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The evidence indicates that homosexually oriented males account for more than half of male youth suicide problems, but mainstream suicidologists generally continue to ignore this aspect of the problem. Information about lesbian youth suicide problems is included, as is other generally unrecognized factors possibly associated with youth suicide problems.
It is hoped that your exploration of the site lead to positive outcomes for the ongoing victims of the traditional Better be Dead Than Gay social ideology. Unfortunately, many professionals have had a history of abusing, harming and/or ignoring these young individuals. They have also been ignoring the high risk status of many other adolescents targeted for abuse in schools and elsewhere because they are "presumed to be homosexual," usually on the basis of gender nonconformity. A 2004 research summary. 2007 Conference Alert - The Homosexuality Factor in Suicidality: Heterosexual Identified Individuals. - Conference Presentations by P. Tremblay & R. Ramsay.
Two Studies Are Re-Analysed by Plöderl et al., (2013) in "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review." Conclusion: Sexual Minority Adolescents Are At Greater Risk for Dying by Suicide. The Expanded Analysis Related to This Study is Available!
IT GETS BETTER Project (2010)
The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!
New Sexual Minority Information Pages
Daniel Radcliffe's Fight Against LGBT Suicide (2010): Sure, he's known in most circles of the world as Harry Potter.
Gay High Schools Offer a Haven From Bullies.
But the schools in Milwaukee and New York also reawaken the debate over school segregation.
Suicide Note of a Gay Teen: "I have been punched and spit on and called faggot, queer, loser, pussy, fag boy..."
Should Jaheem Herrera's Suicide Send Anyone to Prison? The suicide of 11-year-old Jaheem Herrera,
who hung himself with a belt after students called him "gay" one too many times, is now a rallying point for gay
and child advocacy organizations. At vigil for Jaheem, mother weeps over his suicide (2009).
Joshua Melo was a sensitive, shy, polite, caring, talented, and intelligent 15-year-old 10th grader who
attended Strathroy District Collegiate Institute in Strathroy, Ontario, Canada.
He hanged himself on November 26, 2004; he was suffering from severe depression after enduring
endless bullying because some bullies at the school believed that he was gay.
YouTube: Bullied to death (Video, 2006): They committed suicide because of bullying.
Schools confront gay suicide surge, minus specifics (2010):
School officials choose to confront "bullying" without addressing the issue of homophobia.
We Belong - Producer: Joe Wilson (2006) - "This is the story of two rural teens who had the courage
to stand up to bigotry and intolerance in their schools – and the determination to tell their stories to the world..."
Suicide shocks Derry gay community (2007): "Eamon Johnston, the winner of Mr Gay Derry 2003,
has committed suicide. He was 22... Mr Johnston was a hairdresser and support counsellor for gay group Rainbow Project...
His mother told Derry Journal that her son was a "lovely wee boy" and appealed to other suicidal people
to seek help instead of taking their lives..."
Parents kick out 14-year-old girl for being bisexual. Memorial. Memorial.
Taylor Jo Doherty (14) shot herself in the head for unknown reasons.
Taylor-Jo-Doherty. - Mom works to prevent teen suicide warning signs N/A.
“A few years ago, here in Maine, two sixteen-year-old girls committed suicide together, driving their car a hundred miles an hour
into a grove of birch trees. They left a suicide note on the seat of the car. The contents of the note were suppressed by the local police,
who claimed ‘the family had suffered enough.’ Let this play [Ugly Ducklings] speak where lesbian and gay young people,
even in death, have found their stories censored and their words erased.” Carolyn Gage, Playwright (PDF Download)
Milk directed by Gus Van Sant (2008): He recites a list of gay men who have committed suicide –
and elsewhere in the movie we see him taking calls from a desperate young man ready to do the same –
and says he wants to end these needless deaths, to abolish the ubiquitous pressure towards guilt and hiding.
|Michaelson MT (2008). Inclusion and social justice for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender members of the learning community in Queensland state schools. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 18(1): 76-83. Abstract: "Although schools are meant to be safe learning environments for all children, some children are not afforded equal access to the protection of their safety and security... Despite increasingly positive shifts in Western societal feelings about homosexuality,educators continue to fail to implement inclusive practices and social justice for children who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT).|
Not Alone: You do NOT want to be gay in my home community. If a guy does something that’s considered “faggoty” there’s a pretty good chance he’ll be beaten up, badly too. So I kept my mouth shut even though I was pretty sure I was gay. I would go and sleep with women to be like everyone else, but I needed to be wasted to do it usually, so you can imagine how sexy that was... When I go home to visit my actual family I’m not out--not really. I’ve told my mom and my sister and they are okay, mostly, but they worry that I will say the wrong thing and get hurt. So I stay quiet. But at least I know I’m not alone and I hope that people will open their minds. (More on Homosexuality Issues and Native American Youth Suicidality)
Important Alert! In a study of French Canadian gay males who had attempted suicide Mort ou Fif (Dead Boys Can't Dance), it was reported that some gay men will DREAD the idea that anyone will ever discover their "homosexual" secret! Therefore, they may have have a girlfriend - to make everyone else believe they are 100% (200%?) heterosexual - or "normal" (and they may also have sex with females in a way that others will know of this, again to be considered "normal!" by others = NOT homosexual, gay or a fag!) One gay male with a girlfriend, for example, timed his very serious attempt to end his life immediately after the relationship with his girlfriend had ended so that others would think the "heterosexual" relationship break-up was the reason or cause for his suicide! That is, even after his death, all would surely believe that he was 200% heterosexual. There are likely many dead gay males who, in this way, took their homosexual/gay/Two-Spirit secret to their grave! Unfortunately, to this day, no professional in suicide who mentions that heterosexual relationship break-ups are implicated in male youth suicides had ever caveated this concept by stating what was mentioned above. That some male youth will terminate their lives and also do their best so that no one will ever know the real reason for their suicide - if the cause is related to their non-heterosexual inner desires. This fact remains unresearched and it has yet unrecognized likely monumental implications in male youth suicidology research that includes the higher rates of Native American male youth suicide! (Twice the White Suicide Rate in USA, and Six-Times in Canada!)
Contra/Diction: How Catholic doublespeak in Canadian Catholic secondary schools furthers homophobia (2007): In 2004, when I was teaching at a Catholic high school in Alberta, a promising drama student attending the school committed suicide after suffering several months of bullying due to his sexual orientation, as was confided to me by his friends after his death. Disheartened by how our school had so clearly failed this student, I attempted to discuss with my principal the duty required of all members of the Alberta Teachers’ Association (ATA), a union which outlines the rights and responsibilities of teachers, to create a safe and caring school environment for all students. I was told that the Catholic school district does not necessarily adhere to every aspect of the ATA. Further, I was told that our board was developing their own “Catholic response” to sensitive issues, such as sexual orientation, in Catholic schools. The subtext of this “Catholic response” does not bode well for LGBTQ people. My principal relayed this information to me in a manner that suggested it was perfectly normal to have a selective membership in the ATA and that I should rest easy in the knowledge that the good people “downtown” (at the district level) were already developing Catholic solutions to this “modern world problem.”
Gay teen's suicide brings some changes (2008). - Gay Teens Commit Suicide: Who is to Blame?Suicide Prevention Australia's Position Statement (2009, PDF Download): Suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender communities.
Family Tolerance Can Lower Gay Kids' Suicide Risk (2008/09).
Boy, 15, lay down in front of train after gay taunts. - Gay torment drove me to suicide bid.
LGBT Students Remain Suicide Risks Despite Changing Attitude & Laws (2009).
Un tiers des jeunes homosexuels a déjà tenté de se suicider (2009).
[One-third of homosexually orented people have attempte suicide in Framce.]
Homosexuality at Wheaton [College] Part 1 (PDF): The Student Culture (2008).
Known Gay Suicides: Stephen Thyberg, 1988 & Stephen Hampton, 2007.
Gay rights in China: Road to respect (2010): "Of the 1,259 gay men who responded to a 2008 survey by Zhang Beichuan,
a professor at Qingdao University in Shandong province, 62 percent said they had never "come out" - when a person openly reveals their homosexuality.
Nine percent said they had been fired from their jobs or forced to quit after employers discovered they were gay, and 5 percent believed their sexuality
had affected their income and career development. About one-fifth said they had suffered verbal and physical abuse. More shockingly,
about 35 percent of respondents admitted they had contemplated suicide, while 13 percent had attempted it.
Youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual at higher suicide risk, say Montreal researchers (2010).
Santé des jeunes et suicide des jeunes homosexuels : on avance, mais encore un effort, madame la Ministre.
It's not easy being gay in rural B.C: "The higher rates of suicide attempts amongst
rural gay and bisexual boys are particularly disturbing..." Study Abstract.
Gay youngsters suffer poorer health: Every fourth gay or bisexual woman and every tenth man has attempted suicide,
according to the report by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health...
Being Turkish and Gay in Germany
Germany may be considered a tolerant place for homosexuals. But continuing social stigma still makes it difficult for many of the country's gay and lesbian
immigrants to be open about their sexuality... Although it is illegal in Europe to discriminate against anyone because of their sexual orientation, prejudice
against gays and lesbians still exists in Germany. This makes it difficult for many people to come out, especially for those who belong to oftenconservative
immigrant communities. This can have devastating consequences including repressed feelings, living in fear of being shunned and even depression or suicide.
Social institutions contribute to homosexual youth suicide... in various ways. According to a perspective on homosexual youth suicide by OpEdNews author Walter Barton,
the family, religion, the school, social youth organizations, health professionals, and the juvenile justice system significantly contribute to homosexual youth suicide.
Better support needed for Suicide Surfers. - Online suicide support needed:
"Dr Harris said his study involved more than 1000 people from 40 countries, aged from 18 to 74 years. Many had symptoms of depression. The group at the greatest risk of suicide was young gay or bisexual men, because they were in the group least likely to seek face-to-face help from doctors or support services. It led to calls from Dr Harris for support service workers dealing with suicidal people to take a different approach when talking to gay, lesbian and bisexual people..." (2009)
Suicidality & Homosexualities: Are we part of the problem or solution? (PDF Download)
|From: Sell RL, and
Becker JB (2001). Sexual orientation data collection and progress toward
Healthy People 2010. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 876-82.
""…YRBSS [Youth Risk Behavior Survey Surveillance] data from the localities that measure sexual orientation show that whatever the dimension of sexual orientation measured (sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, or sexual attraction), sexual minority youths have higher rates of suicide attempts, victimization in school violence, drug and alcohol abuse, early onset of sexual behavior, eating disorders, and teenage pregnancy that other youths. As surveys of adolescents in Connecticut, Wisconsin, Oregon, and Seattle have demonstrated, even a measure of sexual orientation as indirect as perceived homosexual sexual orientation elicits disturbing correlations with deleterious health outcomes." (p. 878) When adolescents are assumed to be homosexual by other adolescents, they are treated accordingly. Click this link to see the results for the Oregon 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. These youth are harassed on the basis of "presumed homosexual orientation," and they are at the greatest risk for the more serious suicide behaviors.
