The desire and pursuit of the whole: Testosterone, perceived dominance,
and sexual preference in men.
Full Text. PDF Download.
|The secret lives of boys:
Niobe Way conducted hundreds of interviews with boys from 11 to 18 and
found that more than 85 percent of her respondents suggested their
closest friends, especially those during early and middle adolescence,
“share the plot of ‘Love Story’ more than the plot of ‘Lord of the
Flies.’” She argues such friendships fade as they age because of
ingrained societal norms... [Why such friendships fade?] They become,
she said, “increasingly attuned to cultural messages about manhood and
maturity.”“Rather than focusing on who they are,” Way added, “they become obsessed with who they are not.”
[Is it possible that boys who are supposed to love/desire females and
especially have sex with them - or at least lie about that - so that no
one will think/believe/suspect that they are homosexual/gay? For one
possibility of what may happen in adolescent friendship boy groups when
homo-sex is acceptable, see on this webpage: "Acadia,
Arcadia - what's the difference?"]
Ask an Academic: The Secrets of Boys: When they talk about intimacy that might remain in their closest male friendships, they use the expression "no homo" to underscore their heterosexual status. Questions about close friendships from the interviewers become, for the boys during late adolescence, questions about sexuality.
Examples of homo-sex having been the rule for male-bonding adolescent boys in some human cultures are given in: The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations in Human Societies - 2009 - by James Neill (Google Books).
Lorway, Robert (2007). Health Silence: HIV Risk and Male-Male Sexual Practices in the Windhoek Urban Area. In: Suzanne LaFont and Dianne Hubbard, Eds., Unravelling Taboos: Gender and Sexuality in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibi: Gender Research & Advocacy Project, Legal Assistance Centre. PDF Download. - "Most of the men I know who have girlfriends are saying that they
prefer to have sex with us moffies [effeminate males] because they don’t want to catch STDs cheating on them, or HIV, or get someone pregnant. Most of them think they can even have sex with men without a condom because they think it is less risky than sex with a woman." (Jason, 21-year-old male from Katutura). [Question: What is such a male sexuality?] ... What emerges in my analyses is a picture of sexuality that cannot be viewed as a fixed set of predictable roles or behaviours that can be readily mapped onto the parameters of Western sexual identity categories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and heterosexual. Instead, sexuality appears as the uneven, ever-moving, erotic and strategic engagements of individuals and groups that take shape within “the cultural politics of everyday life” (Werbner 1996: 13)...
Kenya Rules Out Condoms For Prisoners (2000, Alternate Link): "He admitted that sodomy and homosexuality are rampant in Kenya's prisons. Dr. G.M. Baltazar, a Nairobi epidemiologist, also admitted that homosexuality is rampant in the prisons. "Prisoners, because they are confined together, will continue having abnormal sexual relations, whether we like it or not," he said." - Kenya: Homosexuality Major Cause of Aids Spread in Prisons (2008): So it came as a shock last week when the man in charge of health services in Kenya's jails admitted that homosexuality is rampant in the facilities and is fuelling the Aids spread, both inside and outside when inmates are freed to rejoin the society. [Comment: Without doubt, many males in prisons - if not before they went to prison - ended up realizing in an experienced way that male-male sex is enjoyable and that their resulting orgasms were not happening - as I heard some say - 'because' women are not available. Same-sex sex was also rampant in western world prisons up to the 1960s/1070s, but the new "gay" "sexual minority" ideology indoctrination essentially killed this previouly lived self-disovering reality for male prisoners.]
Masculinity for Boys: Resource Guide for Peer Educators (UNESCO, New Delhi, 2006, PDF, PDF): Men have always secretly known and understood the universal male need for intimacy with men, but have also known that the society strongly discourages open acknowledgement of such desire... What would surprise many is that before the British arrived in India, the Indian society had many socially approved spaces in the mainstream male society, where male-male intimacy flourished openly. Most such spaces and customs were destroyed by the long British rule, but some survived till a century ago... We have seen how the heterosexualisation of Indian society is changing this traditional masculinity pattern. Heterosexualisation also includes the homosexualisation of male-male love. It is one of the most basic forms of male oppression. [Comment: "the homosexualisation of male-male love" is basically the ideology that male-male sexuality is only natural - 'real'?. for a tiny minority of males known to be "gay" - maybe also 'bisexual' -that is also said to be the result of anomalous biological 'tiny minority' brain differences.]
Perera B, Reece M (2006). Sexual behavior of young adults in Sri Lanka: implications for HIV prevention, 18(5): 497-500. Abstract. From a random sample of schools in Sri Lanka: By the age of 19 for males, 13.8% reported experiencing oral sex with at least one male, and 21.4% reported anal sex experience, with 21.7% reporting "Inter-femoral sex with male partner". Sadly, information about 'mutual masturbation' - using one hand on another man's penis that is not mastunation - was not solicited, nor was to total percentage given for males who experienced any of the same-sex sex experiences reported.[Comment: Imagine the response if such same-sex sex results for North American 19-year-old males!]
Dollimore, Jonathan (1991). Sexual Dissdence: Augustine to Wilder, Freud to Foucault. New York: Oxford University Press: 211The other realm, the one that was once more difficult for foreigners to find and participate in, has always been there. It is the more private, personal world in which Thai gay men seek the company of other men... This evolution from a conspicuous Thai gay world that is primarily commercial-sex oriented to what might be described as more peer oriented (or non-commercial sex oriented) might seem “backward” to some. For those Western gay men who came out after Stonewall, all this might seem odd or even baffling, because we expect a distinctive gay identity and a gay world. Although male-to-male sexual behavior is universal, an identity based on it is not. In other words, having sex with another man, and even loving another man, does not require an identity—an “I am not like other men” identity or even “I am different from other men” identity, let alone an “I am gay” identity. Such a phenomenon may occur in a society that doesn’t explicitly acknowledge it or in one, like Thailand, that doesn’t explicitly proscribe it.
The Kingdom in the Closet: (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link)As for male bonding, this is the grotesque expression of a "paralysed and unspoken homosexuality, which can be grasped in the negative, in the denial of women, whom [males] speak of phallocratically... reducing them to a hole, i.e. to somethig that does not exist. The suppression of the homoeroticism is here always bound up with the oppression of women by men. The negated homosexual desire makes a resurgence via the negation of women.' [Quoting: Mielle, Mario (1980). Homosexuality and Liberation: Elements of a Gay Critique. London: Gay Men's Press: 34, 127.] Comment: What would male bonding with acknowledged - and acted upon - homoeroticism look like? Is this possible? Does it ever happen? Has it ever happened?
Sodomy is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, but gay life flourishes there. Why it is “easier to be gay than straight” in a society where everyone, homosexual and otherwise, lives in the closet... “It’s a lot easier to be gay than straight here,” he had said. “If you go out with a girl, people will start to ask her questions. But if I have a date upstairs and my family is downstairs, they won’t even come up.” ... "They’re quite shameless about it." Talal, a Syrian who moved to Riyadh in 2000, calls the Saudi capital a "gay heaven." This is surprising enough. But what seems more startling, at least from a Western perspective, is that some of the men having sex with other men don’t consider themselves gay. For many Saudis, the fact that a man has sex with another man has little to do with "gayness." The act may fulfill a desire or a need, but it doesn’t constitute an identity. Nor does it strip a man of his masculinity, as long as he is in the "top," or active, role. This attitude gives Saudi men who engage in homosexual behavior a degree of freedom. But as a more Westernized notion of gayness -- a notion that stresses orientation over acts -- takes hold in the country, will this delicate balance survive? ... When Yasser hit puberty, he grew attracted to his male cousins. Like many gay and lesbian teenagers everywhere, he felt isolated. "I used to have the feeling that I was the queerest in the country," he recalled. "But then I went to high school and discovered there are others like me. Then I find out, it’s a whole society." ,,, In Saudi Arabia, "It’s easier to be a lesbian [than a heterosexual]. There’s an overwhelming number of people who turn to lesbianism," Yasmin said, adding that the number of men in the kingdom who turn to gay sex is even greater. "They’re not really homosexual," she said. "They’re like cell mates in prison." ,,, What is ‘gay’? In The History of Sexuality, a multivolume work published in the 1970s and ’80s, Michel Foucault proposed his famous thesis that Western academic, medical, and political discourse of the 18th and 19th centuries had produced the idea of the homosexual as a deviant type: In Western society, homosexuality changed from being a behavior (what you do) to an identity (who you are). In the Middle East, however, homosexual behavior remained just that -- an act, not an orientation. That is not to say that Middle Eastern men who had sex with other men were freely tolerated. But they were not automatically labeled deviant. The taxonomy revolved around the roles of top and bottom, with little stigma attaching to the top. "‘Sexuality’ is distinguished not between ‘homosexual’ and ‘heterosexual’ but between taking pleasure and submitting to someone (being used for pleasure),"...A magazine editor in Jeddah told me that many boys in Mecca, where he grew up, have sexual relations with men, but they don’t see themselves as gay. Abubaker Bagader, a human-rights activist based in Jeddah, explained that homosexuality can be viewed as a phase. "Homosexuality is considered something one might pass by," he said. "It’s to be understood as a stage of life, particularly at youth." This view of sexual behavior, in combination with the strict segregation of the sexes, serves to foster homosexual acts, shifting the stigma onto bottoms and allowing older men to excuse their younger behavior -- their time as bottoms -- as mere youthful transgressions...
