lesbian women are confronted with religious condemnation. Much evidence points to this stigmatisation leading to deep-seated and widespread prejudice, discrimination and violence toward those who are not heterosexual. A session on homosexuality at the 2nd Africa Conference on Sexual Health and Rights, hosted in Kenya in 2006, noted that fear, hatred and abuse at the hands of largely intolerant and unsympathetic peers and elders hampers the personal growth and well-being of African homosexuals. Also widely documented among the outcomes of prejudice and discrimination are consistently high rates of antihomosexual harassment and violence, both state sanctioned and extrajudicial. Furthermore, criminalisation on the basis of sexual orientation has been found to exacerbate social discrimination and, in particular, leads service providers to discount, ignore and neglect the needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual people, thus compounding their vulnerability.


Ghana: - Gay in Ghana (2004): In Ghana, male homosexuality is lumped in with bestiality, and gay activity brings misdemeanor charges at minimum. The police have been known to arrest gay men, rape them, and let them go. Last year in August, four young men were convicted of "indecent exposure" and "unnatural carnal knowledge" and sentenced to two years each in prison. Gay people in Ghana live in such a state of fear it is a form of violence. We are isolated, harassed, and beaten. Friends commit suicide from despair. Poverty is a big problem because a lot of us have been thrown out of our houses by our families. Many don't have any education past elementary school. Those few gay men who do have good jobs are deep in the closet and won't have anything to do with gay associations, though they still want gay sex.  

Eritrea: Legal but not accepted (2003): "BtM: What is the problem facing individual gays, governmental homophobic behaviour, as well as discrimination? M: Some of them who I meet are HIV positive, they don't have any awareness as gays that they should use a condom, they think condoms are only for heterosexuals. Most of them are in confusion, they don't have interest to accept who they are. One of my close friends goes to church to get cured. Another one killed himself a year ago. But, no one, not even his family knew on what grounds he committed suicide. Only me and other friends of mine knew..."

Cameroun: - Suicide et homosexualité en Afrique: le cas du Cameroun: Si d’après cette thèse l’homosexualité n’existe pas en Afrique, comment peut-on en plus parler de suicide chez une catégorie de la population, qui est déniée ? Cependant l’étude récente que nous avons menée au Cameroun, a mis en exergue l’existence de l’homosexualité en Afrique en général, et au Cameroun en particulier. L’homosexualité au Cameroun ne relève pas du mythe, c’est une réalité observable... De tout ce qui précède, il ressort que l’attitude sociale réprobatrice vis-à-vis de l’homosexualité, peut être un facteur majeur, mais pas principal, de suicide chez les homosexuels. Cependant, le Cameroun a ceci de particulier que face à cette hostilité, les homosexuels ne pensent pas au suicide. A la place ils préfèrent jouer au jeu que la société aime observer, en se dotant d’un partenaire de l’autre sexe pour se faire accepter, tout en maintenant leur activité homosexuelle de manière cachée. C’est que nous avons désigné comme une stratégie de camouflage et le partenaire de l’autre sexe dont se sert est désigné par les gais au Cameroun sous le terme de « nfinga ». - L’homosexualité à l’assaut de la Civilisation Africaine - Cameroun - Rejetés, les homosexuels revendiquent leur intégration dans la société (2004): Parfois, les homosexuels sont tentés par le suicide, mais ils sont accrochés aux croyances locales selon lesquelles se suicider serait jeter de l'opprobre sur leur famille. Au Cameroun, le suicide est synonyme de malédiction. Difficile pour eux de se suicider, ils préfèrent soit souffrir leur rejet dans les coulisses, soit adopter la stratégie de camouflage, soit alors se confier à un proche.

Somali: - Death Hangs Over Somali Queers (2004): Faro, is one of the leaders of Queer Somalia, a community based organisation based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He makes frequent visits to Somalia to make contact with small groups of queers there and on a recent visit he sent back startling information that shows that for gay and lesbian people in Somalia the issue of death looms large. Whether through suicide following pressure from families or via loosely applied Islamic law that is uncontrolled due to the lack of a central government, their greatest fear is death - a sentence that can be brought upon them just for being homosexual, or for being perceived to be homosexual. 