(Clinical Health Psychology, University College,
London) explores the reasons why many
bisexual and lesbian women are self-harmers.
to Un-Safe Sex: depressed gay men may
be attempting a "soft" form of suicide
by having unsafe sex
Oswalt SB, Wyatt TJ (2011). Sexual orientation and differences in mental health, stress, and academic performance in a national sample of U.S. College students. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(9): 1255-80. PubMed Abstract.
See: "2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!".
Benditt L, Engel E, Gavin M, Stransky E (2009). Addressing Health Disparities Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth and Adults in Wisconsin. Workshop in Public Affairs. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, HIV/AIDS Program, Division of Public Health. Reports suicidality results (controlling for many variables) for GLB students compared to heterosexual students in the Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The odds for GLB high school students having attempted suicide in the past year were 3.9-times greater than for heterosexual students. PDF Download.
King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Online, Aug 18. 8:70.
Conclusion of Meta-Analysis: LGB people are at higher risk of mental disorder, suicidal ideation, substance misuse, and deliberate self harm than heterosexual people... lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt was especially high in gay and bisexual men (RR 4.28, CI 2.32, 7.88).
Full Text. Full Text. Abstract.
Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF Download.Plöderl M, Sauer J, Reinhold FR (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen – Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(2): 283-302. Abstract.
Related Alert: The Paul et al (2002) results (Full Text) (Full Text) - random sampling of American homosexually oriented males in 5 cities - indicates that Aboriginal GB males are 3-times more at risk for having attempted suicide than other GB males. They are therefore maybe 12 times more at risk for having attempted suicide compared to white heterosexual males.
See... Related WebSite!
British Columbia's 2008 Adolescent Health Survey (PDF Download, 6 megs): "86% of students identified as heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” ... Those at greater risk of having attempted suicide: ... Aboriginal youth (11% vs. 4% non-Aboriginal), lesbian, gay and bisexual youth (28% vs. 4% heterosexual: 7-times the risk), obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight) and youth with a health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a disability)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%) or sexually abused (22% vs. 4%).
Gay students more likely to consider suicide: study. Survey shows D.C. gay youth face bullying, harassment (2008). DC 2007 High School YRBS: Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (PDF Download). "30.6 percent of gay teens considered suicide in the previous year, 28.9 percent made a plan to commit suicide and 32.6 percent attempted suicide. That compares to 13.8 percent, 12.1 percent and 8.6 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts.
Massachusetts' 2007 YRBS Results: "29.1 percent attempted suicide and 12.1 percent attempted suicide that required medical attention. That compares to 6.4 percent and 2.2 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts.
2007 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, 26% of gay/lesbian students, 29% of bisexual students and 10% of those 'not sure' of their sexual orientation had attempted suicide, compared to 4% of heterosexual students.
2007 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Word Download): Sexual minority students were 3.7 times more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual students. - Risk Behaviors and Factors of Youth Engaging in Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors (PDF Download): One in four same-sex youth (7.5% het-sex youth) had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months. More than one in seven (15%) same-sex had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months serious enough that it required medical attention, compared to 2.5% of het-sex youth, a six-fold difference...
2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data: "16% of students who self identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual are homeless, compared to 4% of their straight peers. 15% of homeless students self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
2005 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, 33.3% of gay/lesbian students and 35.0% of bisexual students had made a suicide plan, compared to 9.7% of heterosexual students. 27.3% of gay/lesbian students and 33.3% of bisexual students had attempted suicide, compared to 7.5% of heterosexual students.
2005 New York City Yoouth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual youth, the odds of having attempted suicide were greater for Gay, Bisexual and Unsure male students: 6.2, 12.8, 6.9, respectively, or 9.0 for the combined 3 groups (3.4, with control variables). For Lesbian, Bisexual and Unsure females, the odds were 0.9, 5.3, 2.4, respectively, or 3.7 for the combined 3 groups (2.5, with control variables).
2005 New York City Yoouth Risk Behavior Survey: "Citywide, attempted suicide is almost four times as prevalent among LGBQ teens (31%) as among heterosexual youth (8%)."
See also: Mental Health of New York City Youth
Tentatives de suicide parmi les homosexuels en France: résultats de l’enquête Presse Gay 2004 (PDF): 19% of adult Gay/Bi males report having attempted suicide. News Item.
Press Release, France 2008 (PDF): un quart des tentatives de suicide des garçons âgés de 15 à 24 ans et 10 % de celles des filles du même âge seraient liés à un problème d’homosexualité. [One quarter of suicide attempts by boys - 15 to 25 years-old - and 10% of those by girls are related to homosexuality related problems.]
2008 New Caledonia Study, Ages 16-25 Years (PDF): Same sex attracted males and females have greater odds, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, for having been suicidal, even when controlling for all possible other factors: 5.6, 1.8 respectively.
Closeted Married Men Who Have Sex With Men: Suicide Risk
(The Advocate, May 4, 2007)
Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf.
A Related Google Cache Document.
Young R, Sweeting H, West P (2006). Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ, 6;332(7549): 1058-61. Epub 2006 Apr 13. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Commentaries: " Self harm in Goth youth subculture: Conclusion relates only to small sample." - "Self harm in Goth youth subculture: Study merely reinforces popular stereotypes." - Other Responses. - Goth subculture may protect vulnerable children. - Related Comments: "While I was never a self-harmer, I was definitely suicidal as a teenager, and have had suicidal tendencies throughout my whole life up until today... While I guess being goth reflected my depression, it didn't abate or help it after becoming goth, as the study suggests it did for self-harmers."
"What is Goth? ...the goth scene has a large proportion of gays/bisexuals, and followers of non-mainstream religions and views..." - GayGothBoys.Tribe.Net: "
Pinhey TK, Millman SR (2004). Asian/Pacific Islander Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk in Guam. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7): 1204-1206. (Abstract) Full Text: PDF Download.
The Odds for GB Males Attempting Suicide in the Past year is About Five Times Greater than Odds For Other Males. Estimated by Web Page Author: Risk Ratio = 3.2 - 43.5% of GB males attempted suicide, versus 13.5% for other males. For all Males: 14.5%. 3.5% of 674 males studied = GB Males
L, O'Donnell C, Wardlaw DM, Stueve A (2004).
and resiliency factors influencing suicidality among
African American and Latino youth. American Journal
of Community Psychology, 33(1-2): 37-49. (Abstract)
into the needs of young people in Northern Ireland
as lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (LGBT)
Warner J, McKeown E, et al. (2004: Related Article, Summary). Rates and predictors of mental illness in gay men, lesbians and bisexual men and women: Results from a survey based in England and Wales (Pub Med Abstract): "Of the 1285 [GLB] respondents who took part, 556 (43%) had mental disorder.... 361 (31%) had attempted suicide. This was associated with markers of discrimination such as recent physical attack (OR=1.7, 95%CI 1.3-2.3) and school bullying (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-2.0)..."
Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003). Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text)
"...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]".
This is a First-Time Research Result!
See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009).
Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort
study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract.
After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does NOT mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher
risk of death for same-sex couples.
Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between
relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark,
1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. [Epub ahead of print]. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and
population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide
mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three
marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs;
current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered.
RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy
indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The
estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly
eight times greater than for men with positive histories of
heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never
Costa Rica Studies: 2000, 2006
Estudio alerta sobre intentos de suicidio por discriminación gay:
alerta sobre intentos de suicidio por discriminación gay
según encuesta exploratoria en población costarricense
(Translation): Una investigación en población homosexual costarricense lanzó una campanada de alerta sobre intentos suicidas por
causa de la discriminación y rechazo por su orientación sexual. Investigación en 200 homosexuales halló hasta un 27% de intentos suicidas.
Rechazo familiar y social, problemas de pareja y soledad son principales causas.
of students (average age about 16 years, Grades 9 - 12) are "sexual minority
youth" defined on the basis of acknowledged identification as gay, lesbian,
or bisexual, and/or reporting to have engaged in same-sex sexual activity.
In the past 12 months, 29% of them are reported to have attempted suicide,
compared to 7% of other students.
Survey Sept 1 to Oct 31 - Results Published January, 2001
Survey Results Highlights"
Gays and lesbians in the Muslim community are quietly shattering
one of the final taboos of Islam (Globe & Mail, 2003).
[He] attempted suicide twice before he turned 18. Growing up in Lahore, Pakistan, the eldest son of devout Muslim parents, he could never come to terms with, let alone explore, his attraction to other men. His best attempts to fake interest in girls failed to impress his peers, who began to bully the self-described "effeminate" man. "It was easy for other kids to practise kick-boxing on me," recalls Mr. Malik, now 25. In 1992, he tried to hang himself from the ceiling fan in his room. If it was a cry for help, it fell on hostile ears since suicide is a haram - religious wrong - in Islamic law. "My dad's reaction was really bad - he beat me. I was frustrated with my own life. I had no one to talk to, not even my own parents." In 1997, after a disastrous infatuation with a high-school friend - who later committed suicide after being forced into an arranged marriage - Mr. Malik tried to take his life one more time. Again, he faced the wrath of his parents, who didn't understand the reason for his depression. Today in Halifax, where he is studying tourism and hotel management...
A 2002 Re-Evaluation of Massachusetts 1995/97 & Vermont 1995/97 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Bisexually Active Adolescents Most At Risk. See related information in 2003 PowerPoint Presentation by Pierre Tremblay & Richard Ramsay.
The paper, "Does your school track the suicidal student?" (The Clearing House, November/December, 2001: 92-5) by David Helsel begins with:
"Jared was a troubled teenager. He attended a large modern public middle school in an Ohio city. Although his school had no formal crisis management team, many of his teachers and friends and his counselor all agreed, after his suicide, that he had given them ample warning signs. Jared endured abuse in a family setting of domestic violence and alcoholism. Branded a sexual misfit at school, he did his best to cope with his gender confusion and poor academic performance. He let others know of his despair but could not convince them of his pain. On his last day he told his closest friend, Tony, that he could not endure anymore and that he would end his life that evening after school. Tony had heard those words before but Jared had never acted on them. So there seemed little reason to believe him now. Having given his last warning, Jared went home after school and shot himself" (92).
Gabriel Rotello (Alternate Link N/A) (The Advocate, January 16, 01): "In speaking to PFLAG chapters over the years, I have met several parents of gay kids who committed suicide, and their refrain is always sadly similar: 'If only we had known. Why didn’t we send the right signals to our children, telling them we would have loved them no matter what?'"