Veil of Separation, Veils of Identity: But it prompts the question: why do homosexuals exist in societies where a separation of sexes doesn't necessarily apply? Moreover, does such a separation predicate the effect of genuine homosexual desires? And then, are these so-called "homosexuals" homosexuals in the sense that we in the West have defined it? Or are they individuals forced to fulfill a natural desire in the only way they can? Maybe homosexuals [or men who engage in sex with other men] in countries like Saudi Arabia are not necessarily "in the closet" but actually free from having to identify themselves. And rather, we [both homosexuals and heterosexuals in the West] are trapped in a closet of our own, a closet of monosexuality where we veil ourselves with endless layers attempting to define and label sexualities that we eventually [like with everything] ship and market around the world [the international gay?!?].Saudi Study: Nearly a Quarter of Children Raped; Up to 46% of Students "Suffer" from Homosexuality: In addition to that, there is a study from the Office of Societal Supervision, which is also very serious. This study reported that 46% of students in the city of Riyadh suffer from homosexuality. Twenty-five percent of students in Jeddah suffer from homosexuality. We must be aware of this in order to combat these numbers quickly. The society has become fragmented. When we have a percentage of students—children or teenagers—who are gay, this is a catastrophe, a true catastrophe. I mean, we don’t have a strong society. We should really look at this more seriously.
Abstract: When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. - Homophobia linked to lack of awareness of one's sexual orientation and authoritarian parenting, study shows (2012): Homophobia is more pronounced in individuals with an unacknowledged attraction to the same sex and who grew up with authoritarian parents who forbade such desires, a series of psychology studies demonstrates. The study is the first to document the role that both parenting and sexual orientation play in the formation of intense and visceral fear of homosexuals, including self-reported homophobic attitudes, discriminatory bias, implicit hostility towards gays, and endorsement of anti-gay policies.
Anderson E (2008). “Being Masculine is not About who you Sleep with...:” Heterosexual Athletes Contesting Masculinity and the One-time Rule of Homosexuality. Sex Roles, 58(1/2): 104-115. Abstract. PDF Download.
Abstract: ...Interviewing 60 male soccer players from three strategically selected U.S. universities, the authors show that these athletes accept bisexuality as a legitimate and nonstigmatized sexual identity. The authors find that the athletes intellectualize an understanding of bisexuality in highly complex ways. The authors also highlight that though only a very small minority have engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors, at some level, most players recognize some degree of bisexuality in their own identities. The authors suggest that these results are a product of increased exposure to and contact with homosexual persons, leading to decreasing cultural homohysteria, finally resulting in increasingly open discussion and complex understanding of sexual behaviors and identities that were once erased or stigmatized in men's team sport culture.
The Rape of Men (2011)
What causes the rapists of men to have their erections and orgasms?
Are they 'somehow' different than men who rape other men in gay communities?
The Politics of Biology by Shivanda Khan (PDF)
"Self-masturbating is a same-sex behaviour. It is a ‘manly’ hand holding the penis,
no matter what the surface imagination relates."
Visual Definition of a Male Masturbating - by Web Page Author
(Likely the most engaged-in sexual behavior of males in western countries):
'A male having sex with a male who happens to be himself'
The possibility that "homosexuality" underlies male heterosexuality - that it may therefore precede what has been labeled "male heterosexuality " - is revolutionary given contemporary "sexual orientation" notions, especially the belief that one's homosexual orientation may be related to fetal development problems (such as hormone variations), to physiological differences in the brain, or to one's genes as emphasized in media reports during the last decade. A Web-based Education on the "biological" (essentialism), "social construction," and "developmental" sexual orientation theories - and related debates - is available on a Links Page for the reader interested in knowing more on the subject. Having this information, however, is not needed to grasp the issues related to the Adams et al. (1996) study, or to grasp a very important oversight noted as the result of a 1998 master's thesis proposal by Ted Rassieur at the State University of California, Long Beach (Note 3). His study sought to explore some of the problems raised by the Adams et al. study results and related interpretation problems.
Highlights: - A study of 64 male university students - 35 (55%) deemed homophobic, 29 (45%) deemed non homophobic, all reporting to be heterosexual - who viewed adult male pornography as their penis was being monitored for tumescence (increase in size). This method of determining sexual arousal (and therefore sexual desire which may be denied) has been widely used with pedophiles in treatment so that therapists would know if the therapy was eliminating the child-related sexual arousal characterizing these men.
More than half of the homophobic men (54%) manifested definite sexual arousal (more than 12 mm increase), with another 26% manifesting moderate arousal (6-12 mm), with only 20% not being sexually aroused (0-6 mm). The non homophobic men responded with the following arousal levels: definite (24%), moderate (10%), and nil (66%).
For this sample of males, 40.6% (26/64) manifested definite sexual stimulation, 18.8% (12/64) manifested moderate sexual arousal, and only 40.6% (26/64) were not sexually aroused. This would lead to the conclusion that about 70% of young adult males (adding about 10% given that about 10% of males would have been omitted from the Adams et al. study because they self-identified as homosexual or bisexual (Bagley and Tremblay, 1998) and would likely be sexually aroused in when viewing homo-erotica. If, however, only the "definite" sexual arousal is considered, at least 50% (40% + 10%) of males would be in this category. This is exactly what Kinsey (1948) reported for his sample of about 5000 males on the basis of their reported homo-sex experiences (37%) since the age of 15 years, or by having reported related homo-sex desires not (yet?) acted on (13%).
Discussion/Implications: - In the abstract, Adams et al. (1996) noted that "Homophobia is apparently associated with homosexual arousal that the homophobic individual is either unaware of or denies," but another interpretation was offered in the text. On the basis of previous research work related to sexual stimulation, it is possible that the detected sexual stimulation when viewing adult male homo-sex pornography was caused by the assumed "anxiety" these men may have been experiencing while exposed to such depiction. Ted Rassieur (1998) discusses this issue beginning at the fourth paragraph, chapter 1 N/A, of his thesis proposal. The "anxiety" situation in the Adams et al. (1996) study, however, is not the same "anxiety" situation which produced the "increases" in sexual stimulation in the studies on which the "anxiety" idea is based. Rassieur also addresses the "homosexual latency theory" - the Freudian theory that most males end up repressing the homosexual aspects of themselves (a part of Freud's bisexuality theory often said to now be defunct (Note 4) - by stating:
Perhaps the biggest weakness of the latency theory is that it cannot explain the physiological responses of all the homophobic men. In the study by Adams et al. (1996), 20% of the homophobic men showed no significant tumescence (0-6 mm) in response to gay male erotic video...."The "biggest weakness," however, may not be an element weakening the latency (repression) theory because the Adams et al.'s sexual stimulation results only reflect or represent the males for whom "adult male erotica" is stimulating. There are homosexually oriented men who are not sexually stimulated by depictions of adult males engaging in sexual acts and some may even require depictions of race-specific adolescent males for sexual stimulation to occur; these gay males would not be pedophiles because the desired males are not pre-puberty males. Would some of the men in the Adams et al. sample have been in this category, thus making the pornography they were shown ineffective for eliciting the sexual stimulation which may (would?) have resulted if a more 'appropriate' homo-sex pornography had been used? How could this problem therefore be tackled or addressed?