Le Maroc: - Homosexualité au Maroc: Kal28, âgé de 29 ans en 2004, vit dans une petite ville du maghreb. Son coming-out n'est que virtuel, via le net, ne pouvant pas l'annoncer chez lui... Bonjour à tous. Eh bien moi, je ne suis pas européen ! Je suis marocain ! Dans un pays arabomusulman ! Le coming-out pour moi, c'est comme se jeter dans les enfers ! Ni famille, ni amis, ni personne ici ne pourra comprendre ce que c'est d'être homo... ! Alors... ne trouvant aucune lueur d'espoir, en 1997, alors que j'avais 22 ans, et en plus du stress quotidien qui gonfle terriblement quand on est déjà mal dans sa peau, j'ai tenté de me suicider... et j'ai frôlé la mort... Etre homosexuel au Maroc (2010) - Interview de Samir Bergachi, fondateur du premier magazine homosexuel marocain : "Mithly": Afrik.com : Quels sujets le prochain numéro de Mithly va-t-il aborder ? Samir Bergachi : Nous allons consacrer notre une au phénomène du suicide chez les homosexuels. Nous avons réalisé une enquête sur le sujet et avons découvert que le taux de suicides est de 20% parmi les gays. Ce qui est vraiment inquiétant. Il faut que l’Etat intervienne. Nous avons aussi prévu un reportage sur une transexuelle algérienne, qui s’appelle Randa, et qui vient de sortir un livre. Sans oublier le festival de Mawazine au Maroc où sera présent le chanteur Elton John. 

 Middle East / Central Asia:

Israel: - For gay Israeli youth, suicide rate soars high (2001). - Political Council for Gay Rights in Israel (2002): A discussion about GLBT Healt issues in the Knesset. - Etre homosexuel en Palestine, enquête au coeur du bourbier Palestinien (2008): « J’ai tenté de me suicider six fois déjà » dit Salah. « Chaque fois l’ambulance est arrivée trop rapidement. Mais maintenant je sais comment faire. La prochaine fois, avec l’aide de Dieu, ça va marcher avant que l’ambulance n’arrive ».

LGBT Jews on Campus: "For openly gay students, or those just coming to terms with their sexuality, however, the extra pressure of fearing reactions from within the Jewish community too often prevents them from comfortably walking into a Jewish organization. Making strides in this area - the welcoming of gay and lesbian Jews into Jewish organizations and institutions - is at the heart of Jewish LGBT activism. Working towards inclusion is not limited to liberal Jewish communities. A Hasidic rabbi at the Jerusalem Open House (Israel's gay and lesbian community center) now offers support and a listening ear, after one of his students  committed suicide when not one Jew from his traditional community offered support. Now the rabbi volunteers his time so that we never have to suffer another loss like this."

Lebanon / Le Liban: - "Homosexualités et suicide: témoignages cliniques et contribution au débat à partir du Liban" par Jean-Luc Vannier.

Iran: - Physician heal thyself: "Internalized homophobia is the toxic shame, some of us feel for having come out to our friends and families. We think we have brought shame onto our Iranian families for coming out. We all have heard or know of gay Iranians who committed suicide over extreme rejections they experienced after coming out to their friends and families. Many gay Iranians who are dominated by the demon of internalized homophobia get married and pretend they are something they are not and deny themselves the chance of living an authentic life; A life that is based on silencing our true voice and murdering our genuine homoerotic feelings. Many gay physicians have been using their surgical knife to cut themselves off from their gay feelings, and letting the cancer of inner homophobia grow. Because many of us were made to believe that we are less for being gay and have no right to express who we are nor deserve to have love, we act out the rage we have for being treated less than. This rage, due to years of mistreatment and abuse, is expressed unconsciously and can take the form of drug abuse, bareback sex, or suicide attempts." - Inquest finds asylum refusal was motive for gay Iranian's suicide.- The Dangers of Being Young, Gay and Iranian: "One of my dear friends, Nima, commited suicide a month ago in Shiraz. He just couldn't take it anymore." 


Latin America

Gay Churches Expand to Latin American Congregations: Homosexuals in Honduras respond to new denomination's message that homosexuality and Christianity are compatible: "Excluded from traditional churches, homosexual Christians in Latin America are forming their own congregations with help from the biggest homosexual denomination in the United States... According to Nelson Arambu, of the Violet Collective, it was the first formal worship held specifically for gays and lesbians in Honduras. "Given the dominant culture of Honduras, it's very difficult for homosexuals or lesbians to enter a church without being rejected," Arambu told ENI. "A majority of homosexuals here are people of faith, but the attitude of the churches toward us has been very negative. They see us as sexual aberrations, people who aren't capable of positive lives, much less of having access  to the glory of God. And since the churches have a lot of influence with the government and society, they contribute to an environment where we're rejected by our families, forcing many homosexuals into the streets where they have to sell their bodies to survive, or end up committing suicide."