Barden, Connie (2004). Lesbian and Gay Youths at Risk: Providers must be more open minded about sexual orientation. American Journal of Nursing, 104(10): 13. "I will never forget the day that a physician colleague and I were chatting about his four children. “I’ll be happy with anything my kids do with their lives,” he said, “just as long as they don’t turn out gay. If I found out one was gay, I think I’d shoot myself.” Stunned, I remained silent. This colleague, who has known and respected me for years, assumed his comment was innocuous. I was hurt but not devastated. But how do such comments affect young people? ... An article published in School Administrator in February 2000 reported that gay-related name-calling (for example, “faggot” or “dyke”) occurs an average of 26 times daily on middle and high school campuses—and that many students harassed in this way identify themselves as heterosexual."
Our Gay Voice: "Most Persians in Southern California have never been exposed to accurate information about homosexuality.Degrading jokes about homosexuality can often be heard in Iranian gatherings. Gay youths (gay refers here to both male and female) growing up in such a homophobic community might find suicide or substance abuse as an escape.
Hatred in the Hallways (2001): Violence and Discrimination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools & Hostile Hallways (2001): Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in School: 74% of students say they would be "very upset... if someone called them gay or lesbian." More on American schools: 2004. - Bad days for gay teenagers.
The gay / bisexual boys who have sex with men, their problems (including suicidality, high risk for contracting HIV, etc.) and the related scandalous "silence" about this reality by most researchers and gay community leaders. In Oslo, Norway, a 2003 study reports that for every "1" adolescent girl selling sex, there are 3.5 adolescent boys selling sex.
India: The Deaths of Two Women in Love: "Dead bodies of 2 young women were found at the Satyamangalam forest area, Erode district. They had committed suicide as they could not live apart from each other and they had a homosexual love relationship. They wrote in their heartbreaking letter that they couldn't live apart from each other."
The Phillipines: Suicide attempts among Filipino gays on the rise. - Alarm over high rate of suicide cases among Filipino homosexuals.
France: British Medical Journal - "Within the framework of an exploratory study conducted among young people attending a French annual festival aiming at solidarity with persons living with the HIV, we found a significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence of lifetime (at least one) suicide attempts when comparing young MSM with their heterosexual (HS) peers (30% vs. 5.5 %) . These first data on French youth are very similar to those from larger representative studies conducted in other developed countries." Results of larger study given in 2005 "'Le Monde" article: "Les résultats préliminaires du travail de Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique et responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l'hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal, font apparaître que, "toutes choses égales par ailleurs" - âge, lieu de résidence, niveau d'études, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, structure familiale parentale, modes de vie (couple ou célibat) -, les jeunes homosexuels ont treize fois plus de risque de faire une tentative de suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. Ces résultats confirment les chiffres issus des études américaines, canadiennes et australiennes : elles aboutissent, chez les homosexuels, à des chiffres de "sursuicidalité" variant de six à treize..." [When controlling for many factors, homosexually oriented males in Paris are 13 times more likely to have attempted suicide than heterosexually oriented males.] Two related "Le Monde" Articles: Guillaume "n'arrivait pas à parler", alors, à 17 ans, il a craqué. Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique, responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l'hôpital Fernand-Widal: "Ils semblent se considérer comme des personnes de moindre qualité". NOTE: Suicide studies and suicide prevention efforts in France, as well as elsewhere, have generally ignored all issues related to homosexuality. When the people at greatest risk for problems are ignored in prevention efforts, the result will be: maximizing the casualties in this segment of the population. Why this unspoken objective/outcome has been a rule in mainstream suicidology - dominated by 'mental health' professionals who once decreed that homosexual people should not exist and therefore should be 'cured' - should be studied.
Austria: The above French study suggests that one in three males who attempts suicide are homosexually oriented (Suicide : les jeunes gays premiers concernés). A Canadian study (random sample) reported that, for serious suicide attempts, about 62% of male suciide attempters would be homosexually oriented (PubMed Abstract). An Austrian study (PubMed Abstract) suggests that about 50% of suicide attempters, both male and female, are homosexually oriented.
How Times Change: "It's a sad story. Five years ago, 19-year-old Jim Wheeler took his own life because he couldn't deal with being the only gay person he knew existed in his rural Pennsylvania town. To Jim, Lebanon was a horrible, lonely place where the local therapist told him gayness was an unpardonable sin. It was the pinnacle of farm-town small-minded America, its idyllic beauty barely masking an undercurrent of intolerance and fear. Jim couldn't handle it. It ate away at him until, even as his own parents reached out with love and support, he crumbled. Jim's story is told in the documentary film Jim In Bold, airing on PBS and MTV in 2003..."
Gay, Bisexual Women Take More Risks Than Gay Men. - Lesbian and Bi Women More Likely to Engage in Risky Behavior, Study Finds. - Gay & Bi Women Greater Risk Takers. - US Study: Lesbian and bi women more likely to engage in risky behavior.
The impact of transphobia on HIV risk behaviors among male-to-female transgenders in San Francisco (PDF Download): Focus Group (N = 48) & Cross-Sectional Sample (N = 332), most having had a commercial sex work history: 29% reported having attempted suicide, with another 15% having experienced suicidal ideation.
Largest Ever Study of Anti-LGBT Harassment in Schools Shows the Problem is Widespread, Dangerous and Preventable: "The in-depth companion survey found that school campuses in California are hostile climates for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students and gender non-conforming students. Two in every three LGBT students reported harassment based on sexual orientation, and 47% of LGBT students experienced repeated harassment. Almost half of their peers agree that their school is not safe for LGBT students. These findings are supported by the fact that 91% of all students report hearing their peers use slurs about sexual orientation and more than 40% reported hearing teachers making such negative comments or slurs. In addition, 27% of students reported being harassed because they weren’t “masculine enough” or “feminine enough,” and more than half of all students said their schools are unsafe for boys who aren’t as masculine as other boys."
Are lesbians, gay men, bisexual people, and transgendered people more suicidal that others??? Presentation by Anthony D'Augelli. PDF Download for PowerPoint Presentation. - "I thought of suicide once. I nearly committed it. I wanted it to look like an accident..." - HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention: "We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV... Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide." Free download of paper is available.
Suicide Research (Scotland): Hutchison C, Porter S, De Voil S (2003). Live to Tell: Finding of a Study of Suicidal Thoughts, Feelings and Behaviours Amongst Young Gay and Bisexual Men in Edinburgh. Scotland: Gay Men’s Health - LGBT Youth Scotland. Internet: http://www.lgbtyouth.org.uk/portalbase/pages/download.aspx?locationId=550deae3-11c0-46c9-865a-d38510a7ab6f . (Download Page) - http://www.mrsite.co.uk/usersitesv/pctherapy.org.uk/wwwroot/USERIMAGES/livetotellpdf.pdf . - Craig Hutchison's Web Site.
Research highlights: 95 Gay/Bi Males aged 15-26 (Average age = 20.8 years). 28% of respondents had at some point deliberately injured themselves with no suicidal intent. This compares to 2% of men in the general population.. 54% of respondents had seriously considered taking their own life, compared to 13% of men in the general population who have ever considered suicide. 51% of respondents who had previously considered suicide now no longer felt suicidal. However, 15% of respondents still seriously considered suicide at least once a month. 27% of young gay/bisexual men have attempted suicide compared to 4% of the general population. Suicide attempts were most common in those young gay/bisexual men aged 14 to 20. 58% of those who had attempted suicide made only one attempt. 35% had made three or more attempts. 23% made five or more attempts. 54% of respondents who had attempted suicide had at some point deliberately injured themselves without wanting to take their own life.
Rosario, M. et al. (2005). Psychological Distress Following Suicidality Among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths: Role of Social Relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(2): 149–161. Link to Abstract.
Excerpt: "Youths between the ages of 14 and 21 years were recruited from 3 gay-focused community organizations (85%) and 2 public-college GLB student organizations (15%) in New York City. Approximately 80% of the youths approached for recruitment participated in the study... Of the 156 youths interviewed at baseline, 35% had attempted suicide, 23% had seriously thought about suicide but had not attempted, and 42% had neither attempted nor ideated at any time in their lives. Of the youths who had attempted suicide, many had attempted more than once (M = 3.76, SD = 7.56). The last of these attempts was an average of 3.16 years (SD = 2.88) before the baseline assessment, with 31% having attempted suicide in the year prior to the study. The youths were an average of 15.28 years of age (SD = 2.86) at their most recent suicide attempt. Of the 79 youths who had ever seriously thought about suicide (43 had both ideated and attempted suicide and 36 had ideated but never attempted suicide), 39% reported 1 or 2 episodes of ideation, 35% reported between 3 and 10 episodes, and 26% had more than 10 episodes of suicidal ideation. The youths’ last suicidal ideation had occurred an average of 1.87 years ago (SD = 2.05), with 53% having an episode of ideationago (SD = 2.05), with 53% having an episode of ideation within the year prior to the study. The youths were an average of 16.49 years of age (SD = 2.35) at the time of their most recent suicidal ideation. The suicide attempts of the youths were serious. Of the 55 youths who reported suicide attempts, 93%reported a specific method for their most recent attempt, including cutting (32%), ingesting pills or chemicals (65%), jumping (8%), or some other method (16%). Further, 51% reported that their suicide attempt required medical care, including 33% who were hospitalized. GLB youths who received medical care for their attempt did not differ significantly from thosewho did not receive care on any study variable, including psychological distress and social desirability. Interestingly, social desirability was unrelated to suicidality, further suggesting that this sample of GLB youths accurately reported their history of suicidality. within the year prior to the study. The youths were an average of 16.49 years of age (SD = 2.35) at the time of their most recent suicidal ideation. The suicide attempts of the youths were serious. Of the 55 youths who reported suicide attempts, 93%reported a specific method for their most recent attempt, including cutting (32%), ingesting pills or chemicals (65%), jumping (8%), or some other method (16%). Further, 51% reported that their suicide attempt required medical care, including 33% who were hospitalized. GLB youths who received medical care for their attempt did not differ ignificantly from thosewho did not receive care on any study variable, including psychological distress and social desirability. Interestingly, social desirability was unrelated to suicidality, further suggesting that this sample of GLB youths accurately reported their history of suicidality..."
Kenagy GP 2005. Transgender health: findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health and Social Work, 30(1): 19-26. Link to Abstract.
From Abstract: "A total of 182 people responded to a face-to-face interview or self-administered mail survey: 113 male-to-female individuals and 69 female-to-male individuals. About three-fifths of respondents had engaged in unprotected sexual activity during the past 12 months. The risk for HIV infection from unprotected sex was significantly higher among respondents of color than among white respondents. About one-third (30.1 percent) of respondents had attempted suicide."