The Adams et al. (1996) results strongly indicate that most homophobic males (54%, but up to 80%) have a detectable homosexual component in their psyche and that their homophobia reflects the concept called "projection" in psychiatry, but this human behavior has been recognized for thousands of years. Worbois renders this by citing Shakespeare's "doth protest too much" (the wisdom Shakespeare located in Hamlet (Act 3) via the statement "The lady doth protest too much, methinks.") and "It takes one to know one" in this respect, in addition to a Biblical quotation. An old Buddhist proverb also renders the concept: "Choose your enemies well for they will be the ones you most closely resemble." Therefore, what exists "within" is projected outward and is hated in others, but what would be in the minds of highly homophobic (and highly abusive) men who strongly manifest (often obsessively, almost as if they have "inside" knowledge) the following belief:
If you love your neighbor you will warn him about how destructive homosexual sex is. Homosexuals reproduce by molesting boys and younger men. That's the way homosexuals make new homosexuals. Their own exposes of their lifestyles and their own writings state this. Homos are doing everything they can to recruit children. The majority of men become homos by the molestation from other men, especially children and teenagers. (Cited in: http://hatewatch.org/gay.html Original Source: http://www.enyart.com/quotes.html#homosexuals)The belief that homosexual males most desire boys for sex is a common historical stereotype in numerous countries [e.g. "Some Queer organisations are too nervous to help young people because of the popular myth (supported by the gutter press) that gay = paedophile." (http://www.qrd.org/world/europe/ireland/young.queer.and.proud-03.05.98). It is maybe not only the America 'gutter press" which draws such an association as the 1997 GLAAD Alert "CNN Confuses Gay Male Erotica With Child Pornography" illustrates: "Without any apparent relevance to the story, the discussion of adult male erotica distribution via the Internet during a discussion of child pornography blurs the profound difference between the two." From Singapore: "...here was someone who could speak of paedophilia without an automatic association with homosexuality." (http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/5738/yax-098.htm), and the stereotype is also used against gay parents in New Zealand. "The majority of society sees gay parents as being child molesters." (http://www.nz.com/NZ/Queer/PMT/1998/19980331.html N/A). Generally, "the stereotype of gay-man-as-the-sexual-predator" (http://www.shpm.com/articles/glb/intgayme.html) exists, and the common "misinformation" is "Faggots are out to molest our children and convert them to their abominable lifestyle." (http://www.qrd.org/qrd/orgs/BRC/1994/oppress.txt-07.94). A similar belief commonly manifested by some Christians was outlined by the gay scholar, John Boswell:
"Beliefs about sexual categories in the modern West vary wildly, from the notion that sexual behavior is entirely a matter of conscious choice to the conviction that all sexual behavior is determined by heredity or environment. The same individual may, in fact, entertain with apparent equanimity contradictory ideas on the subject. It is striking that many ardent proponents of Type C etiological theories who regard homosexual behavior as pathological and/or depraved nonetheless imply in their statements about the necessity for legal repression of homosexual behavior that it is potentially ubiquitous in the human population, and that if legal sanctions are not maintained everyone may suddenly become homosexual." (Full text is available online at http://hem.passagen.se/nicb/boswell.htm.)There are a number of highly homophobic (often religious) males who firmly believe that any acceptance of homosexuality will lead to "everyone" becoming homosexual: "the return to Sodom & Gomorrah" fear. Making this statement, however, reflects individuals who are inadvertently revealing an important fact about themselves and their potential for sexual interaction with males, maybe boys. They are essentially saying that they would have become (as in: "they would now be..") homosexual (as they define homosexuals to be, and their definition is often in the man/boy spectrum) if it had not been for strong prohibitions and punishments. This knowledge may also have been acquired when they were boys and were sexually involved with a man, probably resulting in sexual stimulation and related joys as commonly reported in the literature (Note 5). I, on the other hand, also acquired the same knowledge, but from a different life situation as revealed in a part of my biography published in Children, Sex and Social Policy: humanistic solutions for problems of child sexual abuse by Chris Bagley (1997, Avery, Aldershot, Hampshire, England, pp. 183-5).
A 2005 Note: Reading what follows may make you think of an apparently recently discovered phenomenon called "Friend With Benefits." Some historical information here. "Friend With Benefits" Information. An opinion on "Friends With Benefits." "Friends With benefits" or "Hooking Up" is apparently mostly about having opposite-sex sex without "romance," or more like "a friend with whom they can engage in a nonromantic relationship that involves unemotional sexual activity." (A related article as PDF download. Access Page. A New York Times Article: "Friends, Friends With Benefits and the Benefits of the Local Mall".) However, I have not yet encountered accounts of the phenomenon reported here that is more related to adolescent male same-sex sexuality as an integral part of the male bonding process that does involve emotions and ongoing relationships. Therefore the current "friends with benefits" resembles more the anonymous or near-anonymous sexual encounters that have been very common in gay communities, although some gay males do have sex within the context of ongoing friendships with other males.The above (including the notes) represents the very important part of my childhood/adolescence related to homosexuality, but heterosexuality was also a part of my life behaviorally and as sexual fantasies. To gay-identified youth, I would at some point describe my "growing up" environment to illustrate an important fact. Typically, they had grown up in homo-hostile environments, feeling isolated and also feeling that everyone would hate them if their homosexual desires were known. A gay therapist describes the situation: "The experience of growing up gay is one of going into hiding of one's true Self in order to survive. Fearing abuse or abandonment the learning was 'don't let them see who you really are'. The message to Self was that 'who you are is not okay'."
'Acadia, Arcadia - what's the difference?' - Pierre (Note A1)Pierre is now in his forties, an active Canadian campaigner on behalf of gay youth. He is a French Canadian from New Brunswick:
I grew up in a neighbourhood where boys having sex with boys was the rule, on a regular to occasional basis. As an almost unbroken rule, the sex involved mutual masturbation as well as oral sex. Anal sex was generally non-existent. Given that this was a form of sexual interaction involving boys who had the most sex with their best friends, and lesser amounts of sex with lesser friends, male bonding factors applied - as well as sexism (Note A2). That is, we were all aware of what we were to do with females, as some of us were doing - as in fucking - but would never think of doing that [anal intercourse] to one's best friend, considered to be one's equal (Note A3).
I grew up in the 'sixties (aged 10 to 20 during this period) and began to be homosexually active at least by the age of five ...[Photograph at a young age] By grade four [aged 10] I was one of the major actors in my Roman Catholic school, and I was part of a 2-hour production known as The Passion ... By then I was a sexual veteran, and was having sex with male friends on a regular basis.
Acting in The Passion produced revelations. As St. John, the Last Supper scene required that I have my head on Jesus' chest, which became my first (repeated) homo-sensual experience (Note A4), with a boy (a year older than I) who later became a hairdresser. I don't know if he is gay but, at the time, he was more like a sissy (who also took piano lessons), and he was not of the nature of the more 'rough' boys living in my working class community. Nonetheless, he held an interest for me, probably because of the feelings which were repeatedly awakened on stage, and these feelings were yielding related thoughts during the Crucifixion scene. At the foot of the cross, Richard was up there, with no more than a cloth around his waist ... and I was thinking about how I would become friends with him - to have sex with him, of course! (Note A5)
Sex, for me, was nothing more than a normal part of life, as it was also part of almost every day - where most of the day was doing non-sexual things with one's friends. I was therefore never sexually deprived since a good number of males, especially including my best friends were sexually available. We had sex in the woods, in garages, in abandoned buildings, in homes if no one else was there, in snow houses, in parked cars waiting to be fixed in a body shop, and in many other places. As a rule, only the males - and not the females - in the community knew about our sexual activities, which were so common that, if ever a male did not want to have homo-sex, he was considered to be abnormal - but no one put pressure on unwilling males to have sex, and we never behaved with each other in such a way. This was sex with equality, as well as with respect, as well as a male-bonding phenomenon ... My surprise was when I was 15 and two of the males who presented themselves to be very macho - and were also hockey players - were the only two who ever kissed me - on the lips! I was shocked by this, for this violated a major taboo, as kissing was coded to be only an activity we did with females ... Now of course, kissing males is considered to be very normal, as are other homo-sex activities such as anal sex. Must say, however, that anal sex still does not hold much fascination for me. I never experienced anal sex until I was about 28, and it was not a very big deal.
In my community, an older boy exploiting a younger boy never existed (Note A6), although there were certain older males who were of interest to me and with whom I related sexually. At no time, however, was I related to as if I was a female, and at no time did males ever violate the will of another. Given that so many males knew what was happening, and so many of us freely talked about it ... we were very protective of each other, and the last thing we wanted would have been trouble - thus leading to the greater community discovering the highly enjoyed homo-sex part of our lives.
By the age of 11 I had been studying European geography, but was not yet aware of homosexuality as a universal phenomenon. Merchant ships came into port about a quarter mile from where I lived; as I was a nice kid I would have been worth a fortune on the streets. One day I came home with a large bag of German candies given to me by the wife of the first mate on a German boat. My mother was alarmed and decided to tell me about the dangers of sailors, when it comes to little boys. Only much later did I tell her what my mind was processing as a result of what she told me. It was the first time that I understood about males relating sexually everywhere, even in Europe - something I had discovered naturally from the age of five onwards.
[Pierre's mother and the rest of his large French-Canadian family have been supportive and accepting of his homosexuality. Pierre never according to this account, experienced any psychological crisis in developing a homosexual or gay identity. (Note A7)]
Most of the time older boys or men didn't intrude into our sexual world. But I knew of two brothers who used to visit a man to have sex. We just shrugged, it's their choice, no big deal. We assumed that like us, they were just exercising free will about what they wanted to do sexually (Note A8).
The ubiquity of male-to-male juvenile sex bonding intrigued me, because social scientists never report that such adolescent male communities exist in North America. Yet my own inquiries have revealed that in the general area of the town (population 15,000) in which I lived, other similar communities also existed, although I did not know of them when I was an adolescent. A colleague from Labrador told me that by age 16 he had revealed his gay nature to his mother, who then thought he had been influenced by the town faggot. He denied this, telling her that there had been about fifteen boys of his age he had been having sex with (which is about the number which applied to me during adolescence). Such a number means that in any community many boys may be homosexually involved over a 3 to 4 year span. In my later teens I had girlfriends, lots of relationships with people of either sex. It was not till I was 28 that I had a permanent male partner. In Calgary, one 20-year-old gay male reported in 1992 that about 12 boys, including himself, were in a similar situation in his working class neighbourhood.