Mexico: - Effects of violence and discrimination on the mental health of bisexuals, lesbians, and gays in Mexico City (2005): A questionnaire was administered to 506 bisexuals, lesbians, and gays attending support organizations and institutions. Eight forms of discrimination and fourteen forms of violence based on sexual orientation were researched. The study found the following prevalence rates: 39.0% suicidal ideation, 15.0% suicide attempts, 27.0% mental disorders, and 18.0% alcoholism.

Costa Rica: - Suicidio en la población homosexual costarricense (Translation): 55 GBT Males. 40% had been suicidal. 22% had attempted suicide. 45 LB Females. 18% had been suicidal. 11% had attemptd suicide.

Guyana: - Letter to Editor by Vidyaratha Kissoon: "Some of the suicide cases in Berbice felt they were homosexual" (Stabroek News, August 2, 2001): "The continued condemnation of homosexuality in Guyana has severe consequences. The recent survey of Suicide in Region 5 & Region 6 revealed that 8.9% of the suicides felt they were homosexual. Men and boys who are sexually abused are scared to report because they feel that they will be labelled as homosexual and be condemned as a result. - Research on young gay men in Guyana (2001, PDF Download): The purpose and significance of this research is an effort to help provide an explanation for the causes of the silent pain and use of coping mechanisms of gay thirty (30) years and under in Georgetown...   The stigmatization of gays causes them to suffer emotionally and psychologically. In some cases gay are unable to function effectively – there are always uneasy. The uneasiness takes the toll of a low self esteem creating a melodramatic and an unstable self concept... The research is intended to show that there lies in the life of gays a great amount of pain which they suffer silently from a rejected family members and society. One must also understand the psychological and social effects that causes gay to become traumatized. Such trauma can lead gays to become introverted (home boy) or commit suicide (take his own life).   


On August 11, The Trevor Project launched The Trevor Helpline, the first round-the-clock national toll-free suicide hotline for gay and questioning youth. It's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Teens with nowhere to turn can call 1-866-4-U-TREVOR. - Gay and Lesbian Helpline (1-888) 340-4528: The national toll-free Gay and Lesbian Helpline is operated by Fenway Community Health Center in Boston. It provides free confidential information, referrals, crisis intervention, and support to callers seven evenings a week. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Helpline - 617-267-9001 - Toll-free 888-340-4528. - Peer Listening Line 1-617-267-2535. Toll-free 1-800-399-PEER (1-800-399-7337)USA: Suicide & Crisis Lines

Kids Help Phone, Canada: 1-800-668-6868 - The Youth Line is a phone line for youth in Ontario, Canada: You are not alone! You can call the Lesbian Gay Bi Youth Line at 1-800-268-YOUTH (1-800-268-9688) across Ontario, or (416) 962-YOUTH (962-9688) in the 416/905 local calling area.

Help Lines in United Kingdom: PDF Download. Google Cache Copy.

Search all GLBT Resource Directories. - The "Proteus" Super-Search System is recommended (See also Proteus Original). - Best Search Engine on Proteus is: Google!  If you are searching for a string of word together, such as a title, forget not to place what is sought in quotation marks. Example: "Death by Denial". - Bing Search by MSN is also a good search engine. For all types of search engines, see Wikipedia listing. - Search the QRD.
 

Ramsay's Social Work Resources: University of Calgary
Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality Resources
Gay / Lesbian / Bisexual / Transgender / Queer Information Mega-Site



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The development of this GBLT information web-pages was made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children/youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site.





Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist, especially for the use of Word Perfect 7 program. Some of its time-saving functions are not yet available in Microsoft word writing programs.


INFORMATION LIMITATIONS:

The information made available on this web-page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications. Nonetheless, a wealth of information on GLB suicide problems has been made available.

This web-page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information to individuals who may be seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender issues.



SUBJECT PAGES
(Being Developed)
Many Web Link Sections Available!

Professional Education- Counseling  &  Therapy- Identity Formation  &  Coming Out- Homo-Negativity / Phobia- Lesbian  &  Bisexual Women- Transgender / Tranvestite / Transsexual- Bisexuality- Public School Issues- Religion  &  Spirituality- Homosexuality:  Biological  or  Learned ?- "Of Colour " :  North American  &  International- Male  Youth ProstitutionDrug / Alcohol Use / Abuse /  Addiction- HIV- AIDS- GLBT  History- Community Attributes  &  Problems- Couples / Families/ Children / Adoption / Spousal Violence -- The Elderly -- Latin America and Africa- Asia and The Middle East.


Email: -Pierre Tremblay: -- pierre@youth-suicide.com -- (403) 245-8827
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