Excerpt: "Suicide among transgender people has rarely been studied. Although researchers have speculated that transsexuals are prone to suicide (Block & Tessler, 1973; Levine, 1978; Wicks, 1977), only two empirical studies were found that asked transgender people about suicide (Clements, Marx, Guzman, Ikeda, & Katz, 1998; Xavier, 2000). A study of 515 transgender people in San Francisco found that 32 percent of the sample had attempted suicide (Clements et al.). The percentage of transgender people who had attempted suicide was lower (16 percent) among a Washington, DC, sample (N = 252), however, 35 percent had experienced suicidal ideation and among them, 64 percent had thought about suicide because of gender issues (Xavier)... When asked "Have you ever attempted suicide?" about one-third (30.1 percent) of the 176 respondents who answered the question said "yes." Among the 111 MTFs who answered the question, 32.4 percent had attempted suicide; among the 65 FTMs 26.2 percent had attempted suicide. Respondents who had attempted suicide were asked: "Did you attempt suicide because you are transgendered?" Of the 49 people who answered the question, about two-thirds (67.3 percent) said "yes." Among the 32 MTFs who answered the question, three-quarters (75.0 percent) said being transgender was the reason they attempted suicide. Among the 17 FTMs who answered the question, more than half (52.9 percent) said being transgender was the reason they attempted suicide." Note: Most (68%) were African American.
Not only "White" GLBT Youth
Experience Suicide Problems
They know that I'm here at UCSB, doing my Ph.D. in sociology... (Note: White Print & White Background) I have heard so many stories of Asian American gays, lesbians and bisexuals who feel left out of Asian American communities, that they become ashamed of being Asian American, or that they commit suicide because they don't know of any other Asian American gays, lesbians or bisexuals. From the Asian Cultural Diversity Roundtable, Session 3: (Alternate Link) Depression and Suicidal Ideation among Young Asian Americans (April 12, 2000): "Because gay and lesbian youth in general face extremely high suicide rates, Asian American gay or lesbian youth may be at extra risk. Many will not consider coming out to their families because the cultural stigma is so strong." - A South Asian Love Story.
Gay Utah Teen’s Suicide Leaves Parents Questioning School’s Conduct (2012): On Thursday, November 29, David Phan was suspended from Bennion Junior High in Taylorsville, Utah. But, when his mother, Phuong Tran arrived at the school to pick up her son, she was not given a reason for his suspension. Rather, the principal said, they would “discuss it Tuesday.” ... She took him home and, after being reassured he was all right, went back to work. But around 3pm the same day, 14-year-old David Phan shot himself in front of shocked peers on a pedestrian bridge leading to Bennion’s campus. David’s mother would later find a note in David’s room: “I had a great life but I must leave.” An avid outdoorsman who worked at local gun shows, practiced at the firing range and wanted to serve in the Army, David came out to his older brother and other family members a year ago. Then, about three months ago, he came out to his mother and, finally, his father, Nhuan Phan, who hugged David and assured him he loved him and wanted him to be safe... - Was teen’s suicide fueled by bullying? Family left with unclear answers (2012). - David Phan's Suicide Sparks Grief, Anger and Call for Justice (2013).
Abuse traumatizes gay community (2011): Researchers call for greater public awareness about the consequences of homophobic discrimination... Gays and trans-genders at a beauty contest in Ho Chi Minh City. The gay community is looking for more tolerance from the society. A 20-year-old homosexual in Hanoi told researchers that discrimination from his classmates and parents had driven him to attempt suicide three times since the age of 14. “The only thing I could think of doing was to die,” he said. He made his first attempt in the 8th grade, after his classmates mocked him and his parents beat him. The young man told researchers that he ingested rat poison but recovered from the effects the following morning. “I did not know anyone like me and was so lonely and hurt because of what my family and classmates did to me,” he said. Next time, he tried sleeping pills, he said, — only to vomit them all up. In his third and final attempt to take his own life, the young man went to a quiet spot near the Nga Tu So underground tunnel. He took sleeping pills again and hoped to die alone. But someone discovered him and took him to the police who later transferred him to hospital assuming he was a drug addict who had overdosed. Cases like his are not rare in Vietnam...
Vietnam – Story of a gay man (2011): Can't find a way out and don't know who opine along, He stabbed thought cycle and attempted suicide… Song twice Vinh suicidal then were rescued. “Maybe even death also do not want to receive Honor ", Thanh Vinh smiled sad recall.
David Phan's Suicide Sparks Grief, Anger and Call for Justice (2013): As reported in The Salt Lake Tribune, while David's family lovingly supported him when he came out as gay, David shielded his parents from the "horror and negative experiences" he faced at Bennion. The desire to protect the parents from knowing that one is being bullied is quite common, according to Dr. Amanda Di Bartolomeo, clinical psychologist at George Mason University, who has worked with students in similar situations. But what's uncommon and inexcusable is that no one from Bennion alerted the Phan family about any "personal challenges," whether bullying or non-bullying related...
Suicide of Gay Soldier Brings to Surface Military’s Indifference to Sexual Minorities (2013): On the 16th, it was reported that a gay soldier in the Korean military committed suicide. It was revealed that Soldier Lee (alias) was struggling with his sexual identity and reached out multiple times to the Ministry of Defense and to his superiors but no appropriate assistance was provided.
Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011): For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough.
Rickey Williams: Rickey committed suicide. He jumped off the Golden Gate Bridge and plunged 220 feet to his death. He was 28 years old... Rickey understood the tragedy of black men who were and are dying in our communities. Just last summer, after visiting New York for the Black Gay Research Summit and the annual Pride In The City weekend, he signed onto an open letter to black gay men asking them, us to do something, anything about the AIDS epidemic in our midst. Forty-six percent of black men who have sex with men in some cities may be HIV positive. But who gives a damn, the letter asked... I know too many black men who are depressed and lonely, too many black men who have contemplated killing themselves, and too many black men who have actually attempted suicide. It's not easy being a black man. It's not easy being a black man who loves black men... From Comments: "My first boyfriend committed suicide and thats such an awful feeling to be that close to someone and not know the turmoil inside."
Talented and Successful Gay Asian Commits Suicide (2010): When I read the New York Times article “Tobias Wong, Witty Designer and Conceptual Artist Dies at 35“, I felt sad that the world had lost an important artistic talent. But I’m also sad that the Gay Asian community has lost an impressive role model.
Another African American Gay Male Commits Suicide (2010): Joseph Jefferson's chilling last words, shared on Facebook with his friends, were: "I could not bear the burden of living as a gay man of color in a world grown cold and hateful towards those of us who live and love differently than the so-called 'social mainstream.' Belonging is one of the basic human needs, when people feel isolated and excluded from a sense of communion with others, they suffer....I have been an advocate for my peers and most importantly youth because most have never had a deep emotional attachment to anyone. They don't know how to love and be loved in return. The need to be loved can sometimes translate to the need to belong to someone or something. Driven by that need..... Most will do anything to belong." ...
Yang, Pahoua K (2008). A Phenomenological Study of the Coming Out Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Hmong. PHD. Dissertaton, University of Minnesota. PDF Download. Download Page. "For seventeen-year-old Pa Nhia Xiong and 21-year-old Yee Yang (whose death is not included among these numbers), a romantic relationship that was condemned by their families and their community drove the women to commit suicide by binding their bodies together and drowning in a local lake (Ellis, 2002). The Fresno Bee (2002) named the above story on Xiong and Yang “Embracing the Forbidden,” an attempt to capture the feelings of Hmong lesbians and gay men who are given the message that they do not have a place in their families or communities."
Homophobic Violence in Immigrant Communities: Even in the Tolerant Nordic Countries Young Gay People Face Violence.
Homosexualité au Maroc: L'homosexualité ne se vit pas de la même manière partout... Il existe malheureusement encore des régions du monde où le coming-out "n'existe pas". Kal28, âgé de 29 ans en 2004, vit dans une petite ville du maghreb. Son coming-out n'est que virtuel, via le net, ne pouvant pas l'annoncer chez lui...Eh bien moi, je ne suis pas européen ! Je suis marocain ! Dans un pays arabomusulman ! Le coming-out pour moi, c'est comme se jeter dans les enfers ! Ni famille, ni amis, ni personne ici ne pourra comprendre ce que c'est d'être homo... ! Alors... ne trouvant aucune lueur d'espoir, en 1997, alors que j'avais 22 ans, et en plus du stress quotidien qui gonfle terriblement quand on est déjà mal dans sa peau, j'ai tenté de me suicider... et j'ai frôlé la mort...
Etre gay en Algérie: Bonjour , moi c'est pinou ,je suis algerien ,j'ai 26 ans mon probleme est que je suis gay et j'en souffre beaucoup car je vis dans une societé qui ne tolére pas l'homosexualité,la séxualité est un tabou dans les société musulmane alors imaginer etre homosexuele dans ses société... Aujourd'hui j'ai décidé d'en parler et de me confie mon secret pour la premier foie de ma vie car j'en peut plus et je pense beaucoup au suicide pour en finir et s'est aussi un autre péché dans notre religion l'islam mais j'en ai pas d'autre choix car l'enfer je le connais déja,mais j'aime trop ma famille pour le leurs faire du mal et leurs causer du chagrin ,mais croyez moi top au tard je passerais a l'acte...
Eritrea: BtM: What is the problem facing individual gays, governmental homophobic behaviour, as well as discrimination? M: Some of them who I meet are HIV positive, they don't have any awareness as gays that they should use a condom, they think condoms are only for heterosexuals. Most of them are in confusion, they don't have interest to accept who they are. One of my close friends goes to church to get cured. Another one killed himself a year ago. But, no one, not even his family knew on what grounds he committed suicide. Only me and other friends of mine knew.
Death hangs over Somali queers (Alternate Link): Faro, is one of the leaders of Queer Somalia, a community based organisation based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He makes frequent visits to Somalia to make contact with small groups of queers there and on a recent visit he sent back startling information that shows that for gay and lesbian people in Somalia the issue of death looms large. Whether through suicide following pressure from families or via loosely applied Islamic law that is uncontrolled due to the lack of a central government, their greatest fear is death—a sentence that can be brought upon them just for being homosexual, or for being perceived to be homosexual.
"Sensei, I Slashed My Wrists Last Night." (The Language Teacher, 1998) "Mike, I slashed my wrists last night," Kaoru announced, "But don't worry. I'm okay now. I didn't cut that hard." Shock? Confusion? Anger? What was I supposed to feel? More importantly, what was I supposed to do? We talked long into the night, and even when my head was falling from exhaustion, I was too terrified to hang up. This particular story, at least, has a happy ending. Over the following four months, Kaoru came out to family and friends, founded a sexuality discussion group at the university, and began volunteering for gay and lesbian cultural projects. Kaoru's struggles are far from over, of course - rebuilding a life can take years - but now the challenge is being met with optimism and confidence. - Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet. - Mental health and school-based verbal abuse among Japanese gay and bisexual men (Related PowerPoint Download).