Another male, who was a peer counsellor at Gay Lines and about 28-years-old in 1992 reported that he experienced a similar adolescent environment in the town on Vancouver Island in which he grew up. Finally, given that such environments probably continue to exist, I asked my youngest brother, born in 1958, what homo life was like in my home community during the 1970s. He explained it in this way: 'You know, Pierre, when the tent was set up and most boys came to have a sleep-out, well, I was the only one not having sex'.
--------end of quoted passage
In The Conclusion (p. 187), the book's author, Chris Bagley, comments on the above: "Pierre's story illustrates the themes of earlier chapters: boys can be both entirely innocent, and also inhabit a world of intense homosexual pleasure. Only when society takes over and destroys this homosexual innocence is there a rapid disjunction between happy bisexuality, and rigid heterosexuality. The boys' world of New Brunswick sounds very much like the boys' sex groups in Oslo described by Langfeldt (1981)."
Telling my story was therefore a way to illustrate that everything most gay-identified youth experienced was a social construction (as it also applies for most gay/bisexual male problems, including suicide), and that the situation would be radically different in other cultures, especially in the recent to distant past. Adolescent male homosexual activity of varying kinds was often accepted, including relationships between men and adolescent boys. Most important for me, however, was the "perceptual effects of the homo-knowledge acquired by adolescence, and the first formal application of the knowledge occurred in an adolescent psychology course taken during the 1973-4 school year. Many homosexual males were reported to have over-identified with females (This also applies to me, in some ways.), thus apparently explaining their desire for males in an "inversion" manner, but the observation was completely reinterpreted. Enough information existed at the time to strongly suggest that general professional beliefs about male heterosexuality were as incorrect (and probably as harmful, or even more harmful) as their beliefs had been about homsexuality. The new perception was also historically supported, but I was receiving dire warnings. Friends believed that I would certainly receive a poor mark given the presented radical departure from accepted beliefs, but I receive an "A" grade for the analysis.
By 1990, I had produced my first neuron download related to male heterosexuality: a 500-page manuscript, The Greatest Myth of All, presenting a well supported challenging interpretation of male heterosexualities in western cultures. It was a socially constructed developmental phenomenon in need of understanding before anyone could hope to understanding 'deviant' forms of male sexuality such as homosexuality in its many forms, and even pedophilia. By 1992, I had written The Homosexuality Factor in Social Violence, a 127-page document (Note 6) presenting two important concepts. The violence directed at homosexual males, including murders by homophobic / homohating males claiming to be 100% heterosexuals, was evaluated to be a "projection" phenomenon. Homohating heterosexual males hated in others what essentially existed within themselves, but repression existed to different degrees, and their inner homosexual desires would be vehemently denied.
Most important, however, was the second concept which explored wife battery and the often reported observation that wife batterers commonly want to have sex with their wives soon after the assault. On the basis of a cumulative number of cases (and from the available research), it had become apparent that these men were highly sexist, very homophobic and homohating (with the belief that homosexual males were like women and therefore lesser-than-male), that they therefore had a very low opinion of real women and hated them (although they would have denied this), and they likely had a heterosexuality rooted in a learned hatred of women. In other words, they had a sexuality which was not only activated by (often acted out) rape fantasies (which are acts of hatred if we accept one woman's definition of rape: "an unfinished murder"), but they would also become desiring of sexual activity after beating up their wives because the battering activity had been the equivalent of sexual foreplay (Note 7). Their heterosexuality was also being activated in ever-increasing morbid ways as a defense against their ever threatening inner homosexuality.
Therefore, I was not only stating that homosexuals were responsible for the violence against gays (as it can now be argued using the Adams et al. 1996 results), but I had formulated the concept that homosexual males (of the repressed kind, and to varying degrees) were also implicated in wife battery, wife rape, and other rapes of women. The cumulating cases included two of the most violent batterers who were known to later have sex with boys, and a third case involved a bodybuilder who enjoyed snuff pornography; he also reported often having dreams about being forced to perform oral sex on a male stronger than he was. These cases, and other personally observed and literature based cases illustrating variations on the theme, strongly suggested that males claiming to be 100% heterosexuals who were also highly homophobic were involved in the most serious forms of violence directed at women, often including rape.
Wife batterers were evaluated to be in a situation remarkably similar to heterosexual males who sought out homosexual males to assault and rob, but not before the homosexual male had performed oral sex on them. [One male from my community (about three years older than myself, and about whom I had learned certain homo-secrets) was in this category by the age of 18, after he had joined the military.] John Money has referred to these well known males as "malignant bisexuals" who were manifesting something like "the exorcist syndrome." In the final analysis, however, these males could no more be condemned for what they do (have done) than are gay-identified males who attempted (even committed) suicide because they consciously could not accept their homosexual identity (orientation / desires). These other versions of "homosexual" males were (had been) simply behaving in other ways which permitted them to avoid a likely self-inflicted death given their intense projected-onto-others homohatred resulting in severe anti-homosexuality condemnation, physical assaults, and even occasional murders of the hated ones.
This non-condemning perspective (explored in The Save-The-World Factor: Part 1), returned in The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem. In the Preface to the Second Edition, a related important concept was articulated: If realizing/discovering that one is homosexual leads to suicide attempts and even suicide for some males, what else would the human brain/mind do (as a "survival" system) to avoid such an outcome when the evidence that one may be homosexual is presenting itself? A significant proportion of male juvenile delinquency was attributed to this but, since the 1960s, researchers have avoided investigating "the homosexuality factor" in this problem. Yet, a major 1961 study had revealed that about 60% of career delinquents had a history of permitting homosexual males to perform oral sex on them - for money, but not always. Furthermore, "the homosexuality factor" was postulated to also be implicated in a significant segment of the mental disorders problem but exploring this attribute was ignored by modern psychiatrists because they had somehow evolved to not believe in "bisexuality." They therefore were not in a position to even begin suspecting that numerous males could be repressed homosexuals of different kinds - all as variations on a theme.
To Be Written using information located in the following grouped web page links:
A major lesson has been learned as the result of AIDS. The knowledge/understanding
we thought we had about human sexuality was a deception.
"For more than a decade now, the unchecked spread of HIV/AIDS around the
world has made our profound ignorance concerning human sexuality painfully
The social and cultural construction of sexual risk, or how
to have (sex) research in an epidemic: http://www.pscw.uva.nl/projects/archi/pscw/ca_boek/hfdst13.html
This quotation begins the paper by Parker, Richard (1995). The social and cultural construction of sexual risk, or how to have (sex) research in an epidemic. In: Han ten Brummelhuis, Gilbert Herdt, Eds.. Culture and Sexual Risk: Anthropological Perspectives on AIDS, 256-269. (Routledge Reference)
Fantasies Of Straight Men: Some Thoughts About Gays In The Military: http://eserver.org/bs/05/Sartelle.html - http://bad.eserver.org/issues/1993/05/sartelle.html . (An example of 'seeing' what most of us would not.)
Sex with the Straight Boys: http://www.tripnet.com:80/q-nasty/best-of/fagjocks.html (Alternate Link). (Will be seeking more related information. Kinsey reported that such widespread male homosexual activity did exist in some high schools,)
Brotherly Lust: The awful specter of fraternity rape: http://www.moonmag.com/archives/7-26-95F/mainnewsstory.html N/A (Archive Link). Fraternity rapes (in the section Fraternities and the social construction of men and masculinity) (http://www.bucknell.edu/~minter/str8/greeks.html N/A) (Related Information: http://www.csubak.edu/~jgranskog/inst205/martin.htm) offers interesting insights: "Fraternities try to avoid "geeks," nerds, and men said to give the fraternity a "wimpy" or "gay" reputation... Assessing a pledge's ability to talk to women is, in part, a preoccupation with homosexuality and a conscious avoidance of men who seem to have effeminate manners or qualities... Male athletes on campus may be similarly disposed for the same reasons. Research into the social contexts in which rape crimes occur and the social constructions associated with these contexts illumine rape dynamics on campus. Researches found that group rapes almost always have a leader who pushes others into the crime. He also found that the leader's latent homosexuality, desire to show off to his peers, or fear of failing to prove himself a man are frequently an impetus." Frat Boy Fetishism: When the Goods Get Together: http://eserver.org/bs/17/Johnson.html - http://bad.eserver.org/issues/1994/17/johnson.html (Marketing by knowing that gay-identified males want real men: the frat boys. More on the kind of males gay men prefer in Note 9.] The book, Against Our Will, by Susan Brownmiller. The rape information indicates that numerous (most?) heterosexual men in many cultures have a sexuality which is acted out in the form of rape, especially in war situation when these men know there is low likelihood (historically a near "0" likelihood) of punishment for such acts. Knowing what the rape laws have been is important, especially with respect to how heterosexual males gave each other the legal right to rape their wives. Why would men - who have claimed to love women, and especially their wives - have done such a thing?