Cultural Odyssey in association with the National Performance Network and the NQAF present: FAGGOT, a one-man multi-character performance, is the story of Michael, a boy who, daunted by his mother, Rita, run the gamut of attempted suicide, rape, alcoholism, homelessness and prostitution. From a homoerotic rite of passage into manhood, through spiritual warfare, to self-salvation, Michael inevitably learns what it means and costs to be both black and gay.
South Asian Atlantans Feel Burden of Model Minority Myth: "Career choice isn't the only land mine within the community. Marrying outside the ethnic circle and being homosexual both clearly fall outside acceptable behavior. Aditya Kar, a native of India who now lives in Atlanta, is gay. When he returned home to tell his father this, he literally didn't have the words to break the news. "I was talking in Bengali to my father when I had to use the word 'gay,' but there's no equivalent word in Bengali to get the full meaning," he says. "I had to use the three exact words in English: 'I am gay.' " Kar, 36, says he once contemplated suicide because he thought something was wrong with him. His story was featured in a documentary about gay South Asians, "For Straights Only," by Atlanta filmmaker Vismita Gupta-Smith. "If I had seen one South Asian face in my childhood or teenage [years] who said, 'I'm South Asian and I'm gay and it's OK,' I would not have thought of ending my life and probably used it in a more productive way," Kar says.
In Sri Lanka, sexual orientation puts gays at risk: In her native Sri Lanka, a land of sandy beaches licked by the emerald-hued waters of the Indian Ocean, Rosanna Flamer-Caldera almost lost her wrestling match with homosexuality when she attempted suicide in her teens. With no one to turn to in a country that considers homosexuality a criminal offence, death seemed the better alternative. Attempting suicide, however, wound up saving her...
Laguna Beach Beating Opens Closed Asian Door: "Homosexuality: A Growing Orange County Group is Trying to Overcome the Gay Taboo in Vietnamese-American Families... Pham, who is not gay, said he started the group after his gay brother, a Catholic who could not accept his sexuality, committed suicide at age 28, and after his Vietnamese girlfriend came out as lesbian." - Malyasia: Homosexuality And The Church Dialogue: "They are living a double life ? putting up a happy mask upfront in the church and society, but privately suffering from shame and guilt because of their homosexual inclinations. Or they resort to committing suicide to ease the pressure from family and society..."
The Truth About Black Teen Suicide: ""I didn't think that African-American teenagers thought about suicide," my teacher said, her eyebrows drawn together in confusion... Like my teacher, I guess I thought suicide was more of a problem with White teens. Teen suicides talked about in the media were always White. If Blacks of any age were committing suicide, I had never heard about it in the news or on TV. Suicide never came up in a conversation with my friends, and my parents never talked about it... When it comes to the motivations to commit suicide, Ross said, "there is no difference between us." Just like White teens, Black teens have had exposure to conflicts and sexual identity issues." African-American suicide: a cultural paradox: "Risk factors for Black suicide include: male sex, early adulthood, substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, family or interpersonal conflict, antisocial behavior, and homosexuality.' - The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men.
Life and Death in Queer Korea: "I consider myself lucky, though. Between 1997 and 1999, three of my gay friends in South Korea committed suicide. In May 1998, Oh disclosed his homosexuality to his family. They immediately rejected him and expelled him from their home. After living and suffering on the streets for months, and at one point sleeping in an office, Oh killed himself. The other two went to Seoul National University, which is South Korea's Harvard or Yale. One was in Law School; the other was a graduate student in biology. Their success in society was "guaranteed." However, when they came to the age of marriage, they both faced a brutal dilemma. Neither wanted to marry. But they also didn't want to disown their families and disappoint their parents. So, they chose to kill themselves. One in 1997, the other in 1999. No funerals were held for these three young men: their families considered them "bad" sons..."
Guyana: Letter to Editor by Vidyaratha Kissoon: "Some of the suicide cases in Berbice felt they were homosexual"** (Stabroek News, August 2, 2001): "The continued condemnation of homosexuality in Guyana has severe consequences. The recent survey of Suicide in Region 5 & Region 6 revealed that 8.9% of the suicides felt they were homosexual. Men and boys who are sexually abused are scared to report because they feel that they will be labelled as homosexual and be condemned as a result.
[Homosexuality] legal but not accepted (Eritrea): "Some of them who I meet are HIV positive, they don't have any awareness as gays that they should use a condom, they think condoms are only for heterosexuals. Most of them are in confusion, they don't have interest to accept who they are. One of my close friends goes to church to get cured. Another one killed himself a year ago. But, no one, not even his family knew on what grounds he committed suicide. Only me and other friends of mine knew..."
Death hangs over somali queers (Somalia) (Alternate Link): "He makes frequent visits to Somalia to make contact with small groups of queers there and on a recent visit he sent back startling information that shows that for gay and lesbian people in Somalia the issue of death looms large. Whether through suicide following pressure from families or via loosely applied Islamic law that is uncontrolled due to the lack of a central government, their greatest fear is death - a sentence that can be brought upon them just for being homosexual, or for being perceived to be homosexual..."
Beyond sex, same-sex marriage and bathrooms: racism in the gay community and homophobia in the ethnic communities: celebrating the gay ethnic experiences: I felt isolated with the Caucasian LGBTQ community that I was supposedly a part of – as they wanted me to “get over it, move on,” – not realizing that not only had I lost a relationship, but my family and still didn’t feel Canadian. I had no community and my immigrant status, my cultural differences in the way I expressed my pain – the fact that I did what every Caribbean woman does when the pain is great, you wrap your arms around your tummy and wail. This further isolated me from the few straight people in the congregation who were bold enough to try to be with me. That feeling of aloneness and belonging nowhere compounded my depression and lead me to trying to commit suicide not once but twice.
From Gay Trinidad - Voices: - Gay In A Straight World - "...It's being taught to hate yourself knowing that you cannot change, knowing you can never share that wonderful feeling of being in love with your family and most of your friends... I am 17 and I HAVE NO CHOICE BUT to LIVE MY "SO-CALLED LIFE" LIKE THIS. One day I WILL try to change this, I PROMISE." - My Lowest Point - "...Sometimes I have to ask myself how can life be so happy at one point in time and then plummet to the deepest depths of despair.... I needed to be able to distance myself from reality. I did to a point. I had that happy place in my mind that I would retreat to whenever everything was bad. However everytime I retreated into it, it grew smaller until there was nothing left... Its horrible being gay and your parents not knowing and not accepting. I hurt inside everytime my father makes a derogatory comment. And he does it alot." - Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two interrelated destructive forces in our society. An open letter to the people of Trinidad and Tobago.
India: The Deaths of Two Women in Love: "Dead bodies of 2 young women were found at the Satyamangalam forest area, Erode district. They had committed suicide as they could not live apart from each other and they had a homosexual love relationship. They wrote in their heartbreaking letter that they couldn't live apart from each other."
Ona, Fernando Frederick (2002). Of bougie babes and bangy boyz: A cultural study of suicide and other funky everyday thangs. PhD Thesis, University of California, San Francisco, with University of California, Berkeley. UMI Abstract.
Abstract Excerpt: The cultural experience of suicide within American ethnic groups of color is not well understood within the social science literature. Furthermore, few studies examine the cultural experience of suicide among 18-26 year old Americans of Asian/Pacific Islander descent, especially among gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered or queer youth (LGBTQ). This dissertation is a street ethnography among a group of LGBTQ, 18-26 year old, Americans of Asian/Pacific Islander descent.... The dissertation concludes that suicide occurs, not only in a vacuum of pathological psychiatric disorders of the self, but also in a complex cultural arena where disappointments and expectations, hopelessness and despair, loss and yearning fuse within an intimate place of becoming-in-belonging within everyday American culture.
New Support Group Established to Help Lesbians in India
(The Journey: Director Ligy J Pullappally, a film-maker and a lawyer
specialising in women’s rights, created the film to help lower the number
of lesbian suicides in Kerala in the Southern region of India.)
“Women activists alarmed by the rising incidence of suicides among lesbians have formed Sahayathrika, an advocacy group that provides support and counselling to troubled lesbians in Thiruvananthapuram, India. Sahayathrika was created by a group of women activists who got alarmed by the increasing number of suicides in Kerala committed by women who love women. At least 21 suicide cases of women identified as lesbian have been reported over the last five years. Most of these women are from the lower middle class. Lesbians who are frustrated that they are unable to lead the lives that they want because of societal pressures often commit these suicides. Fear of social stigma is always the enemy of these women, along with the condemnation of their family if their sexual orientation was revealed. In Indian society, homosexuality is still considered as a deviant behaviour, and is dismissed as a sexual delinquency or a stage in a woman's life, which she will eventually "pass" or "get over it." Sahayathrika workers fear that more suicides will follow if no one will reach out to these troubled women… In spite of these setbacks, lesbians have been coming out of hiding and are reaching out to the group. Sahayathrika workers are happy that slowly, their efforts are gaining positive results - 25 lesbians have contacted them since the group was formed in October 2002…”
Queer India: The Fire Inside (2008): In the light of such treatment, it comes as no surprise that the suicide rate for lesbians in India is high. Hardly a week passes without a story appearing in the papers about young couples who have chosen to die rather than live in a society that refuses to believe they exist - there were 24 documented cases of lesbian suicide pacts between 1996 and 2004 in the state of Kerala alone. In May 2008 there was the particularly shocking case of Christy and Rukmini from Chennai. Both had husbands and after years of torment from their families they set themselves on fire. Relatives found their charred bodies still hugging each other. It has been suggested that the high suicide rate is also related to the fact that support structures for lesbians in India are scarce. Chennai, for example, does not have a helpline for lesbians. Some say resources are dwindling even further.
Racism in GLBT Communities
(Includes story of suicide attempt by 10-year-old gay boy)
C.A.S.P. Conference 2004
First National Aboriginal Injury Prevention Conference:
Towards Community Action on Aboriginal Injurie
“I Thought People Like That Killed Themselves” Lesbians, Gay Men and Suicide by Eric Rofes (1983).
English Translation of Abstract for the 2000 Québec Study "Mort Ou Fif": Excerpts (Translation)
The book begins with the story of two Quebec boys who committed suicide.
It is available in English: "Dead Boys Can't Dance:
Sexual Orientation, Masculinity, and Suicide" par Michel Dorais (2004)
See also: "Homosexualité & suicide" par E. Verdier et J.M. Firdion (2001) - - Book Review 1 (Translation). 2 (Translation).
Le risque de suicide chez les jeunes à orientation sexuelle non conventionnelle
par Jean-Marie Firdion, Eric Verdier (2003). PDF Download (Translation).
Plus: Death by Denial: Studies of Suicide in Gay and Lesbian Teenagers. Review.
Edited by Gary Remafedi (1994) - Introduction. Review.
"Sexuelle Orientierung, Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit" - 2005 - von Martin Plöderl (Google books).
Cultural Diversity and Suicide: Ethnic, Religious, Gender
And Sexual Orientation Perspectives - 2006 - by Mark M Leach (Contents) (Google Books) (Review).
Être homo aujourd’hui en France: Enquête Le Refuge auprès de 500 jeunes gais et lesbiennes,
Michel Dorais en collaboration avec Isabelle Chollet, H&O Essai, 2012. Summary (Translation).
30% of the study sample - mean age: 28.5 years, 76% urban - reported having attempted suicide.
Interview avec Michel Dorais (Translation).
Cover, Rob (2012). Queer Youth Suicide, Culture and Identity. Introduction. News Item: Same-sex marriage not the answer: expert (2012)...
Same-sex marriage and anti-bullying policies will not prevent the high rate of suicide among young gay people, according to a researcher at The University of Western Australia... "Same-sex marriage can increase the distinctions between queer people, making some feel more alienated and unable to aspire to happiness," Associate Professor Cover said. "It is not where resources for improving the lives of queer youth ought to be directed - more needs to be done around bullying and representation." Associate Professor Cover's research points out that marriage and relationships are not the primary concerns of the small but important minority of gay youth struggling with intolerable emotional pain, bullying, identity issues or pressures leading to mental health concerns... "Young queer people are coming out much earlier and there is broader family and community acceptance." Yet while life is significantly better for many gay adults, Associate Professor Cover argues that young gay people still seek suicide as an escape from unbearable or unliveable lives. See Also: WA Prof queries role of legalising gay marriage in reducing gay suicide (2012). Is same-sex marriage an adequate response to queer youth suicide? (2012).
Full Text Papers! - - AsiaPacifiQueer 3 Sexualities, Genders, And Rights in Asia: An International Conference of Asian Queer Studies
Bangkok, Thailand, July 8-10, 2005
Closing date for submitting paper and panel proposals: October 31, 2004
Advice & Information (UK)
Click On the "SEX ED" Logo!
By: "Advocates For Youth"
Two Books Available Free Online
In Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Psychology
California School Of Professional Psychology
Alliant International University
San Francisco Campus
The LGBT Mental Health Syllabus (By Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry: GAP, 2007).
Eight modules: History of Psychiatry and Homosexuality. Taking a Sexual History with LBGT Patients.
Psychological Development & Life Cycle. Psychotherapy. Medical and Mental Health.
Transgender. Intersex. Diversity / People of Color.
Mesa vigil aims to prevent suicides of gay Mormons (2010).
For Suicide Problems.
Results Of 30+ Studies.
(In Four Major Categories)
+/- 30% GLB Youth =
More At Risk For
Suicide Attempt Problems?
At Even Greater Risk for
Most Serious Suicide Attempts.
for Minnesota School Sample
Attempted Suicide:28.1% Gay/Bi Males; 4.2% Heterosexual Males -
By age of 15 to 18,
+30% GLB Kids = Attempters.
for Random Sample of
750 Males aged 18 - 27:
62.5% of Suicide Attempters
= GB Males - Related 1998
G/B Males at Great Risk for
Factors Associated With
'Colorado' Paper (1997)
from Male Adolescents / Youth
may have GREAT ERRORS!
Behavior Survey Studies with
are on: One Web Page
Problems & Related
Research Data & InfoLinks
Part 1, 2
In England, Scotland
Including the Most "at Risk" GLB Kids
Generally Ignored by GLB
Communities and their Leaders.
A Suicide Note Illustrates this, as does
an Australian Study. Examples of Self-
Harm, Suicide Attempts, anduicides.
An Edmonton Gay(?) Youth
A Calgary Gay Youth
Canyon: Bruce's Mother,
Roz, expresses her Feelings
A Photo History
Bi, Biphobia, The Binary & ???
Two Lesbian Youth Attempt
and Finally Commit
Suicide In England.
Risk for Factors
Associated With Suicidality:
'Colorado' Paper (1997)
The Homosexuality Factor In
The Youth Suicide Problem.
Summary of Situation to 1995
Problems with Psychiatrists?
At The Greatest Risk for
See: Section of Paper & Chapter
of a Book. Why is Issue Still
Ignored? White Racism?
Bisexual Factor in the Youth
Suicide Problem (1994). Links
to 6 Chapters and Information. -
Contents & Excerpts.
- The Author.
Associated with almost 40%
of the more serious
The 1995 Seattle YRBS Study.
Lethal Homophobia Effect ?
to be addressed at:
The U.S. Department of Health
(CDC / NIMH) and at Suicide &
(American Association of
'Professionals' and Others.
"Death by Denial" & Mainstream
Suicidology, Family Physicians,
Social Workers, Psychiatrists,
GLB Communities, Public
Schools also as a part of
"The killing Fields",
and Media Problems.
will help? The Oct. 1998
Reno Conference. New
Web Page - with "Deadly"
July '99 News
Social Work been...?
Preventing Suicide (2001)
includes gay and lesbian
A New Page
21 Subject Categories
Web Page with Links to Major
GLBT Information Web Sites &
Sexual Abuse of Boys,
Male Youth Gangs,
and Male Prisons
At risk for problems, including
survival prostitution and suicide.
Male Youth Prostitution Resources
Homophobia Linked to
How large could the male
homosexual closet be?
Links to documents containing
information about lesbians,
adults, and people of color.
For Journalists, Activists,
and Advocates for the Welfare
of Gay/Bi Male youth.
Bagley C, and D'Augelli AR (2000). Suicidal behaviour in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. BMJ (British Medical Journal), 320(7250): 1617-8. (Editorial) Full Text.
Cochand P, Moret P, Singy P (2000). Incidence du développement de l'identité sexuelle sur les risques de contamination par le VIH chez les hommes homosexuels et bisexuels de 25 ans et moins en Suisse romande. Full Text. For the young gay identified males studies, 31.7% reported suicide ideation occuring in the past 6 months, and 24.4% reported having attempted suicide in their lifetime. Also noted: A 1999 German study of 217 homosexual idividuals (age = 15-27) reported that 18% had attempted suicide.
Halpert, Stephen C (1999). Suicidal behavior among gay male youth: Fact or fiction? Ph.D. Thesis, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Abstract supplied by author on August 21, 2000. A paper related to this study is in press, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy. (Link to Abstract)
Gamache P, Lazear KJ (2009). Asset-Based Approaches for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, Intersex, and Two-Spirit (LGBTQI2-S). The Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, College of Behavioral & Community Sciences, University of South Florida. PDF Download.
Jorm AF, Korten AE, Rodgers B, Jacomb PA, Christensen H (2002). Sexual orientation and mental health: results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults. British Journal of Psychiatry. 180: 423-7. PubMed Abstract. Australian study: "A community survey of 4824 adults was carried out in Canberra, Australia... Conclusions: The bisexual group had the worst mental health, although homosexual participants also tended to report more distress. Full Text.
Leslie MB, Stein JA, Rotheram-Borus MJ (2002). Sex-specific predictors of suicidality among runaway youth. Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(1): 27-40. (PubMed Abstract) "348 adolescent runways (197 boys; 56% African American; M age = 16)... Twenty-five percent of the girls and 14% of the boys had attempted suicide at least once. Male suicidality was mainly predicted by individual characteristics: identifying as gay, emotional distress, fewer conduct problems, and avoidant reasons for drug use."
Paul JP, Catania J, Pollack L, Moskowitz J, Canchola J, Mills T, Binson D, Stall R (2002). Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: lifetime prevalence and antecedents. American Journal of Public Health, 92(8): 1338-45. (PubMed Abstract) (Full Text: PDF). Related Articles: Gay men much more likely to attempt suicide. - A Study Finds High Rate of Suicide Attempts for Gay Men. - Suicide [attempt] rate for gay, bisexual men 3 times higher.
Remafedi, Gary (2002). Suicidality in a venue-based sample of young men who have sex with men. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(4): 305-10. (PubMed Abstract) "One-third of all respondents reported at least one suicide attempt, and 4.7% attempted suicide in the past year... suicide attempts were more prevalent among African-Americans and urban residents... attempts are more prevalent among out-of-school youths..." Full Text .
Robin L, Brener ND, Donahue SF, Hack T, Hale K, Goodenow C (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(4): 349-55. PubMed Abstract. Study Highlights. Full Text .
Skegg K, Nada-Raja S, Dickson N, Paul C, Williams S (2003). Sexual orientation and self-harm in men and women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(3): 541-6. Lifetime suicide attempt incidences for young adult males: Heterosexual (6%), Minor Homosexuality (16%), Significant Homosexuality (25%). For females: Heterosexual (9%), Minor Homosexuality (11%), Significant Homosexuality (33%). American Journal of Psychiatry web site. Full Text. (PubMed Abstract) - Related New Item: Same Sex Attraction Increases Risk of Self-Harm.
Tamam L, Özpoyraz N, Rasim S, Diler RS (2001). Homosexuality and Suicide: A Case Report. Annals of Sciences, 10(1): 41-44. Full Text. Full Text. "In this case report, we presented a young gay patient who attempted suicide and discussed the major causes of this attempt, primarily sexual prejudice of the society and possible therapeutic approaches."
Special Issue on "Sexual Orientation" in "Vis-à-vie" by the Quebec Association of Suicidology is available. La revue le Vis-à-vie, vol. 10 nº 2, 2000: Le thème de ce numéro est « Suicide et orientations sexuelles » (Translation) - Un double tabou. (Translation) - Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. (Translation) - La honte d'être. (Translation) - Mort ou fif, différence assassinée. (Translation) - Événements suicidaires chez les hommes gais. (Translation) - Gai écoute, 20 ans d'espoir. - Suicide-Action Montréal et Gai écoute : un projet conjoint de formation et de sensibilisation. (Translation) - L'intervention dans Chaudière-Appalaches. (Translation) - Histoire de vie. (Translation) Note: The English version of "Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions" by Pierre Tremblay and Richard Ramsay is available as "Suicidal problems of youth with homosexual or bisexual orientations: research, problems, and proposals.
Information Source: GMH, Edinburg. Research Results.