Section Excerpts from The Homosexuality Factor in Social Violence by Pierre Tremblay (1992). The social programming of homohatred (includes homophobia) is evaluated to have produced many males who repress and deny the "homosexual" implications of their often common homo-sexual activities. The same social programming is also implicated in many aspects of social violence such as the production of male career delinquents (and related "trade" prostitution activities), the rapes of adolescent and young adult males in prisons, gay bashing and related murders, suicides, the sexual abuse of boys, and the sexual violence directed at women. Full Document.
A million Jockers, Punks, and Queens by Stephen Donaldson (1993). The lecture, given at a university, supplies very important information about homosexuality in male prisons, with serious implications with respect to the North American definition of sexual orientation and the seriously negative effect of "gay" communities with respect to understanding the predominating forms of human homosexualities. Some quoted segments:
"that boys are prostituted to the lust of old convicts.....The sin of sodom is the vice of prisoners, and boys are the favorite prostitutes..."Rape as a Weapon of War: - http://iupjournals.org/hypatia/hyp11-4.html . Little, however, is ever mentioned about the role and use of rape against enemy men, but some information is available. "Historically, the rape of males was more widely recognized in ancient times. Several of the legends in Greek mythology involved abductions and sexual assaults of males by other males or gods. The rape of a defeated male enemy was considered the special right of the victorious soldier in some societies and was a signal of the totality of the defeat. There was a widespread belief that a male who was sexually penetrated, even if it was by forced sexual assault, thus "lost his manhood," and could no longer be a warrior or ruler. Gang rape of a male was considered an ultimate form of punishment and, as such, was known to the Romans as punishment for adultery and the Persians and Iranians as punishment for violation of the sanctity of the harem (Donaldson, 1990)" (Male Rape: http://www.nvc.org/infolink/info38.htm (May have to access section via "Quick Menu: infolinks". The Vikings had a sexuality which made the rape of men not only possible, but enjoyable: http://www.vikinganswerlady.org/gayvik.htm N/A - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/gayvik.html .
In such an environment, homoeroticism is not only "normal" but normative. Tonight I am going to describe such a world to you. It is, however, no fantasy. The society of prisoners in the United States, which has the world's highest and steadily increasing incarceration rate, could conceivably be described as the world's largest gay ghetto.
... it is remarkable that the sexuality of prisoners has barely been examined by academically-affiliated scholars.... Researchers on their part have often sought to apply their own middle-class concepts and language to same-sex activities rather than take a fresh look at the phenomena.
There are, I note in passing, numerous gay pornographic books and videos featuring an incarceration setting, but it is obvious that very few of them were written by former prisoners and they are generally wildly inaccurate in depicting sexual reciprocity.
Researchers have yet to examine the effects of the AIDS crisis on prison sexuality. By my own before-and-after observation of federal prisons, homophobia has risen, especially among whites, the status of queens has fallen, virgin heterosexuals are more highly prized, fewer jockers are hooking up, and much of the sexual behavior has become more covert.
For almost all of European history, starting with the ancient Cretans, popular opinion drew a sharp distinction between active and passive male same-sex behavior. Most of the world, it should be noted, continues to this day to consider this distinction of utmost importance. Penetrating a boy or an effeminate adult was and is considered more or less normal male behavior, and only the penetrated adult male was and is considered odd, abnormal, a bad candidate for marriage and fatherhood, or stigmatized.
But as late as the mid-1960s it was still common for middle-class American gays and lesbians to divide people involved in same-sex activities into "butches" or "trade" and "queens" or "femmes", and while in the working-class the old role-oriented distinction remained standard.
[To consider: There are many surprises awaiting "middle-class" gay- or lesbian-identified researchers who may even be 'politically' minded with respect to apparently unacceptable - or "politically incorrect" traditional North American male and especially female homosexualities. These issues are made apparent in the paper, Role relationships: lesbian perspectives by J.M. Lynch and M.E. Reilly (Journal of Homosexuality, 1985, 12(2), 53-69). The Abstract: "This questionnaire study of 140 lesbians, 70 couples who have lived together for one or more years, explores equality and role relationships. We predicted that lesbians would achieve partnerships characterized by equality and freedom from traditional butch-femme role playing. Financial sharing and decision-making were found to be characterized by high degrees of equality. Household responsibilities tended to be performed individually, but no role-playing was evident. Sexual intimacy items indicated less perceived equality than other areas. And overall, some partners were viewed as unequal. The variables of age, income, education, occupation, assets, and years living together did not explain the inequality observed." Inequality or "power"-based sexualities are therefore still with us, although 'politically' minded homosexually oriented individuals will often LIE about this fact in public forums, especially when they are condemning the power-related sexualities of others - when oneself likely has similar sexualities. In this respect, increasing levels of hypocrisy, self-deception, and deceit has been manifesting itself in North American GLB communities, especially by community leaders. For research information about lesbian "butch-femme" relationships and related testosterone levels in lesbian couples, follow this link. In the link's vicinity, information is also given about the "power-related" abuse of butch-femme lesbians by their likely "self-hating" - but politically correct - sisters who may not be all that honest with respect to their real sexualities. They are not, however, the only ones who are untruthful about their sexuality as the following excerpt illustrates.]
The Stephen Donaldson "Male Prison Homo-Sex" Excerpts Resume:
Accounts written by prisoners or exprisoners have usually taken the form of autobiography or fiction, and these also tend to draw veils over areas which might reflect unfavorably on the writer in presenting himself to the general public, such as rape and homosexuality. Heterosexual former prisoners also tend to remain silent concerning their sexual experiences in confinement when conversing with people who have not shared that environment, former "punks" being most loathe to disclose anything about their humiliating sexual role.
The federal employee doing interviews asked prisoners: "Have you had a homosexual experience in prison as an adult?" The middle-class researchers think this refers to any same-sex involvement, but the lower-class prisoner thinks he is being asked about passive behavior, since he does not consider penetration of another male to be a "homosexual" act; he may be fucking his cellmate every night but will truthfully, as far as he is concerned, answer "no."
Since both the leaders of the gay and lesbian movement and their religiously-motivated opponents agreed on the crucial question of labeling male penetrative behavior as "homosexual," they have jointly succeeded in imposing their concept of "homosexuality" on the public discourse of the entire population.
The application of middle-class concepts of homosexuality to prisoners produces much absurdity and little understanding. [The same applies for the application of middle-class concepts of homosexuality even to most North American gay- and lesbian-identified people. As I noted to a mother who lost her 17-year-old son to suicide, and one of his negative experiences included having been raped after he had made formal contact with a gay community via a gay youth group, North American gay- and lesbian-community-identified individuals could be described as "Children of the LIE!" thus reflecting the ONES who created them.]
The salient fact that the overwhelming majority of young males in confinement, freed from the fetters of social disapproval, will seek sexual gratification from members of the same sex, strongly implies that the capacity for male homoerotism is nearly universal, its suppression a matter of cultural mores and the availability of women. If this be so, and there is abundant data from outside confinement to support this conclusion, what are its implications for our understanding of sexual orientations and their causes? For concepts of gay identity and homosexuals as a minority group? These questions remain on the table even if we choose to ignore them as too uncomfortable for our currently fashionable ideas.
.... one can only conclude that current religiously-based concepts of sexual orientation prevail only because their advocates are afraid to debate them. [Why they are "afraid" is related to their "Children of the LIE" status - and the highly harmful "hypocrisy" noted above - which, at any price, must also not be acknowledged.]
Being used homosexually by another man was equated with cowardice because of the custom of sexual aggression against vanquished foes. This practice is documented in Sturlunga saga, most notably in Guðmundar saga dýra where Guðmundr takes captive a man and his wife, and plans for both the woman and the man to be raped as a means of sexual humiliation (Ok var þat við orð at leggja Þórunni í rekkju hjá einhverjum gárungi, en gera þat vi Björn prest, at þat þaelig;tti eigi minni svívirðing.) (Sørenson 82, 111; Sturlunga saga, I, 201). In addition to rape, defeated enemies were frequently castrated, again testified to in several places by Sturlunga saga. Grágás records that a klámhogg or "shame-stroke" on the buttocks was, along with castration, a "major wound" (hin meiri sár), ranked with wounds that penetrated the brain, abdomen, or marrow: the klámhogg was thus equated with castration as "unmanning" the victim, and classed with wounds that cause major penetrations of the body, strongly suggesting that the term refers to rape or forced anal sex such as was inflicted on a defeated combatant (Sørenson 68). It is not known how widespread the practice of raping defeated foes actually was, or if it existed before the advent of Christianity, but in other cultures which have had as strong an ethic of masculine aggression as existed among the Vikings, the rape of defeated foemen was obligatory. The attitude that homosexual usage of an enemy was a means of humiliation in turn would have weighed heavily against men in homosexual relationships: if it was a shameful humiliation of an enemy, performing intercourse with a beloved friend would have been regarded as a the worst sort of betrayal or lack of loyalty (Sørenson 28). Since all the references in literature and especially insults indicate that to be sansorðinn, ragr, níðingr or to be accused of ergi is to be a man who is the passive recipient of anal sex, we do not know if the Vikings regarded oral sex between men unfavorably or not (or, in fact, how they regarded oral sex in general, no matter who, male or female, was doing it, or to whom, male or female, it was being done). It is interesting to note that the Vikings considered that old age caused a man to become argr. A well-known proverb stated svá ergisk hverr sem eldisk, "everyone gets argr as he gets older." This possibly could point to an increasing acceptance of homosexuality after a man had raised a family and grew older (Sørenson 20), although a man such as the chieftain Snorri goði who fathered 22 children, the last at the age of 77 (just before he died), certainly proves that a man never was really too old to father children! (Jochens 81). For a man who could not have children (whether due to impotence, sterility, age, etc.) homosexual relations may have been acceptable. One slang term for such a man seems to have been kottrinn inn blauði, or "soft cat" as reported in Stúfs þaacute;ttr, an epilogue to Laxdæla saga, in a conversation between the Norwegian king Haraldr harðráði and Stúfr, the son of Þórðr kottr (Þórðr the Cat): puzzled by the unusual nickname, Haraldr asks Stúfr whether his father Þórðr was kottrinn inn hvati eða inn blauði, "the hard or the soft cat." Stúfr declines to answer despite the implied insult, but the king admits that his question was foolish because "the person who is soft (blauðr) could not be a father" (Jochens 76).
Some Insights From Singapore: An Epidemic of Self-Hate (Retitled as "Homophobia and self-hating straights": http://www.yawningbread.org/arch_1997/yax-023.htm . The Tyranny of Loving Marriage: http://www.yawningbread.org/arch_1998/yax-102.htm . Other Insights: - The Hate That Makes Men Straight: Psychoanalysts probe the roots of homophobia. - Psychologists Examine the Motives of Perpetrators and the Origins of Homophobia. - Fear and loathing. Prejudice, abuse, violence, sometimes murder. Why are lesbians and gay men hated? Dennis Altman explores the psychology behind the hostility.
Multiple Masculinity's: a world of subculture and homosexual interaction: http://www.cal.shaw.wave.ca/~sgamache/SGMasculin.htm N/A .
HUMAN SEXUALITIES: A Major Problem: "If we are ever to have a more complete cross-cultural understanding of same-sex eroticism we will have to stop using the anachronistic term 'gay' in reference to other historical periods and to other countries as well" (http://www.usc.edu/Library/oneigla/onepress/reviews/partingsatdawn.html)N/A - http://gaybookreviews.info/review/3139/672 . . How many human sexualities? About 400! (http://www.indiana.edu/~overseas/lesbigay/vol4_1/41orientation.htm.)
A different time and different cultures: "Germany in the
1880's was still prosecuting men for nude sunbathing, but in Sicily, male
children ordinarily went nude on the beach, and most Mediterranean countries
tacitly accepted homosexuality as a passing phase in a boy's development"
simply because male homosexuality in this age group was very common, or
even thought to be normal. (http://college3.nytimes.com/guests/articles/2000/08/13/594711.xml N/A)
Some related history from North America by Spurlock (2002: 38):
"American psychology by the 1920s contained a greater capacity for viewing some homosexual experiences as normal than most current historical literature suggests. Developmental psychologists agreed with psychiatrists that adult homosexuality was pathological, but they also agreed that adolescent sexual development included a homosexual phase. Until the late 1960s, developmental texts reassured parents and teachers that homosexual behavior among adolescents was transitory and quite normal."Spurlock, John C (2002). From reassurance to irrelevance: adolescent psychology and homosexuality in America. History of Psychology, 5(1): 38-51.
Examples of a Male Sexual 'Orientations' not based on the gender of
one's sexual partner, but on learned "power status" sex roles. Only
the passive male (the one being sexually penetrated) loses status or is
deemed to have lower status. He is perceived to be lesser-than-male because
he is assuming the female sex role. "In Mexico, and many other countries,
the colloquial definition of gay is dependent on the assumed sex position.
If you're giving it, you're not homosexual; if you're getting it, you are.
The ideal man is 'straight.'" (http://www.tucsonweekly.com/tw/09-21-95/cover.htm
and http://www-learning.berkeley.edu/AC/archive/syllabi/UGIS20AC_GilmartinSP9703.html N/A - Archive Link)
. A similar view has existed in the "countries of Tunisia, Algeria,
Morocco, Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and Italy to some extent." Outlines, May,
1996: Not Available: (http://www.suba.com/~outlines/arch.html N/A).
Related Information: "De Los Otros: Talking with Joseph Carrier about the Dynamics of Homosexuality in Mexico" (http://www.glbtq.com/sfeatures/interviewjcarrier.html):
Keehnen: Your research spans from 1969 to the early 1990s, and throughout that time the same cultural influences seem to dominate--the family, machismo, the church, and economics. Have you noticed a shifting of the dynamics during that period?
Carrier: One of the shiftings I noticed is that when the gay movement did start in 1981, I think you began to have gay-identified young men. It really affected them in terms of the sex roles they played. One theory is that as a result of the gay and lesbian movement in Mexico, instead of people just playing one role or the other this new group came along called the Internacional, and these are the people who eventually play both roles.
Keehnen: Going along with that, De Los Otros often stresses the importance of the activo and pasivo roles in gay sex as the defining tool of sexuality rather than the U. S. cultural labels of gay or straight. What are the primary reasons for this cultural variation?
Carrier: That difference is still so strong. They don't conceptualize it in the same way we do here. The people I studied were mestizos, so the culture is a blend of Spanish and Indian, but this represents a very Spanish pattern that came in when the Spaniards came to Mexico. The Moors who had occupied Spain heavily influenced them. In that culture as well you find the strong dichotomization, as you do in the Mediterranean countries of Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and Italy to some extent. I cite in the book the Greek epidemiologists who research why the AIDS epidemic took a different shape in Southern Europe as opposed to Northern Europe, and again I think the explanation can be easily asserted that it has to do with role-playing...
The same applies in Thailand (http://gaybookreviews.info/review/2620/564) , in the Viking world (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/gayvik.html), in Ancient Rome (See Excerpt 4: page 18 (Excerpt 4) Roman Homosexuality : Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity (Ideologies of Desire) by Craig A. Williams (1995): http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0195125053/002-5631472-7193626 . - Power and Sexuality in the Middle East: "Sexual relations in Middle Eastern societies have historically articulated social hierarchies, that is, dominant and subordinate social positions: adult men on top; women, boys and slaves below." (http://www.merip.org/mer/mer206/bruce.htm), and in North America's recent past as "trade" (Note 9 on "trade and "rough trade," http://gaybookreviews.info/review/2751/580 , and http://www.duke.edu/web/SXL/bisexuality.html N/A (Archive Link) - (the "Chad C Heap" section) from which this quotations about "trade" males in New York's history is taken: "George Chauncey's recent work in _Gay New York (as well as his earlier article on WWI Newport, RI) strongly suggests that gender remained an important facet in the construction of U.S. working-class sexuality well into this century. His research shows that the "homosexual," as we think we know it today, was not an automatically universal creation of nineteenth-century medico-legal discourse. In fact, working-class men who played only the "active" or "masculine" role in homosexual acts with more "effeminate," "passive" men-- known at the time as "fairies"--appear to have maintained an identity as "normal" men. Provided these men occupied the "proper" gender position, their sexual activities did not alter either their self- or public perception in any way that made them distinguishable from working-class men who played an "active" role in sex with women. Given this evidence, the dating of the creation of the "homosexual," or at least its "universality," must be subjected to further scrutiny.
In my opinion, there remains a question of whether there exists any one universal homosexual identity even in our present era. Aside, perhaps, from the clone and the androgynous lesbian phases, it seems to me that lesbian/gay/queer/transgendered identities are often marked by gender and power differentials. What is one to make not only of butch/femme constructions, but of man/boy, top/bottom, "straight-acting"/"gay-acting" and/or queer, etc. (just to begin to skim the surface) identity constructions? Surely the extraordinary variance of contemporary sexual identities centered around similar homosexual acts only reinforces the strength of the social constructionist position. The "homosexual" construction, it seems to me, serves primarily as a way for the dominant society to group a variety of "sexual deviants" together--and correspondingly, for lesbian/gay/queer activists to unite (or fragment) politically (perhaps in this era some people have separate "sexual" and "politically sexual" identities?)" A similar "tarde" situation still exists in countries such as Cuba where "sexual interactions between gay and non-gay men" has been the rule (http://gaybookreviews.info/review/3017/652).