Profile of clients seeking counselling for the first time at Gay Men's Health Services in 2002-2003:
Age of counselling clients
20% of our clients are aged 20-29
50% of our clients are aged 30-39
30% of our clients are aged 40-49
Clients risk of suicide and self-harm
Gay Men’s Health and Stonewall Youth received funding from the Health Education Board for Scotland to conduct a small piece of research into suicidal thought, feelings and behaviours amongst young gay and bisexual men in Edinburgh. We received 112 completed questionnaires from a random sample of young men in the gay pubs and clubs. 98 of these responses were useable and only 10 men in the gay pubs refused to complete the forms.
Gay-Related Stress & Suicidality Study From South Africa
Master's Thesis Study (2000), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Study Summaries and Thesis Download available: http://www.q.co.za/news/2000/11/001123-gaystress.htm N/A. (Archive Link)
Highlights: "In the present S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made suicide attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South African gay/bi adolescents, 38.7% have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality."
"The sample consists of 329 males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample were from 15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were white (73.8%), with 16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either Indian, Coloured, or unspecified."
"When considering the influence of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in gay/bi men, it was found that internalised homonegativity had the strongest influence. This is perhaps not surprising since loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing that sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related to a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide.
Having witnessed people being
victimised for being gay was the next strongest factor related to suicidal
tendencies. Witnessing others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places
the gay/bi person in a catch 22 position..."
Theuninck AC (2000). The traumatic impact of minority stressors on males self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Master's Dissertation, the Faculty of Arts, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
20% Of South African Gay Students Raped (2006, Alternate Link):
Focusing on young people in the municipalities of Pietermaritzburg and
Durban researchers found that 20 percent of gay and bisexual teenage
males and 19% of lesbian and bisexual female teens had been raped or
sexually assaulted. They also found that one third of all LGBT students
had been physically assaulted at school because of their sexuality. The
study was conducted for Out LGBT Well-being and the Durban Lesbian and
Gay Health and Community and Health Center. The researchers found that
black and Indian students were more likely to be victimized because of
their sexuality than were white students... "More alarming is the
victimization by teachers and principals," said Pietermaritzburg Gay
& Lesbian Network convener Anthony Waldhausen... The
situation in the province is so severe the researchers said in their
report that almost one in five LGBT students said they had attempted
suicide. - Gay teens' ordeal
(2006): One in five gay and lesbian schoolchildren in Pietermaritzburg
and Durban are raped or sexually abused at school.... One in three was
physically assaulted in school because of their sexual orientation. Gay
men reported a far higher rate (68%) of victimisation at school than
lesbian women (42%), with blacks and Indians experiencing more
victimisation than whites. Most of this victimisation in school was
perpetrated by other pupils (65%), followed by teachers (22%), school
principals (9%) and other staff. .. The fear of victimisation led to a
decrease in self esteem and an increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost
one in five surveyed had attempted suicide, according to the report.
Identity Questions: "Are you... Bisexual, Gay, Fa’afaine, Heterosexual, Queer, Takataapui, Transgender, Transexual, Homosexual, Straight, and/or other (please indicate)?
Are you... Asian, Maori, Pacific Islands, Pakeha, New Zealand European, European, and/or other (please indicate)?"
Some Examples of Qualitative Categories for Main Reasons for Suicide Attempts
"Loneliness and/or Social Isolation: I was lonely, my flat mates were all against me and I felt really depressed. It was also mid-year exam time. I also felt that my life was going no-where."
"Hopelessness: Felt as if there was nothing in the world there for me. No people, no life, no jobs-nothing. I felt like a burden on my mum and thought the world would be better off without me in it."
"Depression: The sense of isolation, depression, stress. Compounded by my emerging gay identity. This attempt was triggered by fighting with my brother."
"Fear of rejection and/or lack of support from family: Family were drifting from me, and I felt alone, friends had moved on with their lives, I had no relationship which I wished for at the time."
"Societal heterosexism:Being told that being queer was unnatural and people like that don't deserve to live!"
"Low self-esteem, self-confidence and/or self-acceptance"
thought if I took the problem away by trying suicide, it would solve itself."
I'm Going Home: A personal Journey
"I can understand why some queer youth may decide to end their lives. I realised I was sexually attracted to men at the age of 12. By the time I had my driver's licence, I had suicidal thoughts daily. Everyday, on my way to secondary school I would drive a rural road with a 50-metre cliff off to one side. Each time I breached the top of the hill I would decide whether or not it was worth continuing on my way to school, or if I should have an 'accident' and kill myself." (From the Preface, by John Fenaughty)
Study Available Via University of Auckland Library
Haas AP, Eliason M, Mays VM, Mathy RM, Cochran SD, D'Augelli AR, Silverman MM, Fisher PW, Hughes T, Rosario M, Russell ST, Malley E, Reed J, Litts DA, Haller E, Sell RL, Remafedi G, Bradford J, Beautrais AL, Brown GK, Diamond GM, Friedman MS, Garofalo R, Turner MS, Hollibaugh A, Clayton PJ (2011). Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1): 10-51. Abstract. Full Text: Open Access.
Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download.
Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF Download.
Lewis NM (2009). Mental health in sexual minorities: recent indicators, trends, and their relationships to place in North America and Europe. Health Place, 15(4): 1029-45. Abstract.
Leu, Christian (2008). Orientation sexuelle et comportements suicidaires: Une enquête sur les résultats de la recherche internationale et nationale sur les facteurs de risque et de protection pour les adolescents homosexuels et bisexuels. Berne, La Suisse / Switzerland: Le collectif Formation de PINK CROSS, LOS et fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Download Page.Leu, Christian (2008). Sexuelle Orientierung und Suizidalität: Eine Untersuchung der internationalen und nationalen Forschungs-ergebnisse der Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren für adoleszente Homo- und Bisexuelle. bern, Switzrland: PINK CROSS, LOS und fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Download Page. PDF Download.
Julien D, Chartrand E (2005). Recension des études utilisant un échantillon probabiliste sur la santé des personnes gaies, lesbiennes et bisexuelles. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 46(4): 235-250. Abstract.
King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Full Text. Full Text. Abstract.
Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf.
Plöderl M, Sauer J, Reinhold FR (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen – Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(2): 283-302. Abstract.
McAndrew S, Warne T (2004). Ignoring
the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and
the dichotomy of the mental health nurse. Journal of Psychiatric and
Mental Health Nursing, 11(4): 428-34. Abstract.
Russell ST (2003). Sexual minority youth and suicide risk. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(9): 1241-1257. Abstract. PDF Download.
Meyer, IH (2003). Prejudice, Social
Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual
Issues and Research Evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674–697. Full Text.
Lebson M (2002). Suicide among homosexual youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(4): 107-17. PubMed Abstract.
McDaniel JS, Purcell DW, D'Augelli AR (2001). The relationship between sexual orientation and risk for suicide: research findings and future directions for research and prevention.. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(Suppl.): 84-105. (Review) PubMed reference. PDF Download. (Download Page)
Morrison LL, L'Heureux J (2001). Suicide and gay / lesbian / bisexual youth: implications for clinicians. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 39-49. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.
Tremblay P, and Ramsay
R (2000). Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes
présentant des problème suicidaires: recherche, problématique
et propositions. Le Vis-À-Vie, 10(2): 5-8. (Review) Internet
English version of the paper: Full
Bagley C, and Tremblay P (2000). Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian and bisexual youth. Crisis, 21(3): 111-17. (Review) Internet draft of the paper: Draft: Full Text. PubMed Abstract.
Bagley C, and D'Augelli
AR (2000). Suicidal behaviour in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth.
BMJ (British Medical Journal), 320(7250): 1617-8. (Editorial) Full
Kulkin HS, Chauvin EA,
Percle GA (2000). Suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and
young adults: a review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality,
40(1): 1-29. (Review) PubMed Abstract.
Remafedi G (1999). Sexual orientation and youth suicide.
JAMA, 282(13): 1291-2. Full Text (Must Scroll): PDF Download. Full Text.
Halpert, Stephen C (1999). Suicidal behavior among gay male youth: Fact or fiction? Ph.D. Thesis, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Abstract supplied by author on August 21, 2001. A paper related to this study is in press, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy. (Link to Abstract)
Erwin K (1993). Interpreting the evidence: competing paradigms and the emergence of lesbian and gay suicide as a "social fact". International Journal of Health Services, 23(3): 437-53. PubMed Abstract.
Racism Slowing Progress of GLBT Movement
15th Annual Creating Change Conference Takes Place Nov. 6-10.
The 2002 NGLTF Conference Theme is 'Building an Anti-Racist Movement'.
"Never in the history of our movement has such a large, multi-racial GLBT gathering focused on
the impact of racism and the building of an anti-racist movement," said National Gay and
Lesbian Task Force Executive Director Lorri L. Jean. "Institutionalized racism is one of the most significant
factors hindering our success as a movement and if we were unified as a community,
we could better pursue and achieve our goals."
Sexual Racism SUX! - Sexual Racism / GAM Pages. - Racism in CyberSpace
The first Internet collation of information on white GLB "racism" became available in 2000.
in GLBT Communities
(Includes story of suicide attempt by 10-year-old gay boy)
Results of Racism in Predominantly White Gay Communities:
Excerpts from Peter Jackson's 2000 paper "That's What Rice Queens Study."
in Predominantly White
Canadian Gay & Lesbian Communities
"Gay rights" for "gay whites"? - A Law Paper
Asian Men in HIV Social Research in Australia.
Unpublished Thesis, Dept of Sociology,
School of Social Sciences and Humanities,
Murdoch University, 2000
Carl Gopalkrishnan (Home Page)
More Recent Additions - Older Ones
The GLBTQ Information Pages:
in U.S., Canada, Europe,
New Zealand & Australia A, B
Aboriginal Two-Spirit Suicidality Issues. Opening of an Associated Internet Resource.
Conference-Related Resources. - Updated Interim Version of the paper "The Social Construction of Male Homosexuality..." now titled "The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality: Associations With Worsening Youth Suicide problems."
of a Suicidality
Information Web Resource.
The Online return of "The Homosexuality Factor In Social Violence."
Book: Mort Ou Fif Web Page. - French Resources. - Paper for *Le Vis-à-Vie: Journal de l'Association Québécoise de Suicidologie.
March / July, 2000
The Paper (written in collaboration with Professor Ramsay, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) was Presented by Pierre Tremblay at The 11th Annual Sociological Symposium: "Deconstructing Youth Suicide," San Diego State University - March 17, 2000. A part of the present updated version of the paper was presented at the Gay Men's Health Summit in Boulder, Colorado - July, 2000.
Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia: Excerpts from - Khan, Shivananda (2001). Culture, sexualities, and identities: men who have sex with men in India. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4), 99-115. & Asthana S, and Oostvogels R (2001). The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India: implications for HIV transmission and prevention. Social Science & Medicine, 52: 707-21. Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia (Part 2). Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia (Part 3).