A description of male sexuality in South Asia: "I am inclined to think that behaviorally defined sexuality is much more fluid there than in the west. Opportunities for homo-erotic encounters abound in this society because socialization with members of the same sex is enacted [ref 7] and anticipated in its cultures to a much greater extent than in western ones. Being straight in South Asia is not anything like being straight in the US and other western cultures. Insertive behavior is perceived as non-homosexual and non-penetrative homosexual behavior as play: the Latin bisexual [ref 4] and the South Asian bisexual are not too different in this respect! http://www.main.org/trikonetejas/lr/bi.html N/A (Archive Link). Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia: Excerpts from - Khan, Shivananda (2001). Culture, sexualities, and identities: men who have sex with men in India. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4), 99-115. & Asthana S, and Oostvogels R (2001). The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India: implications for HIV transmission and prevention. Social Science & Medicine, 52: 707-21. For more information: Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia: Excerpts from - Khan, Shivananda (2001). Culture, sexualities, and identities: men who have sex with men in India. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4), 99-115. & Asthana S, and Oostvogels R (2001). The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India: implications for HIV transmission and prevention. Social Science & Medicine, 52: 707-21. Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia (Part 2). Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia (Part 3).
In classical Arabic literature, males were deemed to be acceptable for sexual penetration on the basis of their eunuch status, younger age (boys with men), lower social class, and being slaves; sex between equals was apparently unknown (http://gaybookreviews.info/review/2839/609) .
Submitting or Resisting: Exploring the Popular Central American Belief that Homosexuality Can Be Induced: (http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/2874/anthro134.html) . Homosexual males can be made? Are heterosexual males made in North America? Are heterosexual males made differently in other cultures?
For a fascinating "social construction" of the ideal adult male (who
will be strong, brave, marry a woman, etc.), the book Ritualized
Homosexuality in Melanesia (Gilbert Herdt, Ed., 1984) is recommended.
A reviewer of a more recent book by Herdt notes: "Herdt is best when he
focuses on the many cultures that have tolerated or even promoted same-sex
love. By doing so, he effectively demonstrates that there are many ways
to view sexuality other than through the rigid western perspective. In
the "Sambia" culture of Melanesia, for example, Herdt explains that it
is believed that boys can only become a man through insemination by an
adult male [and such insemination may begin by the age of 8 years in some
Melanesian cultures]. This may seem absurd at first to a westerner who
is unfamiliar with the practice, but makes perfect sense when explained
by Herdt" (http://gaybookreviews.info/review/3280/753).
(The word "ritualized" is often interpreted to mean that the homosexual
activity being enjoyed (and producing orgasms) in not 'real' homosexuality,
whatever 'real' homosexuality would be. See Note
11 for important
North American AIDS-related implications of perceiving sperm in highly
positive ways, gay male's "safer sex problems, and the highly damaging
belief-related nature of some GLB organizations.)
THE PROBLEM OF "BISEXUALITY": Not long ago, anyone claiming to be bisexual was "the enemy" because bisexuality was given the "non-existent" status needed to propagate the belief in a binary system: there are really only homosexuals and heterosexuals, considered to be opposites. For lesbians who often hated men, bisexual females were deemed to be a serious problem warranting even the abuse of bisexual women: "For the hard-line, anti-male feminists who policed these communities, I was way too deep in the heteronormative world and way too tainted by sex and men" http://eserver.org/bs/38/nicolini.html - http://bad.eserver.org/issues/1998/38/nicolini.html . Tuller describes the situation in California around 1990: "I explained that in the gay world where I lived, such [bisexual] behavior would outrage many lesbians, who would consider it a betrayal of sorts; that, in fact, even the decision by many organizations to add the word 'bisexual' to their names was causing an uproar and sparking anguished debates about the nature of sexual identity and the labels we used to describe it. Ksyusha shook her head in stunned dismay and emitted a torrent of commentary on the subject. 'That's just totalitarianism, just like Communists," she snapped. 'What business is it of anyone else's who I sleep with?'" (http://www.umich.edu/~iinet/journal/vol4no2/tuller.html). Definition of "biphobia": "Biphobia: The oppression or mistreatment of Bisexuals, especially by lesbians and gay men" (http://www.sexuality.org/l/lesbigay/glossary.txt). A hatred of bisexuality in gay communities? A report on the abuse of bisexuals in GB communities and that bisexuality may be the norm in leather communities. (http://www.sexuality.org/l/cu/bism_24.txt). See Sexual Orientation: Binaries and Definition Problems at http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/a-gay-male-youth-suicide.htm#binaries - Updated Version: http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/construction/2-gay-youth-suicide-binaries.htm. Plus the related information on bisexuality bashing in gay and lesbian communities: http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/gay-suicide-notes.htm#note2 .
Now, unfortunately, we have "bisexual" policemen who have begun to dictate what the myths are (just like the gays and lesbians had been doing): "Nobody is bisexual." and "Everyone is bisexual." (http://www.rpi.edu/dept/union/glba/info/bisexuality.html N/A - Archive Link); these opposing ideas "Everyone is Bisexual" and "There is no such thing as bisexuality." were posted outside a professor's door with most interesting results (http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/2.2/features/reflections/jon1.htm). But what is the "myth" when we know that, in some cultures, all males have been homosexually active and enjoyed it? The wiser ones, however, must therefore be careful and say something like: "On the basis of anthropological & child development evidence, it would appear most human beings are born with a bisexual potential." (http://www.ncf.carleton.ca/ip/social.services/pflag/factors.faq). See also: Male Homosexuality: From Common to a Rarity at- http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/a-gay-male-youth-suicide.htm#rarity - An updated version. Word politics? Does this not mean that WE all have "a homosexual potential." So far, so good!
Bisexuals are now beginning to claim that most of the famous ones in history (once deemed to be homosexual by gays and lesbians) were more like bisexuals, and this conclusion may be closer to the truth http://www.sexuality.org/l/cu/queen_24.txt . Furthermore, most humans may be liars (even by lying to ourselves) with respect to our true sexuality. Freud (and most early psychoanalysts) would have probably agreed with this given that he had recognized the mother to have been a child first [sexual] lover (http://www.sexuality.org/l/cu/queen_24.txt). How then are males claiming to be 100% homosexuals made? What does all this mean about men claiming to be 100% heterosexuals? Are they maybe exactly what they have long accused homosexual males of being? Who are the males still tied to their mothers' apron strings, at least sexually, and maybe with respect to seeking another female to maybe replace their mothers? A related insightful humor article, Heterosexuality in the Male, was published a 1970 Homosexual Intransigent newsletter: http://members.aol.com/MrGayPride/HR2.html .
Anyone suggesting that everyone is bisexual? This
idea is rarely advanced, but it is done at The Universal Way website. "In
the conceptual realm of sexuality, soul is by nature unisexual. However,
since our species is by nature mostly not androgynous (except for a very
small percentage of hermaphrodites), bisexuality would be the expression
of sexuality which is closest to that of the nature of soul" http://www.universalway.org/sexuality.html N/A
(Archive Link). The validation of human bisexuality by postulating the existence of a
soul deemed to be bisexual is not a very strong argument, but it brings
in religious beliefs which are to be respected. This argument, however,
may stiffle serious inquiry into some of the less speculative attributes
possibly indicating an innate bisexual nature for human biological units
on this planet. On the basis of one's previous life "in the closet," especially
by males who could credibly present themselves to be more than 100%
heterosexual, their "coming out" may involve the belief that all males
could also be credibly "playing the heterosexual game and that, therefore,
all males may be homosexual, or at least bisexual. "So, your friend has
recently come out as a proud bisexual, but now he's convinced that you're
bi, too." (http://www.msnbc.com/news/140004.asp
N/A - Archive Link) As a rule, however, gay or lesbian community
counselors - who generally believe whatever the "beliefs du jour" happen
to be - will be quick to correct such a wrong view of the world,
mostly because their identity politics totally depend on the "oppressed
minority" assumption. Therefore, the possibility that it is 'simply' homosexuals
of another kind (who hate homosexuals the most, and will also be more likely
to assault and even kill them), will be rejected - thus probably making
sure that understanding never occurs and that the abuse continues. (Internet
Information Links on Bisexuality.) See also: Both Ends Against the
Middle: How gays and straights make bisexuals invisible by Carole Bass
at - http://personals.valleyadvocate.com/articles/biout2.html N/A (Archive Link) "Some people have this really utopian vision of bisexuality: Twenty years
from now, we're all just going to wake up and realize that we're all bisexual." - Related Item: "Let 'em talk: Not-at-all-guilty confessions from the bisexual center." - http://personals.valleyadvocate.com/articles/biout.html N/A (Archive Link).
Some insights on "sexual orientation": - Beyond Gay or Straight: Understanding Sexual Orientation by Jan Clausen (Chelsea House Publishers: Philadelphia, PA) 1996: http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/jan97bader.htm . See Internet Links Page "Is Homosexuality the result of biology or is it learned?" For more information. If You Seduce a Straight Person, Can You Make Them Gay? : Issues in Biological Essentialism Versus Social Constructionism in Gay and Lesbian Identities - edited by John P De Cecco and John P Elia (1993) - Also Published in the Journal of Homosexuality, 24(3/4), 1993). The book, The Invention of Heterosexuality (1995) by Jonathan Katz is quoted in the PBS documentary, "Assault on Gays in America," in a section titled "Who’s Gay? Who's Straight? Viewing Homosexuality and Heterosexuality in the Context of Culture and History."
"The discourse on heterosexuality had a protracted coming out, not completed in American popular culture until the 1920s. Only slowly was heterosexuality established as a stable sign of normal sex. The association of heterosexuality with perversion continued as well into the twentieth century. . .
Neither had heterosexuality yet attained the status of normal. In 1901, Dorland's Medical Dictionary, published in Philadelphia, continued to define "Heterosexuality" as "Abnormal or perverted appetite toward the opposite sex."" Dorland's heterosexuality, a new "appetite," was clearly identified with an "opposite sex" hunger. But that craving was still aberrant. Dorland's calling heterosexuality "abnormal or perverted" is, according to the Oxford English Dictionary's first Supplement (1933), a "misapplied" definition. But contrary to the OED, Dorland's is a perfectly legitimate understanding of heterosexuality according to a procreative norm…
The twentieth century witnessed the decreasing legitimacy of that procreative imperative, and the increasing public acceptance of a new hetero pleasure principle. Gradually, heterosexuality came to refer to a normal other-sex sensuality free of any essential tie to procreation. But only in the mid- 1960s would heteroeroticism be distinguished completely from reproduction, and male-female pleasure sex justified for itself. ...
For in 1923 Webster's defined "heterosexuality" as a "Med." term meaning "morbid sexual passion for one of the opposite sex." Only in 1934 does "heterosexuality" first appear in Webster's hefty Second Edition Unabridged defined in what is still the dominant modern mode. There, heterosexuality is finally a "manifestation of sexual passion for one of the opposite sex; normal sexuality." Heterosexuality had finally attained the status of norm." (The Invention of Heterosexuality Jonathan Katz, 1995)
Heterosexual by Choice? Maybe not...
Can males who say they are heterosexual
claim they were not greatly 'encouraged' - or even "forced" - to become
the heterosexual they claim to be? Our history reveals that
social pressure has been placed on boys to become "heterosexual," and
varied forms of cruel punishments were inflicted (most often by other 'appropriately'
indoctrinated male adolescent males) to harm not only male adolescents
known to be gay, but all suspect males. This traditional "ABUSE"
system is exceptionally well rendered by a Canadian male youth: "What exactly
does it mean to be different in the minds of others? For many gay male
individuals, it means being hated, ostracized, isolated, condemned, and
even killed... This new kid, whom I'll call "Keith", was good looking,
very athletic, and quite smart. I didn't know then, nor do I know now if
he was really even gay. Keith spent his entire school year being ridiculed
by the "in crowd"... Eventually, he ended up spending every recess alone
in a secluded area of the school grounds. The desire to intervene, for
myself at least, was overpowered by the fear of being found "guilty by
association". As I witnessed firsthand the degree of hate expressed for
a person labelled as being "gay", I slowly began to develop a fear of being
different, rather than a defiance against similarity." (Growing up Normal
in a perfect World... http://www.execulink.com/~ducky/normal.htm N/A): The story reports on multiple abuse-related pressures on adolescents to be heterosexual,
or to at least pretend they are.
Fabricating Heritage by
David Lowenthal (History & Memory 10(1) [Not related to the history
of homosexuality, but most interesting]: http://iupjournals.org/history/ham10-1.html.
Related Gay Writings: Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making
of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940 - 1994 - by George Chauncey (Review): http://gaybookreviews.info/review/2751/580
. The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology
by Mark Jordan (Review): http://www.whosoever.org/v2Issue2/gip.html
. (Like everyone else, gay people may believe falsehoods about their history,
and they may even have these falsehoods created for them by gay academics.)
A DEVELOPMENTAL "SEXUAL ORIENTATION"
to most historical and contemporary human sexualities. - Bem DJ (1996).
becomes erotic" a developmental theory of sexual orientation. Psychological
Review, 103(2), 320-35. Full
text online. Is EBE Theory Supported by the Evidence? Is it Androcentric?
A Reply to Peplau et al. Psychological Review, 105(2), 395-8. Full
text online. Related news item: From Exotic To Erotic - Roots of
sexual orientation found in personality, childhood friendships: a developmental
theory of sexual orientation at - http://www.wellnessmd.com/exotic.html
N/A (Archive Link). - News Item: http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/pdfs/data/1996/150-06/15006-08.pdf .- Psychology Today: The exotic becomes the erotic?.- Exotic Becomes Erotic: Explaining the Enigma of Sexual Orientation. - The developmental nature of homosexuality is being suggested
in "35 Going on 13? Welcome to Lesbian & Gay Adolescence": http://www.selfhelpmagazine.com/articles/glb/gayadols.html
- with implications.
Could the following be true? Partly True?
"Depends on what you mean by 'homosexuality'.
If you mean simply 'an incidence of sexual activity between members of
the same sex', then it occurs in too many species to enumerate. If you
mean 'a prevalence or orientation toward such acts', it's more difficult
to say. I've seen my male dog occasionally hump another male dog, but I've
never noticed him cruising for trade on a regular basis. I doubt that he
does. My opinion is that the animal world shows us there are no homosexuals,
only homosexual acts - the homosexual 'lifestyle' is a phenomenon restricted
to homo sapiens, who, without homophobic oppression, would have no need
to formulate such fictions as "gay identity".
Simon Mantle, Sydney Australia
Brooks, Ross (2004). The desire and pursuit of the whole: Testosterone, perceived dominance, and sexual preference in men. Full Text. PDF Download.
"The observations made in the current
paper strongly support behavioural scaling as a model of sexual preference.
Behavioural scaling, a.k.a. behavioural plasticity, is exhibited in many
behaviours by many species (Barash 1982) and has been suggested as a model
for sexual preferences by Muscarella et al. (2001), Bagemihl (1999: 250-1)
and Eaton (1978: 55-6). Behavioural scaling does not assume a dichotomous
relationship between homo- and heteroerotic preference, rather that expression
of either or both preferences in any given individual will depend on a
variety of circumstantial factors, especially the degree to which each
preference has been developed / allowed to develop. It should be understood
that people differ in their ability to express behavioural plasticity and
this has profound implications for the exercise of sexual versatility.
Several factors inhibit an individual’s ability to express sexual variety;
familial and societal expectations being the most powerful. Repetitive
thinking patterns, endemic in modern bureaucratic societies, create strong
monistic neural patterns that mean only aspects of our brains’ potential
are developed rather than its totality. Such a process has given rise to
the modern myth of “sexual orientation” (De Cecco and Parker 1995; Bem
1996), a concept that is alien, indeed laughable, to many indigenous cultures
and other societies whose diverse experiences of life (and particularly
of the natural world) have led them to understand that that the human sexual
response is essentially bipotential and dynamic (e.g., Bagemihl 1999)."
The Adams et al. 1996 Study - Basic Information Research Highlights Discussion/Implications
A Part of P. Tremblay's biography published in Children, Sex and Social Policy by Dr. C. Bagley (1997).
Notes Linked to Text. Includes: Links to Internet Articles Reporting the Adams et al. Study Results. - Links to Internet Articles Reporting/Reacting to the Adams et al. Study Results. - A Thesis Proposal Setting Out to Explore Some of the Adams et al. 1996 Study's Interpretation Problems. - Notes related to P. Tremblay's Biography.
Implication of the Adams et al. (1996) Study Results for Males Claiming to be 100% Heterosexual.
The high risk of young males being raped in prisons.
The "high risk" status of gay street youth: North America, Ireland, Australia. Includes great abuse by some homosexually oriented males.
The "Trade" and "Rough Trade" Males: Heterosexual-identified males (including adolescent males) who have "insertive" sex with gay-identified males.
The serious problem-causing harmful nature of Calgary's "Gay & Lesbian Community Services Association" (Formerly gay-identified and called "Gay Lines") when it became under the domination of totalitarian reality-denying lesbian individuals and a similar group of lesbian-approved gay males.
"The basic of "The Psychology of Sperm" concept based on historical North American gay male sexual realities. This phenomenon must be understood if anything positive is ever to develop with respect to ending the ongoing AIDS epidemic in the gay/bisexual male population.
AIDS Calgary (and similar organizations) as a major factor at the causal end of the ongoing AIDS epidemic in the GB male population.
Internet Resources: "Is sexual orientation biologically determined?
of the author at a young age have been moved to two files: Photographs
to the age of 13 & Photographs
from the age of 17 to now.