Odds Ratios were generated for the 1995 Seattle Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
Two more studies report that homosexually oriented individuals are at greater risk for a number of problems, including suicide problems. Cochran and Mays (2000) report on men having sex with men (2.2% of the sample) compared to men who only had sex with women. Lock and Steiner (1999) report on an California upper middle class high school sample with 6% of students identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
in next few months! Three Quebec Studies Exploring suicidality of gay and
bisexual males. One study reports a lifetime suicide attempt incidence
= 36% - (Related
Article). - One study
now available! - by Michel Dorais, Unversité Laval.
July/ November, 2000
Gay communities must end their tradition of sweeping gay community problems under the carpet in an effort to appear acceptable to the greater community. When 20 to 35 percent of American gay and bisexual male adolescents are attempting suicide every 12 months, the objective should not be to ignore the problem apparently because talking about and addressing this situation will make GB youth 'look' bad, or feel bad, God forbid! Ignoring this problem (and all other adolescent GB male problems) for whatever reason will certainly make "all" GB males look infinitely worse, given that the possible death outcomes of such neglect will most please the ones harboring a murderous hatred for gay and bisexual males.
Ignoring this "suicide problem" - which is linked to the same situation causing many gay adolescent males to drop out of school (become runaways / throwaways), and become sexually available to men who desire them - is likely related to gay community leaders not wanting to vex the often wealthy and powerful gay males who do NOT want their socially constructed "youngest and freshest meat" delivery system interfered with. A part of the story related to this "fact of life" is reported on by Philip Guichard (2000) who describes his adolescence and the adolescence of other gay-identified boys which includes having many relationships with older men as a result of venturing into gay communities: - The Queer Issue: "Lay Off Me! I'm a Boy, Not Your Toy, and I Want To Be With Another Boy. I Hate Older Men." Some of the situations described may well be implicated in suicide attempts and even suicides. The difference between how average gay / bisexual male youth are often treated in gay communities is that average GB male youth are not being paid for their services - thus imposing on them a status less than that of male prostitutes. A Toronto study of gay youth by John Maxwell (Young Gay & Bisexual Men and HIV: A qualitative study of safer sex knowledge and behaviour among young gay and bisexual men - 1998) reported:
Many of the study participants noted that as younger gay/bisexual men, they often felt that they were "preyed upon" by older or more sexually experienced gay men - even other more sexually experienced gay and bisexual youth. One participant lamented the lack of "mentoring" in the gay community: "When I came out into the community (a few years ago) I felt that I needed to become totally immersed in the gay community. So, I left a lot of my straight friends behind. Unfortunately, rather than meeting other gay men who could help me manoeuvre my way in the community, I often met people who just wanted to take advantage of me, sexually."Information about the purposeful omission / deletion of gay / bisexual male adolescent / youth realities by major GLB advocacy organizations is available in the Surgeon General web page. Information related to the accelerated Christmas migration of the "youngest and freshest male meat" into the San Francisco area is available from CNN which posted "Holidays time of heightened concern for gay runaways in San Francisco (Nov 29, 2000)."
Now Available! - The gay / bisexual boys who have sex with men, their problems (including suicidality, high risk for contracting HIV, etc.) and the related scandalous "silence" about this reality by most researchers and gay community leaders. As a rule, this "Silence Kills!" situation was maintained throughout the AIDS epidemic. This new page is being written to inform the Surgeon General about an important "at risk" group of boys that he should be concerned about.
The First Page on GLB Suicide Problems in a European Country: Norway's Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Suicide Problems. Second Page.
GBL Suicide Problems In England, Scotland & Ireland? A new Web Page.
Anti-Gay School / Society Situation In Australia And Homophobia in Smaller Cities and Towns.
The Suicide of Kurt Cobain: A victim of the Binary and Biphobia?
Summary of Results for the 1999 Oregon Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Serious Suicide Problems For Adolescents Subjected to Anti-Homosexual Harassment.
Suicidal problems of youth with homosexual or bisexual orientations: research, problems, and proposals. By P. Tremblay and R. Ramsay. To be published in French in a GLB issue of Vis-à-Vie, le journal de l'Association Québécoise de Suicidologie. (GLB Suicidality Resources / References - en français.)
Suicidal Crisis and Depression and the Emergence of Homosexual Identity in Young Males. By C. Bagley and P. Tremblay: USAD Article.
A study from Québec by Michel Dorais, Université Laval: - MORT OU FIF: Contextes et mobiles de tentatives de suicide chez des adolescents et jeunes hommes homosexuels ou identifiés comme tels. Et perspectives de prévention. ---Translation: Death or Fag: The contexts and motives for suicide attempts by adolescent and young adult homosexually oriented males. Recommendations for suicide prevention. Related Internet Resources.
of Massachusetts' 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
1. A 20-year-old American female reports on a secret only one other student knew about: The grade-9 boy who committed suicide at school was gay. "Dead Gay Kid's Don't Talk, But..."
2. A mother's letter to her son who, in his suicide note, revealed that he was gay and could not live with that. A Photo History of Bruce.
October - December 1999
Two studies published in Archives of General Psychiatry replicate the higher suicidality risks for homosexually oriented individuals. Longitudinal Youth Study in New Zealand (By age 21: Suicide attempt incidence for GLB identified youth is 32.1%, and 7.0% for the others). - A Sample of Vietnam veteran twin (one homosexual, one not). Related article by Reuters.
Major changes have been occurring in Australia indicating a return to the status quo: Maintaining a maximum casualty level in the gay and bisexual male youth population. January 2000, Good News about the Youth and Sexuality Project. Final Report available for PDF download.
An individual from Norway reports on the existence of a new study of gay youth producing a "suicide attempt" incidence of about 25%.
An Irish study of gay and bisexual males produces a "suicide attempt" incidence of 32%.
Gustav Jung & Other Save-The-World
psychosis in a different way. Individuals at high risk for suicide?
The negative effects of racist white-dominated GLB communities on GLB people of colour is noted, along with other problems faced in the greater society and in their own ethnic/racial groups - commonly more homophobic than white cultures. Additional "racism" information from the United States is also supplied. The issue of racism in Calgary's GLB community was addressed only in 1993 in a gay/lesbian magazine (Links to Articles Here) - and at a Gay Pride function in the same year, but it continues to be ignored even in the one-year-old Calgary GLB community magazine OUTLOOKS. The magazine, however, has also ignored the GB youth suicide problem which often continues after the "at risk" individuals have made more formal contact with GB institutions. Several GLB individuals of colour in the "leader" category (such as Kevin DeSouza, Susanda Ya, and Paul Ferandez) left Calgary (1995/96) in complete disgust with the situation.
Six parts of the book, The Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem are online:
An Appendix containing a published 1991 investigative report on what Alberta professionals working with children and adolescents were doing to help "at risk" GLB children & adolescents. - A 1998 update. - This report led to writing the 1991 52-page report, Gay and Lesbian Youth Need our Help, submitted to Jim Dinning, Alberta's Minister of Education.
Update 1996: A summary of events which occurred since 1994 is given, along with additional information related to GLB suicide problems, such as child sexual abuse.
The chapter, The "Gay Factor" In The Street Youth Problem, which is related to male youth prostitution. - A 1998 update. - Internet resources related to male youth prostitution.
The Additional Problems of GLB Youth of Colour: (11/94, 03/98) - Internet Resources related to North American and International GLB People of Colour Issues. - Supplementary Information.
A Calgary Gay Youth Attempts Suicide. (2/99) Illustrates how some gay youth, even by the age of 13, may be most determined to kill themselves.
Suicide of Bobby Steele. The story also illustrates how researchers
such as David Shaffer would have failed to discover that Bobby was homosexually
active and also linked to Edmonton's gay community. Such seriously
flawed research - rooted in a great ignorance of adolescent homosexual
realities - has contributed to mainstream suicidology generally ignoring
homosexuality issues in youth suicide research, intervention, and prevention.
An Internet survey reports a 44% suicide attempt rate N/A for 198 GLBT respondents (Average age = 31-years-old); 80% of the first suicide attempts occurred before the age of 20.
A survey of 255 GLB adults seeking counseling - reports a suicide attempt incidence of 41% and the average age of the first suicide attempt was 12-years-old. Almost one-third of the attempters attempted suicide 3 or more times.
Help Phone, Canada: 1-800-668-6868 - The
Youth Line is a phone line for youth in Ontario, Canada:
You are not alone! You can call the Lesbian Gay Bi Youth Line at 1-800-268-YOUTH
(1-800-268-9688) across Ontario, or (416) 962-YOUTH (962-9688)
in the 416/905 local calling area. The Youth Line Website: http://www.youthline.ca/.
Gay Boys Support (http://www.gayboysupport.nl/en/): Listing of International Resources (http://www.gayboysupport.nl/en/helplines.htm).
Transgender Help Lines (NorthEast Indiana Transgender Support Groups): http://www.neitsg.com/helplines.html.
A Quick Search to Locate Help Lines Worldwide! Made Available by Befrienders: http://www.befrienders.org/.
Was Created By Pierre Tremblay With
The Greatly Appreciated Help of Chris Hooymans,
The Webmaster at Websight West and Former Publisher of CLUE! Magazine Which
Was the Best Gay Magazine to Have Been Published in Calgary. A Tragic "Downhill"
Situation Has Existed Since Then, but a New Magazine ("Outlooks"
http://www.outlooks.ca) has Become Available (Premiere March Issue,
1997) and Shows Promise. Will it be another "fluff" gay publication which
avoids addressing important issues in insightful (even truthful) ways?
Time will tell.
By September, 1998, the magazine had not ventured into any controversial - meaning "significant" - GLB community issues. Nothing "insightful" - beyond what has not worked for increasing "safer sex" practices by gay/bisexual males - has been printed. Silence was still being maintained with respect to racism problems in Calgary's gay and lesbian communities, and nothing has been written about the most "at risk" gay and bisexual male adolescents and their problems often involving gay or bisexual men with whom they may be involved. Maybe, they could even write about a situation brought to my attention in September, 1998: A gay high school teacher walks into a Calgary gay club and sees that one of his male students - not yet of legal age to be in such a club - is stripping. This situation involves serious "ethical" issues, but related discussions are not occurring in Calgary's GLB community, nor at the Calgary Board of Education.
Other important ethical issues are: A Calgary gay high school teacher is approached by a gay male student who reports on his relationship with a middle-aged gay male television personality. The teacher knows that the TV personality is HIV+ but the boy does not know this. What should the teacher do? Are school counselors educated and trained to deal with such issues? If not, why not?
Bisexual female youth and lesbian
youth do attempt suicide. Jayelle tells her story and more in Life,
Death, And the Movies. - A
Significant Problem for Homosexually Oriented Males. The
Homosexuality Factor In Social Violence. Older
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